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Collection of several full-text articles from computer press on 10BaseT Ethernet. Several really good things in here.
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Collection of several full-text articles from computer press on 10BaseT Ethernet. Several really good things in here.
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Contents of the 10BASET.TXT file

Collection of articles on ETHERNET networking
cards, specifically the 10BaseT board

Downloaded from COMPUTER SELECT - a CD-ROM
database of journals related to computers

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #308 *****

Journal: PC Magazine June 25 1991 v10 n12 p202(1)
* Full Text COPYRIGHT Ziff-Davis Publishing Co. 1991.
Title: Getting the most from your DOS-based LAN. (tutorial)
Author: Derfler, Frank J. Jr.

Summary: Tips for using DOS-based local area network (LAN) operating
systems effectively are presented. Administrators should
carefully balance the number of dedicated servers, nondedicated
servers and workstations on the network. An 80386-based
microcomputer with at least 4Mbytes of RAM is recommended as a
dedicated server for 20 users. Every machine acting as a server
should have an uninterruptible power supply to prevent data loss.
A common cause of network failure is mechanical stress at
T-connectors caused by the weight of thin Ethernet cabling. Most
networks come with instructions on how to adjust the server time
slicing or 'tasks' setting, which regulates how t he server
divides its attention between local applications and network
activity. Keeping overlay files on local drives reduces network
load. Networks should be tuned for the most-used applications.
Running a defragmenting utility can greatly improve hard disk
Topic: Tutorial
Local Area Networks
Distributed Operating Systems
Network operating systems.

Record#: 10 810 752.
Full Text:

Installing a DOS-based LAN shouldn't be as complicated as getting a NetWare
386 network up and running. Still, you can take certain extra steps to
optimize the performance of your DOS-based LAN. The following tips can help
you get the most out of your network from the start.

* Plan the balance of dedicated servers, combined workstation/servers, and
print servers carefully. The patience of the people using the network,
particularly anyone operating a combined workstation/server, should be your
guide. When in doubt, plan on using a 386-based computer with a fast hard
disk and at least 4 MB of RAM as a dedicated server for 20 "typical" users.
If forced to make a choice, spend money on a fast hard disk instead of a fast
processor, as long as the processor is at least a 386SX.

* Buy a UPS for every PC acting as a server. (You should do this even if the
LAN software doesn't respond to the signals from a UPS.) At a minimum,
file-server software will generally broadcast a notice to users when the
server is running on battery power. In some cases, it will wait and initiate
a shut-down sequence in response to low battery signals from a UPS. if you
use 10BaseT wiring, don't forget to provide a small UPS for the concentrator
in the wiring closet. (See "LAN Server UPSs," PC Magazine, November 27,
1990, for information on choosing an economical UPS.)

* If you use thin Ethernet cabling, look closely at each T-connector. The
weight of the cables can subject the joint between the barrel of the
T-connector and the short leg of the T to great mechanical stress. We've
seen several T-connectors with cracks in this joint, resulting in
intermittent operational problems. The best T-connectors are marked as
meeting the standards of the US Military Specification (MilSpec) UG-274 A/U.
They typically contain a reinforcing ring around the joint. As the photo
shows, some connectors use the same reinforcement but have not gone through
the MilSpec certification process.

* Check the manual for instructions on how to adjust the server time slicing.
This setting, sometimes called tasks, regulates how the server splits its
attention between network activity and local applications.

* Reduce the network load by keeping overlay files on local drives instead of
networked drives. Some overlay files, particularly those used by word
processing programs, are very large, making it inefficient to draw them
through the network. You'll have to customize each program in each PC, but
the performance benefits will be worth the trouble.

* Spend some time tuning the network for the applications people use on it.
Experiment with the features of the caching program to optimize performance.
Select cached writes only if the PC is protected by a UPS. Also experiment
with the BUFFERS= setting in the client PCs. Some networked applications
benefit from increasing the buffer settings in the client PC, particularly if
they ask for the same data, such as an overlay, repeatedly. Of course,
increasing the buffers reduces the available RAM.

* A hard disk with many fragmented files will slow down the system throughput
by 100 kilobits per second or more. Check the hard disk for fragmented files
before you install your DOS LAN and again every few weeks thereafter. You
can then use standard DOS defragmenting utilities with all of these products.

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #2647 *****

Journal: PC Week June 3 1991 v8 n22 p107(1)
* Full Text COPYRIGHT Ziff-Davis Publishing Co. 1991.
Title: 10BaseT boosts Ethernet reliability; standard may put Ethernet
sales more on par with those of Token-Ring. (buyers guide)
Author: Meads, Lori.

Summary: Local area network buyers must select their wiring media to suit
the network's physical environment and expected uses. The recent
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 10BaseT communications board standard may
cause more users to consider unshielded twisted-pair wiring as a
less-expensive, easier-to-install alternative to coaxial cable.
10BaseT can use existing twisted-pair telephone wiring and jacks.
Network products from different vendors can be combined to reduce
costs. Newport Consulting estimates that 90 percent of Ethernet
products will comply with the 802.3 standard by 1993. 10BaseT
uses star configurations composed of hubs or concentrators and a
group of workstations; this method is more reliable and easier to
troubleshoot than coax Ethernet networks. A malfunctioning
10BaseT workstation can be dropped from the hub without affecting
other nodes. Users say Ethernet is less expensive than Token-Ring
networks despite offering better 4M-bps performance.
Topic: 10BaseT
Communications boards/cards
Hardware Selection
Unshielded Twisted Pair.
Feature: illustration
Caption: What to ask when buying Ethernet adapter cards. (table)

Record#: 10 804 400.
Full Text:

By Lori Meads

The decision to purchase a LAN is a complex process. Whether implementing a
network for the first time or building upon an existing one, LAN buyers must
consider several issues, including cost, the file server and the topology.

