Dec 162017
 
Frequently Asked Questions for the Sound Blaster AWE32.

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Frequently Asked Questions about SB AWE32
This file contians information about the
SB AWE32 sound card. Please read through
this file first before calling technical
support. Highly recommended to all Sound
Blaster users.
[ SB-BBS ]


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Frequently Asked Questions for SB AWE32
=======================================

This is a frequently asked question document for the Creative SB AWE32 sound
card. This document summarizes many frequently asked questions and answers
about the SB AWE32. If you have a question, please check this file before
calling Creative Technical Support as you may find the answer contained in
this document.

This FAQ is organized into the following sections:

[A] SB AWE32 in General
[B] Editing Tools
[C] Programming Information
[D] SoundFont(TM) Banks
[E] Introduction to the EMU8000 chip
[F] How do I ...
[G] References
[H] NRPN Table

Before you continue ...

This document assumes you have a basic understanding of how MIDI works, the
different MIDI messages, and how your MIDI sequencer works. If you are not
familiar with these topics, please consider consulting a friend who has
experience with MIDI, or consulting books on MIDI. A list of recommended
reading on MIDI can be found in section G of this document.

Contents
========

SECTION A - SB AWE32 IN GENERAL

1. What is the SB AWE32? How does it differ from the SB16?
2. How much memory is shipped with the SB AWE32 card?
3. What is the recommended SIMM memory access speed?
4. How do I upgrade the memory on the card?
5. What are the uses of the 512 KB DRAM on the SB AWE32?
6. Would adding DRAM to the SB AWE32 increase the performance of WAVE
file editing or manipulation?
7. Is it possible to use AWE32 sounds (16 channels) together with FM
sounds from the OPL-3 chip (16 channels) in CakeWalk?
8. How many MIDI channels can the SB AWE32 handle in Windows?
9. What MIDI sequencers will work with the SB AWE32? Are special drivers
required?
10. Are there any plans for OS/2 and Windows NT SB AWE32 drivers?
11. What I/O port addresses are used by the EMU8000?
12. Why doesn't the EMU8000 have a built in MIDI interpreter?
13. Does the SB AWE32 support MIDI Sample Dump to transfer samples to the
EMU8000?
14. What is "CC0" documented in Appendix G-4 and G-5 of the SB AWE32
Getting Started Manual? How are these variation tones accessed?
15. What "drum kits" are available in GS mode?
16. Does the SB AWE32 respond to MIDI aftertouch?
17. My PC system does not have a working NMI. What can I do to use AWEUTIL?
18. Is there a WaveBlaster upgrade option on the SB AWE32?
19. What is the benefit of adding a WaveBlaster to the SB AWE32?
20. Is it possible to load AWEUTIL into high memory?
21. Does AWEUTIL have to stay memory resident?
22. What are the long term plans to solve the problem with DOS extender games?
23. Will software written for the SB16 work with the SB AWE32?
24. Does Creative have any plans for a SCSI version of the SB AWE32?
25. What CD-ROM drives does the SB AWE32 support?
26. What are the different reverb and chorus variations available on the
SB AWE32?
27. What are the undocumented "JP6," "JP8" and "JP9" jumpers on the card?

SECTION B - EDITING TOOL

1. Will there be a preset editor for the SB AWE32?
2. Will it be possible to patch multiple sounds across different keys,
such as a drum kit?
3. How are new instruments created on the SB AWE32?
4. What functionality will the preset editor offer?
5. What is SoundFont Bank Maker for SB AWE32? How do I get this
application?
6. Will the bank editing software load samples from other systems e.g.
Akai S1000 or Yamaha TG55?

SECTION C - PROGRAMMING INFORMATION

1. Is programming information available for the SB AWE32?
2. Is the effect engine on the SB AWE32 programmable?
3. When will the developer kit become available? What will be the cost of
the developer kit?

SECTION D - SOUNDFONT BANK

1. What are SoundFont Collections?
2. How do SoundFont Banks work?
3. When will SoundFont Banks become available?
4. What can I do with SoundFont Banks?
5. Will having 28 MB on the SB AWE32 improve the sound quality over a
standard 512 KB SB AWE32?

SECTION E - INTRODUCTION TO THE EMU8000 CHIP

SECTION F - HOW DO I ...

1. How do I make use of RPN documented in the SB AWE32 MIDI Implementation
chart?
2. How do I change an instrument's sound parameter in real time?
3. How do I select the SB AWE32's reverb and chorus variation type through
MIDI?
4. How can I maximize my system's memory so that I still have plenty of
room to run games after installing the SB AWE32?
5. How do I load a SoundFont Bank?
6. How do I get the latest drivers for the SB AWE32?

SECTION G - REFERENCES

SECTION H - SB AWE32 NRPN IMPLEMENTATION

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Section A - SB AWE32

1. What is the SB AWE32? How does it differ from the SB16?

The SB AWE32 is a standard SB16 MultiCD with the EMU 8000 Enhanced
WavEffect music synthesizer chip. The card includes all the standard
SB16 features. Additionally, the SB AWE32 includes the Advanced Signal
Processor and multiple interfaces supporting Creative, Mitsumi and Sony
CD-ROM drives.

The EMU8000 is a sub-system offering high quality music synthesis using
advanced wave effects technology. It comes with an onboard dedicated
effect engine. The effect engine provides high quality effects like
reverb and chorus to MIDI playback. The EMU8000 supports up to 32
voices, and the effect amount for each voice can be controlled via MIDI.
The EMU8000 comes integrated with 1MB of General MIDI samples and 512KB
of DRAM for additional sample downloading. It can address up to 28 MB of
external DRAM memory. There are two SIMM sockets on board for DRAM
expansion. The SB AWE32 supports General MIDI, Roland GS and Sound
Canvas MT-32 emulation.

