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The Constitution of the United States of America

Ratified September 17, 1789

=Preamble=

We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more
perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility,
provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity,
do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States
of America.

=Article I=

* Section 1 *
All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a
Senate and House of Representatives.

* Section 2 *
Clause 1 - The House of Representatives shall be composed of
members chosen every second year by the people of the
several States, and the electors in each State shall have
the qualifications requisite for the most numerous branch of
the State Legislature.
Clause 2 - No person shall be a Representative who shall not
have attained to the age of twenty-five years and been seven
years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not,
when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he
shall be chosen.
Clause 3 - Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned
among the several States which may be included within this
Union according to their respective numbers, which shall be
determined by adding the whole number of free persons,
including those bound to service for a term of years, and
excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other
persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three
years after first meeting of the Congress of the United
States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in
such a manner as they shall by law direct. The number of
Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty
thousand, but each state shall have at least one
Representative: and until such enumeration shall be made,
the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose 3;
Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations,
1; Connecticut, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania,
8; Delaware, 1; Maryland, 6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina,
5; South Carolina, 5; and Georgia, 3.
Clause 4 - When vacancies happen in the representation from any
State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of
election to fill such vacancies.
Clause 5 - The House of Representatives shall choose their
Speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of
impeachment.

* Section 3 *
Clause 1 - The Senate of the United States shall be composed of
two senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature
thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one
vote.
Clause 2 - Immediately after they shall be assembled in
consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as
equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the
Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the
expiration of the second year, of the second class at the
expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the
expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be
chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by
resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the
Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make
temporary appointment until the next meeting of the
Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
Clause 3 - No person shall be a Senator who shall not have
attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a
citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when
elected, be an inhabitant of the State for which he shall be
chosen.
Clause 4 - The Vice-President of the United States shall be
President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they
be equally divided.
Clause 5 - The Senate shall choose their other officers, and
also a President pro-tempore, in the absence of the Vice-
President, or when he shall exercise the office of President
of the United States.
Clause 6 - The Senate shall have the sole power to try all
impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be
on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United
States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no
person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-
thirds of the members present.
Clause 7 - Judgement of cases of impeachment shall not extend
further than to removal from office, and disqualification to
hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under
the United States; but the party convicted shall
nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial
judgement and punishment, according to law.

* Section 4 *
Clause 1 - The times, places, and manner of holding elections
for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each
State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at
any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to
places of choosing Senators.
Clause 2 - The Congress shall assemble at least once in every
year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in
December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

* Section 5 *
Clause 1 - Each House shall be the judge of the elections,
returns, and qualifications of its own members, and a
majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business;
but a small number may adjourn from day to day, and may be
authorized to compel the attendance of absent members in
such manner and under penalties as each House may provide.
Clause 2 - Each House may determine the rules of its
proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and
with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member.
Clause 3 - Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings,
and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts
as may in their judgement require secrecy; and the yeas and
nays of the members of either House on any question shall,
at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on
the journal.
Clause 4 - Neither House, during the session of Congress shall,
without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than
three days, nor to any other place than that in which the
two Houses shall be sitting.

* Section 6 *
Clause 1 - The Senators and Representatives shall receive a
compensation for their services to be ascertained by law,
and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They
shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of
the peace, be privileged from arrest during their
attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in
going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or
debate in either House they shall not be questioned in any
other place.
Clause 2 - No Senator or Representative shall, during the time
for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office
under the authority of the United States which shall have
been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been
increased during such time; and no person holding any office
under the United States shall be a member of either House
during his continuance in office.

