Dec 142017
NASA Press kit for shuttle mission S-37. Includes details of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO).
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NASA Press kit for shuttle mission S-37. Includes details of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO).
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WATCH.TXT 12032 4920 deflated

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Contents of the STS-37.TXT file


APRIL 1991


























RELEASE: 91-41


Shuttle mission STS-37, the 39th flight of the Space Shuttle and
the eighth flight of Atlantis, will be highlighted by deployment of
the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the second of NASA's four great
space observatories, and the first American spacewalk in more than 5

The launch of Atlantis is currently scheduled for no earlier
than 9:18 a.m. EST on April 5. GRO, to be placed into a
243-nautical-mile high orbit on the 3rd day of the flight, will
complement the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and attempt to unravel
the mysteries of the universe through observations of gamma rays,
among the highest frequency wavelengths of the spectrum. GRO is the
second in four planned great observatories, including HST, the
Advanced X- Ray Astrophysics Facility and the Space Infrared
Telescope Facility.

On the 4th day of the flight, the Extravehicular Activity
Development Flight Experiments (EDFE) will require the first
spacewalk by American astronauts since Shuttle mission STS-61B in
November 1985. The spacewalk will test the Crew and Equipment
Translation Aids, three prototype cart designs that are part of an
effort to develop a transportation device for use on the exterior of
Space Station Freedom. Other spacewalk experiments include tests of
the Shuttle's robot arm as a work platform for astronauts and
instrumented evaluations of astronauts' ability to work with tools in

On the middeck, Atlantis will carry several secondary
experiments including the Bioserve ITA Materials Dispersion Apparatus
(BIMDA), a study in biomedical materials processing; Protein Crystal
Growth-III (PCG-III), another in a sequence of Shuttle experiments
that grow crystals in weightlessness; the Shuttle Amateur Radio
Experiment-II (SAREX-II), an experiment that will allow the crew to
contact amateur radio operators around the world who are within range
of the Shuttle's flight path; the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced
Radiator Element-II (SHARE-II), a study of an evolving design of
cooling radiators for Space Station Freedom; and the Radiation
Monitoring Equipment-III (RME- III), a monitor of the amount of
radiation penetrating the Shuttle's crew compartment during the

In addition Atlantis will have the Ascent Particle Monitoring
Experiment in the payload bay, a package of instruments that measure
contamination in the cargo bay during launch. The orbiter also will
participate in the Air Force Maui Optical System (AMOS), a continuing
series of observations of Shuttle orbital engine firings by ground
Air Force instruments.

The mission is planned to last 5 days and 12 minutes, concluding
with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., at 9:30 a.m. EDT,
April 10th. Commanding Atlantis will be Air Force Col. Steven R.
Nagel. Marine Corps Lt. Col. Kenneth D. Cameron will serve as pilot.
Mission specialists will be Air Force Lt. Col. Jerry L. Ross; Dr.
Linda M. Godwin; and Dr. Jay Apt. Mission specialists Ross and Apt
will perform the spacewalk on the 4th day of the flight.

- end of general release -


NASA Select Television Transmission

NASA Select television is available on Satcom F-2R, Transponder
13, located at 72 degrees west longitude; frequency 3960.0 MHz, audio
6.8 MHz.

The schedule for television transmissions from the orbiter and
for the change-of-shift briefings from Johnson Space Center, Houston,
will be available during the mission at Kennedy Space Center, Fla.;
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.; Johnson Space Center;
and NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The TV schedule will be updated
daily to reflect changes dictated by mission operations.

Television schedules also may be obtained by calling COMSTOR,
713/483-5817. COMSTOR is a computer data base service requiring the
use of a telephone modem. A voice update of the TV schedule may be
obtained by dialing 202/755- 1788. This service is updated daily at
noon EST.

Status Reports

Status reports on countdown and mission progress, on-orbit
activities and landing operations will be produced by the appropriate
NASA news center.


An STS-39 mission press briefing schedule will be issued prior
to launch. During the mission, flight control personnel will be on
8-hour shifts. Change-of-shift briefings by the off-going flight
director will occur at approximately 8-hour intervals.


Launch Date: No earlier than April 5, 1991

Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center, Fla., Pad 39B

Launch Window: 9:18 a.m. to 1:56 p.m. EST (4 hours, 38 minutes)

Orbiter: Atlantis (OV-104)

Orbit: 243 x 243 nautical miles, 28.45 degrees inclination

Landing Date/Time: April 10, 1991, 9:30 a.m. EDT

Primary Landing Site: Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.

Abort Landing Sites: Return to Launch Site - KSC, Fla.
Transoceanic Abort Landing - Banjul, The Gambia
Abort Once Around - Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.

Crew: Steven R. Nagel, Commander
Kenneth D. Cameron, Pilot
Linda Godwin, Mission Specialist 1
Jerry L. Ross, Mission Specialist 2
Jay Apt, Mission Specialist 3

Cargo Bay Payloads: Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO)
EVA Development Flight Experiments (EDFE)
Ascent Particle Monitor (APM)

Middeck Payloads: Bioserve ITA Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA)
Protein Crystal Growth-III (PCG-III)
Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-I (SAREX-II)
Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III)
Air Force Maui Optical System (AMOS)
Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element-II



PCG activation
RMS checkout
SAREX activation


GRO in-bay checkout
Depressurize cabin to 10.2 psi
EMU checkout


GRO deploy




FCS checkout
Mid-Range Targeted Station Keeping (DTO 822)
Middeck payloads deactivation
Cabin stow





Orbiter (Atlantis) empty and 3 SSMEs

Remote Manipulator System (robot arm)

Gamma Ray Observatory

GRO Middeck Equipment

Airborne Electrical Support Equipment

Ascent Particle Monitor (APM)

Bioserve ITA Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA)

Crew and Equipment Translation Aids Cart Assembly

CETA Hardware

Detailed Test Objectives (DTO)

Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO)

Portable Data Acquisition Package

Protein Crystal Growth (PCG)

Radiation Monitoring Experiment (RME)

SHARE II Middeck Priming Experiment

Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)

Total Vehicle at SRB Ignition

Orbiter Landing Weight


Space Shuttle launch abort philosophy aims toward safe and
intact recovery of the flight crew, orbiter and its payload. Abort
modes include:

* Abort-To-Orbit (ATO) -- Partial loss of main engine thrust
late enough to permit reaching a minimal 105- nautical mile orbit
with orbital maneuvering system engines.

