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Contents of the COBOL.DOC file


COBOL.DOC Page 1



NPS MICRO-COBOL Ver. 2.1

User's Guide


I. Organization

The compiler is designed to run on an 8080 system in
an interactive mode through the use of a teletype or
console. It requires at least 24k of main memory
and a mass storage device for reading and writing.
The compiler is composed of two parts, each of which
reads a portion of the input file. Part One reads
the input program to the end of the Data Division
and builds the symbol table. At the end of the Data
Division, Part One is overlayed by Part Two which
uses the symbol table to produce the code. The
output code is written as it is produced to minimize
the use of internal storage.

The EXEC Program builds the core image for the
intermediate code and performs such functions as
backstuffing addresses and offsetting address in
subroutines. EXEC then copies the interpreter (CIN-
TERP.COM) into memory and transfers control to it.
The interpreter is controlled by a large case state-
ment that decodes the instructions and performs the
required actions.


II. MICRO-COBOL Elements

This section contains a description of each element
in the language and shows simple examples of their
use. The following conventions are used in explain-
ing the formats: Elements enclosed in broken braces
(<>) are themselves complete entites and are des-
cribed elsewhere in the manual. Elements enclosed
in braces({}) are choices, one of the elements which
is to be used. Elements enclosed in brackets ([])
are optional. All elements in capital letters are
reserved words and must be spelled exactly.

User names are indicated in lower case. These names
are unrestricted in length, however they must be
unique within the first 15 characters. The only
other restriction on user names is that the first
character must be an alpha character. The remainder
of the user name can have any combination of repre-
sentable characters in it.
COBOL.DOC Page 2


The input to the compiler does not need to conform
to standard COBOL format. Free form input will be
accepted as the default condition. If desired,
sequence numbers can be entered in the first six
positions of each line. However, a toggle needs to
be set to cause the compiler to ignore the sequence
numbers.

The first character position on any line is used to
indicate the following:

* - indicates a comment entry.
: - indicates a debugging line.
/ - indicates a page eject.


III. Compiler Toggles

There are six compiler toggles which are controlled
by an entry following the compiler activation com-
mand, COBOL. The format of the entry
consists of following by one space and
then entering a "$" followed immediately by the

desired toggles. There must be only one space after
and no spaces between the "$" and the
toggles. The following is an example of a typical
entry:

COBOL EXAMPLE $S

This entry would cause the compiler to ignore the
first six characters (used for sequence numbers) at
the beginning of each input line. In each case the
toggle reverses the default value.

$C - No intermediate code. Default is off.
Setting this toggle speeds initial compilation
for syntax checking. When this toggle is set
the "CIN" file is empty.

$D - Debugging mode. Default is off. This
toggle sets the debugging mode, which means all
debugging lines (those with a ':' in column
one) are compiled. If this toggle is not set
in the ENVIRONMENT DIVISION of the source pro-
gram all debugging lines are treated as com-
ments.

$L - list the input code on the screen as the
program is compiled. Default is on. Error
messages are displayed at the terminal in any
case.
COBOL.DOC Page 3


$P - Productions. List productions as they
occur. Default is off.

$S - sequence numbers are in the first six
positions of each record. Default is off.

$T - Tokens. List tokens from the scanner.
Default is off.

$W - Create a list file. Default is off. A
listing file is created when this toggle is
set. When this toggle is not set the "LST"
file will only contain error messages.


IV. Run Time Conventions

This section explains how to run the compiler on the
current system. The compiler expects to see a file
with a type of CBL as the input file. In general,
the input is free form. If the input includes
sequence numbers then the compiler must be notified
by setting the appropriate toggle. The compiler is
started by typing COBOL . Where the file
name is the system name of the input file. There is
no interaction required to start the second part of
the compiler. The output file will have the same
as the input file, and will be given a
file type of CIN. any previous copies of the file
will be erased. As with the CIN file, a LST file
will be created with the same file name as the input
file and any previous LST files with that name will
`e erased.

