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Output of file : PSMANUAL.DOC contained in archive : PROSCRIB.ZIP


Professional Scribe (Pro~Scribe) (tm)

Pro~Scribe Express (PSE) (tm)

From Latin scribere: to write. Pro~Scribe: to write with the skill of a pro.

Version 3.0

+-------------------------------------------+
|Two writing assistants to help improve your|
|writing: Letters, Reports, Speeches, Adds |
+-------------------------------------------+
| We're re-writing Pro~Scribe, completely: |
| *New Features *New Manual *EXPRESS |
| |
| Please read What's New for details. |
+-------------------------------------------+
| Become a registered user and receive: : : |
| |
| - PS EXPRESS (PSE) - your memory-resident |
| writing assistant, for help as you write|
| |
| - "Effective, High Impact Writing" - |
| another booklet with tips to help you |
| improve your writing, and get the most |
| from Pro~Scribe & PS Express. |
| |
| - And Much, Much More-See "What's Coming" |
+-------------------------------------------+


+------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Want to get up and running quickly? |
| |
| * Look quickly at pages a & b (What's New; What's Coming). Then |
| glance at page c (How to Install and Run Pro~Scribe (PS)). |
| |
| * Now read page 1. There we suggest you STOP READING and run PS. |
| Then compare YOUR results with results from various types of |
| writing - Kid's Books to Newspapers to Technical Journals. |
| |
| Running PS once or twice, and comparing your writing with others |
| should help you: 1) See how PS can help, 2) Better understand PS' |
| guidelines and the rest of our discussion here. Above all, have fun! |
| << Pro~Scribe was formerly called Maxi-Read. PS Express was qwikMR.>> |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+


Copyright (C) 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988 RWS & Associates
132 Alpine Terrace San Francisco, Ca. 94117

The Pro~Formance Pro~Scribe System and Manual Are Protected by
U. S. Copyright Law: [Title 17 USC]. All Rights reserved.

Pro~Formance, P~F, Pro~Scribe, PS, PS Express and PSE are Trademarks of
RWS & Associates

============================
Contents
============================
Your Pro~Scribe (PS) Manual has 4 sections. They cover the basics - How
to install and run PS, Results and Results Options, and Registration.
SECTION 1
This Version of PS - What's New ........... a
The Next Version - What's Coming .......... b
System Requirements, Installing Pro~Scribe,
Running Pro~Scribe ...................... c
SECTION 2
PS in Brief, Plotting Your Scores ......... 1
How Your Style Can Handicap Your Ideas .... 2
Effective Writing: Your Role and PS' ...... 3
PS' Results: What to Focus On :
Grade Levels ............................ 3
The Words You Use ....................... 4
Sentence Length ......................... 4
Word Wasters ............................ 5
SECTION 3
Let's Go - PS' Menus, Your Options ........ 7
Typing in Text, PowerTyping ............... 8
Importing Files ........................... 9
Controlling Analyses of Words, Tips ....... 10
PS' Results / Your Results Options ........ 13
Options: Use/Use/Use RGL & Patterns .... 13
Complex Words / Word Wasters .. 15
Word Wasters .................. 15
Customizing Your Word Wasters . 16
Printing Results .............. 17
'Writing as you Speak', More Writing Help . 17
SECTION 4
License and Warranty ...................... i
Registering & Ordering ....................iii
=============================================================================
Registered users also receive "Effective, High Impact Writing" with more
help to improve your writing. For your reference, here are it's sections:

SECTION 1: Effective, High-Impact Writing Topics:
* Define Effective, High-Impact Writing
* The Feedback Void - how PS/PSE fill it
* Examples of common writing mistakes
SECTION 2: Our Guidelines in Perspective, Examples of Results Topics:
* How your writing can handicap your ideas
* Our Guidelines: Examples, and putting these guidelines in perspective
SECTION 3: More Effective Writing - Managing Writing Mistakes Topics:
* Clarity of thought breeds clarity of style
* Writing as you speak - The most important skill?
* Managing 'complex writing' - 500 Common Words and our Sentence Length
* Word Wasters, and other common errors
SECTION 5: Getting the Most From Your Results Topics:
* Your Main Job: Decide IF it needs work. If so, decide WHAT to work on.
* Use, Use, Use the RGL options. (Appendix I has more on RGL options)
* Ignore our list of Complex Words.
* Do serious editing on paper, not in your word processor.
=============================================================================
SideKick, DESQview, WordStar and IBM are Registered Trademarks of: Borland
International, Quarterdeck Office Systems, MicroPro International Corp., and
International Business Machines Corp., respectively.

===========- Version 3.0: What's New? Almost Everything -=========== a

We're re-writing Pro~Scribe - completely. We're keeping features you
find useful, and adding many more, like PS Express. And, the version com-
ing soon adds even more features and convenience - See What's Coming below.

Pro~Scribe Express
PS Express (PSE) is the memory-resident version of PS. That means you
run it just once, and it waits in memory for you to call it up when you
need help most - while you're actually writing. Here's how:
* Run your word processor and start writing. Need Help? Press Alt-Q.
* Highlight the text you want PSE to examine. Then, before you can
blink, a window pops up with comments about your writing, and
feedback on your words and sentences.

PSE is amazing, immensely helpful - like having an English teacher look-
ing over your shoulder, coaching you AS YOU WRITE! See something you want
fixed? Edit it, then call PSE up again to see improvements on the spot!

PSE may eliminate those long, frustrating write/edit/re-write cycles --
you edit as you go. PSE saves enormous amounts of time!
----> PS Express is sent to registered users of Pro~Scribe. <----

Other Improvements
Word Wasters
PS now scans your writing for the kinds of writing mistakes we all
make, the traps we fall into, at least once in awhile. We call these
traps Word Wasters - words or phrases that are wordy, confusing, often
misused, or just plain unnecessary. There are 5 categories:
* WW - Wasted Words * MW - Misused Words * TW - Tongue Waggers
* VtN - Verbs-To-Nouns * PV - Passive Voice

PS' Word Waster feature helps you eradicate the jargon and 'excess
baggage' from your writing. And you can customize this feature:
* Include your own 'pets' - jargon or phrases you want to avoid.
* Edit other peoples' work? Add the jargon they use/mistakes they make.
Then give them a copy of PS' results with your comments. Better yet,
ask THEM to run their work through PS BEFORE giving it to you.

Running Grade Level - Graphic and Pattern Summaries
PS' Running Grade Level (RGL) option shows the complexity of your writ-
ing line-by-line. Earlier PS versions printed the RGL beside your text.
This remains, but we added TWO graphics showing you: 1) On ONE screen, RGLs
for 100s of lines of text; and, 2) Your sentence patterns against an ideal.

<> PS' RGL helps you edit your writing by showing which
lines or sections need work. The next PS version helps even more - it'll
flag Complex Words & Word Wasters in EACH LINE - making editing much easier.

Speed
PS 3.0 is MUCH faster than earlier versions. NOTE: While 3.0 does much
more than earlier versions, it zips through files much faster.
==========- Size of File (# of characters)- ===========
PS Version # 2400 7800 15000
============== ================- Time to Analyze File -===============
1.4 19 seconds 71 seconds 121 seconds
2.0 7 23 51
2.8 4 12 25
** 3.0 ** 2 5 9
=================[Tests run on an 8mz IBM XT compatible]==================

What's Coming: Pro~Scribe -- User-Supported Software b
(Please read "Registering" at the end of this guide)
========================================================

Thank you for taking the time to try out Pro~Scribe (PS). PS is
user-supported software. That means several things - for you and for us.

YOU : : :
You get to try PS out before you invest - to see if it helps, to see
if you like it.