* Abort-Once-Around (AOA) -- Earlier main engine shutdown with
the capability to allow one orbit around before landing at either
Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.; the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF)
at Kennedy Space Center, Fla.; or White Sands Space Harbor
(Northrup Strip), NM.

* Trans-Atlantic Abort Landing (TAL) -- Loss of two main
engines midway through powered flight would force a landing at
either Banjul, The Gambia; Ben Guerir, Morocco; or Moron, Spain.

* Return-To-Launch-Site (RTLS) -- Early shutdown of one or
more engines, without enough energy to reach Banjul, would result
in a pitch around and thrust back toward KSC until within gliding
distance of the SLF.

STS-37 contingency landing sites are Edwards AFB, Kennedy
Space Center, White Sands, Banjul, Ben Guerir or Moron.


(d:h:m:s) (fps) (ft)

Launch 00/00:00:00

Begin Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:09 160 600

End Roll Maneuver 00/00:00:16 340 2,500

Throttle to 89% 00/00:00:18 390 3,180

Throttle to 67% 00/00:00:28 650 7,790

Max. Dyn. Pressure 00/00:00:52 1,170 1.09 26,580

Throttle to 104% 00/00:00:59 1,320 1.25 33,380

SRB Staging 00/00:02:05 4,090 3.73 156,440

Main Engine Cutoff 00/00:08:33 24,600 23.13 363,660

Zero Thrust 00/00:08:39 24,646 22.85 370,550

ET Separation 00/00:08:51

OMS 2 Burn 00/00:41:44

GRO Release 02/03:35:00

Deorbit Burn (orb 77) 04/23:12:00

Landing (orb 78) 05/00:12:00

Apogee, Perigee at MECO: 238 x 32 nautical miles

Apogee, Perigee post-OMS 2: 243 x 243 nautical miles


Kennedy Space Center workers began preparing Atlantis for its
eighth flight into space when the vehicle was towed into the Orbiter
Processing Facility on Nov. 21 following its previous mission,

About 31 modifications were made to the orbiter Atlantis during
its 15-week stay in the Orbiter Processing Facility. A significant
modification was the installation of the five new general purpose
computers. The new carbon brake system also was installed and many
upgrades were made to the thermal protection system. All of
Atlantis' systems were fully tested while in the OPF. Both orbital
maneuvering system pods and the forward reaction control system were
removed and transferred to the Hypergolic Maintenance Facility for
required testing.


GRO, which weighs just over 35,000 pounds (15,876 kilograms),
will be the heaviest NASA science satellite ever deployed by the
Space Shuttle into low-Earth orbit.

GRO is a space-based observatory designed to study the universe
in an invisible, high-energy form of light known as gamma rays.
Although a variety of smaller satellites and high-altitude balloons
have carried instruments to study the universe in gamma-ray light
during the past 30 years, GRO represents a dramatic improvement in
sensitivity, spectral range and resolution.

Gamma-rays, which cannot penetrate the EarthUs atmosphere, are
of interest to scientists because these rays provide a reliable
record of cosmic change and evolution. Their study will yield
unprecedented answers about the structure and dynamics of the Milky
Way Galaxy, the nature of pulsars, quasars, black holes and neutron
stars, as well as clues about the origin and history of the universe

The four instruments on GRO were selected by NASA to provide
the first comprehensive, coordinated observations of a broad
gamma-ray energy range with much better sensitivity than any
previous mission. The instruments include: the Burst and Transient
Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer
Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) and the
Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). During the first
15 months of the mission, an all-sky survey is planned. The
observing program that follows will be guided by the results of this

The instruments onboard GRO, with sensitivities 10 times
greater than that of earlier instruments, will scan active galaxies
for new information on celestial objects. GRO also can detect the
very high temperature emissions from the vicinity of stellar black
holes, thereby providing evidence for the existence of these exotic
objects. GRO observations of diffuse radiation will not only help
resolve questions relating to the large scale distribution of matter
in the universe, but also about the processes that may have taken
place shortly after the universe began in the theoretical energetic
explosion or "Big Bang.S

GRO is a NASA cooperative program. The Federal Republic of
Germany, with co-investigator support from The Netherlands, the
European Space Agency, the United Kingdom and the United States, has
principal investigator responsibility for COMPTEL. The Federal
Republic of Germany also is furnishing hardware elements and
co-principal investigator support for EGRET.


The Gamma Ray Observatory is the first scientific payload with
a refuelable onboard propulsion system. In addition, GRO provides
the support and protection necessary for the observatory to complete
its mission. The spacecraftUs subsystems include propulsion, power,
controls, electronics, communications and thermal.


The Gamma Ray Observatory has a self-contained propulsion
system that will allow controllers on the ground to keep the GRO
spacecraft at the proper altitude. The propulsion system provides
thrust for orbit altitude change, orbit maintenance, attitude
control and if necessary, controlled reentry. GRO's four propellent
tanks hold 4,200 pounds (1900-kilograms) of hydrazine fuel. The
spacecraft has four 100-pound (45-kilogram) thrusters and isolation
valves. GRO also has four dual thruster modules, each consisting of
two 5-pound (2.2-kilogram) thrusters for attitude control. The fuel
tanks are designed to be refueled by a future Space Shuttle mission,
although no mission is currently planned for this purpose.

Attitude Control and Determination System

The primary purpose of the Attitude Control and Determination
(ACAD) subsystem is to point the GRO instruments to selected
celestial gamma-ray sources and to supply attitude information for
data processing. The ACAD subsystem is a three-axis system made up
of many NASA standard components and other flight-proven hardware.
The system contains sensors that tell GRO where it's pointed and
actuators for vehicle orientation. The primary sensors are the
Fixed-Head Star Trackers and the Inertial Reference Unit. The star
trackers relay information to GRO's onboard computers about the
location of the spacecraft based on the known positions of
pre-programmed guide stars. The Inertial Reference Unit relays
attitude and position information based on the forces of inertia
working in much the same manner as a gyroscope. The primary
actuators are the four Reaction Wheel Assemblies. They rely on the
principle of the spinning flywheel to maintain spacecraft attitude.

