Dec 282017
This is a version of the documentation, in normal ASCII (non nroff form) for RCS ver 5.5.
File RCS55TXT.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Miscellaneous Language Source Code
This is a version of the documentation, in normal ASCII (non nroff form) for RCS ver 5.5.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
CI.TXT 10582 3657 deflated
CO.TXT 15697 5227 deflated
RCS.TXT 7332 2644 deflated
RCSCLEAN.TXT 2101 972 deflated
RCSDIFF.TXT 2535 1158 deflated
RCSFILE.TXT 5406 2016 deflated
RCSFREEZ.TXT 1676 815 deflated
RCSINTRO.TXT 9060 3602 deflated
RCSMERGE.TXT 3041 1378 deflated
RLOG.TXT 5161 1920 deflated

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Contents of the CI.TXT file

$Id: ci.1,v 5.4 1990/12/04 05:18:31 eggert Exp $

CI - check in RCS revisions [ver 5.5 MSDOS release]


CI [ options ] " file "


CI stores new revisions into RCS files. Each file name ending in ,v
is taken to be an RCS file. All others are assumed to be working files
containing new revisions.

CI deposits the contents of each working file into the corresponding RCS
file. If only a working file is given, CI tries to find the corresponding
RCS file in an RCS subdirectory and then in the working file's directory.
For more details, see "FILE NAMING" below.

For CI to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except if the
access list is empty or the caller is the superuser or the owner of the
file. To append a new revision to an existing branch, the tip revision on
that branch must be locked by the caller. Otherwise, only a new branch can
be created. This restriction is not enforced for the owner of the file if
non-strict locking is used (see rcs (1)). A lock held by someone else may
be broken with the rcs command.

Normally, CI checks whether the revision to be deposited is different from
the preceding one. If it is not different, CI aborts the deposit, asking
beforehand if possible. A deposit can be forced with the -f option.

For each revision deposited, CI prompts for a log message. The log message
should summarize the change and must be terminated by end-of-file or by a
line containing "." by itself. If several files are checked in CI asks
whether to reuse the previous log message. If the standard input is not a
terminal, CI suppresses the prompt and uses the same log message for all
files. See also -m .

The number of the deposited revision can be given by any of the options -f ,
-I , -k , -l , -q , -r , or -u .

If the RCS file does not exist, CI creates it and deposits the contents of
the working file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1 ). The
access list is initialized to empty. Instead of the log message, CI
requests descriptive text (see -t below).


-r [rev] assigns the revision number rev to the checked-in revision,
releases the corresponding lock, and deletes the working file.
This is the default. rev may be symbolic, numeric, or mixed.

If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest
one on the branch to which rev belongs, or must start a new

If rev is a branch rather than a revision number, the new
revision is appended to that branch. The level number is
obtained by incrementing the tip revision number of that branch.
If rev indicates a non-existing branch, that branch is created
with the initial revision numbered rev .1.


If rev is omitted, CI tries to derive the new revision number
from the caller's last lock. If the caller has locked the tip
revision of a branch, the new revision is appended to that
branch. The new revision number is obtained by incrementing the
tip revision number. If the caller locked a non-tip revision, a
new branch is started at that revision by incrementing the
highest branch number at that revision. The default initial
branch and level numbers are 1 .

If rev is omitted and the caller has no lock, but owns the file
and locking is not set to strict , then the revision is appended
to the default branch (normally the trunk; see the -b
option of rcs (1)).

Exception: On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end,
but not inserted.

-f [rev] forces a deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not
different from the preceding one.

-k [rev] searches the working file for keyword values to determine its
revision number, creation date, state, and author (see co (1)),
and assigns these values to the deposited revision, rather than
computing t hem locally. It also generates a default login
message noting the login of the caller and the actual checkin
date. This option is useful for software distribution. A
revision that is sent to several sites should be checked in with
the -k option at these sites to preserve the original number,
date, author, and state. The extracted keyword values and the
default log message may be overridden with the options -d , -m ,
-s , -w , and any option that carries a revision number.

