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Outline editor. Also can create stuctured text files.
File OUTLIN20.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Word Processors
Outline editor. Also can create stuctured text files.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
OP.EXE 70800 30208 deflated
OUTINST.EXE 32128 15802 deflated
OUTLINE.DAT 750 405 deflated
OUTLINE.DOC 106386 28424 deflated
OUTLINE.EXE 60160 27553 deflated
OUTLINE.HLP 7528 1701 deflated
OUTLINE.MNU 3564 1219 deflated

Download File OUTLIN20.ZIP Here

Contents of the OUTLINE.DOC file





OutlinePlus (PC)

USER MANUAL

by David E. Toliver
23 January 1991



TABLE OF CONTENTS
-----------------

1. Introduction
1.1 Overview of this manual
1.2 Basic installation
1.3 Getting started with OutlinePlus
2. Outliners and word processors
2.1 What is an outline processor?
2.2 How can an outline processor be used?
2.3 Text editing features of OutlinePlus
2.4 Objects of outlining in OutlinePlus
2.5 Actions for outlining in OutlinePlus
3. More about operating OutlinePlus
3.1 The startup and edit screens
3.2 The top line of the edit screen
3.3 The built-in menu and help system
3.4 Columns at the edges of the edit screen
3.5 Labels
3.6 Promoting and demoting
3.7 Hiding details
3.8 The command-line options
4. Command Summary
5. Detailed description of commands
5.1 Cursor Control Commands
5.2 Screen Control Commands
5.3 Character Control Commands
5.4 Help Commands
5.5 File/Quit Commands
5.6 Structure Commands
5.7 Block Commands
5.8 Entry/Line Commands
5.9 Hide/Show Commands
5.10 Search/Sort Commands
5.11 Format Commands
6. More about printing options
7. Advanced installation and customization
7.1 Command installation
7.2 Help line installation
7.3 Defaults installation
7.4 Installing commands from scratch
8. The Files on the disk
9. Systems Background
10. Glossary of Terms
11. Error Code Table
12. Copyright Acknowledgements


---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Introduction

Welcome to OutlinePlus! This program for the IBM-PC will help you
develop and use electronic outlines. These are essentially the same
document planning tool that we learned to use when writing essays in
school. However, electronic outlines increase the power and usefulness
of ordinary outlines in much the same way as word processors improved
upon typewriters for developing complete textual documents. Outliners
can be compared to and contrasted with word processors. The OutlinePlus
user manual and program build on your knowledge and use of both
conventional outlines and electronic word processors.

1.1. Overview of this manual

There are two objectives in this manual. First, it intends to get
you up and going as quickly as possible with OutlinePlus. You will want
to start making use of this tool right away, after learning the
package's essentials. In time, though, you will want to take advantage
of the many advanced features available to you. Thus, the manual's
second objective is to provide detailed information about every feature
and command of the program.

This manual will progress from basic through advanced topics.
Section 1, Introduction, should be sufficient to get you started using
OutlinePlus. Both basic installation and a brief tutorial for the
program are given here. Section 2, Outliners and Word Processors, talks
about possible uses of the program and compares and contrasts major
features of the program with word processor features. Section 3, More
about Operating OutlinePlus, describes in detail the various parts of
the program.

Section 4, Command Summary, gives a brief but complete overview of
the 76 commands that can be used in OutlinePlus. These are classified
into 11 sections of commands and 3 sections of default values. Section
5, Detailed description of commands, fully explains the behavior you
can expect from each of the 76 commands. Section 6, More about Printing
Options, explains the prompts on the screen you will get whenever you
ask for something to be printed.

Section 7, Advanced Installation and Customization, covers the use
of the OUTINST program that allows you to customize the package.
Section 8, The Files on the Disk, discusses each of the files delivered
on the diskette. Section 9, Systems Background, describes how the
program was developed and how the data is stored. Section 10, Glossary
of Terms, defines the most important terms used in the User Manual.
Section 11, Error Code Table, gives a brief interpretation of the
numeric error codes that might be seen during filing and printing
operations. Finally, Section 12, Copyright Acknowledgements, gives
credit where credit is due.