Communications and Data Handling

The Communications and Data Handling (CADH) system is based on
the standard NASA modular design used with great success on the
Solar Maximum Mission and Landsats 4 and 5. By using modules,
repair of damaged or defective components is vastly simplified. The
CADH subsystem consists of the CADH module, a 60-inch (152
centimeter) high-gain antenna, two omnidirectional low-gain antennas
and a radio frequency combiner to interface the module with the

The CADH includes two second generation Tracking and Data Relay
Satellite System (TDRSS) transponders for both incoming and outgoing
transmissions to TDRSS and for command and telemetry transmissions
to the Shuttle during in-bay and deployment sequences. Two NASA
standard tape recorders are included for data storage. They will be
used to record data for later playback to scientists on the ground.
These playbacks, or data dumps, take place every other orbit at a
rate of 512 kilobytes per second via the high-gain antenna system
and the TDRSS S-band.

GRO also has a sophisticated clock that converts spacecraft
time into universal time and distributes it to each instrument.
Remote Interface Units are distributed throughout the spacecraft to
interface the instruments with other onboard subsystems.

Electrical Power

The ObservatoryUs solar arrays are accordion style,
multi-panel, rigid arrays, deployed by motor-driven rigid booms.
The total power available for the observatory from the solar arrays
is approximately 2000 watts. Two Modular Power System (MPS) modules
condition, regulate and control solar-array power during sunlight
portions of the orbit to satisfy load demands and battery charging.
During eclipse periods, Nicad batteries supply the spacecraft power.
The batteries also supplement solar-array power during periods of
peak power. Each MPS can receive power from external sources during
ground operations and while in the Shuttle payload bay.

Thermal Subsystems

The thermal control of the observatoryUs subsystems and
instruments is accomplished by coatings, blankets, louvers,
radiators and heaters. The instruments are thermally isolated from
each other and the spacecraft structure to reduce temperature.

The COMPTEL instrument uses a heat pipe system that transfers
heat to a remote radiator providing active cooling for the
instrument. The other instruments have passive thermal designs.

GRO uses three types of heaters, each having redundant
thermostats and heater elements. Operational heater circuits are
adequate for normal orbital operations. Make-up heaters replace the
power of an instrument or component when it is turned off in orbit.
Space Shuttle auxiliary heaters are used to maintain temperatures
while GRO is in the payload bay.


Gamma rays are a form of light that cannot penetrate the
Earth's atmosphere or be seen by the human eye. Gamma rays have the
highest energies of any type of light radiation. Since high-energy
processes tend to produce high-energy radiation, gamma rays are
emitted by some of the most exotic structures in our universe --
supernovae, neutron stars, black holes and quasars. The study of
gamma rays offers a window into the inner workings of these and
other fascinating objects, providing insights unattainable from the
study of any other form of radiation.

Although the four instruments on GRO are essentially telescopes
for seeing gamma-ray light, they do not look like ordinary
telescopes. Instead, the GRO instruments observe gamma rays
indirectly, by monitoring flashes of visible light, called
scintillations, that occur when gamma rays strike the detectors
(made of liquid or crystal materials) built into the instruments.

GRO's instruments are much larger and much more sensitive than
any gamma-ray instrument ever flown in space. Size is crucial for
gamma-ray astronomy. Because gamma rays are detected when they
interact with matter, the number of gamma-ray events recorded is
directly related to the mass of the detector. With the small number
of gamma rays emanating from celestial sources, large instruments
are needed to detect a significant number of photons in a reasonable
amount of time.

The gamma rays emitted from celestial objects span a wide range
of energies. The most energetic gamma rays to be studied by GRO
have energies some 1 million times greater than the weakest. This
is a far greater range in energy than that spanned by visible light,
and no single instrument yet devised can detect gamma rays
throughout this range. GRO's four instruments together span the
gamma-ray range from about 20,000 to 30 billion electron volts (eV).
Each of the four instruments has a unique design and is specialized
for particular types of observations.

Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) was developed
by scientists and engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center,
Huntsville, Ala., to continuously monitor a large segment of the sky
for detection and measurement of short, intense bursts and other
transient sources of gamma rays. BATSE consists of 8 identical
detectors, with one detector located at each corner of the
spacecraft to give it a very wide field of view. BATSE works in the
low-energy part of the gamma-ray range (20,000 to 2 million eV) in
which bursts are expected. Once BATSE discovers a burst of gamma
rays, it can signal the other three instruments to study the source
in more detail. Dr. Gerald Fishman of Marshall is the principal

Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE)

The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, D.C., designed
the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) to detect
nuclear-line radiation and emissions associated with low energy
gamma-ray sources (100,000 to 10 million eV). OSSE is sensitive to
the spectral signature of radioactive elements. This enables OSSE
to study supernovae and novae which are believed to be the sites
where the heavy elements are created. These elements are the basis
for life as we know it. OSSE also will provide insight into various
types of science targets, such as neutron stars, black holes,
pulsars and quasars. Dr. James Kurfess of the NRL is the principal

Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL)

The Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), developed as a
cooperative effort by the Federal Republic of Germany, The
Netherlands, the European Space Agency and the United States, is
designed for observations at moderate gamma-ray energies (1 to 30
million eV). Because COMPTEL has a wide field of view (though not
as wide as BATSE) and can locate gamma ray sources, one of its
primary functions will be to produce a detailed map of the sky as
seen in moderate gamma rays. Dr. Volker Schoenfelder of the Max
Planck Institute, Germany, is the principal investigator.

Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET)

The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) is between
10 and 20 times larger and more sensitive than any high energy,
gamma-ray telescope previously flown in space. The mission of
EGRET, a joint effort by scientists and engineers at NASA's Goddard
Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Md.; Stanford University,
Stanford, Calif.; Max Planck Institute, Germany; and Grumman
Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, N.Y., is to search the cosmos for high
energy gamma-rays. One of its primary missions will be to generate
a map of the sky as seen in high-energy gamma rays, complementing
the map produced by COMPTEL. Another will be to discover and monitor
gamma-ray emissions from pulsars. GoddardUs Dr. Carl Fichtel is the
principal investigator.


