Contents of the PCOWP.DOC file
Copyright (c) 1988 by David Seidman
All Rights Reserved
September 5, 1988
PCOWP VERSION 2.0
PCOWP converts PC-Outline ("PCO") outlines to WordPerfect
("WP") Version 4.2 and Version 5.0 files, with appropriate WP
coding, including coding of PCO heading identifications as WP
paragraph numbering. Because it works mainly with "structured
files," it also converts the outlines produced by any other
outlining program capable of writing the outline as a structured
file, although minor differences in the structured file format
used by different programs could cause trouble. In particular,
PCOWP can handle structured files produced by Grandview.
This documentation assumes that you use PC-Outline. Where
what the documentation says does not apply to other outliners,
that is indicated. Also, some sections are directed specifically
at Grandview users.
There will be differences between the appearance of the PCO
outline and the WP document produced by PCOWP. Much PCO
formatting information is omitted from structured files. PCOWP
allows you to replace some of that formatting information, and it
allows you, either through information included in your PCO
outline or through information provided directly to PCOWP, to
make formatting choices not available easily, or at all, in PCO
(e.g., double spacing of text while headings are single spaced;
footnotes). As a result, you can use PCO to draft complex
documents for conversion to WP, taking advantage of PCO's great
flexibility for restructuring your ideas as you draft.
PCOWP is NOT a free computer program. It is
NOT in the public domain. It is copyrighted,
and except as indicated otherwise in this
documentation, I retain all rights to it. You
are granted a license to use the program for 30
days for purposes of testing and evaluation
without paying me anything. You are granted
a license to distribute the program and its
documentation together to anyone at any time,
provided you do not charge anyone for that
distribution. Use of the program beyond the
30 day testing and evaluation period requires
that you pay a $15 license fee. See below
This documentation assumes you are more or less familiar
with both PCO and WP. The first section discusses how to convert
a PCO outline to a WP document, without worrying about some of
the fancier options. Section 2 discusses special problems of
translating underlining from PCO to WP. Section 3 introduces
more complicated -- and more powerful -- ways to control the
operation of PCOWP. Section 4 discusses a number of codes you
can use in your PCO document to control formatting of the WP
document, codes that have no meaning to PCO. Section 5 has some
information for Grandview users.
I. CONVERTING OUTLINES
A. Preparing the Input to PCOWP
PCO outline files have the extension .PCO. PCOWP, however,
does not convert .PCO files. It converts another kind of file
that PCO can create, the "structured file." To convert your PCO
outline to a WP document, you must first transform it into a
structured file, as follows:
1. Load your outline into PCO.
2. Hide or display material in the outline as
appropriate. (Hidden material will not be converted.)
3. Go to the Print menu. Choose "D - Set Device for
Output." A submenu appears. Choose "S - Send to Structured
File." The Print menu will reappear. Choose "G - Go Start
Printing." You will be asked for a filename. Supply one,
including a drive and path designation if desired. PCO will then
write the structured file.
Note an important limitation: PCO allows many levels of
outline headings. Version 4.2 of WP allows only six; Version 5.0
allows eight. IF YOUR OUTLINE INCLUDES MORE THAN LEVELS THAN
PERMITTED BY WP, IT CANNOT BE CONVERTED TO A WP DOCUMENT.
Another limitation: PCOWP will not operate correctly unless
you have tabs in PCO set every five spaces. The structured file
should convert, but it will not convert very well.
And a WARNING: WITH THE SPECIFIC EXCEPTIONS INDICATED LATER
IN THIS DOCUMENTATION, DO NOT INCLUDE ANY ASCII CODES GREATER
THAN 127 IN YOUR PCO OUTLINE.
B. Running PCOWP
PCOWP needs information from you in order to convert a file
successfully. Unless you provide it with information in the
other two ways described below, PCOWP will prompt you for the
information it needs. This section of the documentation
describes the use of PCOWP with prompts. The other alternatives,
which are often more convenient, are described below.
You start PCOWP by entering its name at the DOS command
line, like this:
PCOWP then displays a small menu and asks you to choose an
option. Choose option 1 to convert a structured file. (Option 2
is described below.) You are then asked for the name of a file
to convert. This should be the structured file you created
earlier. Enter the filename (with drive and path, if desired).
You are then asked for a new file name. This is the name of the
WP file PCOWP will create for you. Enter a filename, with drive
and path if desired. (If the file already exists, PCOWP will ask
whether you want to overwrite it.)
NOTE: if you wish to terminate the program, respond to any
prompt with Control-Break.