Note: MT-32 Emulation on the SB AWE32 is similar to that of the Sound
Canvas; e.g., MT-32 sysex is not supported.

2. How much memory is shipped with the SB AWE32 card?

The card ships with 1 MB of General MIDI ROM samples and 512 KB of DRAM
for user sample downloading. There is a pair of SIMM sockets for DRAM
upgrades.

3. What is the recommended SIMM memory access speed?

Hardware specifications call for SIMM modules with 80 nanosecond or
better access times.

4. How do I upgrade the memory on the card?

To upgrade the memory, you can purchase standard SIMM modules and insert
them into the SIMM sockets provided on the SB AWE32. (If you are not
familiar with inserting SIMM modules, check with a technician where you
purchased the SIMM's. They should be able to help). You will also need
to reconfigure the memory selector jumper on the SB AWE32 card.
The SIMM socket on the SB AWE32 were designed to accommodate industry
standard 30-pin SIMM modules. You will need to insert two SIMMs of the
same memory size into both of the sockets. The available memory options
are:

2 MB (using 2 1 MB SIMMs)
8 MB (using 2 4 MB SIMMs)
32 MB (using 2 16 MB SIMMs)

Note that you cannot mix different size (that is, 2 MB and 8 MB) SIMM
modules together on a single SB AWE32 card.

There are also 72 pins SIMM modules on the market. Such SIMMs can be
found on motherboards that use 8 or 16 megabit SIMMs or as cache RAM.
They are incompatible with the SIMM sockets on the SB AWE32 card.
The EMU8000 treats the first 4 MB of its DRAM address space as ROM
memory. As a result, when you insert two 16 MB SIMMs onto the SB AWE32,
only 28 MB will be addressable.

5. What are the uses of the 512 KB DRAM on the SB AWE32?

The on-board 512 KB of memory is used to hold user samples. In GS
synthesizer mode, this 512 KB is used to hold the sound effects of GS.
In GM synthesizer mode, the 512 KB DRAM is free, so it can hold
SoundFont banks containing samples.

MT-32 Synthesizer mode uses a small portion of the 512 KB of memory,
therefore you can still load your own SoundFont bank samples into the
rest of the free RAM space.

6. Would adding DRAM to the SB AWE32 increase the performance of WAVE
file editing or manipulation?

Addition of SIMM DRAM to the SB AWE32 will allow you to accommodate more
SoundFont bank data. This, however, will not increase the performance of
WAVE file editing or manipulation as the latter does not make use of the
SIMM DRAM on the SB AWE32.

7. Is it possible to use AWE32 sounds (16 channels) together with FM sounds
from the OPL-3 chip (16 channels) in CakeWalk?

You can use both the AWE32 sounds AND the OPL-3 FM sounds together in
CakeWalk. As both the AWE32 and OPL-3 appear under Microsoft Windows as
two separate MIDI devices, you can play both devices simultaneously. The
following is a step-by-step guide:

1. Startup CakeWalk.
2. Select "Settings", then "MIDI Devices"
3. You will see a dialog box with MIDI IN devices on the left, and
MIDI OUT devices on the right. Click on both "Sound Blaster AWE32
MIDI Synth" and "Voyetra Super Sapi FM Driver."
4. Select "OK"
5. Activate the "Track/Measure" Window.
6. Locate the "Port" column in the Track/Measure Windows.
7. If you want a track to be playing back using AWE32, double click
on the track's "Port" section, and select "1:Sound Blaster AWE32
MIDI Synth." On the other hand if you want the track to be playing
back using the OPL-3 then select "2:Voyetra Super Sapi FM Driver."

You can repeat steps 6 and 7 on other CakeWalk tracks to assign the
output port as desired.

8. How many MIDI channels can the SB AWE32 handle in Windows?

Under Windows, the SB AWE32 has two MIDI synthesizer devices, "EMU8000"
and "OPL3". Each MIDI device is capable of supporting 16 MIDI channels,
with 15 being melodic, and one channel (MIDI channel 10) being percussive.

9. What MIDI sequencers will work with SB AWE32? Are special drivers
required?

The SB AWE32 package ships with a Windows SB AWE32 MIDI driver.
Therefore, the SB AWE32 can be used with any Windows based MIDI sequencer
software. For DOS, the sequencer software needs to have native SB AWE32
support.

10. Are there any plans for OS/2 and Windows NT SB AWE32 drivers?

The SB AWE32 OS/2 driver is currently in beta stage. The Windows NT
driver is currently in development.

11. What I/O port addresses are used by the EMU8000?

The addresses used by the EMU8000 are relative to the base I/O address
of the SB16. EMU8000 Addresses are at 6xxH, AxxH and ExxH. It occupies
the first four addresses at each location. For example, if the SB16 base
I/O address is 220H, the EMU8000 addresses are 620H-623H, A20H-A23H and
E20H-E23H.

12. Why doesn't the EMU8000 have a built in MIDI interpreter?

One of the design goal of the SB AWE32 is to offer high quality music at
an affordable price. The EMU8000 is just like any other synthesizer chip
such as OPL2, OPL3 or OPL4. It does not have the capability to interpret
MIDI commands. For it to understand MIDI commands, a MIDI interpreter is
required, and this will involve adding an additional processor to handle
MIDI commands and other components adding to the cost of the product.

After our analysis of price and performance, we decided that our current
implementation offers the best in terms of price as well as performance.

To support existing games that use MPU-401, we provide a feature known
as MIDI feedback using NMI (non-maskable-interrupt) which installs a small
TSR program, AWEUTIL. AWEUTIL works by trapping data going out to the
MPU-401 port and re-directs it back to the SB AWE32. AWEUTIL provides
compatibility with many games that support the MPU-401 interface, but
will not always work with protected mode games due to the complicated
ways in which DOS extenders handle NMI. Note that you can still continue
to play your favorite DOS protected mode game with the on-board OPL3 FM
chip.