Instructions sent to GRO during its science mission begin with
the controllers located in the GRO Payload Operations Control Center
(POCC) at GSFC. The focal point for all pre-mission preparations and
on-orbit operations, the POCC is part of the Multisatellite
Operations Control Center (MSOCC) at Goddard that provides mission
scheduling, tracking, telemetry data acquisition, command and
processing required for down-linked data.

Data Processing Systems

GRO engineering and experiment data will be processed in the
POCC and the Packet Processor (PACOR) Data Capture Facility. The
POCC will receive real time and playback telemetry data via TDRSS.
The PACOR will receive real time and playback data in parallel with
the POCC. The PACOR will record, time order, quality check and
transmit sets of science data packets to the four instrument sites
via a computer electronic mail system or by magnetic computer tape.
The instrument sites are: Burst and Transient Source Experiment,
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala; Oriented
Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment, Naval Research Laboratory,
Washington, D.C.; Imaging Compton Telescope, U. S. interface,
University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H.; and the Energetic Gamma
Ray Experiment Telescope, GSFC.

The Mission Operations Room, an integral part of the POCC, is
responsible for all aspects of mission control, including spacecraft
health and safety, and is operated on a 24-hour basis. This
arrangement will provide command management, flight dynamics and
communications support through the use of an extensive array of
interactive terminals, color graphic microprocessors, recorders and
close circuit television. Science Support Center

GSFC is the site of the Science Support Center (SSC) for the
Gamma Ray Observatory. The SSC supports guest investigators through
proposal preparation assistance, support of the proposal selection
process and data archive search activities. In addition, the SSC
will assist NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications,
Astrophysics Division, in managing the review and evaluation of
proposals for specific observations and theoretical investigations
in the gamma-ray portion of the spectrum.

The SSC is developing software that will provide a common link
for data from each of the instruments for investigators whose
studies involve more than one of GRO's diverse capabilities.

The SSC also is developing and instituting the software systems
that will allow data from the observatory to be archived by the
National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) also located at Goddard.
Cataloging methods will be developed to allow future guest
investigators the opportunity to easily access data for scientific
study either at Goddard's facilities or at their home laboratories.

Data archived by the SSC and the NSSDC generally will become
available one year after it has been processed into usable form.
The SSC provides a uniform interface with all of the principal
investigator teams and publishes a newsletter with items of interest
to the scientific community.


The GRO is the second of four "Great Observatories" being built
by NASA to study the universe across the electromagnetic spectrum.
The first, the Hubble Space Telescope, was launched in April 1990.
HST primarily conducts studies using visible and ultraviolet light.
The other Great Observatories are the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics
Facility, expected to be launched in 1998, and the Space Infrared
Telescope Facility, scheduled for launch at the end of the decade.

The GRO program is managed by GSFC for NASAUs Office of Space
Science and Applications. The spacecraft was built by TRW, Redondo
Beach, Calif.


Mid-Range Targeted Stationkeeping, designated as a Detailed
Test Objective (DTO 822) for STS-37, will be a rendezvous experiment
to help determine the precision with which the Shuttle can intercept
a point behind an orbiting target and maintain the position without
onboard radar. The orbiting target for the test will be the
previously deployed Gamma Ray Observatory.

Following completion of EVA activities on flight day 4, a phase
adjustment burn will be performed to begin closing the distance
between Atlantis and GRO. While the crew sleeps, Atlantis will close
from about 100 miles to within 50 miles behind the target.

An additional phasing maneuver will be made, early on flight
day 5, to move Atlantis to within 20 miles. The crew then will
conduct a final interception maneuver, using star trackers and
optical alignment sights to identify and close in on the test point
8 miles behind GRO.

Stationkeeping 8 miles behind GRO, the crew will maneuver
Atlantis around the test point, using RCS jets to conduct
out-of-plane translations and attitude changes. Following those,
the crew will use the star trackers and optical alignment sights to
locate and maneuver back to the stationkeeping point.

Acquired data will be used to assess manual stationkeeping
tools and techniques for potential rendezvous cases in which orbiter
radar systems are not available.


On STS-37, astronauts will venture into the payload bay for the
14th time in the 10-year history of the Shuttle program, when
mission specialists Jerry Ross and Jay Apt perform a 6-hour
extravehicular activity (EVA) during flight day 4. When Ross opens
the airlock hatch, he will be the first astronaut to do so since he
closed it Dec. 1, 1985, during STS-61B.

During the spacewalk, Apt and Ross will test several different
translation devices which could be the predecessors of devices to be
used on Space Station Freedom. The flight tests will answer
questions including the speed of translation, complexity of
equipment required, ease of translation and crew loads applied to
tools and equipment for future EVA experiences.

Ross is designated as extravehicular crew member 1 (EV1) and
will have red stripes on his spacesuit, while Apt is EV2. Pilot Ken
Cameron will perform the functions of the intravehicular crewmember
(IV1), monitoring the progress of the spacewalk from inside

The EVA Developmental Flight Experiment (EDFE) is composed of
three sets of evaluations: the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid
(CETA); the Crew Loads Instruments Pallet Experiment (CLIP), also
known as Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1203; and the EVA Translation
Evaluation, DTOs 1202 and 1205.

Portable Data Aquisition Package

EDFE experiments require the use of a data recording system,
called the Portable Data Acquisition Package (PDAP), that will
collect information on stresses imparted to the track and cart by
the astronauts. The system also will measure forces and torque
imparted to the tools the astroanuts use during the CLIP experiment.

The PDAP will record 32 channels of analog data with each
channel being sampled 150 times per second. The analog signals will
be digitized to 12-bit resolution, time tagged and recorded on a
hard disk for retrieval after landing.

The three PDAPs flown on Atlantis will be stored inside the
crew compartment and mounted on the EDFE experiments by Ross and Apt
after the spacewalk begins. They will be brought back into the crew
compartment at the completion of the EVA.

Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA)

CETA consists of three carts and a tether Shuttle that move
down a 46.8 foot track mounted on the port side of the payload bay.
While the Gamma Ray Observatory is in the payload bay, the track is
stored in two 23.4-foot sections in the forward part of the bay.
Crew members will extend the track to the test position at the onset
of the EVA and stow it after the evaluations are complete.