1.2. Basic installation

You will receive OutlinePlus on a IBM-PC format floppy disk. You
should immediately make a copy of this disk and store the original in a
safe place. OutlinePlus can be installed to a floppy disk or to a hard
disk. Each case is treated separately below.

If you are installing OutlinePlus to a floppy disk, simply make a
copy of the master diskette for use as the working floppy.

If you are installing OutlinePlus to a hard disk drive:

1. Make it the default drive by entering: C:
2. Make a directory for OutlinePlus: MD \OP
3. Make it the current directory: CD \OP
4. Copy all the files from the floppy: COPY D:*.*
(This assumes the hard drive is C: and the floppy is D:)

OutlinePlus includes three programs, OP.EXE, OUTLINE.EXE and
OUTINST.EXE. The programs OP.EXE and OUTLINE.EXE are used to develop
outline documents. Use OP.EXE alone if you don't intend to customize
OutlinePlus. Otherwise, use OUTINST.EXE to customize the commands of
OUTLINE.EXE to your preferences.

OutlinePlus also has three data files used in customizing
OutlinePlus: OUTLINE.DAT contains a table of all the commands used by
OUTLINE.EXE. OUTLINE.MNU contains all the menus that are displayed when
you use the menuing system. OUTLINE.HLP contains help screens
describing the commands. When you first receive the package, these
have the same values that are built into OP.EXE.

Finally, the program's documentation is provided in a text file,
OUTLINE.DOC. Incidentally, the present document, the User Manual, was
extensively revised and updated using only OutlinePlus!


1.3. Getting started with OutlinePlus

This section assumes that you have successfully installed the
package, as described in the previous section. It will walk you
through a session in which you will create a short outline. The
outline that you will create is a simplistic (and far from complete!)
classification of the animal kingdom.

First, change to the drive and directory where you have installed
the package. For instance, if you have installed the package in a sub-
directory of your hard disk named OP, enter these 3 commands:

C: -- go to the hard disk C
CD \OP -- go to the OP directory
OP -- call up OutlinePlus

The first screen you see is called the startup screen. Here you
can name new or existing outline and text files to work on. File names
must be names acceptable to DOS. For our classification tutorial,
enter the name:

ANIMALS.DOC

The next screen you see is the editing screen. There is a status
line at the top of the screen, followed by a 2-lines menu, followed by
a ruler. All your work creating outlines and text is done on this
screen. When you get the editing screen, you can immediately begin
typing your document. For our tutorial, enter as the title:

The animal kingdom

Note that the number '1' appears on the left when you press
the key. This is the first labelled line of your outline.
The title line at the very top of the document is never labelled. You
cannot type over the numbers automatically produced by OutlinePlus.
However, there is a command that lets you completely remove a label
from any line. For the tutorial, enter 4 lines:

Mammals
Birds
Fish
Insects

Note how numeric labels are provided for every line you type.
Every labelled line is an entry in the outline. The key caused
a new outline entry to be created. You will learn other keys that
create outline entries, too. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor
around in the text that you have typed. This demonstrates a very
important characteristic of OutlinePlus: Many of the package's commands
behave exactly like their counterparts in conventional text editors and
word processors. In particular, the WordStar editor commands were used
as a model for many of the commands in OutlinePlus.

Now move the cursor to the end of the line with "Mammals." You
can do this by using the cursor arrow keys, or the Wordstar sequence,
if you know it. After placing the cursor at the end of this line, press
. Note that a new outline entry with the label '2' has been
established, and that all the rest of the labels have been renumbered.
Type "Cats" on this new line.

Cats are a type of mammal. Thus the entry should be subsidiary to
Mammals. In an outliner, making an entry subsidiary to another is
called demoting the entry. In OutlinePlus, press the F10 key to demote
the entry where the cursor is found. Press this key now, with the
cursor on the "Cats" entry.

The opposite of demoting is promoting. In OutlinePlus, the F9 key
will promote an item. Press F9, then F10 again to observe the results.
"Cats" should now have the label '1.1.'