And when you register you get:

* PS Express (PSE) - the 'memory resident' version of PS.
- PSE is fantastic! You call it up from INSIDE YOUR WORD PROCESSOR!
- PSE lets you analyze and edit your writing as you go. It saves
enormous amounts of time and frustration: you polish sections
as you write them - while your thoughts are fresh in your mind.

* "Effective, High Impact Writing" - A separate booklet with tips
to: 1) improve your writing; and, 2) get the most of PS and PSE.

* More Power and Convenience: A free update to the most recent version.
The version we're working on, (available only to registered users):
- Makes editing your work MUCH EASIER by showing you LINE-BY-LINE:
- The Difficulty (Grade) level
- Which WORDS in the line are likely to slow down your reader
- The PHRASES (Word Wasters) which are clumsy, not needed or wrong
- FREQUENT WORDS: Lets you customize PS even more - define words PS
should not flag as long, complex words.

* Notice of upcoming versions. We have a list of other features we're
working on for future versions.

WE : : :
By registering, you do 2 things. First, you say 'Thanks' -- for the
months of time we've spent developing a program you find useful.

Second, your support makes it possible for us to continue - to develop,
expand and support software you enjoy. Without your support, we can't
continue. It's that simple.

GOT $10 BURNING A HOLE IN YOUR POCKET? : : :

Some people use 'user-supported' software and don't register. Are
you one of them? If so, you have your reasons (maybe you forgot). But
maybe you can find a way to say 'Thanks' anyway.

We need your support to continue; and 'support' comes in many forms.

* Suggestions and comments help a lot; drop us a note (handwritten=OK)
- Let us know you're out there. And let us know what you found
useful, and what we could do to improve PS.

* If you can't register, say 'Thanks' at least. A gift of $10 would
help (if you prefer anonymity, just stick a $10 bill in an envelope).
We spent months of our time developing PS - what's that worth to you?
- For $10 you may not get the latest version. But, you'll continue
to enjoy software you find useful, while knowing you said thanks.

==========================- System Requirements -====================== c

Computer: IBM PC/XT/AT or 100% compatible DOS: 2.1 + is required
Memory: PS (256k), PSE (10k). Monitor: Color or Monochrome (Color
makes results more 'interesting.') A printer's needed to print results.

--- Both PS and PSE 'write directly to the screen' for maximum speed. ---
Set up any 'windowing' programs you use accordingly. Pro~Scribe runs fine
in a DESQview window. We urge you NOT to use PSE in a DESQview window.
It may or may not work. If not, your system may require a re-boot.

====================- Installing Pro~Scribe (2 Steps) -==================

STEP 1. You can run PS from any drive or directory. But, it MUST be
able to find 3 files: PSHelp.Scr, Wasted.Wrd and PS.Exe. These
files MUST be together on the same drive, in the same directory.

* You can tell PS where to find these 3 files by typing this line at
the DOS prompt BEFORE running PS: SET PSDir=drive:\directory\

* Replace 'drive:\directory\' with the path to PS' 3 'required' files.
Example: SET PSDir=C:\PS\ Note '\' at the end, and NO spaces.

* The easiest way to handle this is to add this line to your
AUTOEXEC.BAT file. Then you never have to worry about it. If
you don't do this, it might help to run PS with a 2-line batch file.
For example, create a batch file (eg., RUNPS.BAT) with these lines:
SET PSDir=C:\PS\ '\ Then, to run PS,
C:\PS '/ just type RUNPS

STEP 2. (Optional) To Print this manual, at the DOS prompt, type: PrintMan
*** Set your printer to 66 lines per page-some pages have 60+ lines.

============================- Running PS -==============================

You can start Pro~Scribe in two ways. Type either:
PS PS starts at the Options Menu - All options available

PS "FileName" Type PS, a space, then a filename. Example: PS Test.Txt

However you start, the 1st thing you see is 'Setting Up..' while PS loads
PSHelp.Scr (Help Screens) and Wasted.Wrd (your list of Word Wasters).

The 'user-supported' version of PS next displays a special screen. The
more you use this version, the longer PS pauses before going to the menu.

============================- Definitions -==============================
Here are definitions for some key phrases used here.

Grade Level: A measure of writing complexity (6 = Elementary School,
12 = High School Senior, 16 = College Graduate, etc.)
Complex Words: Words with 3 or more syllables, usually 9+ letters
Complex Writing: Writing, or sections of it, beyond the 'comfort range'
of your audience - for Average Adults, grades 8-10.
Word Wasters: Words, cliches & phrases which are weak wordy or wrong.
Passive Voice: One of the most prevalent Word Wasters.
RGL: Running Grade Level - a line-by-line summary of writing.
Pattern Summary: A graph showing the variety and complexity of writing,
and how closely your pattern matches an 'ideal' pattern.

=============================- PS in Brief -============================ 1
Pro~Scribe (PS) and PS Express (PSE) are fast, fun tools to help improve
anything you write - memos, letters, speeches, reports, articles, adds, etc.

Can PS Help YOU? << PLEASE STOP READING. PLOT YOUR OWN RESULTS. >>

Below are examples of PS' results for various types of writing. The best
way to see how PS can help is to try it on a sample of your writing. Then
compare your results to those below. This will also show how easy PS is to
use, and help you understand the discussion below. Please stop reading and:
* Run PS. Press [B]egin Analyses. Then press [I]mport or [T]ype.
- Import 1-2 samples of your text files (ASCII or WordStar format)
- Or, Type 2-4 paragraphs into PS. Choose examples typical of your style
* From PS' Results Summary and Pattern Summary, find your scores on
the scales below. WRITE IN YOUR RESULTS where it says YOUR Scores.
- Find your Pattern Summary by pressing [R]GL (Running Grade Level).
When PS shows you the Graphic Summary, press [P]attern.

The table below shows PS' results for various publications. We left
space for you to write in YOUR results - Before you start using PS/PSE,
and After you've used them for a while (to see how you improved).

From each publication we picked 3 samples of text: on 3 different topics
from 3 different authors (to reduce bias from the topic or author's style).
Each sample had about 400 words. (Results for the NY Times and the Wall
Street Journal resemble those we got 2 and 4 years ago.)

From PS' Results Summary, find and write in your:
* Grade = The overall Grade Level (Complexity) of your writing
* Words/Sent = The Average # of Words per Sentence
* Syl/Word = The Average # of Syllables per Word
* % Sesquip. Words = The Percentage of Sesquipedalian (complex) words
% Sesquip. === Pattern ===
Grade Words/Sent Syl/Word Words Match % >16
===========================================================================
PS' Guidelines 8-10 15-20 < 1.6 < 10% 90+ < 20%
==========================================================================
Tech. Journals 19 22 2.0 26% 54 64%
Wall St Journal 15 23 1.7 23% 66 39%
New York Times 12 26 1.5 13% 76 27%
USA Today 9 18 1.5 10% 90 6%
People Magazine 8 14 1.5 10% 86 7%
Children's Books 7 14 1.3 8% 64 0%
YOUR Scores-Before % %
YOUR Scores-After % %
==========================================================================

From your Pattern Summary, draw Vertical Lines showing what percent of your
sentences fell at each grade level. Write in your Match/Complexity scores.
+----+-----YOUR Pattern-Before-----+------YOUR Pattern-After-------+
|Match: Complexity: % >16 |Match: Complexity: % >16|
|----------------------------------+-------------------------------|
|50%+| | |
|40% | * | * |
|30% | * | * |
|20% | * | * |
|10% | * | * |
+ 5% +--*-------------------*------+---*-------------------*-------+
Grade: 1-4 8-10 14-16 20+ | 1-4 8-10 14-16 20+
5-7 11-13 17-19 | 5-7 11-13 17-19

====- How Can PS Help You? How your Style Can Handicap Your Ideas -==== 2

The top line (1st table above) shows PS'/PSE's Guidelines (Benchmarks).
They reflect writing styles average adults are comfortable with - styles
which tend to be most 'effective' in business and everyday writing. How
did your scores compare? Which type of writing does your style resemble?