We are working closely with the game developer community to port their
MIDI driver to support the SB AWE32. We have a porting laboratory at
Creative Labs, Inc., where we invite developers to port their drivers
to natively support the SB AWE32. We believe that in the near future the
SB AWE32 will be widely supported. Currently, we already have support
from several major audio driver developers for the SB AWE32 platform.

13. Does the SB AWE32 support MIDI Sample Dump to transfer samples to the
EMU8000?

No. The sample transfer between PC and SB AWE32 is through the PC bus,
and does not dump via the SB AWE32 MIDI port.

14. What is "CC0" documented in Appendix G-4 and G-5 of the SB AWE32 Getting
Started Manual? How are these variation tones accessed?

CC0 is short form for Continuous Controller 0 (zero), which is MIDI Bank
Change.

The SB AWE32 offers Sound Canvas compatibility by including the user bank
instruments found on the Sound Canvas. User bank instruments are simply
instruments of a similar class or variation. For example, General MIDI
instrument number 25 is the Steel Acoustic Guitar, and its variation is
the Ukulele.

A user bank tone is just like any other General MIDI instrument. Take for
example the Ukulele variation tone. Lets assume you are currently doing
MIDI editing under CakeWalk Apprentice, and you sequenced a track that
uses Steel Acoustic Guitar. You play the track back, and feel that the
Steel Acoustic Guitar does not quite cut it, so you decide to give Ukulele
a try. What you would need to do is to insert a MIDI bank change of value
8 (the user bank for Ukulele) in that track, follow immediately by a
program change of Acoustic Value to select the user bank tone. What you
have just accomplished is to set the MIDI channel in which the Steel
Acoustic Guitar instrument is playing to the user bank instrument
"Ukulele."

Note that the user bank instruments are available only in the "GS" mode
of the SB AWE32. You can switch to "GS" mode via the Windows AWE Control
Panel applet.

15. What "drum kits" are available in GS mode?

A drum kit is a collection of percussive instruments (snare drum, bass
drum, hi-hats, etc.) laid across the entire MIDI keyboard. Under General
MIDI, MIDI channel 10 is reserved for percussion instruments. General
MIDI defines only one drum kit, which is the Standard Kit. Under the
"GM" synth mode of the SB AWE32, channel 10 automatically uses the
"Standard Kit". MIDI music would be very boring if everybody used the
same drum kit in every MIDI song. Imagine all MIDI songs using the same
snare drum and the same bass drum, and you will have an idea of how
similar every MIDI song will sound.

Under the "GS" synth mode of the SB AWE32 there are 11 (including the
Standard Drum Kit) different drum kits you can use on MIDI Channel 10.
These drum kits are:

Name Program No. Description

Standard/Jazz 1 or 33 Standard General MIDI drum kit.
Jazz is similar to the Standard
drum kit.

Room 9 Similar to that of the Standard
kit except that it has more room
ambiance.

Power 17 Again similar to that of the
Standard kit, but with more power
kick and snare drums.

Electronic 25 Electronic drum kit. Most of the
percussion instruments in this
drum kit are reminiscence of old
analogue and digital rhythm
machines (such as the Roland
TR-707 and TR-909 rhythm machine)

TR-808 26 Electronic drum kit, reminiscence
of the Roland TR-808 rhythm
machine.

Brush 41 Similar to the Standard kit except
that brushes have been added. This
kit is mostly used for Jazz MIDI
pieces.

Orchestra 49 An immense collection of concert
drums and timpani.

SFX 57 A collection of Sound Effects.

CM-64/32L 127 Same as the Roland MT-32 drum kit.
This drum kit contains standard
percussion at the lower range of
the keyboard, and sound effects
at the higher range of the
keyboard.

Drum kits are very easy to access under MIDI. Each drum kit is essentially
an instrument and you select a drum kit by selecting an instrument, just
as if you would select a melodic instrument. For example, if you want to
select the TR-808, all you have to do is to perform a program change to 25
on MIDI channel 10. After the program change, all percussion sounds will
be played back through the TR-808 drum kit.

16. Does the SB AWE32 respond to MIDI aftertouch?

The SB AWE32 Windows MIDI driver prior to version 1.03 does not support
MIDI aftertouch. The current SB AWE32 driver supports aftertouch AND
MIDI controller 11 (expression).

See the item "How do I get the latest drivers for the SB AWE32?" in
section F for further information.

17. My PC system does not have a working NMI. What can I do to use AWEUTIL?

One of the most common causes of a system not having a working NMI is
that the system's memory parity checking has been turned off. You can
check your system's memory parity checking status by activating your
system's BIOS setup. Consult your system's user manual on how to activate
BIOS/CMOS setup and memory parity checking.

If your system does not have a working NMI or you have a DOS protected
mode game, then you can only play games using FM music. Note that this
NMI problem only applies to DOS games or applications, not to Windows
games or applications. Under Windows, all applications play music and
sound effects through the standard SB AWE32 Windows drivers.

As more developers include native SB AWE32 support, this NMI problem
will gradually disappear.

Some of the protected mode games already have SB AWE32 support via
special drivers (such as Miles Design Inc's AIL drivers). You can
obtain more information on these drivers in the Sound Blaster forum
on CompuServe, or on Creative's BBS. See the item "How do I get the
latest drivers for the SB AWE32?" in Section F.

18. Is there a WaveBlaster upgrade option on the SB AWE32?

Yes. Each SB AWE32 features a WaveBlaster connector.

19. What is the benefit of adding a WaveBlaster to the SB AWE32?

The WaveBlaster connector was included on the SB AWE32 to provide users
an alternative wave-sample synthesis method other than the EMU8000 on
the SB AWE32. By incorporating a WaveBlaster onto the SB AWE32, the total
polyphony of this combination will be increased to 64, the total number
of timbres expanded to 32, and you will have access to a secondary
palette of sampled sounds.