The interpreter is started by typing EXEC name>. The first program is a loader, and it will
display "NPS MICRO-COBOL LOADER VERS 2.1" followed
by the display "LOAD FINISHED" to indicates success-
ful completion. The run-time package will be
brought in by the EXEC routine, and execution should
continue without interruption. Successful transfer
of control to the interpreter will be indicated by
the display "NPS MICRO-COBOL INTERPRETER VERS 2.1."
Completion of program execution will be indicated by
the display "X EXECUTION ERROR(S)," where "X" is the
number of errors which occurred during execution.
COBOL.DOC Page 4


V. File Interactions with CP/M

The file structure that is expected by the program
imposes some restrictions on the system. References
4 and 5 contain detailed information on the facili-
ties of CP/M, and should be consulted for details.
The information that has been included in this sec-
tion is intended to explain where limitations exist
and how the program interacts with the system.

All files in CP/M are on a random access device, and
there is no way for the system to distinguish se-
quential files from files created in a random mode.
This means that the various types of reads and
writes are all valid to any file that has fixed
length records. The restrictions of the ASSIGN
statement prevent a file from being open for both
random and sequential actions during one program.

Each logical record is terminated by a carriage
return and a line feed. In the case of variable
length records, this is the only end mark that
exists. This convention was adopted to allow the
various programs which are used in CP/M to work with
the files. Files created by the editor, for exam-
ple, will generally be variable length files. This
convention removes the capability of reading vari-
able length files in a random mode.

All of the physical records are 128 bytes in length,
and the program supplies buffer space for these
records in addition to the logical records. Logical
records may be of any desired length.
COBOL.DOC PAGE 5









IDENTIFICATION DIVISION

ELEMENT:

IDENTIFICATION DIVISION Format

FORMAT:

IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
PROGRAM-ID. .
[AUTHOR. .]
[DATE-WRITTEN. .]
[SECURITY. .]

DESCRIPTION:

This division provides information for program
identification for the reader. The order of
the lines is fixed.

EXAMPLES:

IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.

PROGRAM-ID. SAMPLE.

AUTHOR. HAL R POWELL.
COBOL.DOC PAGE 6




ENVIRONMENT DIVISION


ELEMENT:

ENVIRONMENT DIVISION Format

FORMAT:

[ ENVIRONMENT DIVISION.

CONFIGURATION SECTION.

SOURCE-COMPUTER. [DEBUGGING MODE].

OBJECT-COMPUTER. .

[INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION.

FILE-CONTROL.

. . .

[I-O-CONTROL.

SAME file-name-1 file-name-2 [file-name-3]
[file-name-4] [file-name-5]. ] ] ]

DESCRIPTION:

This division determines the external nature of
a file. In the case of CP/M all of the files
used can be accessed either sequentially or
randomly except for variable length files which
are sequential only. The debugging mode is
also set by this section. The DEBUGGING MODE
clause is used in conjunction with the ':' to
indicate conditional compilation. If this
clause is specified, all debugging lines (those
with a ':' in column one) are compiled. If
this clause is not specified, all debugging
lines are treated as comments. In addition the
DEBUGGING MODE can be specified by using the
compiler toggle 'D.'
COBOL.DOC Page 7





ELEMENT:



FORMAT:

1.
SELECT file-name
ASSIGN implementor-name
[ORGANIZATION SEQUENTIAL]
[ACCESS SEQUENTIAL].

2.
SELECT file-name
ASSIGN implementor-name
ORGANIZATION RELATIVE
[ACCESS {SEQUENTIAL [RELATIVE data-name]}].
{RANDOM RELATIVE data-name }

3.
SELECT file-name
ASSIGN implementor-name
ORGANIZATION INDEXED
[ACCESS {SEQUENTIAL}].
{RANDOM }

DESCRIPTION:

The file-control-entry defines the type of file
that the program expects to see. There is no
difference on the diskette, but the type of
reads and writes that are performed will dif-
fer. For CP/M the implementor name needs to
conform to the normal specifications. Indexed
is not implemented.