Another important consideration is the type of wiring media that will best
suit the office environment.

The Ethernet 10BaseT adapter standard, called 802.3 and approved by the IEEE
last fall, is likely to increase the popularity of unshielded twisted-pair
wiring, which is easier to install and far less expensive than traditional
coaxial cable.

10BaseT connections transmit data at 10M bps and use the unshielded
twisted-pair telephone wires and jacks that already exist within a building's

For technicians, the wiring process is relatively simple, compared with that
of coax, which requires wall jacks, desktop attachments and heavy cabling.

Another benefit of 10BaseT is commonality. Users can optimize a network by
using products from various vendors, at competitive prices.

Because of the many advantages of the 802.3 10BaseT standard, by 1993, 90
percent of all Ethernet products will comply with this new standard,
according to Newport Consulting, a networking market-research firm in
Scituate, Mass.

"As fast as it can be accomplished, every Ethernet product line will be
10BaseT-compatible," said David Terrie, president of Newport Consulting.
"The standard is solid enough that by the end of the year, no one will even
try to sell a twisted-pair product that isn't 10BaseT-compatible."

Buyers should consider several issues before purchasing any adapter card,
according to Ethernet card vendors.

"It's important to look for reliability, compatibility and product support,"
said Paul Wiele, product manager at Everex Systems Inc. in Fremont, Calif.
"The other issue is speed -- you don't want a slow card to hinder the
performance of your server."

Like the Token-Ring topology, 10BaseT uses a star configuration, with wires
extending to each workstation originating from a central hub or concentrator.
This structure is more reliable than the traditional coaxial Ethernet: If one
wire is broken, only a single node is lost, as opposed to an entire segment
of a coaxial-based network.

Vendors said the star configuration is the key to 10BaseT's success, making
it much easier to troubleshoot.

"Using 10BaseT, the network becomes more manageable. You are able to isolate
a problem to a single node," said Wiele.

10BaseT's wiring structure is a big improvement over coaxial cabling,
according to Mark Bennett, product line director for network interface cards
at Racal-Interlan Inc., a networking developer in Boxboro, Mass.

"If you have a problem related to jabber, only one port is disabled, as
opposed to the entire segment," he said. "The 10BaseT hub has the capability
to drop a malfunctioning node off the network without affecting any others,"
said Steve Pomeroy, product line manager for 3Com Corp., of Santa Clara,

Many vendors said the 10BaseT standard will allow Ethernet sales to keep up
with those of Token-Ring. "Topology is really a religious or philosophical
decision made by a corporation. If you've got DEC or Sun products, you go
with Ethernet. If you've standardized on IBM, Token-Ring is the way to go,"
Pomeroy said. According to David McCrabb, product marketing manager at BICC
Data Networks Inc., of Westboro, Mass, price is the bottom line. "The
maturity of the Ethernet market means the component prices are lower than
Token-Ring," he said.

Bob Lapointe, manager of PC networking products at Cabletron Systems Inc., of
Rochester, N.H., agreed. "The biggest benefit of 10BaseT is a cost savings
at the card, cable and hub levels," he said. "And while the products are
less expensive, Ethernet's performance is better than Token-Ring at the
4M-bps level. However, the jury is still out at the 16M-bps level."

Lapointe added that the concept of using unshielded twisted-pair wiring seems
to be more acceptable in the Ethernet marketplace. "With Ethernet,
unshielded twisted-pair is more of a standard than a debate. Within the
Token-Ring marketplace, IBM has been slow to endorse it," he said.

While Ethernet 10BaseT and 16M-bps Token-Ring are currently considered the
fastest LANs, the marketplace is always looking for something faster and
better. Some vendors are convinced the 10BaseT standard will not be cast
aside to raise the speed limit to 20M bps.

"I'll be shocked if there's any demand for a 20M-bps card," said McCrabb.
"Ethernet 10BaseT and Token-Ring 16M bps will continue to prevail while the
[Fiber Distributed Data Interface] perfects 100M bps. After that, 100M bps
will dominate."

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #2648 *****

Journal: PC Week June 3 1991 v8 n22 p107(1)
* Full Text COPYRIGHT Ziff-Davis Publishing Co. 1991.
Title: Flexibility, ease of troubleshooting lure users to 10BaseT. (Voca
Corp.'s 10BaseT Ethernet network) (Case Study) (buyers guide)
Author: Meads, Lori.

Summary: Voca Corp's corporate office manager, Jon Shaffer, selects 10BaseT
Ethernet cards to provide software compatibility, reliability and
a good price/performance ratio. Shaffer says the major advantages
of 10BaseT over coaxial Ethernet are its dependability,
flexibility and fault tolerance. Voca's 10BaseT system is easy to
troubleshoot because each hub displays the status of its
connections, and one bad connection or cable does not adversely
affect the whole network. Shaffer wants to expand the 10BaseT
network to interconnect Voca's offices in other cities. Shaffer
says the only wrinkle in his company's implementation of the
10BaseT Ethernet network has been finding a supplier of
high-quality patch cable. Voca uses Everex Systems Inc's 10BaseT
communications boards, an Everex server and 22 workstations. Its
patch cabling is supplied by SynOptics Communications Inc.
Company: Voca Corp. (Communication systems).
Topic: 10BaseT
Case Study
Local Area Networks
Communications boards/cards.
Feature: illustration
Caption: Jon Shaffer. (portrait)
Person: Shaffer, Jon (Attitudes).

Record#: 10 804 408.
Full Text:

Standardizing on 10BaseT Ethernet cards was an easy choice for Jon Shaffer,
corporate office manager at Voca Corp., a Dublin, Ohio, health-care firm.

Before implementing the network, Shaffer narrowed down his buying criteria to
a few considerations.