The tether Shuttle is a small translation aid to which
astronauts clip their safety tethers. It also is equipped with a
small handhold for translations and rides on the CETA track.

For each evaluation, the three CETA carts are mounted to a
common truck attached to the translation track. The truck is an
approximately 20-inch square assembly with four roller clusters that
ride on the track. The individual carts are fixed to the truck for
each evaluation and each has its own brake.

The first cart to be tested will be the manual configuration.
Once positioned in the foot restraints, the astronaut will propel
himself, hand over hand, down the rail. Both the tether Shuttle and
the manual cart configuration are baselined for Space Station

The mechanical version resembles a railroad car mechanism with
which the astronaut pumps a T-handle to move. This motion is
converted by a gear train into the continuous motion of two wheel
drives. A leg restraint connects to the CETA truck and the tether
Shuttle to keep the astronaut in a nearly prone position while
pumping the cart.

The final CETA cart uses electrical currents, generated by the
astronaut, to move the truck down the rail. The astronaut places
himself in foot restraints and pumps two handles in a bicycle-like
motion to create a maximum of 24 volts to drive two small motors.
The motors then propel the truck down the track.

Maximum speed for all three carts is 6 feet per second. Apt
and Ross both will evaluate all three vehicles, at times carrying
each other to simulate transporting cargo to a work station.
Following the CETA evaluation, Ross and Apt will begin working with
the scheduled DTOs.

Detailed Test Objectives

CLIP consists of three force torque sensor plates, a soft
stowage assembly and a foot restraint system. The CLIP assembly is
stowed on the forward port side of the payload bay. Crew members
will perform specific tasks that represent those used during normal
EVAs, such as tightening a bolt or turning a knob. The foot
restraint and work site are instrumented with sensors that measure
the crew induced loads to force and moment signals recorded on the
PDAP. Most of the tasks required for the CLIP evaluations will be
repeated twice by both EVA astronauts, for a total of about 80 tasks

ETE will obtain crew translation data for EVA systems
requirements definition, technique development and equipment design.
The ETE uses Shuttle hardware such as a manipulator foot restraint
and an EVA force measurement tool with various standard orbiter
hardware such as the remote manipulator system and the RMS rope reel
to evaluate translation rates and techniques.

Astronauts inside Atlantis' crew compartment will maneuver EVA
crew members positioned in the MFR on the end of the RMS. The arm
will move the astronaut at speeds up to 1.3 feet per second at a
distance no closer than 10 feet from the orbiter to gauge maximum
comfortable velocity rates and acceleration.

Ross also will manually maneuver the RMS while it is configured
in "limp mode" to evaluate its ease of positioning by an EVA
astronaut. Going from the very complex systems of the RMS to the
very simple, the final evaluation if time permits, will consist of
astronauts crossing a rope strung across the payload bay.

EDFE is sponsored by the Space Station Freedom and managed by
the Crew and Thermal Systems Division in the Engineering Directorate
at the Johnson Space Center.


The BioServe ITA Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA)
payload has been jointly developed by BioServe Space Technologies, a
NASA Center for Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) located at
the University of Colorado, Boulder, and its industrial affiliate,
Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc. (ITA), Exton, Penn. Also
collaborating in the BIMDA activity are researchers from NASA's
Johnson Space Center, Houston, and Ames Research Center, Mountain
View, Calif.

Sponsored by NASA's Office of Commercial Programs, the
objective of the BIMDA experiment is to obtain data on scientific
methods and potential commercial applications of biomedical and
fluid science processing and activities in the microgravity
environment of space.

The BIMDA primary elements, developed by ITA, are the
Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA) minilabs and their controller
with a self-contained power supply. The MDA minilab is a compact
device capable of mixing as many as 150 samples, using
liquid-to-liquid processes using two or three fluids, and can grow
crystals, cast thin-film membranes and conduct biomedical and fluid
science experiments. The MDA experiments include the study of
protein crystal growth in space, collagen polymerization, fibrin
clot formation, liquid-solid diffusion and the formation of thin
film membranes.

Another primary element of the BIMDA payload is the
bioprocessing testbed, designed and developed by BioServe. The test
bed contains the hardware for six bioprocessing modules and six cell
syringes. The bioprocessing testbed elements will be used to mix
cells with various activation fluids followed by extended periods of
metabolic activity and subsequent sampling into a fixative solution.
The bioprocessing module and cell experiments are to determine the
response of live cells to various hormones and stimulating agents
under microgravity conditions.

On this first of three planned flights of BIMDA aboard the
Space Shuttle, 17 principal investigators will use the MDA to
explore the commercial potential of 61 different experiments in the
biomedical, manufacturing processes and fluid sciences fields.

BIMDA Hardware

The BIMDA payload includes three elements of hardware: cell
syringes, bioprocessing modules (contained in a bioprocessing
testbed) and the Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA) minilab units.
All are contained within a temperature- controlled environment
provided by a NASA Refrigerator/Incubator Module (R/IM) in a Shuttle
middeck locker position.

At the beginning of BIMDA activation, the testbed housing the
cell syringes and bioprocessing modules, will be removed from the
R\IM and attached with velcro to an available surface within the
middeck. The testbed will remain outside the R/IM until BIMDA
reconfiguration prior to reentry. The MDA minilabs will remain
within R/IM.

The cell syringe apparatus consists of six two- chambered
syringes containing biological cells, needle/valve adapters and
sample vials. When the plunger is depressed, the payload is
activated, thus the fluids in the two chambers are mixed and
permitted to react. Periodic samples are taken during the flight,
using the needle/valve adaptors and sample vials.

The six bioprocessing module units each consist of three
syringes connected via tubing and a three-position valve. The valve
controls the flow of biological cells/fluids between various
syringes, allowing different types of mixing and sampling from one
syringe to another. The valve apparatus provides options for
variations in the mixing of fluids.