20. Is it possible to load AWEUTIL into high memory?

AWEUTIL automatically searches for high memory and will attempt to load
itself high if enough high memory is available.

21. Does AWEUTIL have to stay memory resident?

AWEUTIL serves two purposes; to initialize and control the reverb and
chorus effects of the FM hardware on the SB AWE32 card, and to provide
NMI MIDI Feedback.

AWEUTIL /S

will initialize and set the reverb and chorus effect of the FM hardware,
and then terminate. It will not stay resident in memory.

If you want to activate NMI MIDI Feedback, then run

AWEUTIL /EM:XX (XX = GM, GS or MT32)

before starting your game.

When you finish the game, remember to run

AWEUTIL /U

to unload AWEUTIL from memory.

22. What are the long term plans to solve the problem with DOS extender
games?

We are currently getting developers to natively support the SB AWE32. So
far we have had good support from John Miles Inc. with their SB AWE32
Miles (real and protected mode) drivers, from Accolade, from HMI and
from John Ratcliff with his MIDPAK drivers. As more and more developers
support the SB AWE32, the DOS extended game's problem will gradually
disappear.

23. Will software written for the SB16 work with the SB AWE32?

Definitely. The SB AWE32 uses the same base system as the SB16, so it is
fully compatible.


24. Does Creative have any plans for a SCSI version of the SB AWE32?

We will deliver a SCSI version of the SB AWE32 when there is sufficient
demand.

25. What CD-ROM drives does the SB AWE32 support?

The SB AWE32 supports Creative, Sony and Mitsumi CD-ROM drives.

26. What are the different reverb and chorus variations available on the SB
AWE32?

Reverb and chorus effects add warmth and movement to MIDI playback.
There are eight reverb types and eight chorus types available on the SB
AWE32.

Room 1-3, This group of reverb variation simulates the natural
ambiance of a room. Room 1 simulates a small room, Room
2 simulates a slightly bigger room, and Room 3 simulates
a big room.

Hall 1-2, This group of reverb variation simulates the natural
ambiance of a concert hall. It has greater depth than
the room variations. Again, Hall 1 simulates a small
hall, and Hall 2 simulates a larger hall.

Plate, Back in the old days, reverb effects were sometimes
produced using a metal plate, and this type of reverb
produces a metallic echo. The SB AWE32's Plate variation
simulates this form of reverb.

Delay, This reverb produces a delay, that is, echo effect.

Panning Delay, This reverb variation produces a delay effect that is
continuously panned left and right.

Chorus 1-4, Chorus produces a "beating" effect. The chorus effects
are more prominent going from chorus 1 to chorus 4.

Feedback Chorus, This chorus variation simulates a soft "swishing" effect.

Flanger, This chorus variation produces a more prominent feedback
chorus effect.

Short Delay, This chorus variation simulates a delay repeated in a
short time.

Short Delay, This chorus variation simulates a short delay repeated
(feedback) (feedback) many times.

These effect variations can be selected by the following sysex messages:

Reverb sysex macro

F0 41 10 42 12 40 01 30 XX CS F7

where XX denotes the reverb variation to be selected, and CS denote a
checksum value that is ignored. The valid values for XX are:

0 - Room 1
1 - Room 2
2 - Room 3
3 - Hall 1
4 - Hall 2
5 - Plate
6 - Delay
7 - Panning Delay

Chorus sysex macro

F0 41 10 42 12 40 01 38 XX CS F7

again, XX denotes the chorus variation to be selected, and CS notes a
checksum value that is ignored. The valid values for XX are:

0 - Chorus 1
1 - Chorus 2
2 - Chorus 3
3 - Chorus 4
4 - Feedback chorus
5 - Flanger
6 - Short Delay
7 - Short delay (FB)

27. What are the undocumented "JP6," "JP8" and "JP9" jumpers on the card?

JP8 Is a digital (SPDIF) out from the EMU8000.

Pin definition: 0 - signal,
1 - signal ground.

JP6 and JP9 are meant for manufacture diagnostic purpose, and should not
be used by end user.

-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----

Section B - Editing Tool

1. Will there be a preset editor for the SB AWE32?

We are currently working on a preset editor for the SB AWE32, code-named
"Vienna." Vienna will allow you to create and customize your own SoundFont
bank files. You can create WAVE files to import into Vienna to create your
own instruments. Vienna also allows you to program you own presets
(tweaking the envelopes' generators, the LFOs and such).

2. Will it be possible to patch multiple sounds across different keys, such
as a drum kit?

Yes, Vienna was designed for making drum kits as well.

3. How are new instruments on the SB AWE32 created?

As mentioned above, you can create your own samples (using WaveStudio)
to import into Vienna. As an example, let's say you have a Steinway piano
you would like to sample it and use the Steinway sound on your SB AWE32.
What you need to do is sample your Steinway in 16 bit mono WAVE files.
Then you can use Vienna to edit its preset and save it as a SoundFont
bank file and load it as a user bank into your SB AWE32 to play just like
any normal MIDI instrument.

4. What functionality will the preset editor offer?

Here is what you will be able to do with Vienna:

- Multi-sample arrangement

Multi-sampling is the technique of sampling a musical instrument at
different musical intervals, arranging the samples across a MIDI
keyboard and assigning key ranges (for example, from key C3 to C4)
to these samples. Vienna allows you to visually assign samples to key
ranges.

- Preset editing

Once you arrange your samples across the keyboard, you can then start
to program the instrument's envelopes and LFOs to your liking. Refer
to the section on "Introduction to EMU8000" for information on
envelopes and LFOs.

- Loop point selection

Vienna allows you to visually select the loop points of a sample.

- Drum kit arrangement

Vienna is not limited to just creating musical instruments; you
can also layout and save a drum kit using any samples you desire.