Notice USA Today closely matches PS' guidelines. The New York Times and
the Wall Street Journal, intended for more educated audiences, show more
complex styles. And while we might expect Technical Journals to be more
complex than 'everyday writing,' these were examples of poor technical
writing. More on this below.

In general, your ideas are being handicapped if your writing has:

* An overall Grade Level higher than 8-10
- Many people can deal with text written at higher levels. But
they have to work harder and strain more to grasp your ideas.

* Words with MORE than 1.5 - 1.6 syllables per word,on average. We don't
often think about syllables. "Effective, High Impact Writing" explains.

* A high percentage of complex, 'sesquipedalian' words - 10% or more
- Long, complex words are too abstract to create pictures in the mind.

* More than 15-20 words per sentence, on average
- Long sentences tax one's memory-it's hard to grasp what you're saying.

* A low Personal Index score - less than 30
- 'Writing as you speak' (using personal pronouns, contractions, etc.)
engages your audience, as a good salesperson would.

In addition, PS' Pattern Summary shows whether your writing has variety
(or if your sentences show grade level 'sameness'). The 'Match Score'
measures how closely your pattern of sentences match an 'Ideal' pattern.
A LOW Match Score suggests your writing either lacks variety, or has a
high percentage of complex sentences, or both.

PS'/PSE's Guidelines

PS'/PSE's guidelines are useful for most business and everyday writing.
You say you write for a different audience? The tables above can help you
decide which scores on each scale are most appropriate in your situation.
ALL of PS' guidelines are meant to be used FLEXIBLY. But consider this:

* Business letters, memos and reports often show Grade Levels of 13+.
Their sentences average 25-35 words; and they often come across as
formal, dull and stiff. They lack a conversational style.
* In technical writing we often find Grade Levels of 16+, and 30-40
words/sentence. Yet Bell Labs found GOOD technical writing had
Grade Levels of 10-12! Complex ideas needn't be expressed complexly.
* Popular newspapers and magazines, on the other hand, usually show
Grade Levels of 8-10, with 17-19 words per sentence. Some sentences
are very short, some very long. But they consistently average 17-19.

We don't suggest a "See Spot Run" writing style. A 40 word sentence isn't
wrong. But, Complex sentences, or several long ones in a row can lose your
audience. Nor do we suggest all writing should have the consistent cadence
of a military march. Consistent quality, not monotony, is our goal.

==============- Effective Writing: Your Role, and PS' -============= 3

Pro~Scribe and PS Express are meant as heuristics, to prompt you:
* To think about what you want to say, and how you say it
* To tinker, experiment, revise (from the Latin visus - to see a new way)

PS/PSE can help if you believe you said something worthwhile, worth the
time to improve. They can even help those who feel they communicate
easily and effectively. Most anyone can benefit from periodically run-
ning their work through PS. PS' scrutiny, at least once in awhile,
helps keep our skills sharp, our writing on track, our focus keen.

One of PS' reviewers said, "(PS) won't turn sludge into poetry." Nor
will it turn bad ideas into good. But with a little effort, PS can help
give your writing more clarity, appeal and impact. And improvements can
happen very quickly - especially with PS Express in hand!

What PS/PSE Do For You

PS'/PSE's goal is Effective Communication, not just Good Writing.
Writing is one form of communicating. Yet, what you learn from PS can
help the way we talk (informally), the way we speak (formally), and
even the way we think. The separate "Effective, High Impact Writing"
gives details, and shows how the way we think or feel affects the way
we organize thoughts, choose words, even choose a writing style.

PS, along with Rudolf Flesch, Robert Gunning and William Strunk Jr.,
define effective writing as: easy to understand, elegant, varied and
'written as you'd speak. The more engaging your writing, and the easier
it is to follow, the easier it is for you to get your ideas across. As
Douglas Mueller said, "The less energy your reader wastes decoding your
language, the more he'll have left for your brilliant ideas."

We built PS to give you feedback on whether your writing:
* Is overly complex, or within the reach of your audience
* Is efficient and compact, or full of needless words and jargon
* Has a conversational tone, or comes across as formal and distant

To help you get the most from PS'/PSE's feedback, "Effective, High Impact
Writing" discusses each of the ways PS/PSE look at your writing. It
explains where PS'/PSE's benchmarks come from, how to use them, and how
to set your own benchmarks. It offers tips to improve your writing in
several ways (words, sentences, Word Wasters). And it has more examples
of PS' results for different types of writing - from Kid's Books to
Newspapers to Technical Articles.

=================- PS' Results: What to Focus on -====================
Grade Levels
============
Both PS and PSE show you the overall Grade Level (GL) of your writing.
This is a useful measure of the overall complexity of your writing style.
But, even more helpful is PS' Running Grade Level (RGL) option.
* The RGL shows the complexity of your writing line-by-line.
* If looking at a document with more than 1 page, focus on the RGL.
Even when the overall Grade Level suggests your writing's OK, the
RGL results can reveal sections or lines which need work.

continued . . . .

The Words You Use 4
==================
The complexity of your writing depends on both the words you use and the
length of your sentences. Short sentences can be TOO complex if your
words are complex. Likewise, 40 word sentences aren't wrong, as long as
you don't follow one with several more. This is why the RGL report is so
useful. It focuses on the Complexity your writing - which lines, sen-
tences, or sections are too complex.

Your words strongly influence the complexity of your writing. That's why
PS/PSE gives lots feedback on our words: (#3 & #4 - PS only. #4 <>)

1. Average Number Syllables per Word 2. Percent of Long, Complex Words
3. A list of all complex words found 4. RGL reports flagging complex words

PS/PSE "estimate" the number of syllables in a word by looking at the
patterns of vowels in it. The English language has no fixed rule which
governs how some words are pronounced. For example, sometimes the suffix
"es" is pronounced ("fixes"), sometimes it's not ("likes").

Long, complex words have 9+ letters; they generally have 3+ syllables.
Our definition of 'long' is arbitrary. Some programs flag words with 6
or more characters; some use 10; some focus on words with 13 letters. We
tried to strike a balance, to give you lots of feedback without nagging
you about many common, easily understood words.

So, how long should words be? How many long, complex words can a reader
handle at one time? PS/PSE suggest these guidelines:
* The Number of Syllables per Word should be 1.6 or less, on average
* Long, Complex words should number no more than 10%, on average

===- Do these seem too low? How did you arrive at these guidelines? -===

While the English language has tens of thousands of words, we use far less:
* 500 words make up about 65% of everything we say, write or read!
- This statistic comes from research on the frequency of word use.
* The 500 Most Frequently Used Words are short:
- They have 1.3 syllables, on average.
- 400 have 1-5 letters, 13 (3%) have 8 letters, NONE have 10 or more!
- Examples: (#s show a word's rank order in the word frequency list)

I(1) Was(10) Them(100) Off(200) Pretty(300) Thoughtlessness(86,400)

Still unconvinced? Consider this: Grades by Word Length (17 word sentence).

Syl/word: 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Grade: 5 6 8 12 15 18 21 23 26 28

Sentence Length
===============
PS/PSE suggest sentences range from 15-20 words, on average. But, striving
for specific sentence length is nonsense! Complexity matters, not length.
If your ideas require long, complex words, manage Grade Levels by adding
shorter words to break up consecutive long words - create LONGER sentences.
* Sentence Length is not the problem. Complex sentences are. This is
why the RGL options are valuable - they show complexity line-by-line.
* Several long sentences in a row can frustrate and tire a reader.
* In general, readers grasp short sentences more easily than long ones.
Master both for variety, punctuation and style.