* Section 7 *
Clause 1 - All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the
House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or
concur with amendments, as on other bills.
Clause 2 - Every bill which shall have passed the House of
Representatives and the Senate shall, before it becomes a
law, be presented to the President of the United States; if
he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return
it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall
have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on
their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such
reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass
the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to
the other House, by which it shall be likewise reconsidered;
and if approved by two-thirds of that House it shall become
a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall
be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons
voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the
journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not
be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays
excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the
same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it,
unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return;
in which case it shall not be a law.
Clause 3 - Every order, resolution, or vote to which the
concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may
be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be
presented to the President of the United States; and before
the same shall take effect shall be approved by him, or
being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the
rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

* Section 8 *
Clause 1 - The Congress shall have the power:
To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to
pay the debts and provide for the common defence and
general welfare of the United States: but all duties,
imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United
States.
2 - To borrow money on the credit of the United States.
3 - To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the
several States, and with the Indian tribes.
4 - To establish a uniform rule of naturalization and uniform
laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United
States.
5 - To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign
coin, and fix the standards of weights and measures.
6 - To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the
securities and current coin of the United States.
7 - To establish post-offices and post-roads.
8 - To promote the progress of science and useful arts by
securing for limited times to authors and inventors the
exclusive rights to their respective writings and
discoveries.
9 - To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court.
10 - To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on
the high seas, and of offences against the laws of
nations.
11 - To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and
make rules concerning captures on land and water.
12 - To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money
to that use shall be for a longer term than two years.
13 - To provide and maintain a navy.
14 - To make rules for the government and regulation of the land
and naval forces.
15 - To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws
of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.
16 - To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the
militia, and for governing such part of them as may be
employed in the service of the United States, reserving to
the States respectively the appointment of the officers,
and the authority of training the militia according to the
discipline prescribed by Congress.
17 - To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever
over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may,
by cession of particular States and the acceptance of
Congress, become the seat of the Government of the United
States, and to exercise like authority over all places
purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in
which the same shall be, for the erection of forts,
magazines, arsenals, drydocks, and other needful buildings.
18 - To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for
carrying into execution the foregoing powers and all other
powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of
the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

* Section 9 *
Clause 1 - The migration or importation of such persons as any of
the States now existing shall think proper to admit shall
not be prohibited by the Congress, prior to the year one
thousand eight hundred and eight.
Clause 2 - The writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended,
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public
safety may require it.
Clause 3 - No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be
passed.
Clause 4 - No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid,
unless in proportion to the census or enumeration
hereinbefore directed to be taken.
Clause 5 - No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from
any State.
Clause 6 - No preference shall be given by any regulation of
commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of
another, nor shall vessels bound to or from one State be
obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.
Clause 7 - No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in
consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular
statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of
all public money shall be published from time to time.
Clause 8 - No title of nobility shall be granted by the United
States. And no person holding any office of profit or trust
under them shall, without the consent of Congress, accept of
any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind
whatever from any king, prince or foreign state.

* Section 10 *
Clause 1 - No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or,
confederation, grant letters of marque and reprisal, coin
money, emit bills of credit, make anything but gold and
silver coin a tender in payment of debts, pass any bill of
attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the
obligation of contracts, or grant any titles of nobility.
Clause 2 - No State shall, without the consent of the Congress,
lay impost or duties on imports or exports, except what may
be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws,
and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any
State on imports or exports, shall be for use of the
Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be
subject to the revision and control of the Congress.
Clause 3 - No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay
any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of
peace, enter into agreement or compact with another State,
or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually
invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of
delay.