5. What is SoundFont Bank Maker for SB AWE32? How do I get this application?

SoundFont bank Maker for SB AWE32 is a simple utility for you to
experiment with SB AWE32 sample downloading capability. It is not a
substitute for Vienna. Refer to the section "How do I..." for more
information on obtaining this utility.

6. Will the bank editing software load samples for other systems e.g. Akai
S1000 or Yamaha TG55?

There is no plans at this time.

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Section C - Programming Information

1. Is programming information available for the SB AWE32?

We are working on a SB AWE32 Developer Information Pack, which will
contain both Windows and DOS programming information. For DOS
environments, we have created library functions based on common MIDI
commands such as NoteOn, NoteOff, ProgramChange, etc. Special care has
been taken to ensure that the library can be used for building TSR
drivers or embedded MIDI drivers in an application.


For Windows environments, we will provide the API for sample downloading
and effect control.

2. Is the effect engine on the SB AWE32 programmable?

The effect engine on the SB AWE32 is dedicated to produce reverb, chorus
and QSound effect, and is not intended to be programmable. You can,
however, select different reverb or chorus variations using sysex. Refer
to the section "What are the different reverb and chorus variations
available on the SB AWE32?" for more information.


3. When will the developer kit become available? What sort of prices will
the developer kit be?

There will not be a SB AWE32 developer kit available for sale. Once the
Developer Information Pack is ready, we will make it publicly available
for free. Keep a look out in Compuserve and Creative BBS for SB AWE32
developer kit announcement.

-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----

Section D - SoundFont Bank

1. What are SoundFont Collections?

E-mu SoundFont Collections are CD-ROMs that contains SoundFont Banks of
varying sizes (0.5 MB to 8 MB). E-mu's SoundFont Banks will include both
instruments and sound effects. Many of E-mu's traditional instrument
sounds will be included (for example Proteus 1-3) as well as some new
sounds.

2. How do SoundFont Bank work?

SoundFont Banks can be loaded into RAM on the SB AWE32. They can then be
used in conjunction with a MIDI sequencer to create soundtracks or other
kinds of audio creations.

3. When will SoundFont Bank be available?

SoundFont Banks will be available this summer. SoundFont catalogs should
be available in June, and E-mu will start taking orders once the catalog
is available.

4. What can I do with SoundFont Banks?

You can:

a. Load SoundFont banks of your choice into the RAM of your SB AWE32 and
use this set of sounds as you compose with a MIDI sequencer.

b. Create your own SoundFont Bank with SoundFont Objects from various
SoundFont Banks you already have using E-mu's SoundFont Editor
software.

c. Edit individual SoundFont parameters with E-mu's SoundFont Editor to
create your own version of the sounds and then assemble your own
SoundFont Objects into a SoundFont Bank. Creating your own SoundFont
Objects and Banks gives you the freedom to create your own unique
instruments and sound effects to differentiate your soundtracks.

5. Will having 28 MB on the SB AWE32 improve the sound quality over a
standard 512 KB SB AWE32?

Absolutely! The more RAM memory on your SB AWE32 the larger and fuller
the sound samples you can include in your SoundFont Banks. E-mu will be
providing 8 MB of SoundFont Banks in our collection that will be of
interest to serious musicians.

-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----===-----

Section E - Introduction to the EMU8000 Chip

The EMU8000 has its roots in E-mu's Proteus sample playback modules and
their renowned Emulator sampler. The EMU8000 has 32 individual
oscillators, each playing back at 44.1 kHz. By incorporating sophisticated
sample interpolation algorithms and digital filtering, the EMU8000 is
capable of producing high fidelity sample playback.

The EMU8000 has an extensive modulation capability using two sine-wave
LFO's (Low Frequency Oscillator) and two multi-stage envelope generators.

1. What exactly does modulation mean?

Modulation means to dynamically change a parameter of an audio signal,
whether it be the volume (amplitude modulation, or tremolo), pitch
(frequency modulation, or vibrato) or filter cutoff frequency (filter
modulation, or wah-wah). To modulate something we would require a
modulation source, and a modulation destination. In the EMU8000, the
modulation sources are the LFOs and the envelope generators, and the
modulation destinations can be the pitch, the volume or the filter
cutoff frequency.

The EMU8000's LFOs and envelope generators provide a complex modulation
environment. Each sound producing element of the EMU8000 consists of a
resonant low-pass filter, two LFOs, in which one modulates the pitch
(LFO2), and the other modulates pitch, filter cutoff and volume (LFO1)
simultaneously. There are two envelope generators; envelope 1 contours
both pitch and filter cutoff simultaneously, and envelope 2 contours
volume. The output stage consists of an effects engine that mixes the
dry signals with the Reverb/chorus level signals to produce the final
mix.

2. What are the EMU8000 sound elements?

Each of the sound elements in an EMU8000 consists of the following:

Oscillator
An oscillator is the source of an audio signal.

Low Pass Filter
The low pass filter is responsible for modifying the timbres of an
instrument. The low pass filter's filter cutoff values can be varied
from 100 Hz to 8000 Hz. By changing the values of the filter cutoff,
a myriad of analogue sounding filter sweeps can be achieved. An
example of a GM instrument that makes use of filter sweep is
instrument number 87, Lead 7 (fifths).

Amplifier
The amplifier determines the loudness of an audio signal.

LFO1
An LFO, or Low Frequency Oscillator, is normally used to periodically
modulate, that is, change a sound parameter, whether it be volume
(amplitude modulation), pitch (frequency modulation) or filter cutoff
(filter modulation). It operates at sub-audio frequency from 0.042 Hz
to 10.71 Hz. The LFO1 in the EMU8000 modulates the pitch, volume and
filter cutoff simultaneously.

LFO2
The LFO2 is similar to the LFO1, except that it modulates the pitch
of the audio signal only.