Word Wasters 5
============
We all make writing mistakes - at least once in awhile. And there are
several different 'traps' we fall into. We call these traps Word Wasters -
words or phrases that are wordy, confusing, often misused, or just plain
unnecessary. We group them into 5 categories: (Examples shown in quotes)

* Wasted Words - using many words when 1-2 would do - "Please make an
attempt .." when "Please try .." would do just fine
* Misused Words - often just wrong - "Irregardless", "Prioritize"
* Tongue Waggers - complex words when simple ones will do - "Erroneous"
instead of "Wrong"
* Verbs-To-Nouns - turning verbs into nouns, often by adding 'ize,' 'ment'
or 'tion' - "Finalize," "Placement," "Consideration"
* Passive Voice - lifeless, confusing, often obscuring who is taking
action - "At your earliest convenience, contact me by
phone." is weak and wordy compared with "Call me soon."

Each of these writing errors complicates our ideas. And every word that
doesn't support your purpose wastes a reader's time, weakens their interest.

PS scans your work for Word Wasters (up to 200), then shows which were
found, and how often they appeared. It also gives you tips and comments -
what's wrong, what to use instead. See "Customizing PS' Word Wasters"
for details on how to customize these Word Wasters to suit your own needs.

=====================- Effective Writing in Summary- =====================

Effective writing, communicating well, has elements of both art and science.
You may find you only have a few things to work on. Or you may find improv-
ing your writing requires changing the way you THINK (better organized,
more forceful, take more risks). This is not insignificant.
* Choose 1-2 things that MOST deserve attention, set priorities. Develop
a strategy, and focus on these until PS/PSE show they're going away.
* When satisfied with your progress, choose 1-2 more.
* And beware overload and action-paralysis. PS and PSE give you lots of
specific feedback about the art and science of your writing.
- Too much feedback can overwhelm, paralyze, lead to inaction.
- Select what to look at based on your needs and strategy.

Some Final Comments (See Effective, High-Impact Writing for more)

* Short sentences are NOT our goal; avoiding difficult ones is.
- Indeed, short sentences may be Very Hard to grasp (have high
Grade Levels) if they have several long, complex words.
- 40 word sentences aren't wrong, as long as they're not complex, or
followed by several more '40 worders.'

* Likewise, we DON'T urge you to avoid long words - they carry much
of our meaning, our ideas. But, writing is easier to follow, is
less tiring, when you mix long, complex words with short words.

* Finally, consistency is CONTRARY to our objective of variety.
- We would argue for consistent quality, consistent effectiveness.
- But effective writing has both short AND long sentences, intermixed
for variety and style.
- When in doubt, when you want to drive home a major point, strive for
low Grade Levels - compact sentences, each word carefully chosen.

====================- Deciding What to Analyze -==================== 6

You can analyze as much text as you like. But, now that PSE is available,
we urge you to use paragraphs or sections as the unit of analysis. We urge
you NOT to focus on sentences, and NOT to rely too much on analyses of
large reports, chapters, books, etc. (except with RGL reports).
* PSE makes it easy to analyze small sections, even single sentences.
- Occasionally it's useful to look at a sentence.
- But frequently looking at single sentences may lead to monotony -
lines one after another with the same style and rhythm.
* Focus on paragraphs or sections to focus on ideas and strategies.
- Your purpose drives your writing strategy which drives PS' results.
This means the purpose or theme of the section may affect the style
you choose, which in turn will affect the results you expect from PS.
- Editing and revising are often easier when your goals and strategy
are clearly in mind - when you can see ideas form and conclude.
- Editing sections is less tiring and frustrating than dealing with
large portions of text. Use PSE regularly; edit sections as you go.
This may eliminate the time-consuming write/edit/re-write cycle.
* Analyzing entire reports, chapters, books, etc.:
- IS helpful to see if you make the same types of writing mistakes
throughout. It helps you see patterns.
- But, overall results (eg., Grade Levels) may not be very useful.
They can mask the fact that some sections are quite easy to grasp,
while others are very difficult - the Average looks fine.

For these reasons, we urge you to use PSE to focus on paragraphs and
sections. Then use PS to look at the whole thing - paying close
attention to Running Grade Level (RGL) and Pattern summaries.

=====================- What PS & PSE Need From You -=====================

PS and PSE must be able to accurately count words, sentences and syllables.
WORDS: are counted by looking for a SPACE after each word.
* Be sure each word/punctuation mark is followed by a space.
* Words with hyphens (-) count as 1 word. Numbers count as 1 word.
"SENTENCES:" are "end-of-sentence" marks (.?!;) FOLLOWED by a space.
* By "sentence" we mean a "complete thought." So end-of-sentence
marks includes ";" as well as ".?!".
* Remove punctuation from abbreviations (e.g. type "Dr" not "Dr.").
If you don't, they'll COUNT AS SENTENCES. ($9.95 is OK -- NO Space)
SYLLABLES: are counted by looking for vowels. This count is "approximate."
* The English language has no fixed rule which governs how many words
are pronounced - 'es' is a syllable in 'Fixes' but not 'Likes.'

The 'dot' commands some word processors use (eg., WordStar) should not
affect your results - they're periods, but aren't followed by a space.
Similarly, both PS and PSE ignore or 'strip' graphic or control charac-
ters before they analyze. These control symbols are often used by word
processors for underlining, bolding and formatting. Ignoring/stripping
them ensures they don't distort results. It may also mean text prints
differently when you ask for Running Grade Level reports.

But, some things may distort results.
* Numbered or lettered sections (A. or 1.) are sentences - period+space.
* Section headings or chapter titles: 1) Count as sentences; OR, 2) Are
treated as part of the next sentence - depending on if they end in .?;!

These distortions may not be serious for a long piece. Their affects can
be strong with short sections.
============================================
SECTION 3: Let's Go 7
============================================

Pro~Scribe has three menus:

Options - [B]egin Analyses, view Help Screens, or Exit to DOS
Analysis - Choose to [T]ype Text in Directly of [I]mport a File
Results - Look at different sets of results

Options Menu

Choose options by pressing the 1st letter of the option you want - shown
in brackets or highlighted. For example, at the Options Menu, press [B] to
[B]egin Analyses. Help Screens are available at the Options Menu, or when
you're entering/importing text, viewing results or looking for synonyms.

Analysis Menu

When you press [B]egin Analyses, PS asks if you want to [T]ype text in
Directly, or [I]mport a File (ASCII or WordStar files are fine). To import
a file, just enter a file name, or press [F5] to choose from a directory.

Results Menu (PS examines your writing twice)

PS very quickly analyzes your writing and displays a Results Summary.
While you're looking at these results, PS quickly scans your text again.
This 2nd pass is to find the long, complex words you used, and to count
how often each appeared. (Press any key to stop/abort the second pass.)
* When the 1st pass starts, PS displays its Results Screen showing: how
far along it is (% Completed), and the # Words/Sentences it's found.
* In a few seconds, PS displays your Results, and begins pass #2.
* When pass #2 ends, PS displays your Results Options:

[R]GL [C]omplex Words [W]ord Wasters [P]rint Results [H]elp [Q]uit


We'll discuss your Results Options shortly. Here are some guidelines
for Typing in text or Importing files.

=====================- Typing Text in Directly -===================== 8

You can type or "PowerType" text into Pro~Scribe. Either way, your text
is saved in a file called Txt.Tmp. This is important for several reasons:

1. Be sure there's enough room on the default drive to hold your text.
Rule of thumb: # of lines times 80 (for 20 lines you need 1600 bytes)
2. Once you've looked at your results, edit Txt.Tmp with your word
processor. Edit sentences and words, or asterisk (*) words to
control PS' analyses. Then Import Txt.Tmp to see results.
3. To save a long piece, enter sections, rename Txt.Tmp each time
(eg., Sec1), then "concatenate" the sections. Example:
COPY SEC1 + SEC2 ALLTEXT. (See COPY in your DOS manual)
4. To save your work, RENAME Txt.Tmp - it'll be re-used next time.