EXAMPLES:

SELECT CARDS
ASSIGN CARD.FIL.
SELECT RANDOM-FILE
ASSIGN A.RAN
ORGANIZATION RELATIVE
ACCESS RANDOM RELATIVE RAND-FLAG.
COBOL.DOC PAGE 8


DATA DIVISION

ELEMENT:

DATA DIVISION Format

FORMAT:

DATA DIVISION.
[FILE SECTION.
[FD file-name
[BLOCK integer-1 RECORDS]
[RECORD [integer-1 TO] integer-3]
LABEL RECORDS {STANDARD}]
{OMITTED}
[VALUE OF implementor-name-1 literal-1
[implementor-name-2 literal-2] . . . ].
[] . . . ] . . .
[WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
[] . . . ]
[LINKAGE SECTION.
[] . . . ]
COBOL.DOC Page 9




DESCRIPTION:

This is the section that describes how the data
is structured. There are no major differences
from standard COBOL except for the following:
1. Label records make no sense on the diskette
so no entry is required. 2. The VALUE OF
clause likewise has no meaning for CP/M. If a
record is given two lengths as in RECORD 12 to
128, the file is taken to be variable length
and can only be accessed in the sequential
mode. See the section on files for more infor-
mation.
COBOL.DOC Page 10





ELEMENT:



FORMAT:

any string of characters

DESCRIPTION:

A comment is a string of characters. It may
include anything other than a period followed
by a blank or a reserved word, either of which
terminate the string. Comments may be empty if
desired, but the terminator is still required
by the program.

EXAMPLES:

this is a comment
anotheroneallruntogether
8080b 16K

Note page 1: * in column 1 to cause compiler to
ignore sequence numbers.
COBOL.DOC Page 11




ELEMENT:

Format

FORMAT:

level-number {data-name}
{FILLER }
[REDEFINES data-name]
[PIC character-string]
[USAGE {COMP }]
{COMP-3}
{COMPUTATIONAL}
{DISPLAY}
[SIGN {LEADING} [SEPARATE]]
{TRAILING}
[OCCURS integer]
[SYNC [LEFT]]
[RIGHT]
[VALUE literal].

DESCRIPTION:

This statement describes the specific attri-
butes of the data. Since the 8080 is a byte
machine, there was no meaning to the SYNC
clause, and thus it has not been implemented,
however existing programs that are transferred
to MICRO-COBOL and use this feature will com-
pile and execute successfully. All numeric
data are maintained in DISPLAY format or packed
BCD if the COMP-3 option is used.

EXAMPLES:

01 CARD-RECORD.
02 PART PIC X(5).
02 NEXT-PART PIC 99V99 USAGE DISPLAY.
02 FILLER.
03 NUMB PIC S9(3)V9 SIGN LEADING SEPARATE.
03 LONG-NUMB 9(15).
03 STRING REDEFINES LONG-NUMB PIC X(15).
02 ARRAY PIC 99 OCCURS 100.
COBOL.DOC PAGE 12


PROCEDURE DIVISION

ELEMENT:

PROCEDURE DIVISION Format

FORMAT:

1.

PROCEDURE DIVISION [USING name1 [name2] . . . [name5]].
section-name SECTION.
[paragraph-name. [ . . . ] . . . ] . . .

2.

PROCEDURE DIVISION [USING name1 [name2] . . . [name5]].
paragraph-name. [ . . . ] . . .

DESCRIPTION:

As is indicated, if the program is to contain
sections, then the first paragraph must be in a
section.
COBOL.DOC Page 13




ELEMENT:



FORMAT:




COBOL.DOC Page 14




ELEMENT:



FORMAT:

The following verbs are *always* imperative:

ACCEPT . . . . . . . . 15
CALL . . . . . . . . . 17
CLOSE . . . . . . . . 17
DISPLAY . . . . . . . 18
EXIT . . . . . . . . . 19
GO . . . . . . . . . . 20
MOVE . . . . . . . . . 22
OPEN . . . . . . . . . 24
PERFORM . . . . . . . 25
STOP . . . . . . . . . 27

The following *may be* imperatives:

arithmetic verbs (ADD (16), DIVIDE (19), MULTI-
PLY (23), SUBTRACT (28)) *without* the SIZE
ERROR statement and DELETE (18), WRITE (29),
and REWRITE (26) *without* the INVALID option.
COBOL.DOC Page 15




ELEMENT:



FORMAT:

IF . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
READ . . . . . . . . . . . 26

arithmetic verbs *with* the SIZE ERROR state-
ment and DELETE, WRITE, and REWRITE *with* the
INVALID option.


*****


ACCEPT

ELEMENT:

ACCEPT


FORMAT:

ACCEPT

DESCRIPTION:

This statement reads up to 255 characters from
the console. The usage of the item must be
DISPLAY.