"We wanted to make sure the [software] drivers we wanted were available," he
said. "After that, we were looking for reliability and price/performance, in
that order."

Shaffer said he chose Everex Systems Inc.'s 10-BaseT adapters because they
were a good value from a reputable company. The key factor, however, in
Shaffer's choice of 10BaseT over standard coaxial Ethernet network
architecture was dependability. "One of the main reasons for going with
twisted-pair Ethernet is that the star topology allows greater flexibility in
moving workstations around," he said.

"Fault tolerance is also a big benefit. If there's a problem with a
workstation, it can be isolated," Shaffer added. That's not the case with
traditional coaxial Ethernet connections, according to Shaffer. "We've got
another LAN in our eastern Ohio office that's on coax Ethernet. If you've
got a bad connection or cable, the whole network suffers," he said.

Using 10BaseT, troubleshooting time is cut by a large margin, Shaffer said.

"It's easy to find the problem by looking at the front panel of the 10BaseT
hub. You look at the link status on the hub. If it's green, you've got a
good connection, enabling you to ensure the status of all connections," he

Voca's network consists of an Everex 386/33 server with 8M bytes of RAM and
four 360M-byte hard drives in a dual subsystem.

The network has 22 workstations of varying configurations; most of the
machines are based on the 386SX chip. The LAN has been running since
September and, Shaffer said, it has "saved our office personnel from walking
around switching floppies." He wants to expand the 10BaseT network to Voca's
offices in other cities.

"Our goal is to shoot for a common topology enabling interconnectivity
between offices," he said. "As we expand the number of workstations to
include outside locations, we'll [be able] to monitor the network as a single

Shaffer said that although much of the network implementation was routine,
there was one problem that held up the network's completion.

"We moved into new corporate offices last fall," he explained. "[The
offices] were pre-wired for dual outlets, for both a voice jack and a data
jack in each office. We figured we wouldn't have to run any cable.

"The installation went well, with one exception -- finding good-quality patch
cable was a problem. The first set of cabling we used had an 80 percent
failure rate," he said. "We had a heck of a time tracking down a competent
cable company for twisted-pair patch cables," he added. "Finally, we
contacted SynOptics Communications Inc.," a data communications equipment
manufacturer in Mountain View, Calif.

In addition to considering reliability and price/performance, Shaffer advises
10BaseT buyers that it's crucial to investigate cabling options. "Before
buying, find a reliable cable vendor. Without decent patch cabling, we were
pulling our hair out. Our installation was delayed by a couple of days," he

Speed Is Secondary

Initially, the new network's speed was not a concern for Shaffer -- he was
much more concerned with the network's compatibility and reliability. Once
the network was up and running, he pointed out, the performance increase was
difficult to gauge.

"I really don't know if it's quicker or not. There are too many other pieces
of the puzzle -- the number of workstations, the speed of your server and the
speed of your cards all play a part," Shaffer explained.

"You just can't hone it down," he said. "Maybe working in a lab environment,
you could pinpoint the exact improvements, but in the real world it's

-- L.M.

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #4512 *****

Journal: Computer Reseller News May 20 1991 n421 p95(2).
Title: Cable: to shield or not to shield?
Author: Peterson, Tami D.

Summary: A recent survey by Infonetics Research Institute, San Jose, CA
shows that excluding labor, cable is the least-costly part of
networking computers. It is, however, the most troublesome one.
The survey found that faulty cable is the primary reason for
network downtime. Cable companies, such as Belden, a division of
Coopers Industries, are taking this finding very much to heart.
Company officials are concerned especially about the 10BaseT
bandwagon so many corporations are jumping onto since unshielded
telephone wiring for use in networks was endorsed by the Institute
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 1990.
Unshielded cable was approved under very specific guidelines,
according to Belden officials, referring to the
10-Mbits-per-second maximum transfer rate designated for the
100-ohm telephone cable. Network throughput has increased from
one Mbits to 16 Mbits or more. Transferring data at rates higher
than 10 Mbits on unshielded cable increases crosstalk and
attenuation. Shielded twisted-pair wiring would cost just a few
more cents per foot.
Topic: Cables
Local Area Networks
Unshielded Twisted Pair
Twisted Pair
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Feature: illustration

Record#: 10 757 228.

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #5285 *****

Journal: MacWEEK May 14 1991 v5 n19 p22(1)
* Full Text COPYRIGHT Macweek 1991.
Title: NRC 10BASE T intelligent hub builds in bridging, diagnostics.
(Network REsources Corp.'s MultiGate Hub) (product announcement)
Author: Ratcliffe, Mitch.
Company: Network Resources Corp. (Product introduction).
Product: Network Resources MultiGate Hub (Network hub) (Product
Topic: Product Introduction
Gateways (Connector)
Bridges (Connector)
Network Hubs
Communications Equipment
Data Communications.

Record#: 10 736 077.
Full Text:

By Mitch Ratcliffe

Milpitas, Calif. -- Network Resources Corp. this week announced it will ship
the first of a promised suite of 10BASE T hubs that combine bridging,
diagnostics and management tools with the traditionally unintelligent network
center (see MacWEEK, Feb. 5).

Due in early June, the NRC MultiGate Hub is a $3,495 24-port intelligent hub
that acts as a bridge to an Ethernet backbone. The combination hub/bridge
segregates local traffic to keep it from clogging the backbone and creating
security problems.

The hub comes with MultiGate Manager, a graphic interface for hub management
that configures MultiGate's dynamic RAM to monitor, record and manage hub
functions automatically. MultiGate Manager reports individual port
collisions, line integrity and 10 other events, and it will automatically
shut down malfunctioning ports, as well as reopen them when they are
functional again.