Tips & Guidelines ( means press Return or Enter)
* Use a style that's comfortable - all caps, upper/lower case, etc.
* Press at the end of each line, or enter up to 254 characters.
* Asterisk (*) words to tell PS/PSE to treat them as 1-syllable words.
* If you want to analyze a long piece, and you can't import it, we
recommend you enter 3-4 samples (about 10-15 lines each), then
average the results. Just be sure the samples were "randomly chosen."
* Press F1+ for Help. Edit keys are at the bottom of your screen.
* When you press , the line you just typed is IMMEDIATELY stored.
You can't re-edit it. So look over each line before pressing .
* To see your results, type a space after the last end-of-sentence mark,
then press 2-3 times.

PowerTyping

"PowerTyping" refers to using other programs to "Cut & Paste" text from,
say, your word processor's screen into PS. Programs offering Cut & Paste
include SideKick (NotePad), DESQview (Mark & Transfer), Snipper (a free,
'public domain' program from PC Magazine), and others.

PowerTyping lets you "type" text into PS without having to type it at all.
It makes it very easy to analyze sections of a longer document without
having to manually type in each section. And it's FAST! In tests we ran,
we listed 20 Lines of text on the screen, copied them into SideKick's
Notepad, ran PS from a "cold start", PowerTyped in the 20 lines, and were
viewing results - ALL WITHIN 90 SECONDS! DESQview took 25 seconds for
the same test - PS was already running in one of DESQview's windows.

If you plan to use PS a lot, and DON'T have one these programs, we urge
you to get one. Grab Snipper. Consider DESQview - its advantage: BOTH
your word processor and PS can be running at the same time in different
"windows." You can run sections of text through PS, see the results, then
switch back to your word processor to edit your text, or mark some more.

Notes on PowerTyping : : :
* PowerTyping has the advantages of PSE, but gives you full power of PS.
* Be sure your text does NOT have 2 or more consecutive blank lines. Two
in a row tell PS you're DONE TYPING. PS will treat letters that fol-
low as "commands" not text. No damage but lots of beeping will occur.
* DESQView and SideKick let you add more and more text to what's
already marked. Snipper works with '1 screenful' at a time.
* If PS has trouble with your word processor's files, and your word
processor can't save ASCII files, SideKick, DESQview, etc. could
allow you to easily PowerType sections (or ALL) of your file into PS.

===================- Importing an Existing File -=================== 9

Pro~Scribe works with ASCII, WordStar or WordStar-compatible files. PS &
PSE strip out or ignore most embedded control characters word processors
use for formating, underlining, etc. (This is internal, your disk file
is unaffected.) If you use a word processor other than WordStar, you
have four options. (Also, see the next point.)
* Try Importing a file. PS may be able to handle it as-is.
* If Pro~Scribe has trouble with it, go back to your word processor.
- Most word processors have an option to save files in ASCII format.
Save it in ASCII (use a new name to preserve formats), then Import it.
* If you still have trouble getting word-processed text into PS, you
can type all or sections of it into PS. OR, . . .
* You can "PowerType" sections of your text, or the whole thing. Be
sure to read the section on "PowerTyping" on the last page.
* Finally, you could BEGIN by typing text into PS, perhaps in sections.
Since PS saves what you enter in Txt.Tmp, you can later load it into
your word processor - for editing and final formatting. Just be sure
to rename Txt.Tmp if you want it saved - PS will reuse it next time.

Use a word processor other than WordStar?
We asked Microsoft and WordPerfect Corp. for information on their file
formats. If they respond, and if we can, we'll build in compatibility
with other major word processors.
* If you can shed light on word processor file formats, drop us a note.
* PS' results may be OK - even if PS can't handle everything your
word processor stores in its files.
- PS does strip control and graphics characters
- Occasionally an extra word or a few extra sentence marks creep in.
In a long piece, these matter little - their effects are minimal.
For short pieces, use PSE for numerical analyses, and PS for
Running Grade Levels, or to highlight Complex Words/Word Wasters.
- These extra words/characters may affect formatting of text when
PS prints Running Grade Levels. But, the format is less important
than the RGL results.

Tips & Guidelines ( means press Return or Enter)

* At the Analysis Menu you'll be asked for file name to Import.
- Include a Drive and Directory if the file's not on the current drive.
-- If the Drive+Directory+Filename requires more space than is
provided, don't worry. PS scrolls the line as you type.
- To choose from a directory of file names, just Press [F5].
-- PS asks for the Drive and Directory to search. Press for
a directory of the Current drive.
-- PS also asks "Which Files?" Press to list all files. Or,
use Wildcards (* or ?) to search for specific types of files.
For example, enter '*.DOC' for files with a "DOC" extension.
-- Use cursor keys to move to the file you want, and press .

* To analyze SECTIONS of a text file, you have four options:
(1) Focus on RGL reports - a Line-by-Line summary of your writing.
(2) Many word processors let you "mark" sections or blocks of text
and "write them out to disk." You could do this with several
sections of a longer file, then Import each section.
(3) "PowerTyping" on the last page describes ways to "cut & paste"
sections of text off your screen, and PowerType them into PS.
(4) As a last resort, you can type each section into PS.

=============- Asterisks to Control PS'/PSE's Results -============= 10

Any word beginning with an asterisk (*): will count as a 1-Syllable
word regardless of its actual length. In other words, it's IGNORED
when syllables are counted, and, therefore, won't be counted as a
Sesquipedalian word. << There must be NO space between the asterisk
and the word - for example: *Sesquipedalian. >>

<> The next PS version lets you create a separate file of
long words you feel your audience understands. We'll give you a running
start with long words which are part of everyday English (eg., 'sometimes').
PS shouldn't nag you about such words. Now, if you include them in PS'
FREQUENT.WRD file, PS won't.

How Does This Help Me?

Suppose a long word appears many times in your text. (Examples:
Company names: "Harnisphluggel;" technical terms: "mesenterium"). You
think your audience understands it. Or you think they figured it out
the first time it appeared. If left untouched, PS and PSE would add to
the syllable count (4 or 5 in the examples) each time the word was
found - making your text seem less readable than it is.

To avoid this distortion, after the word appears once, 'asterisk it'
whenever it appears again (or put it in Frequent.Wrd). Your word pro-
cessor's Search and Replace function makes it easy to asterisk words.

You Should Also Know.....

To ensure that PS and PSE correctly count words, syllables and sentences,
they "strip" or ignore all graphics characters, non-essential punctuation,
blank lines, and characters with ASCII values below 32. What remains are
the letters A-Z, numbers, and a few other characters. You may notice the
effects of this in two areas:

(1) If you ask that your text be printed (with RGL), blank lines
(like those found between paragraphs) won't normally be printed.
And formatting may differ from your original (eg., Tabs missing.)
(2) If you ask to see Complex Sesquipedalian Words, they may not appear
quite as you typed them.

============- Pro~Scribe's Results & Your Results Options -============ 11

PS scans your text twice. It quickly does the first scan, then displays
a Results Summary and the phrase 'Scanning for Complex, Sesquipedalian
Words.' You may 'Press Any Key' to abort the 2nd scan for complex words.
Here's an example of PS' Results Summary:

+--------------------------- Results Summary --------------------------+
|Overall |Very Complex | Difficult | OK for Average Adults | Simple | |
|Summary:::: |___________________________________________#_______________| |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grade Level 8 | +-----[ Index Summary ]-----+ |
| Flesch Index 84 |P 0|______+______+______+_#____|100 G|
| Personal Interest Index 58 |O 0|______+______+_#____+______|100 O|
|Percent Sesquipedalian Words 8 |O 15|______+____#_+______+______|0 O|
|Avg. # of Syllables Per Word 1.3|R 2.3|______+______+_____#+______|1.0 D|
|Avg. # of Words Per Sentence 16 | 18|_____#+______+______+______|7 |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Sentences: 278 Words: 4448 Personal Words: 6% Word Wasters: 14 |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The Results Options menu appears at the bottom of your screen. It looks
like this; we'll return to it shortly.