=Article II=

* Section 1 *
Clause 1 - The Executive power shall be vested in a President of
the United States of America. He shall hold his office
during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice-
President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:
Clause 2 - Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the
Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors equal
to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which
the State may be entitled in Congress; but no Senator or
Representative or person holding an office of trust or
profit under the United States shall be appointed an
elector.
Clause 3 - The electors shall meet in their respective States and
vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall
not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And
they shall make a list of persons voted for, and of the
number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and
certify and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government
of the United States, directed to the President of the
Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence
of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The
person having the greatest number of votes shall be the
President, if such number be a majority of the whole number
of electors appointed, and if there be more than one who
have such a majority, and have an equal number of votes,
then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose
by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a
majority, then from the five highest on the list the said
House shall in like manner choose the President. But in
choosing the President, the vote shall be taken by States,
the representation from each State having one vote. A
quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or
members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all
the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case,
after the choice of the President, the person having the
greatest number of the electors shall be the Vice-President.
But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes,
the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-
President.
Clause 4 - The Congress may determine the time of choosing the
electors and the day on which they shall give their votes,
which day shall be the same throughout the United States.
Clause 5 - No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen
of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this
Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of the
President; neither shall any person eligible to that office
who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years
and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.
Clause 6 - In case of the removal of the President from office,
or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the
powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve
on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide
for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability,
both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what
officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall
act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a
President shall be elected.
Clause 7 - The President shall, at stated times, receive for his
services a compensation which shall neither be increased nor
diminished during the period for which he shall have been
elected, and he shall not receive within that period any
other emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Clause 8 - Before he enters on the execution of his office he
shall take the following oath or affirmation:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully
execute the office of the President of the United States,
and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and
defend the Constitution of the United States."

* Section 2 *
Clause 1 - The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army
and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the
several States when called into the actual service of the
United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of
the principal officer in each of the executive departments
upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective
offices, and he shall have the power to grant reprieves and
pardons for offences against the United States except in
cases of impeachment.
Clause 2 - He shall have the power, by and with the advice and
consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds
of the Senators present concur, and he shall nominate and by
and with the advice and consent of the Senate shall appoint
ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of
the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United
States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided
for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress
may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as
they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of
law, or in the heads of departments.
Clause 3 - The President shall have power to fill up all
vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate by
granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their
next session.

* Section 3 *
He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of
the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such
measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on
extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them,
and in case of disagreement between them with respect to time of
adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think
proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers;
he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and
shall commission all the officers of the United States.

* Section 4 *
The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the
United States shall be removed from office on impeachment for and
conviction of treason, bribery or other high crimes and
misdemeanors.

=Article III=

* Section 1 *
The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one
Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may
from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the
Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good
behavior, and shall at stated times receive for their services a
compensation which shall not be diminished during their
continuance in office.

* Section 2 *
Clause 1 - The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law
and equity arising under this Constitution, the laws of the
United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made,
under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors,
other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to
which the United States shall be a party: to controversies
between two or more States, between a State and citizens of
another State, between citizens of different States, between
citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of
different States, and between a State, or the citizens
thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.
Clause 2 - In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public
ministers, and consuls, and those in which a State be party,
the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all
the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall
have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, with
such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress
shall make.

Clause 3 - The trial of all crimes, except in cases of
impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held
in the State where the said crimes shall have been
committed; but when not committed within any State the trial
shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law
have directed.

* Section 3 *
Clause 1 - Treason against the United States shall consist only
in levying war against them, or in adhering to their
enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be
convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two
witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open
court.
Clause 2 - The Congress shall have power to declare the
punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall
work corruption of blood or forfeiture except during the
life of the person attained.

=Article IV=

* Section 1 *
Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other
State. And the Congress may be general laws prescribe the manner
in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and
the effect thereof.

* Section 2 *
Clause 1 - The citizens in each State shall be entitled to all
privileges and immunities of the citizens in the several
States.
Clause 2 - A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or
other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in
another State, shall on demand of the Executive authority of
the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be
removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.
Clause 3 - No person held to service or labor in one State under
the laws thereof, escaping into another shall in consequence
of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such
service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the
party to whom such service or labor may be due.

* Section 3 *
Clause 1 - New States may be admitted by the Congress into this
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within
the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any other State be
formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of
States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the
States concerned, as well as of the Congress.
Clause 2 - The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make
all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory
or other property belonging to the United States; and
nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to
prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any
particular State.

* Section 4 *
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union
a Republican form of government, and shall protect each of them
against invasion; and, on application of the Legislature, or of
the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against
domestic violence.