The MDA minilabs will remain in the thermally controlled
environment of the R/IM during the entire flight. Each MDA minilab
unit consists of a number of sample blocks having self-aligning
reservoirs or reaction chambers in both top and bottom portions of
the device. By sliding one block in relation to the other, the
reservoirs align to allow the dispersion to occur between substances
contained within each reservoir. The process of sliding the blocks
can be repeated to achieve time-dependent dispersion (or mixing) of
different substances. A prism window in each MDA unit allows the
crew member to determine the alignment of the blocks on each unit.

Lead investigator for the BIMDA payload is Dr. Marvin Luttges,
Director of BioServe Space Technologies.


The Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) payload aboard STS-37 is a
continuing series of experiments leading toward major benefits in
biomedical technology. The experiments on this Space Shuttle
mission could improve pharmaceutical agents such as insulin for
treatment of diabetes.

Protein crystals like inorganic crystals such as quartz, are
structured in a regular pattern. With a good crystal, roughly the
size of a grain of table salt, scientists are able to study the
protein's molecular architecture.

Determining a protein crystal's molecular shape is an
essential step in several phases of medical research. Once the
three-dimensional structure of a protein is known, it may be
possible to design drugs that will either block or enhance the
protein's normal function within the body or other organisms.
Though crystallographic techniques can be used to determine a
protein's structure, this powerful technique has been limited by
problems encountered in obtaining high- quality crystals, well
ordered and large enough to yield precise structural information.

Protein crystals grown on Earth often are small and flawed.
The problem associated with growing these crystals is analogous to
filling a sports stadium with fans who all have reserved seats.
Once the gate opens, people flock to their seats and in the
confusion, often sit in someone else's place. On Earth,
gravity-driven convection keeps the molecules crowded around the
"seats" as they attempt to order themselves. Unfortunately, protein
molecules are not as particular as many of the smaller molecules and
often are content to take the wrong places in the structure.

As would happen if you let the fans in slowly, microgravity
allows the scientists to slow the rate at which molecules arrive at
their seats. Since the molecules have more time to find their spot,
fewer mistakes are made, creating better and larger crystals.

During the STS-37 flight, experiments will be conducted using
bovine insulin. Though there are four processes used to grow
crystals on Earth -- vapor diffusion, liquid diffusion, dialysis and
batch process -- only batch process will be used in this set of
experiments. Shortly after achieving orbit, a crewmember will
activate the experiment to grow insulin crystals.

Protein crystal growth experiments were first carried out by
the investigating team during Spacelab 3 in April 1985. The
experiments have flown a total of 8 times, with the first 4
primarily designed to develop space crystal growth techniques and

The STS-26, -29, -32 and -31 experiments were the first
opportunities for scientific attempts to grow useful crystals at
controlled temperatures by vapor diffusion in microgravity. The
STS-37 set of PCG experiments will use the batch process and fly in
a new hardware configuration, the Protein Crystallization Facility,
developed by the PCG investigators.

The PCG program is sponsored by NASA's Office of Commercial
Programs and the Office of Space Science and Applications, with
management provided through Marshall Space Flight Center,
Huntsville, Ala. Richard E. Valentine is Mission Manager, Blair
Herron is PCG experiment manager and Dr. Daniel Carter is project
scientist for Marshall.

Dr. Charles E. Bugg, director, Center for Macromolecular
Crystallography (CMC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development
of Space located at the University of Alabama-Birmingham, is lead
investigator for the PCG experiment. Dr. Lawrence J. DeLucas,
associate director and chief scientist, and Dr. Marianna Long,
associate director for commercial development, also are PCG
investigators for CMC.


The Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element-II
(SHARE-II) is a small middeck experiment that follows up the
evolving design of a full-scale heat pipe experiment carried in the
payload bay on STS-29.

On STS-29, a flight test of a 43-foot long heat pipe, a
proposed heat-dissipating radiator, found design flaws in the
manifold. The manifold is a portion of the radiator that takes
ammonia vaporized in an evaporator and moves it through several
pitchfork-oriented pipes that converge into one, long single pipe
that runs the length of the radiator. The manifold on the original
SHARE was designed in a T-shape, with sharp angles that were
discovered to block the vapor, thus preventing the radiator from

On STS-37, two small, transparent test articles will be flown
in a single middeck locker. One test article, representing about a
1.5-foot long section of heat pipe, will simulate the actual size of
the manifold section. The redesigned manifold features more of a
Y-shape convergence of pipes, in theory allowing for easier
transportation of the fluid.

A second test article, about 1-foot long, will simulate a
screen inserted into a portion of the heat pipe to trap and reduce
bubbles in the fluid, thus preventing blockages in the heat pipe.

SHARE-II has no power requirements. For the test of the new
manifold design, a crew member will open two valves that will allow
an ethanol and water mixture to flow through the pipes. Information
on the test will be recorded by videotaping the flow with an onboard
camcorder. The walls and structure of both test articles are
plexiglass, allowing complete visibility into the pipes. Recordings
of the flow in the manifold test article will be repeated three
times, expected to take about 1 hour in total.

On the second article, testing a bubble-screening portion of
pipe, the crew will inject bubbles into one end of the test article
with a syringe. Then, using another syringe, the crew will pull
fluid from the opposite end of the article to force the fluid and
bubbles through the screened section of pipe.

A third SHARE experiment is scheduled to fly on STS- 43
featuring a redesigned 22-foot long radiator now planned for use
with Space Station Freedom.


Conducting shortwave radio transmissions between ground- based
amateur radio operators and a Shuttle-based amateur radio operator
is the basis for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) to fly
aboard STS-37.

SAREX will communicate with amateur stations in line-of- sight
of the orbiter in one of four transmission modes: voice, slow scan
television (SSTV), data or (uplink only) fast scan television
(FSTV). The voice mode is operated in the crew-attended mode while
SSTV, data or FSTV can be operated in either an attended or
automatic mode.

During STS-37, Pilot Ken Cameron, a licensed operator (KB5AWP),
will operate SAREX when he is not scheduled for orbiter or other
payload activities. Cameron will make at least four transmissions
to test each transmission mode. The remaining members of the STS-37
crew -- Commander Steve Nagel (N5RAW) and mission specialists Linda
Godwin (N5RAX), Jay Apt (N5QWL) and Jerry Ross (KB5OHL) -- also are
licensed ham operators.