EXAMPLES:

ACCEPT IMAGE.

ACCEPT NUM(9).
COBOL.DOC Page 16


ADD

ELEMENT:

ADD

FORMAT:

ADD {identifier-1} [{identifier-2}] . . . TO identifier-m
{literal-1 } {literal-2 }
[ROUNDED] [SIZE ERROR ]

DESCRIPTION:

This instruction adds either one number to a
second with the result being placed in the last
location. Multiple adds have not been imple-
mented.

EXAMPLES:

ADD 10 TO NUM1

ADD X TO Z ROUNDED.

ADD 100 TO NUMBER SIZE ERROR GO ERROR-LOC
COBOL.DOC Page 17


CALL

ELEMENT:

CALL

FORMAT:

CALL literal [USING name1 [name2] . . . [nameN]]


DESCRIPTION:

Control is transferred to the called procedure
with an address of each of the parameters to be
passed. The parameters map to those in the
linkage section of the called program. The
type and size of the parameters must match
exactly.

EXAMPLES:

CALL 'NC152' USING DN1

CALL 'PRINT'

CALL 'ADDLIST' USING VAR1 VAR2 VAR3

*****

CLOSE

ELEMENT:

CLOSE

FORMAT:

CLOSE file-name

DESCRIPTION:

Files must be closed if they have ben written.
However, the normal requirement to close an
input file prior to the end of processing does
not exist.

EXAMPLES:

CLOSE FILE1

CLOSE RANDFILE
COBOL.DOC Page 18


DELETE

ELEMENT:

DELETE

FORMAT:

DELETE file-name [INVALID ]

DESCRIPTION:

This statement requires the file-name of the
item to be deleted. The record is logically
removed by filling it with a high value charac-
ter, which is not displayable to the console or
line printer. The logical record space can be
used again by writing a valid record in its
place.

EXAMPLES:

DELETE FILE-NAME

*****

DISPLAY

ELEMENT:

DISPLAY

FORMAT:

DISPLAY {identifier} [{identifier-1}] . . . [{identifier-N}]
{literal } {literal-1 } . . . {literal-N }

DESCRIPTION:

This displays the contents of an identifier or
displays a literal on the console. Usage must
be DISPLAY. The maximum length of the display
is 80 characters for literal values and 255
characters for identifiers.

EXAMPLES:

DISPLAY MESSAGE-1

DISPLAY MESSAGE-3 10

DISPLAY 'THIS MUST BE THE END'
COBOL.DOC Page 19


DIVIDE

ELEMENT:

DIVIDE

FORMAT:

DIVIDE {identifier} INTO identifier-1 [ROUNDED]
{literal }
[SIZE ERROR ]

DESCRIPTION:

The result of the division is stored in identi-
fier-1; any remainder is lost.

EXAMPLES:

DIVIDE NUMB INTO STORE
DIVIDE 25 INTO RESULT


*****


EXIT

ELEMENT:

EXIT

FORMAT:

EXIT [PROGRAM]

DESCRIPTION:

The EXIT command causes no action by the inter-
preter but allows for an empty paragraph for
the construction of a common return point. The
optional PROGRAM terminates a subroutine and
returns to the calling program. It's use in
the main program causes no action to be taken.

EXAMPLES:

EXIT PROGRAM

EXIT
COBOL.DOC Page 20


GO

ELEMENT:

GO

FORMAT:

1.
GO procedure-name

2.
GO procedure-1 [procedure-2] . . . procedure-20

DEPENDING identifier

DESCRIPTION:

The GO command causes an unconditional branch
to the routine specified. The second form
causes a forward branch depending on the value
of the contents of the identifier. The identi-
fier must be a numeric integer value. There
can be no more than 20 procedure names.

EXAMPLES:

GO READ-CARD.

GO READ1 READ2 READ3 DEPENDING READ-INDEX
COBOL.DOC Page 21


IF

ELEMENT:

IF

FORMAT:

IF {stmt-lst } END-IF
IF {stmt-lst } ELSE {stmt-lst} END-IF
{NEXT SENTENCE} {NEXT SENTENCE}

DESCRIPTION:

This is an enhanced version of the standard
COBOL IF statement. Nesting of IF statement is
allowed.