Resonance
A filter alone would be like an equalizer, making a bright audio
signal duller, but the addition of resonance greatly increases the
creative potential of a filter. Increasing the resonance of a filter
makes it emphasize signals at the cutoff frequency, giving the audio
signal a subtle "wah-wah," that is, imagine a siren sound going from
bright to dull to bright again periodically.

LFO1 to Volume (Tremolo)
The LFO1's output is routed to the amplifier, with the depth of
oscillation determined by LFO1 to Volume. LFO1 to Volume produces
tremolo, which is a periodic fluctuation of volume. Lets say you are
listening to a piece of music on your home stereo system. When you
rapidly increase and decrease the playback volume, you are creating
tremolo effect, and the speed in which you increases and decreases
the volume is the tremolo rate (which corresponds to the speed at
which the LFO is oscillating). An example of a GM instrument that
makes use of LFO1 to Volume is instrument number 45, Tremolo Strings.

LFO1 to Filter Cutoff (Wah-Wah)
The LFO1's output is routed to the filter, with the depth of
oscillation determined by LFO1 to Filter. LFO1 to Filter produces a
periodic fluctuation in the filter cutoff frequency, producing an
effect very similar to that of a wah-wah guitar (see resonance for a
description of "wah-wah") An example of a GM instrument that makes
use of LFO1 to Filter Cutoff is instrument number 19, Rock Organ.

LFO1 to Pitch (Vibrato)
The LFO1's output is routed to the oscillator, with the depth of
oscillation determined by LFO1 to Pitch. LFO1 to Pitch produces a
periodic fluctuation in the pitch of the oscillator, producing a
vibrato effect. An example of a GM instrument that makes use of LFO1
to Pitch is instrument number 57, Trumpet.

LFO2 to Pitch (Vibrato)
The LFO1 in the EMU8000 can simultaneously modulate pitch, volume
and filter. LFO2, on the other hand, modulates only the pitch, with
the depth of modulation determined by LFO2 to Pitch. LFO2 to Pitch
produces a periodic fluctuation in the pitch of the oscillator,
producing a vibrato effect. When this is coupled with LFO1 to Pitch,
a complex vibrato effect can be achieved.

Volume Envelope
The character of a musical instrument is largely determined by its
volume envelope, the way in which the level of the sound changes with
time. For example, percussive sounds usually start suddenly and then
die away, whereas a bowed sound might take quite some time to start
and then sustain at a more or less fixed level.

A six-stage envelope makes up the volume envelope of the EMU8000. The
six stages are delay, attack, hold, decay, sustain and release. The
stages can be described as follows:

Delay, The time between when a key is played and when the attack
phase begins.

Attack, The time it takes to go from zero to the peak (full) level.

Hold, The time the envelope will stay at the peak level before
starting the decay phase.

Decay, The time it takes the envelope to go from the peak level
to the sustain level.

Sustain, The level at which the envelope remains as long as a key
is held down.

Release, The time it takes the envelope to fall to the zero level
after the key is released.

Using these six parameters can yield very realistic reproduction of
the volume envelope characteristics of many musical instruments.

Pitch and Filter Envelope
The pitch and filter envelope is similar to the volume envelope in
that it has the same envelope stages. The difference between them is
that whereas the volume envelope contours the volume of the
instrument over time, the pitch and filter envelope contours the
pitch and filter values of the instrument over time. The pitch
envelope is particularly useful in putting the finishing touches in
simulating a natural instrument. For example, some wind instruments
tend to go slightly sharp when they are first blown, and this
characteristic can be simulated by setting up a pitch envelope
with a fairly fast attack and decay. The filter envelope, on the
other hand, is useful in creating synthetic sci-fi sound textures.
An example of a GM instrument that makes use of the filter envelope
is instrument number 86, Pad 8 (Sweep).

Pitch/Filter Envelope Modulation
These two parameters determine the modulation depth of the pitch and
filter envelope. In the wind instrument example above, a small amount
of pitch envelope modulation is desirable to simulate its natural
pitch characteristics.

This rich modulation capability of the EMU8000 is fully exploited by the
SB AWE32 MIDI drivers. The driver also provides you with a means to change
these parameters over MIDI in real time. Refer to the section "How do I
change an instrument's sound parameter in real time" for more information.

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Section F - How Do I ...

1. How do I make use of RPN documented in the SB AWE32 MIDI
Implementation chart?

RPN is a short form for "Registered Parameter Number." Registered
Parameter Numbers are used to represent sound or performance parameters.
MIDI 1.0 specified three RPNs: RPN 0 for Pitch Bend Sensitivity, RPN 1
for Coarse Tune and RPN 2 for Fine Tune. The SB AWE32 implements only
RPN 0, Pitch Bend Sensitivity.

Before going into how to set pitch bend sensitivity, let's go into how
pitch bending is used in MIDI. Pitch Bending is normally used to pitch
shift (that is, make the pitch go higher or lower) a sustained note to
achieve a "pitch gliding" effect. The default pitch bend sensitivity of
the SB AWE32 is +/- 2 semitones, that is, you can go high or low of the
current note by 2 semitones when using the pitch bend wheel. If you
desire a more dramatic pitch bending effect, then you would need to
change the pitch bend sensitivity to a higher value.

Following are step-by-step instructions to set a pitch bend sensitivity
value other than the default 2 semitones. CakeWalk Apprentice will be
used as an example.

1. Bring up the "Event List" window for the track you want to set pitch
bend sensitivity.

2. Go to the top of the event list (page up) and insert a MIDI controller
event, with controller number 101 and a controller value of 0.

3. Insert another MIDI Controller event immediately, with controller
number 100 and controller value of 0.

4. Insert another MIDI controller event immediately, with controller
number 6, and set the controller value to the desired pitch bend
sensitivity in semitones.