=Article V=

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on
the application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several
States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which,
in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as
part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of
three-fourths of the States, or by conventions in three-fourths
thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be
proposed by Congress; provided that no amendment be made prior to
the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner
affect the first and fourth clauses in the Ninth Section of the
First Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be
deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

=Article VI=

Clause 1 - All debts contracted and engagements entered into
before the adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid
against the United States under this Constitution as under
the Confederation.
Clause 2 - This Constitution and the laws of the United States
which shall be made in pursuance thereof and all treaties
made or which shall be made, under the authority of the
United States, shall be the supreme law of the land, and the
judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in
the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary
notwithstanding.
Clause 3 - The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and
the members of the several State Legislatures, and all
executive and judicial officers, both of the United States,
and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or
affirmation to support this Constitution: but no religious
test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office
or public trust under the United States.

=Article VII=

The ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be
sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the
States so ratifying the same.


AMENDMENTS

= Amendment I = (December 15, 1791)

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging
the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people
peaceably to assemble and to petition the Government for a
redress of grievances.

= Amendment II = (December 15, 1791)
A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a
free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall
not be infringed.

= Amendment III = (December 15, 1791)
No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house
without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a
manner to be prescribed by law.

= Amendment IV = (December 15, 1791)
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures,
shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon
probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and
particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person
or things to be seized.

= Amendment V = (December 15, 1791)
No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other
infamous crime unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand
Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in
the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public
danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to
be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled
in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of
law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without
just compensation.

= Amendment VI = (December 15, 1791)
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right
to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State
and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which
districts shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to
be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be
confronted with the witness against him; to have compulsory
process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the
assistance of counsel for his defense.

= Amendment VII = (December 15, 1791)
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall
exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be
preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise
re-examined in any court of the United States than according to
the rules of common law.

= Amendment VIII = (December 15, 1791)
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

= Amendment IX = (December 15, 1791)
The enumeration of rights in the Constitution of certain rights
shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by
the people.

= Amendment X = (December 15, 1791)
The powers not delegated to the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to
the States respectively, or to the people.

= Amendment XI = (January 8, 1798)
The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed
to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted
against one of the United States, by citizens of another State,
or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

= Amendment XII = (June 15, 1804)
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by
ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least,
shall not be an inhabitant of the same State as themselves; they
shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President,
and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number
of votes for each, which lists they shall sign, and certify, and
transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of the United
States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of
the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of
Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall
then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes
shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole
number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such a
majority, then, from the persons having the highest numbers, not
exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the
House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the
President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be
taken by States, the representation from each State having one
vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or
members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the
States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of
Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right
of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March
next following, then the Vice President shall act as President,
as in case of death, or other constitutional disability, of the
President. The person having the greatest number of votes as
Vice-President, shall be the Vice President, if such number be a
majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no
person have a majority, then, from the two highest numbers on the
list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for
the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of
Senators; a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a
choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office
of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the
United States.


= Amendment XIII = ( December 6, 1865 )

* Section 1 *
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a
punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly
convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place
subject to their jurisdiction.

* Section 2 *
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.


= Amendment XIV = ( July 9, 1868 )

* Section 1 *
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United
States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make
or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or
immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State
deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due
process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction
the equal protection of the laws.

* Section 2 *
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number
of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when
the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for
President and Vice-President of the United States,
Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers
of a State, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied
to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one
years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way
abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime,
the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the
proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to
the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such
State.

* Section 3 *
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or
elector of a President and Vice-President, or hold any office,
civil or military, under the United States, or under any State,
who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or
as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State
legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State,
to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have
engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given
aid or comfort to enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote
of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.


* Section 4 *
The validity of the public debt of the United States,
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of
pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or
rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United
States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation
incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United
States, or claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave, but
all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and
void.

* Section 5 *
The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate
legislation, the provisions of this article.


= Amendment XV = ( February 3, 1870 )

* Section 1 *
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not
be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

* Section 2 *
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.