EXAMPLES:

IF A GREATER B ADD A TO C ELSE GO ERROR-ONE END-IF.

IF A NOT NUMERIC NEXT SENTENCE ELSE MOVE ZERO TO A END-IF.

IF A LESS B
DISPLAY A
DISPLAY B END-IF.

IF A GREATER B
DISPLAY A
DISPLAY B
ELSE
DISPLAY C
DISPLAY D END-IF.

IF A GREATER B
IF A GREATER C
DISPLAY A
ELSE
DISPLAY C
END-IF
ELSE
IF B GREATER C
DISPLAY B
ELSE
DISPLAY C
END-IF
END-IF.
COBOL.DOC Page 22


MOVE

ELEMENT:

MOVE

FORMAT:

MOVE {identifier-1} TO identifier-2
{literal }

DESCRIPTION:

The standard list of allowable moves applies to
this action. As a space saving feature of this
implementation, all numeric moves go through
the accumulators. This makes numeric moves
slower than alpha-numeric moves, and where
possible they should be avoided. Any move that
involves picture clauses that are exactly the
same can be accomplished as an alpha-numeric
move if the elements are redefined as alpha-
numeric; also all group moves are alpha-
numeric.

EXAMPLES:

MOVE SPACE TO PRINT-LINE.

MOVE A(10) TO B(PTR).
COBOL.DOC Page 23


MULTIPLY

ELEMENT:

MULTIPLY

FORMAT:

MULTIPLY {identifier} BY identifier-2 [ROUNDED]
{literal }
[SIZE ERROR ]

DESCRIPTION:

The multiply routine uses a double length reg-
ister to calculate the result. This allows the
result generated to be of maximum precision.
The actual value stored will be determined by
the amount of storage allocated for the vari-
able. Overflow will occur if the number in the
register is larger than the variable. If the
precision in the register is greater than the
variable, truncation occurs unless the round
option is specified.

EXAMPLES:

MULTIPLY X BY Y.

MULTIPLY A BY B(7) SIZE ERROR GO OVERFLOW.
COBOL.DOC Page 24


OPEN

ELEMENT:

OPEN

FORMAT:

OPEN {INPUT file-name-1 } [{file-name-2}] . . .
{OUTPUT file-name-1} [{file-name-2}] . . .
{I-O file-name-1 } [{file-name-2}] . . .

DESCRIPTION:

The three types of OPENS have exactly the same
effect on the diskette. However, they do allow
for internal checking of the other file ac-
tions. For example, a write to a file set open
as input will cause a fatal error. Multiple
opens have not been implemented.

EXAMPLES:

OPEN INPUT CARDS.

OPEN OUTPUT REPORT-FILE.
COBOL.DOC Page 25


PERFORM

ELEMENT:

PERFORM

FORMAT:

1.
PERFORM procedure-name [THRU procedure-name-2]
2.
PERFORM procedure-name [THRU procedure-name-2]
{identifier} TIMES
{integer }
3.
PERFORM procedure-name [THRU procedure-name-2]
UNTIL
4.
PERFORM procedure-name VARYING {identifier}
FROM {identifier} BY {identifier}
UNTIL

DESCRIPTION:

All four options are supported. Branching may
be either forward or backward, and the proce-
dures called may have perform statements in
them as long as the end points do not coincide
or overlap.

EXAMPLES:

PERFORM OPEN-ROUTINE.

PERFORM TOTALS THRU END-REPORT.

PERFORM SUM 10 TIMES.

PERFORM SKIP-LINE UNTIL PG-CNT GREATER 60.

PERFORM REPEAT-AGAIN VARYING COUNTER FROM 1 BY 2
UNTIL COUNTER EQUAL 10.
COBOL.DOC Page 26


READ

ELEMENT:

READ

FORMAT:

1.
READ file-name INVALID

2.
READ file-name END

DESCRIPTION:

The invalid condition is only applicable to
files in a random mode. All sequential files
must have an END statement.

EXAMPLES:

READ CARDS END GO END-OF-FILE.

READ RANDOM-FILE INVALID MOVE SPACES TO REC-1.