[R]GL [C]omplex Words [W]ord Wasters [P]rint Results [H]elp [Q]uit

=======================- Interpreting your Results -=======================
PS' Results Summary shows your results numerically and graphically. The
graphs make it easy to see at a glance if a score is on the Poor/Low or
Good/High ends of a scale.

These scales help you decide "IF" your writing needs work
=========================================================
Overall This graph is based on the overall Grade Level. Labels
Summary 'describe' the meaning of the GL; interpret them like this:
* Very Complex = Ph.D.s may follow you (but may not)
* OK = OK for most average adults
* Simple = Usually Grade Levels below 6-7. For Kids?

Grade 12=High school 16=College 17+=Watch out! 999=Who wrote this?
Level * 999 means text is extremely complex.
* Grade Level is based on the Flesch Index

Flesch This normally ranges from 0-100. But, it can be negative
Index (very complex text), or exceed 100 (very simple text).
* The Flesch Index is often used to evaluate text books.
* It's gaining popularity in business and other settings.
* Rudolf Flesch wrote widely on clear, effective writing.

Personal This is a variation of another Flesch idea. 'Writing as
Interest you speak' raises your Personal Interest score. Your score
Index is HIGH when you:
- Use personal pronouns and contractions - I, he, can't
- Use words showing gender - Sister, Father, Brother
* To Interpret: 5 = Dull, 40 = Interesting, 90+ = I'm yours!
* 'Personal Words,' at the bottom of the Results Summary,
shows what percentage of your words matched these types.
- A moderate/high percentage of Personal Words (8% +)
gives text an interesting, friendly appeal

These scales help you decide "WHAT" to fix. 12
===========================================
Avg. # of A number higher than 1.6 may mean your words are too heavy -
Syllables/Word too many complex words given your average sentence length.
- If your goal is to reduce Grade Level, focus on this 1st.
It has the strongest effect on Grade Level. You can:
1) Find easier synonyms for complex words; or,
2) Add shorter words to LENGTHEN your sentences - to
break up consecutive, complex words, or giving the
reader a break from their effects.

Percentage of These are long, complex words - 8+ characters/3+ syllables
Sesquipedalian - A score of 10% or more suggests: "Get out the thesaurus"
Words - too many complex words for the length sentences you use.
- Press [C]omplex Words to see which complex words were
found, and how often each appeared.
- After viewing all complex words, you can press [F5] to
view "3 pages of synonyms" for about 150 long words.

Avg. # Words A number higher than 15-20 words/sentence may suggest
Per Sentence a problem - at least for business and everyday writing.
- But, complexity is more important than length - LOOK AT
the Running Grade Level (shows complexity line-by-line)
- Focus first on difficult sentences, then long ones.

Finally, PS' Results Summary shows the number or percentage of Words,
Sentences, Personal Words, and Word Wasters found in your writing.


MORE IMPORTANT than the Results Summary, however, are the RGL and
Word Waster options. They're useful even when the Results Summary
suggests everything's OK. RGL (Running Grade Level) reports should
become your most vital tool. Why? See the next page.


===========================- Results Options -======================== 13

While viewing PS' Results Summary screen, you have these options:

[R]GL [C]omplex Words [W]ord Wasters [P]rint Results [H]elp [Q]uit

===========================================
Use, Use, Use RGL and Pattern Summaries
===========================================

Earlier we suggested:
* Short sentences are NOT the objective; avoiding difficult ones is.
* Effective writing is varied, not consistent (monotonous in style)

PS' Running Grade Level (RGL) and Pattern reports speak to these. And
they may become indispensable to you! They help you spot which sections
or sentences are complex ("What" to fix), and which are OK. They let you:
* See the complexity of your writing line-by-line, section-by-section
* Print text (on screen or printer) with RGLs beside each sentence/line.
* See at a glance the complexity of hundreds of lines of text.
* See the overall Pattern of your writing:
- Variety: Do you use a mix of sentence styles, or risk monotony
by limiting your style.
- Pattern Match: How closely your mix of styles matches an 'ideal.'
- Complexity: The percentage of sentences with grade levels > 16.

<> The RGL option will also flag Complex Words and Word
Wasters Line-by-Line. This will make it MUCH EASIER to edit your work -
a quick glance will tell IF it needs work, and WHAT to fix!

Press [R]GL at the Results Options menu, and PS will ask you:

* [T]ext and Graph? - text printed on your screen with Grade Levels
beside it (you can also send it to your printer). When done print-
ing the text, PS will show you a...
* [G]raphic Report? - a summary of up to 156 sentences/lines showing
very clearly which sections are complex, and where several complex
thoughts are bunched.

When you ask for [T]ext and Graph:
* PS asks if you want text plus RGL printed on your printer.
* PS prints about 20 lines on your screen, then pauses. Press [N]on Stop
to move quickly to the middle or end of a document. If you press
[N]on Stop, you can 'Press any key to pause.'

While viewing the RGL Graphics report, PS asks you to:
Press: [P]attern Summary or [Q]uit

The Pattern Summary shows: 1) If your writing has variety; 2) If you
tend to use a similar style sentence-after-sentence; and, 3) Complexity -
the percent of sentences with Grade Levels over 16. The Match score com-
pares the variety in your writing to an 'ideal pattern' - a few at grades
1-4, a few above grade 13, but most in the range of 5-10.

The next page has examples of both RGL and Pattern Graphs.

How Do the RGL & Pattern Graphs Help ME? 14

Earlier, under 'PS: A Brief Overview' we showed you PS' results for
samples of various publications. Here are RGL and Pattern Summaries for 2
extremes - kid's books & technical articles (condensed to fit side-by-side.)
RGL For: RGL For:
=========== ===========
Kid's Books (Grade Level = 7) | Technical Journals (Grade = 18)
+----------------------------------|------------------------------------+
| | IIIIIII II II <- Grade=20+|
| |II I IIIIIIIIIIIII III |
| |II I IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII |
|----------------------------------|II-I--IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII-------------|
|.= . |II=I =IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII= |
|.=.... . . .. ... |II=I.=IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII= |
|.=..... . .. . ........ |II=I.=IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII= |
|.=..................... |II=I.=IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII= |
+==================================|====================================+

Note the consistency (low variety) in both. Note in the technical writing
the reader gets few breaks - writing is heavy line-after-line. Does YOUR
writing resemble this? Do sections? What would you do about it?

Pattern Summary
===============
Match: 66 Complexity: 0% >16 | Match: 54 Complexity: 64% >16
|----+-----------------------------|-------------------------------|
|50%+| I <-- 72% of sentences | |
| | I | |
|40% | I * <-- Ideal Pattern| * 40% --> I |
| | I | I |
|30% | * | * I |
| | I | I I I |
|20% | I I * | * I I I |
| | I I | I I I |
|10% | I I I * | I * I I |
+----+--*-------------------*------+---*-------------------*-------+
Grade: 1-4 8-10 14-16 20+ | 1-4 8-10 14-16 20+
5-7 11-13 17-19 | 5-7 11-13 17-19

Both patterns show low variety - the 'horizontal' spread is narrow. This
shows up in Match scores - comparing the pattern against an 'ideal.' Note
the ideal suggests a mixture of sentences - simple, complex, and moderate.
Match scores for these examples were 66 and 54 - Low and Very Low. And
note in the technical writing, 64% of the sentences had Grades > 16!