You are then asked whether your outline begins with a
"title." PCO allows you to designate the first outline heading
as a "title." A title does not appear with an outline heading on
the screen -- the numbered part of the outline starts after the
title. However, the structured file does not indicate whether
you have designated the first outline heading as a title. This
PCOWP prompt allows you to supply the missing information.
If you respond that your outline does begin with a title,
you are then asked whether you want the title centered. If your
response is (Y)es, every line in your title up to the first blank
line will be centered. (Note that a blank line includes a line
that consists of nothing but spaces.) After the first blank
line, the "title" will not be centered. (If you centered your
title by inserting tabs or spaces, rather than by using the PCO
formatting controls, this option may not work correctly.)
The next prompt asks whether you want your outline headings
indented. A "Y" response results in an outline like this:
I. First Heading
1. Next Subhead.
A "N" response results in an outline like this:
I. First Heading
1. Next Subhead.
If you chose indented headings, the next prompt asks whether
you want your text indented to the level of your outline
headings. A "Y" response produces an outline like this:
I. First Heading
Text under the first heading.
Text under the first subhead.
A "N" produces an outline like this:
I. First Heading
Text under the first heading.
Text under the first subhead.
(Of course, the first line of a paragraph can be indented. You
just begin it with a tab in PCO.)
You will also be asked whether you want the text single
spaced or double spaced. Respond with a 1 or a 2 (S and D also
work). If you choose 1, everything will be single spaced. If
you choose 2, text will be double spaced, headings single spaced
(unless you tell the program otherwise). ("Heading" includes the
material on the same line with the outline level number, along
with the subsequent lines up to either the first blank line or
the first line beginning with a blank, such as that caused by
hitting the tab key. "Text" includes all other lines.) Also, if
you choose double spacing, any title will be double spaced,
except that portion of it that is centered. If you choose to
have the text double spaced (but not otherwise), you will then be
asked whether you want the headings single or double spaced. The
spacing of the centered portion of a title is controlled by the
spacing of the headings. (Note that if you switch between single
and double spacing, the spacing may come out wrong between single
spaced passages and double spaced passages. That spacing depends
on your inserting the right number of blank lines in PCO. A
little experimentation may be necessary the first few times.)
After you have answered all the prompts, PCOWP begins
converting your file. If all goes well, it will write DONE on
the screen at the end. If the program ends in some other way --
usually a series of beeps and a message -- there has been a
problem, and the output should not be used.
When the program is done, your output file is ready to be
read into WordPerfect. Once you read it into WP, some
reformatting of the document will be necessary (in Version 4.2,
but probably not in Version 5.0). You can accomplish this either
by running the spelling checker (use the word count option if you
do not want to take the time actually to check the spelling) or
by doing an extended search for something not found in the
document, such as "qqq".
It is advisable to turn hyphenation OFF when loading the
file into WP. Otherwise, any indenting to several levels is
likely to lead to a lot of hyphenation.
The paragraph numbering style used in WP is controlled by
WP, not by the paragraph numbering style you used in PCO. If you
do not tell it otherwise, WP will use the default paragraph
Although PCO automatically adds page numbers when it prints,
PCOWP does not tell WP to provide page numbering.
II. UNDERLINING AND OTHER PRINT FORMATS
Structured files do not contain information about the print
formats (underlining, bold, italics, superscript, subscript, and
double strike) contained in your PCO outline. There are some not
entirely satisfactory ways to permit underlining to be translated
from PCO to WP, and some other print formats can be handled
A. Converting Underlining
Menu choice 2 in PCOWP converts the underlining codes used
by PCO to characters that will appear in your structured file.
Specifically, Choice 2 converts the turn on underlining code to a
tilde (~) and the turn off underlining character to a caret (^).
Then, if you tell PCOWP that the tilde and the caret are your
underlining flags (see below for a discussion of how to do that),
PCOWP will convert them to the WP underlining codes.
The two-step procedure works like this. Suppose you have a
PCO outline called George (the file named GEORGE.PCO) that
contains PCO underlining codes. Use menu choice 2 in PCO to
convert GEORGE.PCO to MARTHA.PCO. (PCOWP will prompt you for the
file names.) Read MARTHA.PCO into PCO, create a structured file,
and then use Menu Choice 1 in PCOWP to convert the file to a WP
file, telling PCOWP that you have used the tilde and the caret as
your underlining codes.
NOTE: Menu Choice 2 will NOT work corectly with any
outlining program other than PC-Outline.