SAREX crew tended operating times will be dictated by the time
of launch. Cameron will operate SAREX, a secondary payload, during
his pre- and post-sleep activities each day. Cameron and his
crewmates also may operate SAREX throughout their work day as their
schedules permit. This means that amateur stations below the
Shuttle during SAREX operating times can communicate with the
Atlantis crew. Crew members also will attempt to contact the Soviet
space station Mir, but any such contact will depend on each of the
spacecraft's orbital paths.

The robotic mode of SAREX will provide automated operation with
little human intervention. The robot is used when the crew is not
directly involved in the system's operations and is expected to
cover most of the U.S. passes.

SAREX previously has flown on missions STS-9, STS- 51F and
STS-35 in different configurations, including the following
hardware: a low-power hand-held FM transceiver; a spare battery set;
an interface module; a headset assembly and an equipment assembly
cabinet that has been redesigned since its last flight on STS-51F.
The cabinet now includes the packet system and can hold the camera
and monitors. Additional hardware includes: a television camera and
monitor; a payload general support computer (PGSC); and an antenna
which will be mounted in a forward flight window with a fast scan
television (FSTV) module added to the assembly.

SAREX is a joint effort of NASA, the American Radio Relay
League (ARRL)/Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation (AMSAT) and the
JSC Amateur Radio Club.

STS-37 SAREX Frequencies

Shuttle Transmitting Accompanying Shuttle
Frequency Receiving Frequencies

Group 1 145.55 MHz 144.95 MHz
145.55 144.91
145.55 144.97

Group 2 145.51 144.91
145.51 144.93
145.51 144.99

Group 1 includes voice and slow scan operations. Group 2 includes
digital and packet operations.

The 10 U.S. educational groups scheduled to contact Atlantis are:
Clear Creek Independent School District of Houston; The University School
in Shaker Heights, Ohio; Discovery Center Museum in Rockford, Ill.; Potter
Junior High School in Fallbrook, Calif.; Hanover Elementary School in
Bethlehem, Pa.; several schools in Southwest Oklahoma with operations
based in Lawton; Lyman High School in Longwood, Fla.; Monroe Central
School in Parker City, Ind.; Beaver Creek Elementary School in Downington,
Pa.; and Reizenstein Middle School in Pittsburgh, Pa.


On STS-37, Atlantis' avionics system will feature the first set of
five upgraded general purpose computers (GPCs), plus a spare, to fly
aboard the Shuttle.

The updated computers have more than twice the memory and three times
the processing speed of their predecessors. Officially designated the IBM
AP-101S, built by IBM, Inc., they are half the size, about half the weight
and require less electricity than the first-generation GPCs. The central
processor unit and input/output processor, previously installed as two
separate boxes, are now a single unit.

The new GPCs use the existing Shuttle software with only subtle
changes. However, the increases in memory and processing speed allow for
future innovations in the Shuttle's data processing system.

Although there is no real difference in the way the crew will operate
with the new computers, the upgrade increases the reliability and
efficiency in commanding the Shuttle systems. The predicted "mean time
between failures" (MTBF) for the advanced GPCs is 6,000 hours, and it is
hoped to reach 10,000 hours. The MTBF for the original GPCs is 5,200


Dimensions: 19.55" x 7.62" x 10.2"
Weight: 64 lbs
Memory capacity: 262,000 words (32-bits each)
Processing rate: 1 million instructions per second
Power requirements: 550 watts


Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III) measures the rate
and dosage of ionizing radiation to the crew at different locations
throughout the orbiter cabin. The hand- held instrument measures
gamma ray, electron, neutron and proton radiation and calculates the
amount of exposure. The information is stored in memory modules for
post-flight analysis.

RME-III will be stored in a middeck locker during flight except
for when it is turned on and when memory modules are replaced every 2
days. It will be activated as soon as possible after achieving orbit
and will operate throughout the flight. To activate the instrument, a
crew member will enter the correct mission elapsed time.

The instrument contains a liquid crystal display for real-time
data readings and a keyboard for function control. It has four
zinc-air batteries and five AA batteries in each replaceable memory
module and two zinc-air batteries in the main module.

RME-III, which has flown on STS-31 and STS-41, is the current
configuration, replacing the earlier RME-I and RME-II units. The
Department of Defense, in cooperation with NASA, sponsors the data
gathering instrument.


The Ascent Particle Monitor (APM) instruments will be mounted in
Atlantis' payload bay during STS-37 to measure contaminants in the bay
during launch and ascent.

The APM is a completely automatic system consisting of a small
aluminum sample box with doors that will open immediately prior to
liftoff. When the doors are opened, 12 sample collection coupons are
exposed to gather particles in the environment. The doors close
following ascent to protect the samples for analysis after Atlantis
has landed. The APM has flown previously on several Shuttle missions
and is part of an ongoing effort to better characterize the cargo bay
environment during launch.


Steven R. Nagel, 44, Col., USAF, will serve as Commander of
STS-37. Selected as an astronaut in August 1979, Nagel considers
Canton, Ill., his hometown. Nagel first flew as a mission specialist
on STS-51G, launched in June 1985 to deploy three communications
satellites. Nagel next served as Pilot for STS-61A, the West German
D-1 Spacelab mission, launched in October 1985.

Nagel graduated from Canton Senior High School in 1964; received
a bachelor of science in aeronautical and astronautical engineering
from the University of Illinois in 1969; and received a master of
science in mechanical engineering from California State University,
Fresno, in 1978.

Nagel received his commission in 1969 through the Air Force
Reserve Officer Training Corps program at the University of Illinois.
He completed undergraduate pilot training at Laredo Air Force Base,
Texas, in February 1970, and subsequently reported to Luke Air Force
Base, Arizona, for F-100 checkout training.

He served as an F-100 pilot with the 68th Tactical Fighter
Squadron from October 1970 to July 1971, and then served a 1-year tour
of duty as a T-28 instructor for the Laotian Air Force at Udorn RTAFB,
Udorn, Thailand. In 1975, he attended the USAF Test Pilot School and
was assigned to the 6512th Test Squadron located at Edwards Air Force
Base, Calif., upon graduation. He worked as a test pilot on various
projects, including flying the F-4 and A-7D. Nagel has logged more
than 6,300 hours flying time, 4,000 hours in jet aircraft.