A single MultiGate Hub supports a combination of two of the following
backbone connectors: thin Ethernet, thick Ethernet or Fiber Optic Interface
Repeater Link (FOIRL).

NRC originally announced it would ship three 12-port versions of the hub in
March. Instead of the announced 12-port version of the MultiGate Hub/Bridge,
NRC shipped the 24-port MultiGate Hub. NRC says the non-intelligent hub and
hub/router are still forthcoming but has not set a delivery date.

Network Resources Corp. is at 736 S. Hillview Drive, Milpitas, Calif. 95035.
Phone (408) 263-8100; fax (408) 263-8121.

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #6404 *****

Journal: LAN Computing May 7 1991 v2 n10 p11(1)
* Full Text COPYRIGHT Professional Press Inc. 1991.
Title: 10Base-T adapter ties to major network hubs. (3Com Corp.'s
EtherLink 16 TP adapter) (Network Media) (product announcement)
Company: 3Com Corp. (Product introduction).
Ticker: COMS.
Product: 3Com EtherLink 16 TP (Communications board) (Product
Topic: Product Introduction
Twisted Pair
Communications Boards/Cards.

Record#: 10 690 979.
Full Text:


3 Com Corp.'s EtherLink 16 TP (twisted-pair), offers 10Base-T networks the
same high performance and reliability as the company's EtherLink 16.

"Taking advantage of existing telephone wire simplifies the configuration and
administration of data networks as people change offices and move around the
workplace," explained Dave DePuy, director of marketing for 3Com's Network
Adapter Division.

"3Com's new EtherLink 16 TP adapter provides easy access to twisted-pair
networks because it works with all the leading 10Base-T wiring hubs as well
as with key pre-standard hubs from SynOptics, Hewlett-Packard, David Systems
and AT&T," he added.

EtherLink 16 TP is supported by a wide range of popular network operating
systems including AT&T LAN Manager, Banyan Vines, DEC Path-Works for DOS and
OS/2 and FTP Software. It ships with performance-tuned NetWare and NDIS

U.S. prices are $479 for a single adapter and $2,195 for a five-pack.

For more information, contact 3Com Corp., 5400 Bayfront Plaza, P.O. Box
58145, Santa Clara, Calif. 95052-8145; (408) 764-5000.

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #6406 *****

Journal: LAN Computing May 7 1991 v2 n10 p11(1)
* Full Text COPYRIGHT Professional Press Inc. 1991.
Title: Connectors supplant hub role. (D-Link Systems Inc.'s 10Base-T
Ethernet/Hub communications board) (Network Media) (product
Company: D-Link Systems Inc. (Product introduction).
Product: D-Link Systems DE-205TP (Communications board) (Product
Topic: Product Introduction
Communications Boards/Cards
Twisted Pair
Network Hubs.

Record#: 10 691 023.
Full Text:

Connectors Supplant Hub Role

D-Link Systems claims to have combined the power of Ethernet and the low cost
of Arcnet in a new entry-level hardware solution. The DE-205TP is a
plug-and-play product designed for small workgroup 10Base-T users without the
extra expense of a 10Base-T wiring concentrator.

The 10Base-T Ethernet/Hub adapter comes with four 10Base-T RJ-45 twisted-pair
connectors. The card itself functions as a 16-bit server adapter and can
support up to a five-node network, again without having the expense of a

The hub/adapters also may be cascaded, providing a total of eight Ethernet
connections. This enables small work-groups to expand without a complex
addition to their cabling systems.

For more information, contact D-Link Systems Inc., 5 Musick, Irvine, Calif.
92718; (714) 455-1688.

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #6432 *****

Journal: LAN Computing May 7 1991 v2 n10 p27(1)
* Full Text COPYRIGHT Professional Press Inc. 1991.
Title: Pivotal Technologies offers 10Base-T products. (FlexiHub and
MAUcard Plus internal hubs) (Products) (product announcement)
Company: Pivotal Technologies Inc. (Product introduction).
Product: Pivotal Technologies FlexiHub (Network hub) (Product introduction)
Pivotal Technologies MAUcard Plus (Network hub) (Product
Topic: Product Introduction
Network Hubs
I/O Ports.
Feature: illustration

Record#: 10 692 065.
Full Text:

Pivotal Technologies Offers 10Base-T Products

Pivotal Technologies announces the 10Base-T FlexiHub, a 10Base-T modular
internal hub. The modularity in the FlexiHub is achieved by means of six
modules known as Hub-Simms. Each HubSimm provides connectivity for two
ports. This means a user can install a hub with six, eight, 10 or 12 ports.

FlexiHub is fully compliant with the IEEE 802.3i (10Base-T) standard. It has
full repeater signal regeneration as well as independent port auto
partitioning/reconnection. A BNC connector is provided for thinnet

The company also announces the 10Base-T up port feature for its MAUcard Plus
product. The MAUcard Plus is an Internal 10Base-T Hub. It has full repeater
signal regeneration as well as independent port auto partitioning

MAUcard Plus is an internal hub that can be inserted inside the server. Four
users can be connected via 10Base-T ports. The server can utilize the
thinnet port of the MAUcard Plus.

FlexiHub is priced at $600 to six ports. Each additional HubSimm Module,
which provides two ports, is priced at $150. FlexiHub with 12 ports is
priced at $950. MAUcard Plus is priced at $499.

For more information, contact Pivotal Technologies Inc., 18240 Purdue Dr.,
Saratoga, Calif. 95070; (408) 374-7887.

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #6889 *****

Journal: LAN Times May 6 1991 v8 n9 p1(2).
Title: New 10Base-T hub cards shrink cabling costs. (Gateway
Communications AT Hub Adapter, D-Link Systems DE-205TP) (Hardware
Review) (evaluation)
Author: Germann, Christopher.