-l [rev] works like -r , except it performs an additional "co -l" for the
deposited revision. Thus, the deposited revision is immediately
checked out again and locked. This is useful for saving a
revision although one wants to continue editing it after the

-u [rev] works like -l , except that the deposited revision is not locked.
This lets one read the working file immediately after checkin.

-q [rev] quiet mode; diagnostic output is not printed. A revision that is
not different from the preceding one is not deposited, unless -f
is given.

-I [rev] interactive mode; the user is prompted and questioned even if the
standard input is not a terminal.

-d "[date]" uses date for the checkin date and time. The date is specified
in free format as explained in co (1). This is useful for lying
about the checkin date, and for -k if no date is available. If
date is empty, the working file's time of last modification is

-m "msg" uses the string msg as the log message for all revisions checked


-n "name" assigns the symbolic name name to the number of the checked-in
revision. CI prints an error message if name is already
assigned to another number.

-N "name" same as -n , except that it overrides a previous assignment of
name .

-s "state" sets the state of the checked-in revision to the identifier
state . The default state is Exp .

-t file writes descriptive text from the contents of the named file into
the RCS file, deleting the existing text. The file name may not
begin with "-".

-t- string Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file,
deleting the existing text.

The -t option, in both its forms, has effect only during an
initial checkin; it is silently ignored otherwise.

During the initial checkin, if -t is not given, CI obtains the
text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line
containing "." by itself. The user is prompted for the text
if interaction is possible; see -I .

For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t
option is ignored.

-w "login" uses login for the author field of the deposited revision.
Useful for lying about the author, and for -k if no author is

-V n Emulate RCS version n . See co (1) for details.


Pairs of RCS files and working files may be specified in three ways (see
also the example section of co (1)).

1) Both the RCS file and the working file are given. The RCS
file name is of the form path1 / workfile ,v and the working
file name is of the form path2 / workfile where path1 / and
path2 / are (possibly different or empty) paths and workfile is
a file name.

2) Only the RCS file is given. Then the working file is created
in the current directory and its name is derived from the name
of the RCS file by removing path1 / and the suffix ,v .

3) Only the working file is given. Then CI looks for an RCS
file of the form path2 /RCS/ workfile ,v or path2 / workfile ,v
(in this order).

If the RCS file is specified without a path in 1) and 2), then CI looks for
the RCS file first in the directory ./RCS and then in the current directory.


An RCS file created by CI inherits the read and execute permissions from the
working file. If the RCS file exists already, CI pres erves its read and
execute permissions. CI always turns off all write permissions of RCS


Several temporary files may be created. A semaphore file is created in the
directory containing the RCS file. The effective user+group must be able to
read the RCS file and to search and write the directory containing the RCS
file. Normally, the real user+group must be able to read the working file
and to search and write the directory containing the working file; however,
some older hosts that do not conform to Posix 1003.1-1990 cannot easily
switch between real and effective ids, so on these hosts the effective
user+group is used for all accesses. The effective user+group is the same
as the real user+group unless your copy of RCS has setuid or setgid
privileges. These privileges yield extra security if RCS files are
protected so that only the effective user+group can write RCS directories.
Further protection can be achieved by granting access only to the effective

CI never changes an RCS or working file; instead, it unlinks the file and
creates a new one. This strategy breaks hard links to such files, but does
not affect symbolic links.


For each revision, CI prints the RCS file, the working file, and the number
of both the deposited and the preceding revision. The exit status is zero
if and only if all operations were successful.

Author: Walter F. Tichy.

Revision Number: \*(Rv; Release Date: \*(Dt.

Copyright 1982, 1988, 1989 by Walter F. Tichy.

Copyright 1990 by Paul Eggert.

"SEE ALSO" co(1), ident(1), rcs(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsintro(1), rcsmerge(1),
rlog(1), rcsfile(5)

Walter F. Tichy, RCS - A System for Version Control,
"Software\*-Practice & Experience" 15 , 7 (July 1985), 637-654.

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