2. How do I change an instrument's sound parameter in real time?

You can change an instrument's SoundFont parameters (for example, LFO
depth and speed, envelope contour) through MIDI in real time via NRPN,
or Non Registered Parameter Number control.

NRPN is identical to that of RPN, except that Registered Parameter
Numbers are agreed upon by the MMA (MIDI Manufacturers Association) and
JMSC (Japan MIDI Standards Committee), and Non Registered Parameter
Number may be assigned as needed by individual manufacturers.

NRPN consists of:

NRPN MSB MIDI Controller 99
NRPN LSB MIDI Controller 98

NRPN MSB and LSB form a value that indicates the desired sound parameter.
After sending NRPN MSB and LSB, MIDI controllers 6 (Data Entry MSB) and
38 (Data Entry LSB) are sent to pass in the value for the sound parameter.

To send a NRPN message, the following steps are required:

send NRPN MSB with MSB of sound parameter
send NRPN LSB with LSB of sound parameter
send Data Entry MSB with MSB of sound parameter value
send Data Entry LSB with LSB of sound parameter value

As NRPN and Data Entry messages are MIDI controller messages, any MIDI
sequencer software that supports editing of controller message (such as
CakeWalk, MasterTracks Pro) is capable of sending them.

For SB AWE32 NRPN to be functional, NRPN MSB has to be 127, and NRPN LSB
set to the desired parameter to be controlled (refer to the section "SB
AWE32 NRPN Implementation" for a list of NRPN implemented on the SB AWE32.)

Data entry MSB with Data entry LSB together forms a 14bit number. The
middle value 8192 (0x2000, Data MSB = 64 and Data LSB = 0) is taken as
value 0. To convert from MSB and LSB to actual value, here is the
equation:

Actual value = (MSB * 128 + LSB) - 8192

To convert an actual value into MSB and LSB, here are the steps:

MSB = (actual value + 8192) / 128
LSB = (actual value + 8192) % 128

A "Reset All Controllers" message (MIDI controller 121) restores the
instrument's original SoundFont parameters.

Refer to section [H] for a table of NRPN implementation.

3. How do I select the SB AWE32's reverb and chorus variation type through
MIDI?

You can select the reverb and chorus variation via sysex. The SB AWE32
Windows (not DOS) driver recognizes two strings of sysex; one for
selecting reverb variation, and the other for selecting chorus variation.

Reverb sysex string:

F0 41 10 42 12 40 01 30 XX CS F7

Where XX indicates the reverb variations (from 0 to 7), and CS indicate a
checksum for this sysex string. CS is ignored by the MIDI driver.

Chorus sysex string:

F0 41 10 42 12 40 01 38 XX CS F7

Where XX indicates the chorus variation (from 0 to 7), and CS indicate a
checksum for this sysex string. CS is ignored by the MIDI driver.

4. How can I maximize my system's memory so that I still have plenty of room
to run games after installing the SB AWE32?

There are two drivers (CTMMSYS.SYS and CTSB16.SYS) you can remove from
CONFIG.SYS. These two drivers provide digital playback and recording
interface under DOS. They are not used by the EMU8000 subsystem.

By removing these two drivers, you will not be able to run PLAY.EXE,
RECORD.EXE and SB16SET.EXE under DOS, but you will gain approximately
30K of memory.

5. How do I load a SoundFont Bank?

Loading SoundFont Banks is easy. Just use the SB AWE32 Windows Control
Panel Applet, AWECP.EXE, as follows:

a. Use the up or down arrow keys next to the user bank number to select
the desired bank. A dialog box appears.

b. Select the directory that contains the *.SBK files.

c. Double-click the desired file to load it into the particular user
bank.

6. How do I get the latest drivers for the SB AWE32?

The latest SB AWE32 drivers, utilities and game compatibility list can
be found at the following sites:

Inside U.S.A., Canada and South America
Creative Labs, Inc BBS : (405)742-6660

Inside Europe
UK BBS : (44)743-360287
Germany BBS : (49)2131-919820

Inside Asia
Creative Technology BBS : (65)776-2423

CompuServe
type GO BLASTER to enter the Creative Labs Forum

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Section G - References

The definitive guide to MIDI would be "MIDI 1.0 Detailed Specification",
published and distributed exclusively by :

International MIDI Association
23634 Emelita Street
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
USA

Other MIDI related publications are :

Music Through MIDI
Using MIDI to create your own electronic music system by Michael Boom
published by Microsoft Press
Catalog number : ISBN 1-55615-0260-1

The MIDI Manual
by David Miles Huber
published by SAM
Catalog number : ISBN 0-672-22755-6

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Section H - SB AWE32 NRPN Implementation

NRPN LSB 0 (Delay before LFO1 starts)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 5900]
Unit : 4 milliseconds
Delay from 0 to 22 seconds.

NRPN LSB 1 (LFO1 Frequency)
Realtime : Yes
Range : [0, 127]
Unit : 0.084Hz
LFO1 frequency from 0Hz to 10.72 Hz.

NRPN LSB 2 (Delay before LFO2 starts)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 5900]
Unit : 4 milliseconds
Delay from 0 to 22 seconds.

NRPN LSB 3 (LFO2 Frequency)
Realtime : Yes
Range : [0, 127]
Unit : 0.084Hz
LFO2 frequency from 0Hz to 10.72 Hz.

NRPN LSB 4 (Envelope 1 delay time)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 5900]
Unit : 4 milliseconds
Envelope 1 Delay from 0 to 22 seconds.

NRPN LSB 5 (Envelope 1 attack time)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 5940]
Unit : Milliseconds
Envelope 1 attack time from 0 to 5.9 seconds.

NRPN LSB 6 (Envelope 1 hold time)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 8191]
Unit : Milliseconds
Envelope 1 hold time from 0 to 8 seconds.