Summary: Gateway Communications and D-Link Systems both offer 16-bit
10Base-T hub cards for Ethernet networks. Both cards provide for
four unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) external connections and one

internal connection to the host, and support a total of five nodes
when configured in a star topology. Hub expanders are available
for both units. Both units are easy to install. The D-Link
DE-205TP is compatible with Novell's NE1000/NE2000 network
interface drivers; Gateway's AT Hub Adapter comes with its own
driver software. Both operate at normal Ethernet speeds, but
times for the AT Hub Adapter are faster, probably because the
Gateway card has 64Kbytes of RAM buffer, compared to the
DE-205TP's 16Kbytes. The Gateway card offers better performance
overall, but this comes at a price of $800, compared to the
DE205TP's price tag of $495. For economy, the D-Link product is
the better choice; if performance is the issue, choose the Gateway
Company: Gateway Communications Inc. (Products)
D-Link Systems Inc. (Products).
Product: Gateway Communications AT Hub Adapter (Communications board)
D-Link Systems DE-300TP (Communications board).
Topic: Evaluation
Communications Boards/Cards
Network Hubs
Feature: illustration
Caption: Ethernet 10Base-T cards install easily in a star topology. (chart)

Record#: 10 808 606.

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #6907 *****

Journal: LAN Times May 6 1991 v8 n9 p39(2).
Title: Ethernet hubs ease net manager's job: configuration, management a
breeze with 10Base-T concentrators. (tutorial)
Author: Germann, Christopher.

Summary: 10Base-T Ethernet networks running on unshielded twisted-pair
(UTP) wiring are steadily gaining in popularity because the
wiring, used by telephone companies, is easy to use, inexpensive
and often already in place in a building. The central point of
configuration and management for such networks is the
concentrator, a box in which all wiring connections are
concentrated and all electric switching between nodes takes place.
Concentrators reduce the cost-per-node of networks by simplifying
network administration. Concentrators are differentiated by
number of ports, stacking configuration, type of connectors,
number of plug-in modules, and network management. Recent
advances in hub technology include the incorporation of Media
Access Units (MAUs) into the interface card, the development of
cards that also serve as four-port hubs, and National
Semiconductor's announcement of the DP83950 Repeater Interface
Controller (RIC) chip.
Topic: Tutorial

Record#: 10 808 642.

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #6910 *****

Journal: LAN Times May 6 1991 v8 n9 p43(1).
Title: UTP becoming LAN cabling of choice: token-ring standardization may
follow IEEE's 10Base-T Ethernet sanction. (product announcement)
Author: Dryden, Patrick.

Summary: The increasing popularity of unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) wiring,
certain to be boosted by the expected standardization of
high-speed token-ring networks on UTP by the IEEE, has lead to a
flurry of product introductions aimed at low-cost 10Base-T
Ethernet networks. Pivotal Technologies offers the four-port MAU
Card Plus, priced at $499, which also includes a thin Ethernet
port for connecting a server or cascading hub adapters. Pivotal
also offers the $600, six-port Flexihub, expandable up to 12 ports
in two-port modular increments priced at $150 each. A 12-port
Flexihub is available for $950. Gateway Communications combines
an attachment unit interface (AUI) and four hub ports into the
G/Ethertwist AT Hub Adapter. The 16-bit version includes drivers
for Netware, TCP/IP, NDIS, Netbios and Vines networks and sells
for $800. The 8-bit version is priced at $400.
Company: Gateway Communications Inc. (Product introduction)
Pivotal Technologies Inc. (Product introduction).
Product: Pivotal Technologies MAUcard Plus (Network hub) (Product
Pivotal Technologies FlexiHub (Network hub) (Product introduction)
Gateway Communications G/EtherTwist AT Hub Adapter (Communications
board) (Product introduction).
Topic: Product Introduction
Network Hubs
Communications Boards/Cards
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Twisted Pair.

Record#: 10 808 648.

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #7065 *****

Journal: PC Week May 6 1991 v8 n18 p54(1)
* Full Text COPYRIGHT Ziff-Davis Publishing Co. 1991.
Title: Intellicom targets 10BaseT. (Intellicom Inc.'s TPair-312
Concentrator, TPair-PNA network adapter and TPair-401P
transceiver) (product announcement)
Author: Musich, Paula; Zimmerman, Michael R.
Company: Intellicom Inc. (Product introduction).
Product: Intellicom TPair 312 Concentrator (Product introduction)
Intellicom TPair-PNA (Communications board) (Product introduction)
Intellicom TPair-401P (Computer communications equipment) (Product
Topic: Product Introduction
Communications Boards/Cards
Communications Equipment
Local Area Networks
Feature: illustration

Record#: 10 710 275.
Full Text:

By Paula Musich

and Michael R. Zimmerman

In an attempt to strengthen its position in the low end of the 10BaseT
market, Ethernet networking vendor Intellicom Inc. recently introduced a
low-cost wiring concentrator, portable network interface adapter and other
cabling components.

The 12-port TPair-312 concentrator, the TPair-PNA external network adapter
and the TPair-401P pocket transceiver boast the lowest price for
standards-compliant products of their kind for Ethernet networks running over
existing telephone wire, claimed Paul Singh, president of the Chatsworth,
Calif., company.

The TPair-312 concentrator is designed for plug-and-play operation in either
small work-group LANs or departmental subnetworks linked to a backbone,
according to Singh. It can be managed by other vendors' Simple Network
Management Protocol network-management stations.

The concentrator is priced from $999 to $1,799, depending on configuration,
which breaks down to $83.25 per port for the base configuration.

The TPair-PNA is the company's new 10BaseT network adapter designed for
laptop and notebook computers, said Singh. The external 3-by-3-by-1-inch
adapter affixes a ribbon cable for connecting to a PC's parallel port. The
$399 adapter also sports an RJ-45 jack for unshielded twisted-pair 10BaseT
connections as well as a second parallel port designed to connect the laptop
to the network printer.