Kenneth D. Cameron, 41, Lt. Col., USMC, will serve as Pilot.
Cameron was selected as an astronaut in June 1985, considers Cleveland
his hometown and will be making his first space flight.

Cameron graduated from Rocky River High School, Ohio, in 1967.
He received bachelor and master of science degrees in aeronautics and
astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

He enlisted in the Marine Corps in 1969 at Paris Island, N. C.,
and was assigned in Vietnam for 1 year as a platoon commander with the
1st Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment and later, with the Marine Security
Guards at the U.S. Embassy, Saigon. Cameron received his wings in 1973
at Pensacola, Fla., and was assigned to Marine Attack Squadron 223,
flying A-4M Skyhawks.

He graduated from the Navy Test Pilot School in 1983 and was
assigned as project officer and test pilot in the F/A-18, A-4 and
OV-10 airplanes with the Systems Engineering Test Directorate at the
Naval Air Test Center. Cameron has logged more than 3,000 hours flying
time in 46 different aircraft.

Linda M. Godwin, 38, will serve as Mission Specialist 1 (MS1).
Selected as an astronaut in 1985, Godwin was born in Cape Girardeau,
Mo. Godwin graduated from Jackson High School, Mo., in 1970; received
a bachelor of science in mathematics and physics from Southeast
Missouri State in 1974; and received a master of science and doctorate
in physics from the University of Missouri in 1976 and 1980,

Godwin joined NASA in 1980, working in the Payload Operations
Division at the Johnson Space Center as a flight controller and
payloads officer. Godwin is an instrument rated private pilot.

Jerry L. Ross, 43, Lt. Col., USAF, will serve as Mission
Specialist 2 (MS2). Selected as an astronaut in May 1980, Ross
considers Crown Point, Ind., his hometown and will be making his third
space flight.

Ross first flew as a mission specialist on STS 61-B, launched in
November 1985 to deploy three communications satellites. During the
flight, Ross performed two 6-hour spacewalks to demonstrate space
construction techniques. Ross next flew on STS-27, launched in
December 1988, a Department of Defense-dedicated flight.

Ross graduated from Crown Point High School in 1966. He received
a bachelor of science and master of science in mechanical engineering
from Purdue University in 1970 and 1972, respectively. Ross has
logged 207 hours in space, including 12 hours of spacewalk time.

Jay Apt, 41, will serve as mission specialist 3 (MS3). Selected
as an astronaut in June 1985, Apt considers Pittsburgh, Pa., his
hometown and will be making his first space flight.

He graduated from Shady Side Academy in Pittsburgh in 1967;
received a bachelor of arts in physics from Harvard College in 1971;
and received a doctorate in physics from the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology in 1976.

Apt joined NASA in 1980 and worked in the Earth and Space
Sciences Division of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, doing planetary
research as part of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Infrared Team. In 1981,
he became the Manager of JPL's Table Mountain Observatory.

From the fifth Shuttle mission in 1982 through the 16th in 1985,
he served as a flight controller and payloads officer. Apt has logged
more than 2,200 hours flying time in 25 different types of airplanes,
sailplanes and human- powered aircraft.


NASA Headquarters
Washington, D.C.

Richard H. Truly Administrator
J.R. Thompson Deputy Administrator
Dr. William B. Lenoir Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight
Robert L. Crippen Director, Space Shuttle
Leonard S. Nicholson Deputy Director, Space Shuttle (Program)
Brewster Shaw Deputy Director, Space Shuttle (Operations)
Dr. Lennard A. Fisk Associate Administrator, Space Science and
Alphonso V. Diaz Deputy Associate Administrator, Space Science and
Dr. Charles J. Pellerin, Jr.Director, Astrophysics Division
Douglas R. Broome GRO Program Manager
Dr. Alan N. Bunner GRO Program Scientist

Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Md.

Dr. John M. Klineberg GSFC Director
Peter Burr GSFC Deputy Director
Dr. Dale W. Harris Acting Director, Flight Projects Directorate
Dale L. Fahnestock Director, Mission Operations and Data Systems
John Hrastar GRO Project Manager
Thomas LaVigna GRO Deputy Project Manager
Karl Schauer GRO Mission Operations Manager
Robert Ross GRO Systems Manager
Martin Davis GRO Observatory Manager
Jimmy Cooley GRO Instrument Manager
Dr. Donald Kniffen GRO Project Scientist
Dr. Carl Fichtel Co-Principal Investigator, EGRET
Dr. Eric Chipman Director, GRO Science Support Center

Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center, Fla.

Forrest S. McCartney Director
Jay Honeycutt Director, Shuttle Management and Operations
Robert B. Sieck Launch Director
John T. Conway Director, Payload Management and Operations
Joanne H. Morgan Director, Payload Project Management
Robert Webster STS-37 Payload Manager

Marshall Space Flight Center
Huntsville, Ala.

Thomas J. Lee Director
Dr. J. Wayne Littles Deputy Director
G. Porter Bridwell Manager, Shuttle Projects Office
Dr. George F. McDonough Director, Science and Engineering
Alexander A. McCool Director, Safety and Mission Assurance
Victor Keith Henson Manager, Solid Rocket Motor Project
Cary H. Rutland Manager, Solid Rocket Booster Project
Jerry W. Smelser Manager, Space Shuttle Main Engine Project
Gerald C. Ladner Manager, External Tank Project

Johnson Space Center
Houston, Tex.

Aaron Cohen Director
Paul J. Weitz Deputy Director
Daniel Germany Manager, Orbiter and GFE Projects
P.J. Weitz Acting Director, Flight Crew Operations
Eugene F. Kranz Director, Mission Operations
Henry O. Pohl Director, Engineering
Charles S. Harlan Director, Safety, Reliability and Quality

Stennis Space Center
Bay St. Louis, Miss.

Roy S. Estess Director
Gerald W. Smith Deputy Director
J. Harry Guin Director, Propulsion Test Operations

Dryden Flight Research Facility
Edwards, Calif.

Kenneth J. Szalai Director
T. G. Ayers Deputy Director
James R. Phelps Chief, Shuttle Support Office

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