*****

REWRITE

ELEMENT:

REWRITE

FORMAT:

REWRITE record-name [INVALID ]

DESCRIPTION:

REWRITE is only valid for files that are open
in the I-O mode. The INVALID clause is only
valid for random files. This statement results
in the current record being written back into
the place that it was just read from, the last
executed read.

EXAMPLES:

REWRITE CARDS.

REWRITE RAND-1 INVALID PERFORM ERROR-CHECK.
COBOL.DOC Page 27


STOP

ELEMENT:

STOP

FORMAT:

STOP {RUN }
{literal}

DESCRIPTION:

This statement stops execution of the program.
If a literal is specified, then the literal is
displayed on the console and a prompt is dis-
played giving the operator the option of ter-
minating or continuing program execution.

EXAMPLES:

STOP RUN.

STOP 1.

STOP 'INVALID FINISH'.

For the last two examples the following prompt
is displayed:

OPERATOR ENTER A TO CONTINUE
OR ENTER AN "S" TO TERMINATE.
COBOL.DOC Page 28


SUBTRACT

ELEMENT:

SUBTRACT

FORMAT:

SUBTRACT {identifier-1} [identifier-2] . . . FROM identifier-m
{literal-1 } [literal-2 ]
[ROUNDED] [SIZE ERROR ]

DESCRIPTION:

Identifier-m, is decremented by the value of
identifier/literal one. The results are stored
back in identifier-m. Rounding and size error
options are available if desired. Multiple
subtracts have not been implemented.

EXAMPLES:

SUBTRACT 10 FROM SUB(12).

SUBTRACT A FROM C ROUNDED.
COBOL.DOC Page 29


WRITE

ELEMENT:

WRITE

FORMAT:

1.
WRITE record-name [{BEFORE} ADVANCING {INTEGER}]
{AFTER } {PAGE }
2.
WRITE record-name INVALID

DESCRIPTION:

The record specified is written to the file
specified in the file section of the source
program. The INVALID option only applies to
random files.

EXAMPLES:

WRITE OUT-FILE.

WRITE RAND-FILE INVALID PERFORM ERROR-RECOV.
COBOL.DOC Page 30




ELEMENT:



FORMAT:

RELATIONAL CONDITION:

{identifier-1} [NOT] {GREATER} {identifier-2}
{literal-1} {LESS } {literal-2 }
{EQUAL }
CLASS CONDITION:
identifier [NOT] {NUMERIC }
{ALPHABETIC}

DESCRIPTION:

It is not valid to compare two literals. The
class condition NUMERIC will allow for a sign
if the identifier is signed numeric.

EXAMPLES:

A NOT LESS 10.

LINE GREATER 'C'.

NUMB1 NOT NUMERIC
COBOL.DOC Page 31


Subscripting

ELEMENT:

subscripting

FORMAT:

data-name (subscript)

DESCRIPTION:

Any item defined with an OCCURS may be refer-
enced by a subscript. The subscript may be a
literal integer, or it may be a data item that
has been specified as an integer. If the sub-
script is signed, the sign must be positive at
the time of its use.

EXAMPLES:

A(10)

ITEM(SUB)
COBOL.DOC Page 32


VI. Error Messages

A. Compiler Fatal Messages


BR Bad read - disk error, no corrective action can
be taken in the program.

CL Close error - unable to close the output file.

MA Make error - could not create the output file.

MO Memory overflow - the code and constants gen-
erated will not fit in the allotted memory
space.

OP Open error - can not open the input file, or no
such file present.

SO Stack overflow - LALR (1) parsing stack has
exceeded its maximum allowable size.

ST Symbol table overflow - symbol table is too
large for the allocated space.

WR Write error - disk error, could not write a code
record to the disk.
COBOL.DOC Page 33


B. Compiler Warnings

DD Carriage Control error - The WRITE BEFORE/AFTER
ADVANCING option can only be used with sequen-
tial files.

CE Close error - attempted to close a non-existing
file.

DD Duplicate Declaration - the identifier name has
been previously declared.

EL Extra levels - only 10 are allowed.

FT File type - the data element used in a read or
write statement is not a file name.

IA Invalid access - the specified options are not
an allowable combination.

ID Identifier stack overflow - more than 20 items
in a GO - DEPENDING statement.

IS Invalid subscript - an item was subscripted but
it was not defined by an OCCURS.

IT Invalid type - the field types do not match for
this statement.