B. Using Different Characters
Another way to handle underlining is to indicate start and
stop underlining in your PCO outline with characters other than
the PCO underlining code, characters that will appear in the
structured file. You can redefine keys using the PCO key
redefinition capability to do this. The drawback is that if you
print the outline through PCO, you will print these characters
and not get underlining. (This method works with other outlining
programs, including Grandview, that pass these characters to the
Although you can use pretty much any characters for this
purpose, ASCII characters above 127 decimal are probably best.
(Certain ones, used by PCOWP for other purposes, should not be
used. See below.) If you use ASCII 244 decimal to indicate the
start of underlining and ASCII 245 to indicate the end of
underlining (they look like a candy cane and an upsidedown candy
cane), PCOWP will automatically convert them to WP underlining
codes. PCOWP will also recognize ASCII 148 decimal as start
underlining and ASCII 149 decimal as stop underlining. If you
use any other characters, you have to tell PCOWP which characters
you are using (how to do this is explained below). If you tell
PCOWP you are using other underlining characters, it will no
longer recognize ASCII 244 and 245 (and they therefore will cause
serious problems if they appear in the structured file), but it
will continue to recognize 148 and 149.
C. Error Checking
So long as PCOWP knows what symbols you are using for
underlining codes, it checks to see that underlining, once turned
on, is turned off before it is turned on again. This prevents an
awkward error in the resulting WP file. So if you leave out
codes, some will be inserted at places you probably were not
expecting them. Missing stop underlining codes at the end of a
file may not be properly detected and may cause problems in WP.
If your WP file does not work, go back and check your PCO file
for termination of underlining. But note that PCOWP does not
look at ASCII codes 148 and 149 in doing this checking, unless
you have designated them as the underlining codes.
D. Other Print Formats
You can convert three other print format codes from PCO to
WP through PCOWP by using specific ASCII codes to indicate the
begining and end of these formats. The ASCII codes are not those
PCO uses, so, as with underlining handled in this way, PCO will
simply treat these codes as characters. (This method works with
other outlining programs, including Grandview, that pass these
characters to the structured file.)
To turn on BOLD, use ASCII 157 decimal. ASCII 156 turns it
Subscript and Superscript can be converted to WP codes for
advancing half lines up or down. Indicate the beginning of
Superscripting with ASCII 190 decimal and the end with ASCII 191
decimal. Indicate the beginning of Subscripting with ASCII 191
decimal, and the end with 190.
III. AVOIDING THE PROMPTS: COMMAND LINE AND CONFIGURATION FILE
All of the information for which PCOWP prompts you, and
additional information, can be supplied on the DOS command line
instead of in response to prompts. Much of the same information
can be supplied through a configuration file. If you provide
information in one of these ways, you will be prompted only for
those normally-prompted items of information which you did not
supply on the command line or in a configuration file. You can
provide some of the same categories of information both through
the command line and through a configuration file. If there is a
conflict between the command line and the configuration file, the
command line controls. Thus you could, for example, include a
reasonably standard set of option choices in a configuration file
and override some of those choices where necessary with command
A. The Command Line
If you choose any options on the command line, you MUST
indicate the menu choice, input file specification, and output
file specification on the command line, separated by spaces, in
that order. Thus the command line would look something like
A>PCOWP 1 [d:\path\]infile [d:\path\]outfile [options]
Options, relevant only to menu choice 1, are indicated by a
slash, a two character option identifier, a colon, and in most
cases a one character choice specification. Options are
separated by spaces and may appear in any order. Here are the
options, with the possible choices generally indicated within
parentheses (you do not include the parentheses on the comand
/VR:(42/50) WP VeRsion number to convert to. By default,
this is Version 4.2.
/IH:(Y/N) Indenting Headings -- indicates whether
outline headings are indented. There is no
default value. If you do not choose an
option on the command line or in the
configuration file, you will be prompted.
E.g., /IH:Y means headings are to be
/IT:(Y/N) Indenting Text -- indicates whether text is
to be indented to the level of the outline
headings. Makes sense only if the headings
are indented. No default. Omit and you will
be prompted if you are indenting headings.
/ST:(1/2) Single or double Spacing of the Text. No
default. Omit and you will be prompted.
This also controls the spacing of non-
centered titles and portions of titles.
/SH:(1/2) Single or double Spacing of the Headings.
There is a partial default. If your text is
single spaced, spacing of the headings
defaults to single spaced. If your text is
double spaced and you omit SH, you will be
prompted. This also controls the spacing of
centered titles and portions of titles.
/TI:(Y/N) Indicates whether the outline begins with a
PCO "TItle" rather than an outline heading.
NOTE TO GRANDVIEW USERS: Special considerations apply to
titles if the structured file was produced by Grandview.
See the separate discussion below.