NRPN LSB 7 (Envelope 1 decay time)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 5940]
Unit : 4 Milliseconds
Envelope 1 decay time from 0.023 to 23.7 seconds.

NRPN LSB 8 (Envelope 1 sustain level)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 127]
Unit : 0.75dB
Envelope 1 sustain level from full level down to off (0.75 dB step).

NRPN LSB 9 (Envelope 1 release time)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 5940]
Unit : 4 milliseconds
Envelope 1 release time from 0.023 to 23.7 seconds.

NRPN LSB 10 (Envelope 2 delay time)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 5900]
Unit : 4 milliseconds
Envelope 2 Delay from 0 to 22 seconds.

NRPN LSB 11 (Envelope 2 attack time)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 5940]
Unit : Milliseconds
Envelope 2 attack time from 0 to 5.9 seconds.

NRPN LSB 12 (Envelope 2 hold time)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 8191]
Unit : Millisecond
Envelope 2 hold time from 0 to 8 seconds.

NRPN LSB 13 (Envelope 2 decay time)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 5940]
Unit : 4 milliseconds
Envelope 2 decay time from 0.023 to 23.7 seconds.

NRPN LSB 14 (Envelope 2 sustain level)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 127]
Unit : 0.75dB
Envelope 2 sustain level from full level down to off.

NRPN LSB 15 (Envelope 2 release time)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 5940]
Unit : 4 milliseconds
Envelope 2 release time from 0.023 to 23.7 seconds.

NRPN LSB 16 (Initial Pitch)
Realtime : Yes
Range : [-8192, 8191]
Unit : cents
Pitch tuning between -8192 and 8191 cents.

NRPN LSB 17 (LFO1 to Pitch)
Realtime : Yes
Range : [-127, 127]
Unit : 9.375 cents

If data value is greater than 0, this will cause a positive (from 0 to
maximum) 1 octave shift at LFO peak. On the other hand, if data value
is smaller than 0, this will cause a negative (from 0 to minimum) 1
octave shift at LFO peak.

NRPN LSB 18 (LFO2 to Pitch)
Realtime : Yes
Description :
Range : [-127, 127]
Unit : 9.375 cents

If data value is greater than 0, this will cause a positive (from 0 to
maximum) 1 octave shift at LFO peak. On the other hand, if data value
is smaller than 0, this will cause a negative (from 0 to minimum) 1 octave
shift at LFO peak.

NRPN LSB 19 (Envelope 1 to Pitch)
Realtime : No
Range : [-127, 127]
Unit : 9.375 cents

If data value is greater than 0, this will cause a positive (from 0 to maximum) 1
octave shift at envelope peak. On the other hand, if data value is smaller than 0, this
will cause a negative (from 0 to minimum) 1 octave shift at envelope peak.

NRPN LSB 20 (LFO1 to Volume)
Realtime : Yes
Range : [0, 127]
Unit : 0.1875 dB

Data values smaller than 64 causes a positive phase (from 0 to maximum)
volume modulation via LFO1 with magnitude of 12 dB at LFO peak. On the
other hand, data values greater than or equal to 64 causes a negative
phase (from 0 to minimum) volume modulation via LFO1 with magnitude of
12 dB at LFO peak.

NRPN LSB 21 (Initial Filter Cutoff)
Realtime : Yes
Range : [0, 127]
Unit : 62Hz
Filter cutoff from 100Hz to 8000Hz

NRPN LSB 22 (Initial Filter Resonance Coefficient)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 127]

The EMU8000 has a built in resonance coefficient table comprising 16 entries.
Values 0-7 will select the first (0) entry, values 8-15 selects the second (1)
entry and so on.

Coeff Low Fc(Hz) Low Q(dB) High Fc(kHz) High Q(dB) DC Attenuation(dB)
0 92 5 Flat Flat - 0.0
1 93 6 8.5 0.5 - 0.5
2 94 8 8.3 1 - 1.2
3 95 10 8.2 2 - 1.8
4 96 11 8.1 3 - 2.5
5 97 13 8.0 4 - 3.3
6 98 14 7.9 5 - 4.1
7 99 16 7.8 6 - 5.5
8 100 17 7.7 7 - 6.0
9 100 19 7.5 9 - 6.6
10 100 20 7.4 10 - 7.2
11 100 22 7.3 11 - 7.9
12 100 23 7.2 13 - 8.5
13 100 25 7.1 15 - 9.3
14 100 26 7.1 16 - 10.1
15 100 28 7.0 18 - 11.0

NRPN LSB 23 (LFO1 to Filter Cutoff)
Realtime : Yes
Description :
Range : [0, 127]
Unit : 56.25 cents

Data values smaller than 64 causes a positive phase (from 0 to maximum)
filter modulation via LFO1 with magnitude of 3 octaves at LFO peak. On
the other hand, data values greater than or equal to 64 causes a negative
phase (from 0 to minimum) filter modulation via LFO1 with magnitude of 3
octaves at LFO peak.

NRPN LSB 24 (Envelope 1 to Filter Cutoff)
Realtime : No
Description :
Range : [-127, 127]
Unit : 56.25 cents

Data values greater than 0 cause a positive phase (from 0 to maximum)
filter modulation via Envelope 1 with magnitude of 6 octaves at envelope
peak. On the other hand, values smaller than 0 cause a negative phase
(from 0 to minimum) filter modulation via Envelope 1 with magnitude of 6
octaves at envelope peak.

NRPN LSB 25 (Chorus Effects Send)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 255]

Chorus send, with 0 being the driest (no chorus effects processing), and
255 being the wettest (full chorus effect processing).

NRPN LSB 26 (Reverb Effects Send)
Realtime : No
Range : [0, 255]

Reverb send, with 0 being the driest (no reverb effects processing), and
255 being the wettest (full reverb effect processing).

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100694/FG-R1


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