Move the cursor to follow the 's' in "Cats" and press .
Then type the names of several other mammals, for instance, Dogs,
Rabbits, Cows, etc. Note how all these entries are added at the same
level as "Cats". Enter different breeds of dogs under the entry "Dogs"
in the same way that you entered "Cats" below Mammals: go to the end of
the text line "Dogs"; press ; press F10 to demote the new
entry; and type the name of the first breed. Add more breeds by
pressing at the end of each line.

To demonstrate the free-form nature of text in OutlinePlus, do
this: Go to the end of a line with the name of an animal you know
something about, for example, your own pet. Now write a short paragraph
about this animal. Note that when you get to the end of the line, the
line wraps after the last word that fits on the line, just like a word
processor. It is easy and often desirable in an outline to write pages
of text whose lines are not labelled. Lines in OutlinePlus that do not
have labels are called continuation lines.

You need never loose the big picture, though. That is because
OutlinePlus allows you to hide the details. One command, Hide
ContLines, will alternately hide and reveal all continuation lines.
Press the keys: Escape H C, to hide the continuation lines. Press the
keys Escape H C again to bring them back into view. Note how the menu
at the top of the screen changes when you press Escape, and again when
you press the letter H.

Another command, Hide Depth, will hide all details below a certain
level or depth. Press the keys: Escape H D, and enter: 1 in
response to the prompt. You will see only the top level entries of your
outline. Press the keys Escape H D again and enter 9 . This
will restore to view all the detail levels.

Suppose you prefer your outline to have classical-style labels,
the type you learned in school, instead of the modern decimal-style
labels. This is easily achieved by using one of the toggle commands,
View Decimal. Press the keys: Escape V D. Observe how the labels change
in your outline. Press the keys Escape V D again to restore the decimal
labels. Observe how the menu changes as you press these keys.

Finally, there are several options for saving your outline to a
file. These include File Save+exit, which will save the outline and
return you to DOS, and File New, which will save the outline and return
you to the startup screen of OutlinePlus. Enter Escape F S now to save
your outline ANIMALS.DOC and return control to DOS.

Enter DIR from the DOS prompt. You will see that ANIMALS.DOC, the
name of your outline, has been saved as a file. You can see all the
text you entered, in its outline form, if you display this file on the
screen with the DOS command:

TYPE ANIMALS.DOC

This demonstrates an important characteristic of OutlinePlus
files: they are ASCII text files. As such they are compatible with
(that is, they can be read by) many other word processors and text
editors available for the IBM-PC and other MS-DOS-based computers.


2. Outliners and word processors

2.1. What is an outline processor?

An outline processor is a computer program that simplifies the
development and management of outlines and other structured text. It
shares many features with word processors, but both tools have their
distinctive strengths. While word processors are tools for the entry
and development of complete formatted texts, outline processors are
tools for evolving a well-organized and comprehensive structure for a
document. Outliners are effectively used for rapidly shaping a document
at its inception. Word processors are better at taking a shaped
document to completion.


2.2. How can an outline processor be used?

What can an outline processor, and OutlinePlus in particular, do
for you? The following is a short outline of possible applications.

1. Document Planner
1.1 Tables of Contents
1.2 Concept Organizer
2. Idea Worksheet
2.1 Scratch Pad
2.2 Design Tool
3. Activity Planner
3.1 Appointments Schedule
3.2 To-do lists
4. Classification Tool
4.1 Cataloging
4.2 Inventory
4.3 Organizational charts
5. Program development Tool
5.1 Structured Languages
5.2 System Documentation
5.3 Pascal and C

In general, OutlinePlus can be useful whenever you are organizing
ideas or concepts into a formal structure. OutlinePlus lends itself to
classification tasks, with its built-in decimal and classical labelling
notation that automatically adjusts to changes in the structure. It
also is an acceptable text editor. The size of your outline is only
limited by available memory.

The sections that follow summarize the features that OutlinePlus
shares with text editors. It then discusses both objects and actions
that distinguish an outline processor from a text editor.