Intellicom's new TPair-401P pocket transceiver, priced at $129, is designed
to link Ethernet LANs using coaxial cable to 10BaseT-compliant unshielded
twisted pair cabling.

The three new products, available now, are the latest members of Intellicom's
Quick-Net 3000 Plus line, which also includes 8- and 16-bit 10BaseT network
interface cards.

The 7-year-old company sells its products directly and through OEMs.

Intellicom can be reached at (818) 407-3900.

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #7692 *****

Journal: LAN Magazine May 1991 v6 n5 p71(17)
* Full Text COPYRIGHT Miller Freeman Publications 1991.
Title: 10BaseT takes off. (Ethernet and unshielded twisted-pair market
expands) (buyers guide)
Author: Dougherty, Elizabeth.

Summary: 10BaseT is the approved IEEE standard for unshielded twisted-pair
(UTP) Ethernet installations. Since the standard was approved in
the fall of 1990, the market has been exploding. The compound
annual growth rate for the market since 1988 is 225 percent. The
configuration of 10BaseT is a physical star centered around a
multiport concentrator (hub) that results in increased tolerance
and makes management easier. An estimated 1.4 million UTP ports
were shipped in 1990 internationally. By the end of 1990 and
estimated 2.2 million unshielded twisted-pair concentrator ports
will be installed. The worldwide concentrator market is worth
approximately $550 million, and may be worth over $1 billion by
1992. This Guide to Ethernet Cards lists products from over 40
vendors. Information includes manufacturer, product name, bus
type, NOS driver, cable type, bus width, buffer size, host memory
access method, and price for each Ethernet card. An additional
directory lists manufacturer name, address and phone number.
Topic: 10BaseT
Communications Boards/Cards
Unshielded Twisted Pair
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Feature: illustration
Caption: Estimated annual U.S. growth of 10BaseT ports. (graph)
A guide to Ethernet cards. (table)
For more information. (table)

Record#: 10 766 420.
Full Text:

Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling is eclipsing coaxial cable as the
medium of choice for new or expanding Ethernet networks. The IEEE passed the
10BaseT standard for UTP Ethernet installations last fall, and the market has
been exploding ever since.

"The growth has been almost off the chart," says Brad Baldwin, program
director for LAN vendor research at the Gartner Group (Stamford, CT). In
1987, fewer than 10,000 UTP Ethernet ports were installed. In 1988, the
market grew 1,675 percent; in 1989, 325 percent; and in 1990, 150 percent-a
compound annual growth rate of 225 percent, says Baldwin.

10BaseT specifies a physical star topology centered around a multiport
concentrator, or hub, which makes management easier and increases fault
tolerance. Each segment supports only one attachment, which is automatically
partitioned if it malfunctions. Because most buildings are wired for
telephones using UTP, 10BaseT networks sometimes use existing cable, reducing
installation costs. 10BaseT also offers interoperability among products.
"Now that you've got the standard, you're not locked into one vendor," says
Curt Wheeling, vice president of marketing, David Systems Sunnyvale, CA).

International Data Corp. (IDC, Framingham, MA) estimates that almost 1.4
million UTP ports shipped in 1990 worldwide and that 2.2 million unshielded
twisted-pair concentrator ports will be installed by the end of 1990. (All
estimates reflect the number of ports shipped; hubs may not be filled to
capacity.) "The overall concentrator market is worth about $550 million
today. It will be over $1 billion in 1992," says Lee Doyle, IDC's manager of
LAN research.

10BaseT rose strongly from 1990 to 1991 "because a lot of vendors were on the
sidelines until the standard came out" says Shirley Hunt, a LAN industry
analyst at Dataquest (San Jose, CA). She anticipates a 150 percent growth in
10BaseT in 1991. Hunt estimates that 10BaseT will grow 70 percent in 1992,
35 percent in 1993, 25 percent in 1994, and 20 percent in 1995 (see Figure

According to Dataquest, 919,000 UTP Ethernet ports (402,000 proprietary and
517,000 10BaseT) shipped last year in the U.S.

The large number of proprietary UTP Ethernet ports shipped in 1990 reflects
the fact that companies introduced UTP Ethernet products before the IEEE

approved the 10BaseT standard. SynOptics (Santa Clara, CA), for example,
introduced UTP products in August 1987 and still supports those pre-10BaseT

Kristine Stewart, reseller distribution manager for Western Digital (Irvine,
CA) says the market is "growing quickly, but maybe not as quickly as some of
the analysts might predict." She cites the recession for slowing the
conversion to 10BaseT. "People are looking at their capital budgets. They
may not be moving into a new building and may stay with a coax environment
for a longer period of time." Western Digital offers a transitional $399
16-bit board, which has onboard connectors for 10BaseT, thin coax, and thick
coax. The board gives an organization the flexibility to switch cable medium
without replacing all of its network's adapters or purchasing external


Prior to 10BaseT, many analysts expected the number of Token Ring connections
to surpass Ethernet. Ethernet adapters, however, continue to outsell Token
Ring at a 3-to-2 ratio, Baldwin estimates. "Any vendor that has an Ethernet
card today, that does not have a 10BaseT card, will have one by the end of
1991," he says.

"10BaseT gave a mid-life kick to Ethernet technology," says Doug Gold, IDC's
director of communications research. "We had expected that Token Ring would
surpass Ethernet, and then along came UTP and changed the field." 10Baset is
easier to manage, more fault tolerant, and less expensive than Token Ring.

10BaseT also is affecting Arcnet installations. "10BaseT is so simple and so
widely supported and has a higher performance protocol, that it's taking a
chunk out of [ Arcnet sales ]," says Kevin Woods, a product marketing manager
at SynOptics.