In summary, the RGL and Pattern graphs show the 'landscape' of your writing
- is there variety in your style, where text is complex, if it fits your
audience. They're particularly useful when analyzing a long piece. Here,
overall results may not reveal variety and differences in complexity.

LIMITATIONS
* To allow room for the RGL, the 1st 72 columns of text are printed.
* The RGL appears whenever at least one end-of-sentence (EOS) mark is
found. It reflects ALL text since the last EOS mark.
- If 2+ EOS marks appear in a line, the RGL will be based on ALL sen-
tences found. Examine the line; see if one's more complex than others.
- The RGL may mislead with sentence 'fragments' - the last words of a
paragraph falling on a new line. Usually, just ignore these.

===========================================
Complex, Sesquipedalian Words 15
===========================================

When you press [C]omplex Words at PS' Results Options menu, PS displays
the words it found with 9+ letters/3+ syllables (approx.). We call these
"Sesquipedalian Words." You might want to consider synonyms for them.

"Effective, High Impact Writing" suggests you ignore this option.

PS and PSE are imperfect; neither flag SHORT, complex/unusual words. They
miss 'fissile' and 'oblate spheroid' - which may slow a reader. Conversely
some words PS flags may not seem complex to you. We opted to print more
rather than fewer words to give you as much feedback as possible. If you
think a word's simple, not complex, you can ignore it, or:
* Revise your text to place an asterisk in front of it; then, re-run PS.
- The asterisk tells PS 'treat me as a 1-syllable word.'
- Your word processor's Search and Replace function makes this easy.
- You can do the same with PSE while inside your word processor.

<> Use the FREQUENT.WRD file to customize PS. PS won't nag
you about words found in this file. Include words familiar to YOUR audi-
ence, or long words common to everyday English (eg., sometimes).

PS prints a maximum of 200 Sesquipedalian Words. The first 18 characters
are printed. Numbers in parentheses show how often a word was found.
The "Percent Sesquipedalian Words" may not always coincide with the # of
Complex words printed. PS' 2nd pass is more particular about what it flags.

Synonyms
Once complex words are highlighted, you can decide if you should look for
easier-to-understand synonyms. Press [H]elp to see the List of Synonyms -
'3 pages' of synonyms for about 150 words. This list is NOT intended as
a complete thesaurus. Rather, it's to give you a better idea of the
'types' of improvements you might want to consider, to get you started.

===========================================
Word Wasters
===========================================

Word Wasters are words or phrases which are: weak, wrong or wordy. The
last line of your Results Summary shows how many Word Wasters PS found.
See "Customizing PS' Word Wasters" to add your own/change PS' Word
Wasters. Press [W]ord Wasters and PS displays: (Note example below)
* Each Word Waster found (in the order they appear in file Wasted.Wrd)
* How often each word was found
* A comment, often suggesting how to revise

--- 5 Example(s) of Wasted Words. (# = how often phrase was found)---

1 THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT... WW Use -No doubt or Doubtless-
2 THE FACT THAT............ WW Use -Since or Because-
1 CALL YOUR ATTENTION TO... WW Use -Remind you, Show you, or Point out-
1 FORESEEABLE FUTURE....... WW Fuzzy cliche. Be more specific
(WW, TW, VtN, MW or PV refer to one of PS' 5 Word Waster categories.)

If PS finds more Word Wasters than fit on one screen, it pauses until you
press a key. If you want 'hardcopy' of your Word Wasters, make sure your
printer is on. Also ensure: 1) your printer is set to the top of the
page (nothing in the buffer); and, 2) you're using fixed spaced (Not pro-
portionally spaced) fonts. Then press [Shift-PrtSc].

=========================================================
Customizing PS' Word Wasters 16
=========================================================

You may change/add to PS' list of Word Wasters by editing file Wasted.Wrd.

* Include your own 'pets'-jargon/phrases you want to avoid.
* Have a particular problem you want help with? Just load PS up with many
examples of the mistakes you often make. PS will help you eradicate them.
* Want to eliminate the jargon or fuzzy language in your business, depart-
ment or classroom? Add your own phrases, then ask your staff to run
all their work through PS.
* Do you edit other peoples' work? Add the jargon they use, the types of
mistakes they make. Then send them PS' results with your comments.
* Change the Comments - make them stronger or more specific.

PS loads Word Wasters from a file called Wasted.Wrd (which PS must find
in the same directory as PS.Exe and PSHelp.Scr). Wasted.Wrd is in ASCII
format, which nearly any word processor/editor can read and edit.

* BEFORE editing it, make a backup copy!! BE SURE you save it in ASCII.
If not, your editor may embed formatting symbols that'll throw PS off.

* 1-9 RESERVED. PS won't read the 1st 9 lines. These are tips for you.

* PS reads Wasted.Wrd until: It reads 200 Word Wasters; OR, it finds 2
ampersands (@@) in columns 1-2, whichever comes first.
- You can TURN OFF PS' Word Waster feature by putting @@ on line 10.
- The last line in Wasted.Wrd looks something like this (Note @@@@@@)
@@@@@@ 200 (Maximum) Reached - Don't move or change this line @@@@@@

* Your list of Word Wasters MUST begin on Line 10.

* Each line has 2 parts: The Word Waster (Phrase) to scan for, and Comment.
- They MUST BE: Enclosed in quotes (""), Separated by a comma. Example:
"Acknowledge receipt of", "WW Use -We got, We received-"
"Not in a position to", "WW Use -Can't- as in -We can't-"
- The Phrase PS searches for is on the left. Comments are on the right.
- The COMMA between them tells PS it reached the end of the Phrase.
- The QUOTES around them ensure that commas inside (see 1st Comment)
aren't treated as the 'end' of a Phrase or Comment.
- Avoid punctuation! And be sure to use Quotes ONLY to surround.
DON'T use apostrophes ('); use hyphens instead to delimit.
- For NO Comment, type double quotes like this - "Your Phrase",""

* The 'WW' in Comments above: The key to 1 of our 5 Word Waster categories

* MAXIMUM # of Characters: Phrase: 35 (27 printed) Comment: 47

Wasted.Wrd has about 150 Word Wasters, and many lines like this - "","".
To add your own phrases, just move your cursor between the quotes and type.
If you reach the 200-phrase limit, and want to add more, scan Wasted.Wrd
for phrases you rarely/never use. Replace these with your own.

===========================================
Printing Results 17
===========================================

Press [P]rint Results to print PS' Results Summary on your printer. PS
will ask "Want Sesquipedalian Words printed also?" Press [Y]es or [N]o.

PS checks your printer (LPT1 only) to see if it's on, has paper, etc.
If not, you'll see "Check Printer. When ready, press a key. [Esc]=Quit."
To abort printing, press [Esc].

Printing other results was covered in the appropriate section.
* Press [R]GL at the Results Options Menu to print your Text-with-RGL
* Press [Shift-PrtSc] to print Word Wasters when shown on your screen

PS has no option to print RGL or Pattern Summaries. Shift-PrtSc may work.
But many printers don't support the 'screen graphics' characters PS uses.

SUGGESTION:
Print all PS results with Fixed Spaced (NOT proportionally spaced) fonts.
PS' charts look terrible when printed with proportional fonts.

=================- Ingredients of Writing As You Speak -=================

'Writing As You Speak' raises your Personal Interest Index. "Effective,
High Impact Writing" has a complete section on this. It lists the in-
gredients of 'Talking on Paper.' PS scans for 65-70 of these - personal
pronouns, contractions, and gender-specific words. The pronouns include:

I, Me, My, Mine He, Him, His She, Her, Hers
They, Them, Their, Theirs You, Your, Yours We, Us, Our, Ours
Also included are contractions like - I'm, He's, She's, and You're

PS also scans for contractions like - can't, won't, shouldn't and wouldn't.
Gender-specific terms include - father, mother, brother, etc.