2.3. Text-Editing features of OutlinePlus

2.3.1. Full screen and file navigation. Most common cursor-
and page-control capabilities are found in OutlinePlus. These allow
arrow keys and other control keys to move the cursor about the screen
and to bring into view other parts of the working document.

2.3.2. Delete and restore text. Characters, words, lines,
structures and blocks can all be deleted under command control. The
last deleted word, line, structure or block can always be restored by
the Structure Undelete command. Deleted characters, words, and lines,
if done without any intervening commands, will accumulate so they can
be undeleted as a single block of text.

2.3.3. Search and Replace. Strings can be located anywhere in
the document. These can be optionally replaced with another string. The
last search or replace can be repeated with a single keystroke. You
can indicate whether or not the search is case-sensitive.

2.3.4. Reformat paragraphs and the document. Outline entries
longer than a single line can be reformed so that they fit nicely on
the screen and in the file as a paragraph. This starts with the line on
which the cursor is found and includes any continuation lines that
follow it, up to the first blank line or labelled line. The cursor
moves to the end of the reformatted text. OutlinePlus also has a
command that will reformat all paragraphs in the whole document.

2.3.5. Defining margins. The margin of the continuation line
can be defined to be either directly below the text of the initial line
of the paragraph or flush left on the screen and in the file. The
bottom row and the rightmost column of the document can also be
defined, allowing the activity to fit into a rectangle smaller than the
entire screen, based on the upper left-hand corner of the screen.

2.3.6. Print options. Both text and outline documents can be
printed from within the program. There are options to define the number
of lines per page or form; the left, top, and bottom margin; the number
of copies; and the number of lines to skip for draft copy.

2.3.7. Filing options. The document can be abandoned or
saved, with control remaining in the edit screen or returning to either
the startup screen or DOS. A block or a structure may be written or
printed from within an edit session. An external file may also be read
into the document being edited.


2.4. Objects of outlining in OutlinePlus

2.4.1. ASCII text files. The outlines themselves are stored
on disk as standard ASCII text files. These can subsequently be
printed, used with other word processors, sent through a modem, or
otherwise handled as you would any other text file.

2.4.2. Structured text without labels. A whole outline or
parts of an outline can have their labels suppressed. If this is
applied at one time to the whole outline, the resulting document is
called a structured text file. You can choose to develop a structured
text file from the startup screen or convert an outline to it by a
command during editing. You can switch freely back and forth between
the two forms of documents at any time.

2.4.3. Structures. An entry and all the subsidiary entries
that belong to it, or descend from it, is known as a structure. In
OutlinePlus, a number of operations can be applied to an entire
structure.

2.4.4. Blocks. Lines can be marked off as blocks, which then
can be moved, copied, deleted, promoted, or demoted. Because the file
is structured, blocks must be formed in an orderly fashion with respect
to the structures over which they are defined.

2.4.5. Lines and entries. A basic unit of an outline is the
line. This corresponds to a line of text on the screen, but may be so
long that it extends off the screen and out of view to the right. Lines
may have labels, but this is not required. Lines without labels are
called continuation lines. They are often found in outline entries that
require more characters than the number that will fit in view on one
line on the screen. A labelled line and all the continuation lines that
follow it are called an entry.

2.4.6. Decimal and classical labels. A decimal or classical
label reflecting the structure of the outline being developed adjusts
itself automatically to all changes. The label reflects the level of
each entry in the outline.

2.4.7. Levels and labels. In an OutlinePlus outline, the
current level can be determined by the number of periods (.) in the
decimal label. For instance, the entry numbered "7.4.1." is at a level
3. A classical label also indicates level by its form. For example, an
entry labelled with a lower-case Roman letter is at level 4.


2.5. Actions for outlining in OutlinePlus

2.5.1. Hiding and revealing details. Detailed information in
the structure can be hidden or revealed as needed, under command
control. At any given time, a maximum level (also referred to as the
"depth") is in effect. Only entries at this level and higher are seen
on the screen.

2.5.2. Promoting and demoting objects. Entries, structures
and blocks of contiguous structures can be promoted and demoted on the
screen as you develop your outline. Their relationship with surrounding
objects are modified in this way.