"Barring any sort of unknown technology advancement, people will always need
wire," Gold says. UTP Ethernet is safe at least for the rest of the decade,
he says. (Gold points out that wireless LANS might eventually affect cable
sales, but costs have to drop rather precipitously and MIS staff's confidence
has to rise a great deal for this to happen.)


"Coax has just about disappeared in new installations of Ethernet," says Dave
McCrabb, a product marketing manager at BICC Communications (Auburn, MA).

Coax is more difficult to install, control, and change than UTP. Companies
continue to use it for maintenance of and additions to existing coax
networks. Coax also still competes in some environments. For example, where
electromechanical interference is a concern, coax provides greater shielding
(see Figure 2).

10BaseT works well at the work-group level, for example, in small companies
or in departments tied together with fiber backbones in large organizations.
10BaseT networks often are attached to fiber backbones, which offer higher
signal quality, reduce electromagnetic interference, support longer
distances, and prepare organizations for FDDI. Because the hub adds
management capabilities where a network manager may not be available, an
company with smaller, geographically dispersed networks, such as a bank with
branch offices, might be attracted to 10BaseT.

10BaseT reflects a physical star topology, which is how most offices are laid
out and the way companies are structured," Wood says.


"The 10BaseT issue is as much emotional as economic," says Joe Head, senior
vice president of Optical Data Systems (Richardson, TX). "The other viable
cost option is thin coax around the walls, which is unsightly. It's the
Christmas tree light syndrome-you mess up any of the connections, you lose
the whole thing. 10BaseT looks nice, [and] the hub will disconnect [a
malfunctioning node, not the whole network]."

10BaseT also offers Macintosh users an easy way to install Ethernet.
"10BaseT is a common jump from LocalTalk," says Christopher Inman, marketing
manager at Asante (Sunnyvale, CA). "Macintosh users have shied away from
Ethernet, viewing it as too technical. Now with 10BaseT, it's just telephone
wire. They're willing to take the plunge." Macintosh users tend to change to
Ethernet for its higher speed compared with LocalTalk's 230kbps.

Not as many vendors are catering to the Macintosh market as they are to the
PC market. "Mac users are aware of 10BaseT, but it's an emerging market,"
Inman says. "We're educating people because it's so new."

The main components for a 10BaseT network are cabling, wiring hubs, adapter
cards, and network management systems. If cable is already installed, wiring
expenses may be minimal. New cabling costs vary; labor costs are more of a
concern than the actual cable, which, at about 10 cents per foot, is
inexpensive compared to other types of cable. Adapter cards range from about
$300 to $425 (see pages 78 through 101 for a chart of Ethernet adapter
cards). External adapters, which convert existing Ethernet cards to 10BaseT,
are available for about $135. Network management systems vary greatly
according to features. You need to decide what level your network requires,
keeping in mind future growth. Wiring hubs also vary greatly, ranging from
less than $100 to about $400 per port.

Although the presence of an external adapter market "suggests a conversion of
existing networks to 10BaseT, the bulk are new [installations], probably
95-to-1," says Baldwin. "Not too many customers are ripping out their coax
systems yet. You need external adapters and a wiring closet; you may need to
pull new cable-it's beyond a lot of companies' budgets right now."


The 10BaseT market is diverging into high-end and low-end product lines, with
network management the major differentiating component.

High-end intelligent hubs feature more sophisticated network management;
support multiple media and protocols; and integrate bridging and routing,
terminal servers, and WAN service. The low-end hubs are less robust,
providing a fixed configuration with LEDs for segment monitoring. If a
network is going to grow to more than 20 or 30 nodes and more than two or
three hubs, or if nodes are dispersed, you should opt for some type of
network management.

"At the low end, you're connecting UTP at the small network and maybe getting
a few lights," says Doyle. "At the high end, you're getting a flexible
expandable module chassis with a high-speed back plane that supports
Ethernet, Token Ring, and terminals, that supports bridging and routing, and
that has high-end graphical network management."

Network management can be key to keeping your network up, and it's a feature
that increases the price of hubs. "By the end of 1992, every vendor will
have a network management offering, and if they don't, they're not going to
sell their products," Baldwin says. [Today] I don't see every vendor with
network management at the hub level. It's an absolute requirement. With
multiple hubs, multiple wiring closets, and multiple sites, you need a way of
tracking [it] all."

Management options vary greatly. Most support the Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP); many offer different levels of graphical interfaces and
mapping abilities.

"High-end vendors have a lot more to offer than a simple SNMP package," Hunt
says. SynOptics, for example, has a graphics package to map the network and
the front panels of concentrators (see Broadcast, page 8 for more
information). "High-end packages are smart enough to recognize changes in
the system," Hunt says. With low-end systems, changes often must be manually

"Low-end vendors just offer you a string of numbers on a per-port basis,"
says Hunt. You can see the traffic and errors, but it doesn't tell you how
many errors are acceptable. With high-end products, you can set thresholds
with alarms.

Intelligence built into hubs can be valuable for sites without network
managers or for enabling managers to troubleshoot proactively. When a
station malfunctions in a remote office, for example, you must identify the
problem's source. "With intelligent hubs, you can dial into that office,
take control, and analyze packets as if you had someone on site with a
Network General Sniffer," says Head. "In small offices, you [may not] have
employees who know how to deal with the hubs, but 200 offices around the
country can have a central office with a network administrator."

Network management, however, is in its infancy. Management packages are only
beginning to advance beyond monitors and develop active tools. Network
managers need to be careful that their SNMP products can interoperate. "Most
of network management, while based on SNMP, is still proprietary, so it's
very difficult to mix and match products," Doyle says.