==============- Additional Reading On Effective Writing -===============

For further help improving your writing style, consider these books. Find
them: In soft or hard cover editions, at libraries or book stores.

AUTHOR BOOK TITLE
====== =============================
Rudolf Flesch * How to Write Plain English
* Say What You Mean
* The Art of Readable Writing
* Rudolf Flesch on Business
Communications
* Why Johnny Can't Read - And
What You Can Do About It
* How to Write, Speak and Think
More Effectively
Richard Lanham * Revising Prose
Robert Gunning * Take the Fog Out of Writing
* More Effective Writing in
Business and Industry
William Strunk Jr. * The Elements of Style
Joseph Williams * Style

========================- LIMITED LICENSE -======================== i

Pro~Scribe is "user-supported" software. But it's NOT "freeware."
We grant you a limited license to use Pro~Scribe (PS) only in the
manner described below. You may not modify or alter PS in any way
without our prior written approval.

Permission to Use and Copy Pro~Scribe

If you ARE a registered user of Pro~Scribe:
- You sent your registration fee
- As a BONUS for registering, we sent you the latest versions of
both PS and PSE (we usually include other goodies as well).
- You're granted a full license to use PS for both personal and
business purposes. We'll try to inform you of updates to PS/PSE.
- You may give away ONE copy of the PS version we sent you to a
friend or associate. If they decide to continue using PS, they're
required to register (Fee: $25, or $35 for the latest PS version.
Why a lower, $25 fee? Because we needn't send out another copy.)

If you're NOT a registered user:
- You're granted a limited license to try Pro~Scribe out for a limited
trial period. If, after this trial period, you want to continue
using Pro~Scribe, you must register as described below.
- Running PS 15-20 different times should allow you to decide if PS
will be useful. Therefore the trial period is set at 20 PS sessions.
PS will pause when you run it beyond this period.

Bulletin board SYSOPS, computer clubs, and shareware distributors are
encouraged to copy/distribute the user-supported version of PS, provided:
(1) It's distributed UNmodified (All files & Copyright notices intact)
(2) You include all files mentioned in ReadME.Bat including: PS.Exe,
PSHelp.Scr, Wasted.Wrd, PSManual.Doc, Whats.New, Quick.Ref, etc.
(3) You charge nothing for the software manuals, etc. You may charge
up to $10.00 to cover distribution and handling.
(4) You clearly state your fee is NOT payment or registration for
the software.
(5) You clearly encourage contributions/registration by stating that
continued use justifies sending contributions to the developer.
(6) The copy you have does not state distribution is prohibited.

#########################################################################
# EACH COPY USED IN A CORPORATION, BUSINESS OR TRADE MUST BE REGISTERED.#
#########################################################################
This means, if you're using PS for any business purpose or in
the context of conducting business, you are required to register and
submit the registration fee for each copy used.

TO REGISTER Pro~Scribe......
A registration form is at the end of this manual. To receive the
latest versions of PS/PSE send $35 with your Name, Address and Zip Code
to the address below. To register a copy of Pro~Scribe (and NOT receive
the latest version or manual), registration is $25. (Please add $2/copy
for postage & handling. CA. residents, please add 6% sales tax.)

RWS & Associates 132 Alpine Terrace San Francisco, Ca. 94117

TWO QUESTIONS ABOUT REGISTERING.... ii

IF I GOT A COPY FOR NOTHING, WHY SHOULD I PAY A REGISTRATION FEE?
or,
I GOT MM FROM A COMPANY THAT "SELLS" SHAREWARE PROGRAMS.
I PAID THEM FOR MM. WHY SHOULD I REGISTER WITH YOU?

These are good questions. Here's a response. (Our response applies
to user-supported software in general, not just PS.)

PS is distributed as 'user-supported' software. You can 'try it out' to
see if it suits your needs BEFORE paying for it. And 'user-supported'
software is often a terrific value - you pay only for the software, not
the overhead of advertising, handling, etc. Finally, your contribution
makes it possible for us to continue developing ideas, and offering the
results to you at reasonable prices.

These efforts are made possible because people like you (1) are honest;
and, (2) understand that developers will stop 'sharing' their work if
they receive no support. In short, if you fail to even acknowledge con-
tributions other people make (say 'Thanks'), or support their efforts
(even modestly), the spigot will be turned off. The only one to lose
will be you (and the 'shareware distributors'). Since you made no
contribution anyway, the developer loses nothing.

In response to the second question, many firms now "sell" user-supported
software (or shareware). They charge you a fee for their time, and for
the cost of sending you a disk. NONE of the fee you give them goes to
the person who developed the software. So when you pay $2.00 - $5.00
for a disk full of software, you are NOT supporting the person who's time
was spent conceiving of and developing ideas you're now finding useful.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY AND LIMITED WARRANTY
This product is provided "AS IS" without warranty of any kind. The
entire risk as to the results and performance of this product is
assumed by you. We warrant only that any disk(s) we send you is free
from physical defects and workmanship under normal use and service
for a period of 90 days from the date shipped.

Our entire liability and your exclusive remedy as to the disk shall
be, at our option, to either (1) return the purchase price or (2)
replace disks which don't meet our limited warranty.

Neither Pro~Formance nor RWS & Associates, nor any of their officers
or employees shall be held responsible for: failures of this program
to satisfy any needs, damages due to using MM, or any effects the
use of this program has on you, your business or operations.

PS, its manual and its support files may be modified or changed from
time to time. PS may contain operational inaccuracies or typographical
errors which may be corrected by future versions if any. Registered
owners may be notified of available updates. We reserve the option to
modify PS and registration fees. Send correspondence to:

RWS & Associates 132 Alpine Terrace San Francisco, Ca. 94117

+-------------------------+ iii
| Pro~Scribe |
| TO ORDER AND REGISTER |
------------------------+-------------------------+------------------------
To: RWS & Associates,

Enclosed is my registration for Pro~Scribe/PS Express. Please (check one):

__________ Send _____ copies of the latest versions of PS and PS Express
($35 per copy + $2 postage/handling enclosed)
**________ Register the copy I have. Register me as a contributing user
($25 enclosed - We WON'T send latest versions of PS or PSE)
__________ Send ______ copies of the latest version of P~F Mail,
your mailing assistant. ($40. P~F Mail is a Must-Have!)


Name: ____________________________________________

Company: ____________________________________________

Street Address: ____________________________________________

City/State/Zip: ____________________________________________

Phone (optional but helpful): ( ) _______-_____________

I enclosed: $___________ ($35 +$2/Copy to receive the latest version)
** ($25 to register 1 copy/not receive latest ver.)

(Please add + $2 per copy postage/handling. Ca. Residents: Add 6% Sales Tax.)

Those sending $35 will receive latest versions of Pro~Scribe and PS Express.
------------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------
Please send your Order/Registration form, (and any comments/suggestions) to:

RWS & Associates Please make your check payable to:
132 Alpine Terrace
San Francisco, Ca. 94117 RWS & Associates
------------------------+-------------------------+------------------------
(PLEASE ANSWER) The Version # on the copy of Pro~Scribe I Have is:

My Computer's a: Monitor: Color/Mono Printer:

Where did you get your copy of Pro~Scribe? (If from a BBS, Which one?)


What could we do to improve Pro~Scribe - make it more useful/easier to use?


What have you LIKED MOST about using Pro~Scribe?


What have you DISLIKED about using Pro~Scribe?


Use the other side if you need more space for your comments
. . . . .Thank you for taking the time to comment. . . . . .


  3 Responses to “Category : Word Processors
Archive   : PROSCRIB.ZIP
Filename : PSMANUAL.DOC

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: http://www.os2museum.com/wp/mtswslnk/