2.5.3. Sorting siblings. Sibling entries can be sorted in
both ascending and descending order. Sorting is done on the basis of
the ASCII sequence, and applies to the labelled lines of each entry in
a set of sibling entries.

2.5.4. Showing a half-screen with antecedents. The current
document context can be continually kept in view by selecting this
command. The top half of the screen presents the first line of every
entry that is a direct antecedent of the top line in the edit section.
The outline remains in the bottom half of the screen. A command can
turn this feature on and off as needed.


-----------------------------------------------------------------


3. More about operating OutlinePlus

3.1. The startup and edit screens

Begin an OutlinePlus session by entering "OP" at the DOS command
prompt. You may give the name of your own outline file following this
command if you start from the DOS command line. If so, the program will
immediately call up the outline file you named and you can begin work
on it right away.

If no outline file was named on the command line, you will get the
startup screen. On this screen you get information about the author
and publisher. You may enter here the name of an OutlinePlus file that
you want to work on. If you wish, you can also enter the name of an
ordinary text file that you will be working on. Finally, you can enter
the name of either type of file and have it printed for you by
OutlinePlus.

Press the Space Bar in the startup window to get each of the four
main options in turn. As you press the Space Bar, the next option will
be rotated to the prompt line and become active. These options are:

OUTLINE file name: Enter the name of an outline file
TEXT file name: Enter the name of a text file
PRINT file name: Enter the name of a file to be printed
[RETURN] to QUIT: Press to exit to DOS

When prompted for either the outline or text file, if you enter a
name that is not the name of any file on the disk, a file by that name
will be created. If you enter the name of a file that is on disk, it
will be loaded for you to work on. When you press after the
filename, you will get the next screen, the edit screen.


3.2. The top line of the edit screen

The topmost line of the edit screen is the status line. It is
normally present with the following information: current depth, file
name, type of file, mode, and memory status. All lines down to and
including the current depth will be shown on the screen. The file name
is the name of the document on which you are working. It may be of
either the text or outline type.

Mode is either Insert or Replace. Press F7 (or Control-V) to
toggle between the two typing modes. In Insert mode, characters are
inserted into the text and existing characters are shifted to the right
and retained. In Replace mode, characters typed at the keyboard replace
those under the cursor. All editing is done in memory and remaining
memory is reported in bytes. The percentage of total memory remaining
is also given. As both numbers get smaller, you have less memory for
working on your document.


3.3. The built-in menu and help system

The second and third line on the screen provide menus and helps.
Below these two lines is a ruler with the current TAB positions marked
at regular intervals.

The built-in menus were designed to assist you with most of the
commands that perform the editing and outlining actions of the program.
All but the most basic screen, cursor and character control commands
are built into these menus. The menus are ordered and organized in the
same way as they are described in the User Manual: a main menu has
items that correspond to each of the command groups; a secondary menu
has items that correspond to each of the commands in the group.

Pressing Escape will call up or activates the main menu. Direct
text editing cannot be done while any menu is active. You can return to
editing text at any time by pressing Escape once or twice. Holding down
the Alt key while pressing one of the letters capitalized in the main
menu, will call up the secondary menu or action directly.

While the menus are active, one of the items will be highlighted,
that is, in reverse video. Information about the currently highlighted
menu item is given on the line below the menu. This may be a list of
commands in the secondary menu, or a description of the action that
will be carried out when you choose the item. When the menu is active,
the following keys will have these effects:

right arrow: highlight the next menu item
space: (same as right arrow)
left arrow: highlight the previous menu item
backspace: (same as left arrow)
Home: highlight the first menu item
End: highlight the last menu item
Escape: back out of the menu
Enter: take the action or menu of the
item that is highlighted
alpha letter: if it is a capital letter of an
item in the current menu, take
its action or menu

You can also change and add to the help screens and menus that
correspond to commands, if you use OUTLINE.EXE, the customizable versin
of the program. See Section 7 for a description of how to change help
screens; see Section 9 for information about changing the menus.