LE Literal error - a literal value was assigned to
an item that is part of a group item previously
assigned a value.

LV Literal value error - the PICTURE clause field
type does not match the VALUE clause literal
type.

L7 Level 77 error - level 77 used incorrectly.

MD Multiple decimals - a numeric literal in a VALUE
clause contains more than one sign.

NF No file assigned - there was no SELECT clause
for this file.

NI Not implemented - a production was used that is
not implemented.

NP No production - no production exists for the
current parser configuration; error recovery
will automatically occur.
COBOL.DOC Page 34


B. Compiler Warnings (cont.)

NV Numeric value - a numeric value was assigned to
a non-numeric item.

OE Open error - attempt to open a file that was not
declared; or attempted to open a file for I-O
that was not a RELATIVE file.

OL OCCURS LEVEL - 01 and 77 levels can not contain
an occurs clause.

PC Picture clause - a pic clause exceeds 30 charac-
ters.

P1 More than one float symbol declared.

P2 Non-numeric data in repetition clause or missing
right parenthesis.

P3 Invalid or incompatible symbol in pic clause.

P4 Invalid symbol(s) embedded within a float symbol
only /,O,B,',' allowed.

P5 Invalid combination of symbols in pic clause,
type cannot be determined.

P6 Number of possible numeric entries exceeds reg-
ister length max is 18.

PF Paragraph first - a section header was produced
after a paragraph header, which is not in a
section.

R1 Redefine nesting - a redefinition was made for
an item which is part of a redefined item.

R2 Redefine length - the length of the redefinition
item was greater than the item that is rede-
fined. That is only allowed at the 01 level.
This error message may be printed out one iden-
tifier past the redefining identifier record in
which it occurred.

R3 Redefines misplaced - a redefines was attempted
in the FILE SECTION of the source program.

SE Scanner error - the scanner was unable to read
an identifier due to an invalid character.
COBOL.DOC Page 35


B. Compiler Warnings (cont.)


SG Sign error - either a sign was expected and not
found, or a sign was present when not valid.

SL Significance loss - the number assigned as a
value is larger than the field defined.

TE Type error - the type of a subscript index is
not integer numeric.

UD Undeclared identifier - the identifier was not
declared.

UL Unresolved label - label has not been
referenced. This warning will be given to all
references to external subroutines.

VE Value error - a value statement was assigned to
an item in the file section.

WL Wrong level error - program attempted to write a
record other than an 01 level record to an
output file.
COBOL.DOC Page 36


C. Interpreter Fatal Errors

CL Close error - the system was unable to close an
output file.

CO Call stack Overflow - insufficient memory
available to transfer variable address' and/or
return location for a subroutine call.

ME Make error - the system was unable to make an
output file on the disk.

NF No file - an input file with the given name
could not be opened.

OE Open Error - attempt to open a file which was
already open.

OP open Error - the system was unable to open a
file.

PS Procedure Stack - not enough memory to load all
subroutines.

SO Subroutine Overflow - subroutine symbol table
overflow.

W1 Write non-sequential - attempted to WRITE to a
file opened for INPUT or a file opened for I-O
when ACCESS was SEQUENTIAL.

W2 Wrong key - attempted to change the key value to
a lower value than the number of the last record
written.

W3 Write input - attempted to WRITE to a file
opened for INPUT.

W4 Write non-empty - attempted to WRITE to a non-
empty record.

W5 Read output - attempted to READ a file opened
for OUTPUT.

W6 Rewrite error - attempted to REWRITE to a file
not opened for I-O.

W7 Rewrite error - attempted to REWRITE a record
before reading the file; or multiple REWRITE
attempts without doing a READ between each.
COBOL.DOC Page 37


D. Interpreter Warning Messages

EM End mark - a record that was read did not have a
carriage return or a line feed in the expected
location.

GD Go to depending - the value of the depending
indicator was greater than the number of
available branch addresses.

IC Invalid character - an invalid character was
loaded into an output field during an edited
move. For example, a numeric character into an
alphabetic-only field.

NE Numeric Error - non-numeric data in an
arithmetic operation.

W8 Write Error - the system was unable to write to
an output file on the disk. Disk may be full.

SI Sign Invalid - the sign is not a "+" or a "-."


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