Network administrators are facing supporting a variety of technologies from
different vendors in the wiring closet-terminal servers, bridges, and
routers-all complex technologies to maintain and troubleshoot when problems
occur. "This is why network management is going to be so critical," Baldwin

SNMP can help, but network managers should also examine the relationships
among the vendors. The key is determining how closely a company worked with
the wiring hub vendor in developing its product. Was it codeveloped? "There
has to be integration at the network management level, and it has to appear
seamless," Baldwin says. "A major trend for 1991 is increased integration in
the wiring closet."

"For a concentrator to work well, it needs to provide beyond the department,"
s Gold. "A vendor also has to play downstream. Expect to see fractional T-1
and frame relay hooks into the wide area market."

A future high-end direction is giving each node its own network, so a user
can access the entire bandwidth at all times. "If you put a wiring hub into
a PC or on the server, you can give each workstation its own individual
network," says Hunt. For networks with heavy-duty applications but few
users, this would increase processing speeds.


The low-end market offers simpler solutions for networks that don't need all
the bells and whistles of the higher priced hubs. This market "really got
strong in 1991," Hunt says. "Every vendor decided they wanted to throw their
towel into the 10BaseT market." The competition is driving hub prices down

About 40 companies-mostly new players-are now in the market (see Figure 3 for
1990 shipments by company). "There are too many vendors and not enough
demand," Hunt says. "Some vendors that enter it in the beginning of the year
will be out of it by the end of the year."

Doyle anticipates a 15 percent compound annual decline in 10BaseT prices
through 1995, with the bottom out point at about $50 per port. Federal
Technology's Exos Product Division Alexandria, VA) has already reached this
level, offering a nine-port hub for $449.

"There's going to be a tremendous price war this year," Hunt says. "The
price war is going to take place in the low end. The high-end vendors aren't
going to be in there. Their customers don't mind the prices much because
they're getting a lot of value."

David Systems opened a new market by providing hubs priced at $99 per port.
It conducted a survey in 1989 that indicated companies were paying between
$60 and $145 for thin coax or Arcnet installations. "We tried to get right
in the middle," Wheeling says. The resulting hub provides basic connectivity
without management for six to 40 users.

Improved chip technology also is lowering prices. "A lot of the
functionality is being put on chips," says Brad Strut, a product manager at
Ungermann-Bass (Santa Clara, CA). "Reducing the real estate on equipment is
bringing the price down."

Cabletron (Rochester, NH), for example, has been working with silicon
providers, such as National Semiconductor, to integrate discrete logic into
integrated circuits. National's Repeater Interface Controller, the resulting
multiport repeater chip, reduces "two large circuit boards to one large
chip," says Chris Oliver, Cabletron's director of engineering. Products
using the chip will be released during the year.

Despite dropping prices, vendors still realize "fantastic margins," Baldwin
says. "Competition and technological gains are bringing prices down. Even
when the prices go down, the profit will still be high."


Another technology pressuring prices for low-end hubs is 10BaseT internal
hubs. An internal hub has no chassis; the card directly inserts into a slot
in the file server.

Internal hubs allow small installations to place hubs closer to the work
groups that use them, rather than in a telephone closet, says Barry George,
vice president of sales and marketing at D-Link (Irvine, CA).

D-Link offers a product that contains a 16-bit 10BaseT adapter and an
internal four-port hub, which can support five nodes or networks, for $499.
Internal hubs are "consistent with what's going on economically with
corporate accounts," George says. "They realize that they don't need to
spend several hundred dollars per port for diagnostics that they really don't
need. It's easy to walk 100 meters and give the administrator the answer, a
`yes' light or a `no' light."

Pivotal Technologies (Saratoga, CA) also has released an internal 10BaseT hub
that can contain six to 12 ports. The hub costs $600 for six ports and $950
for 12 ports.

Internal hubs go "back to the idea that a PC can become a hub for PCs, says
Head. An internal hub requires a dedicated machine, which must be on all the
time. "You're reduced to a situation where the whole network relies on a
single PC," Head says. If you use the PC for other functions, you have to
take the hub down to reconfigure or reboot the machine. (TABULAR DATA

***** Computer Select, July 1991 : Doc #8979 *****

Journal: Network World April 29 1991 v8 n17 p1(6).
Title: Weighing factors in the twisted-pair/fiber choice. (network
cabling)(includes related article on new developments in twisted
Author: Mier, Edwin.

Summary: Network managers face difficult decisions when choosing whether to
use unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) or fiber-optic local area
network cables. Today's twisted-pair configurations may support
speeds ranging from 16M-bps to 100M-bps, but future networks may
operate at far faster speeds. The Fiber Distributed Data
Interface (FDDI) standard allows transmission at speeds of up to
1G-bps. UTP is generally accepted as an adequate medium for the
standard 10M-bps data rate on Ethernet LANs but is limited to
shorter distances than traditional coaxial cable; it is only
useful at up to 100 meters and is therefore not suitable for
campus networks. Some UTP LANs employing the 10BaseT standard may
emit too much electromagnetic energy, and the FCC is instituting
stringent new guidelines. Shielded twisted-pair cabling is
promoted by IBM for token-ring networks and significantly reduces
emissions. Efforts are underway to develop a scheme for FDDI
transmission over twisted-pair cabling, which would combine the
high speed of FDDI with the low cabling cost of twisted pair.
Some argue that the growth of fiber-optic cabling is inevitable,
arguing that transmitting 100M-bps over unshielded twisted pair
would violate FCC rules.
Topic: Hardware Selection
Business Planning
Local Area Networks
Cost Reduction
Twisted Pair
Fiber Optics
Decision Making.
Feature: illustration
Caption: Competing designs for 100M bit/sec data over twisted pair. (table)
Comparison of cabling costs. (table)
Cabling selection: making the right choice. (table)

Record#: 10 697 945.

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