3.4. Columns at the edges of the edit screen

The leftmost two columns of the screen are reserved to present
flags or indicators about the lines in your edit session. The following
table will guide you in interpretting these flags. The states referred
to in this table are explained in the discussions below and in the
Glossary, Section 10.

Symbol Meaning
------ -------
T the line is the Title line, the first editable line
+ entries below this line are hidden from view
c continuation lines following this line are hidden
B the line is the beginning of a well-formed block
b the line is the beginning of an ill-formed block
E the line is the end of a well-formed block
e the line is the end of an ill-formed block
: the line is within a well-formed block
V the line is part of the Root-to-Line path display
P the line will print at the top of a new page
> the line begins an entry in a structured text file

The rightmost column may also contain a flag. If this column
contains a '+' the line is too long to fit on the screen. More letters
continue on the line to the right. They can be brought back into view
by breaking the line (e.g., with ) or by reformatting the
paragraph. To do so, go to the line with the '+' on the right and
do the Entry Reformat command by pressing Escape E R.


3.5. Labels

Line labels are found only in outline files, not in structured
text files. Line labels mark the beginning of an outline entry. They
also indicate where an entry falls in a sequence of entries and the
level or depth of an entry in an outline. There are two forms of line
labels: a decimal form and a classical form. You can toggle between the
two forms at any time with the View Decimal command: Escape V D.

Labelled lines can be created in several ways. The most common
way to create a labelled line is by pressing at the end of an
entry. There are other line creation commands, discussed below in
Section 5.8.

Lines without labels are as important as those with labels. These
are called continuation lines, since they represent a continuation of
the same entry. Also, they are naturally created by continuous typing
and automatic word wrapping. A labelled line and the continuation lines
that immediately follow it together are known as an entry in an
outline. The Line Label command, Escape L L, will change a labelled
line to a continuation line and back again.

Labels do not appear in structured text files. When an outline is
converted to a structured text files using the File Text command,
Escape F T, the labelled lines of the outline will not be lost. They
will be represented by a '>' in the left column. If the file is changed
back to an outline file by using the File Text command again, labels
will be restored to all lines at the beginning of entries.


3.6. Promoting and demoting

At all times, every entry is at a specific level with respect to
the hierarchy. The title entry is defined as always being at level 0.
Entries with a single number decimal label are at level 1. Entries
with 2 numbers in the decimal label are at level 2, etc. Demotion
moves objects down a level; promotion moves objects up a level.

The hierarchy of an outline is established by promoting and
demoting objects in the outline. There are three types of objects that
can be promoted and demoted: the entry, the structure, and the block.
Demoting an entry will shift only that entry down one level. For
instance, if the entry follows a sibling entry, it will be made a child
of the former sibling. Demoting a structure will shift the entry and
all its descendents down a level. Demoting a block will shift all
entries in the block down a level.

Promoting each of these objects will have the opposite effect of
demoting. Promoting an object will raise it one level in the hierarchy.
Promotion and demotion are not always possible, given the current state
of an object in the outline structure. For instance, a first child
entry cannot be demoted -- it makes no sense to skip a full level in
the hierarchy. Both promoting and demoting commands are found under the
Structure, Block and Entry main menu items.


3.7. Hiding details

Two types of "details" can be hidden, leaving in view only higher
levels of an outline. Details that can be hidden are (1) lower levels
of the outline hierarchy and (2) continuation lines. Lower levels of a
hierarchy are hidden by setting a maximum depth for viewing the
outline. Continuation lines are hidden by using the Hide ContLines
command, Escape H C. This will alternately hide and reveal all
continuation lines in the outline.

At the beginning of any edit session, the default maximum depth of
the outline is 9. This means that the hierarchy can be up to 9 levels
deep. This can be changed any time during the edit session so that the
maximum level in view can be any level between 1 and 9. There are
commands to set a specific level and commands to increment and
decrement the depth in view, one level at a time.

The depth is automatically adjusted in at least two instances.
First, when a view is requested in which either the current line or its
parent is placed on the top edit line, the depth is changed to that of
the current line. Second, if a command demotes an entry or structure
and the new level is deeper than the current depth, the current depth
is changed so that the demoted entry can still be seen on the screen.