/CN:(Y/N) Indicates whether the "title" should be
CeNtered. Only the part of the title up to
the first blank line will be centered. No
default. If Title is chosen and you do not
indicate this option otherwise, you will be
/BP:(Y/N) Indicates whether the headings should be
Block Protected in WordPerfect. The default
is NO, so if you omit this option, the
headings will not be block protected. Block
protection may not be ideal if the headings
are long. WARNING: If block protect is on,
two headings without blank lines or text
between them will lead to a BlockProtect:On,
BlockProtect:Off sequence in WP. WP can get
very unhappy when that happens.
/PN:(A/F) Indicates whether the Paragraph Numbering in
WordPerfect is to be Automatic or Fixed.
Automatic paragraph numbering changes level
when you change the number of tabs preceding
the paragraph numbering. Fixed paragraph
numbering does not. The default depends on
whether you are indenting headings. If
headings are indented, the default is
Automatic. If headings are not indented, the
default is Fixed.
/U1: The code for turn on (start) underlining.
The character itself may appear after the
colon. You may also indicate the character
by its ASCII decimal number, preceded by a
backslash(\). Thus, for example, if you
chose to use the percent symbol as the turn
on underlining character in your PCO file,
you could indicate this by /U1:% or by
/U1:\037. To choose the backslash as the
turn on underlining character, you would have
to use its ASCII decimal number. /U1:\ will
not work, because PCOWP will expect digits
following the slash. The default is ASCII
/U2: The code to turn off (stop) underlining.
Works like the turn on underlining
instruction. Default is ASCII 245 decimal.
/CF:(filespec) The file specification (optional drive and
path, required filename) of your
Configuration File. The default filename is
PCOWP.CNF, located in the default directory.
Here, for example, is a possible command line:
A>PCOWP 1 infil outfil /IH:Y /IT:N /ST:2 /U1:~ /U2:^
B. The Configuration File
Everything that can be specified on the command line can be
specified in a configuration file, except for the menu choice,
the input file, the output file, and (naturally) the
configuration file name.
The configuration file is an ASCII text file, one option per
line, without blank lines. Entries start at the extreme left of
the line, and there are no blanks at the end of the line.
Options are designated as on the command line, except that there
is no initial backslash. Thus a proper configuration file might
look like this:
IV. SPECIAL FORMATTING COMMANDS
PCOWP recognizes and converts a number of special formatting
commands. They are "special" in that they have no meaning to
PCO. If you use these commands in PCO and print the PCO outline
through PCO, you will get a funny looking document. But they
allow you to control the formatting of your eventual WP document
in ways you may find useful.
A. Command Lines
Several formatting commands resemble WordStar dot commands,
except that they use the @ instead of the dot. Each appears on a
line by itself, at the extreme left of the line, with no other
text on the line. (Because the command appears at the extreme
left of the line, it cannot used in a heading.)
1. Line Spacing: @Sn
You can control line spacing with the @S command. @S1
indicates single spacing, @S2 indicates double spacing. If your
option choice was to single space text, these commands control
all your spacing. The relation between the @S commands and
PCOWP's spacing controls is tricky. Basically, the normal
spacing controls ignore what you do with @S. As a result, if
your headings and text do not have the same spacing (as set with
SH and ST), @S should not work to override these controls in a
heading or in the first paragraph of text.
2. Indenting: @Ln,@Rn,@E
@Ln, where n is a digit from 1 to 9, causes the text
following it to be indented from the left n more tab stops than
it would otherwise be. You can leave out the digit -- the
default is 1. @Rn is similar, except that it indents at both the
left and the right. (Text indented with @Rn is indented the same
number of spaces on the left and the right. This is probably
what you want if you are not otherwise indenting text, but it is
likely not to be what you want if you are otherwise indenting
text. In short, @R and /IT:Y probably do not mix well.) @E ends
the effect of @L and @R. These commands are particularly useful
for creating indented block quotations within text. A sequence
of @S1 and @R, for example, would switch from regular double
spaced text to an indented single spaced block. You could then
terminate the sequence with @S2 and @E (each on a separate line).
To create footnotes, insert @**\ in the text at the point
you want the footnote call to appear, and then, without any
spaces, begin the text of the footnote. End the footnote with \.
(This implies that you may not include a \ within a footnote.)