= Amendment XVI = ( February 3, 1913 )

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on
incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment
among the several States, and without regard to any census or
enumeration.


= Amendment XVII = ( April 8, 1913 )

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two
Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six
years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in
each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors
of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in
the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue
writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the
legislature of any State may empower the executive authority
thereof to make temporary appointment until the people fill the
vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect election
or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of
the Constitution.


= Amendment XVIII = ( January 16, 1919 )

* Section 1 *
After one year from the ratification of this article the
manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors
within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof
from the United States and all territory subject to the
jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

* Section 2 *
The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent
power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

* Section 3 *
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures
of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within
seven years of the date of the submission hereof to the States by
Congress.


= Amendment XIX = ( August 18, 1920 )

The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall
not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on
account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.


= Amendment XX = ( January 23, 1933 )

* Section 1 *
The terms of the President and Vice-President shall end at
noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and
Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in
which such terms would have ended if this article had not been
ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

* Section 2 *
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and
such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless
they shall by law appoint a different day.

* Section 3 *
If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the
President, the President-elect shall have died, the Vice-
President-elect shall become President. If a President shall not
have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his
term, or if the President-elect shall have failed to qualify,
then the Vice-President-elect shall act as President until a
President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law
provide for the case wherein neither a President-elect nor a
Vice-President-elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall
then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act
shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a
President or Vice-President shall have qualified.

* Section 4 *
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of
any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may
choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have
devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the
persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice-President whenever
the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

* Section 5 *
Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October
following the ratification of this article.

* Section 6 *
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures
of three fourths of the several States within seven years from
the date of its submission.


= Amendment XXI = ( December 5, 1933 )

* Section 1 *
The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the
United States is hereby repealed.

* Section 2 *
The transportation or importation into any State, Territory,
or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of
intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby
prohibited.

* Section 3 *
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in
the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven
years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the
Congress.


= Amendment XXII = ( February 27, 1951 )

* Section 1 *
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more
than twice, and no person who has held the office of President,
or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which
some other person was elected President shall be elected to the
office of the President more than once. But this Article shall
not apply to any person holding the office of President when this
Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any
person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as
President, during the term within which this Article becomes
operative from holding the office of President during the
remainder of such term.

* Section 2 *
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures
of three fourths of the several States within seven years from
the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.


= Amendment XXIII = ( March 29, 1961 )

* Section 1 *
The District constituting the seat of Government of the United
States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:
A number of electors of President and Vice-President equal to
the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to
which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in
no event more than the least populous State; they shall be
considered, for the purposes of the election or President and
Vice-President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they
shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by
the twelfth article of amendment.

* Section 2 *
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.


= Amendment XXIV = ( January 23, 1964 )

* Section 1 *
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any
primary or other election for President and Vice-President, for
electors for President and Vice-President, or for Senators or
Representatives in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by
the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any
poll tax or other tax.

* Section 2 *
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.


= Amendment XXV = ( February 10, 1967 )

* Section 1 *
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his
death or resignation, the Vice-President shall become President.

* Section 2 *
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice-
President, the President shall nominate a Vice-President who
shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both
Houses and Congress.

* Section 3 *
Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore
of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his
written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and
duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written
declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be
discharged by the Vice-President as Acting President.

* Section 4 *
Whenever the Vice-President and a majority of either the
principal officers of the executive departments or of such other
body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President
pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
Representatives their written declaration that the President is
unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the
Vice-President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of
the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro
tempore and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his
written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the
powers and duties of his office unless the Vice-President and a
majority of either the principal officers of the executive
department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide,
transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the
Senate and Speaker of the House of Representatives their written
declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers
and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the
issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if
not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after
receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not
in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to
assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the
President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his
office, the Vice-President shall continue to discharge the same
as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the
powers and duties of his office.


= Amendment XXVI = ( July 1, 1971 )

* Section 1 *
The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen
years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by
the United States or by any State on account of age.

* Section 2 *
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

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