Continuation lines can also be hidden and restored with a toggle
command. Several commands have the effect of automatically restoring
continuation lines to view. These are the commands which create
continuation lines as part of what they do. They include the two
Reformat commands. Word-wrapping will also have the effect of restoring
all continuation lines to view.

3.8. The command-line options

When you start OutlinePlus from DOS, it is sufficient to enter
simply the name of the program and nothing more. However, you may also
enter one or more of several command-line parameters at the same time
to exercise control over you session. For instance, you may enter the
name of the file you wish to edit. This is assumed to be an outline
file unless you also enter '/T' for Text as a separate "word" on the
command line, i.e., separated by a space from the name of the program
and file.

If you are using OUTLINE.EXE, you can also tell the OUTLINE
program where to look for the three support files: OUTLINE.DAT,
OUTLINE.HLP, and OUTLINE.MNU. To do so, enter '/F' immediately followed
by the name of the directory where these are located. This should be
entered as a separate "word" on the command line. The program will look
first in this directory for the support files. If they are not found,
it will look in the current directory, i.e., where you started the
program. If they still are not found, it will look for them in every
directory referenced in the PATH list of directories. See the DOS
manual for a description of the PATH command.



-----------------------------------------------------------------

4. Command Summary

The following tables summarize the keys that have been predefined
in OutlinePlus. Note that many of these commands have synonyms: more
than one series of keystrokes will perform the same operation. You can
remove or add definitions for all of these commands by using the
OUTINST program, described in Section 7, Advanced Installation.


Cursor Control Editor commands

1. Cursor left ..........................Left-arrow
Ctrl-S
2. Cursor right .........................Right-arrow
Ctrl-D
3. Cursor down ..........................Down-arrow
Ctrl-X
4. Cursor up ............................Up-arrow
Ctrl-E
5. Skip word right ......................Ctrl-Right-arrow
Ctrl-F
6. Skip word left .......................Ctrl-Left-arrow
Ctrl-A
7. Left end of line .....................Home
Ctrl-Q S
8. Right end of line ....................End
Ctrl-Q D


Screen Control Editor commands

1. Top of page ..........................Ctrl-Q E
2. Bottom of page .......................Ctrl-Q X
3. Scroll page up .......................Ctrl-W
4. Scroll page down .....................Ctrl-Z
5. Previous page ........................PgUp
Ctrl-R
6. Next page ............................PgDn
Ctrl-C
7. Top of file ..........................Ctrl-Q R
8. Bottom of file .......................Ctrl-Q C


Character Control Editor commands

1. Insert new line at cursor ............Enter
2. Toggle insert/replace mode ...........Insert
F7
Ctrl-V
3. Delete character at cursor ...........Delete
F8
Ctrl-G
4. Delete character to left of cursor ...BackSpace
5. Delete word with the cursor ..........Ctrl-Backspace
Ctrl-T
6. Delete line to the right of cursor ...F3
Ctrl-Q Y


Help Editor commands

1. Show all command sequences ...........F1
2. Activate the command menus ...........Esc


File/Quit Editor commands

1. Save file / exit to DOS ..............Alt-F S
Alt-X
Ctrl-K X
2. Save file / exit to startup ..........Alt-F N
Ctrl-K D
3. Quit / abandon all changes ...........Alt-F Q
Ctrl-K Q
4. Update file / remain in edit .........Alt-F U
Ctrl-K S
5. Print the edit buffer ................Alt-F P
6. Export edit buffer to a file .........Alt-F E
7. Import a file to the edit buffer .....Alt-F I
Ctrl-K R
8. Outline / text toggle ................Alt-F T
9. Reformat all text in edit buffer .....Alt-F R


Structure Editor commands

1. Promote structure up a level .........Alt-F9
Alt-S Up-arrow
2. Demote structure down a level ........Alt-F10
Alt-S Down-arrow
3. Write current structure to file ......Alt-S W
4. Print current structure ..............Alt-S P
5. Delete current structure .............Alt-S D
6. Undelete last deleted structure ......Alt-U
Alt-S U