If you begin a footnote without having terminated the previous
one, PCOWP will notice the problem and abort with an error
PCO has only one variety of hyphen. WP has three, the hard
hyphen (WP may split a word at a hard hyphen when wordwrapping),
the minus sign (which differs from hyphen in that WP will not
split a word at a minus sign), and the soft hyphen (which appears
as a hyphen only if WP splits the word at that point). PCOWP
tries to make reasonable decisions about whether a PCO hyphen
should be a WP hard hyphen or a WP minus sign. Roughly speaking,
all PCO hyphens are translated to WP hard hyphens, except that
(a) hyphens in series, like -- and ---, (b) hyphens at the
beginning or end of a line (which can cause problems, because the
line in question is the structured file line, which may not
correspond to a line in your outline), and (c) hyphens preceded
or followed by blanks, all of which are translated as minus
signs. You can override this by using ASCII 246 decimal to
indicate a non-splittable hyphen (i.e., the minus sign). The
sequence @- will be translated as a soft hyphen; ASCII 247
decimal will also be translated as a soft hyphen.
5. Hard Space
ASCII 250 decimal will be translated as a WP hardspace.
6. Section and Paragraph Signs
PCO will not allow you to use the section and paragraph
signs in the PC's character set (ASCII 21 and 20 decimal). I
need something to use as these signs. A pi (ASCII 227) looks
something like a paragraph sign, and a phi (ASCII 232) looks a
little bit like a section sign. I therefore use them as
paragraph and section signs in PCO, and PCOWP will translate them
appropriately to WP. (But note that getting them to print
properly in either PCO or WP is a problem, the solution to which
depends on your printer.)
NOTE TO GRANDVIEW USERS: Unlike PCO, Grandview does allow
you to use the section sign and paragraph sign in the PC's
character set, and these wind up in the structured file. They
will be properly converted.
V. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING GRANDVIEW
In its default configuration, Grandview treats the first
headline in an outline as special: no other headline is permitted
at the same level of the outline. Thus the typical Grandview
outline begins with outline heading Roman numeral one and there
is no Roman numeral two.
As noted above, PCOWP allows only 6 (or 8) outline levels.
If you use the Grandview default configuration, the limit
includes the special case of the first outline heading as a level
if you choose not to have a title. However, if the first outline
heading is treated as a title, it does not count against the
* * * * * * * * * * * * * *
PCOWP is not in the public domain. It is fully protected
You are granted without charge a license which permits (a)
use of the program for a period of 30 days for evaluation and
testing; (b) making copies for distribution to others without
charge, provided the program and the accompanying documentation
are distributed together and without modification; (c) posting
the program, together with its accompanying documentation, on
electronic bulletin board systems.
Use after the 30 day evaluation and testing period requires
payment of a license fee. For a single copy (plus necessary
archival copies), to be used on only one computer at a time, the
fee is $15.00. For your convenience, an invoice form is included
below. For large quantities, discounts and site licenses are
available. Write for information. Any license for which payment
is properly made is valid for this version of PCOWP and all
What do you get for your license fee? Aside from permission
to use the program and the warm feeling that you are not
violating the copyright laws, not very much, but a little. If
you pay the license fee to me and tell me the version you have
(or if I can figure out what version you have), I will send you
the next version (unless the next version involves a trivial
change too small to worry you about). After that, I will send
you further new versions if you send me a stamped, addressed
mailer (a disk would also be appreciated, but I am willing to
supply that). And if you let me know about any problems you have
with the program, I will try to solve them.
Users groups and other not-for-profit organizations may
distribute unmodified copies of PCOWP, together with its
accompanying documentation, for a fee to cover duplication and
related costs, but not to exceed $6.00. Your payment of such a
fee does not eliminate the requirements concerning payment of a
license fee. Certain organizations may have been granted
permission to distribute the program for a fee larger than $6.00,
the larger fee to include the license fee for a single copy. If
the organization from which you received a copy of the program
has been granted that permission, it should tell you so.
The United States Department of Justice is granted a
license, without payment of fee, for all official use of PCOWP.
This program is distributed without warranties of any kind,
express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied
warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular
No representation or other affirmation of fact, including
but not limited to statements regarding suitability for use, or
performance of the program, shall be or be deemed a warranty by
the licensor for any purpose, nor give rise to any liability or
obligation of the licensor whatever.
In particular, no statement in program documentation shall
be deemed a representation or warranty that the program will
perform in any particular manner, or perform in any manner
whatsoever, or that the program is suitable for any particular
use or any use at all.
2737 Devonshire Pl. NW
Washington, DC 20008
License for PCOWP $ 15.00
additional licenses @ $15.00 _____.__
D.C. Residents add 6% D.C. Sales Tax: ___.__
Total Charge: $_____.__
Make checks payable to David Seidman. Please mark checks
WordPerfect is a trademark of the WordPerfect Corporation.
PC-Outline is believed to be a trademark of Brown Bag Software.
Grandview is a trademark of Symantec.