Block Editor commands

1. Promote block up a level .............Shift-F9
Alt-B Up-arrow
2. Demote block down a level ............Shift-F10
Alt-B Down-arrow
3. Begin block mark .....................Alt-B B
Ctrl-K B
4. End block mark .......................Alt-B E
Ctrl-K K
5. Write block to file ..................Alt-B W
6. Print current block ..................Alt-B P
7. Copy block ...........................Alt-B C
Ctrl-K C
8. Move block ...........................Alt-B M
Ctrl-K V
9. Hide block marks .....................Alt-B H
Ctrl-K H
10. Delete block .........................Alt-B D
Ctrl-K Y


Entry/Line Editor commands

1. Promote entry up a level .............F9
Alt-E Up-arrow
2. Demote entry down a level ............F10
Alt-E Down-arrow
3. Reformat entry text after cursor .....Alt-E R
Ctrl-B
4. Extend entry with blank line .........Alt-E E
5. Add new line above current line ......F5
Alt-L A
6. Add cont line below current line .....F4
Alt-L B
7. Toggle label on/off line .............F2
Alt-L L
8. Delete the current line ..............F6
Ctrl-Y
Alt-L D


Hide/Show Editor commands

1. Specify depth displayed ..............Alt-H D
2. Increment depth displayed ............Alt-H I
3. Decrement depth displayed ............Alt-H E
4. Hide / show continuation lines .......Alt-H C
5. Hide / show path from root to node ...Alt-H R
6. Show node's parent at screen top .....Alt-H P
7. Show node at top of screen ...........Alt-H N


Search/Sort Editor commands

1. Find text phrase .....................Alt-Q
Ctrl-Q F
2. Find and replace phrase ..............Alt-R
Ctrl-Q A
3. Find or replace next occurrence ......Ctrl-L
Alt-O N
4. Sort siblings in ascending order .....Alt-O A
5. Sort siblings in descending order ....Alt-O D


Format Editor commands

1. Toggle decimal/classical labels ......Alt-V D
2. Toggle continuation line margin ......Alt-V M
3. Specify # spaces for Tab key .........Alt-V T
4. Specify spaces to indent per level ...Alt-V L
5. Specify rightmost edit column ........Alt-V W
6. Specify rightmost screen column ......Alt-V S
7. Specify bottom edit row ..............Alt-V B



A number of values can be set or adjusted to your preference
before working on a document. These affect the format of the screen,
the format of printing, and some other miscellaneous factors. All the
values can be modify by the OUTINST program to install them as
permanent defaults. The program is delivered with the values given in
the three tables below.


SCREEN FORMAT OPTIONS

1. Last screen column for text edit...............76
2. Last screen column for status code.............80
3. Last screen row for text edit..................25
4. TAB key column factor..........................5
5. Spaces of indentation for each level...........5



PRINTED PAGE FORMAT OPTIONS

1. Number of copies to print......................1
2. Spaces at beginning of each text file line.....5
3. Number of lines to the printed page............66
4. Number of lines at the top margin..............5
5. Number of lines at the bottom margin...........5
6. Number of lines to skip per printed line.......0
7. Use Form Feed to skip to the next page.........NO



MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS

1. Initial depth of outline displayed.............9
2. Column setting for continuation lines..........
INDENTED BELOW ENTRY
3. Initial display of continuation lines..........YES
4. Initial display of help prompts................YES
5. Initial display of decimal labels..............YES
6. Enable the Beep signal for errors..............YES
7. Reverse the highlight font.....................YES
8. Suppress saving a .BAK file....................NO



5. Detailed description of commands

There are 76 distinct commands in OutlinePlus. The program was
designed so that you may redefine, add to or modify the definition of
the actual keystrokes that make up each of these commands. To do so,
use the installation utility, OUTINST, described in the Advanced
Installation section. In the following sections, the commands are
identified by both their name and the built-in default keystrokes that
call up the command.

Most of these commands may be used any time you are editing an
outline or a text file. Depending on whether you are in insert or
replace mode, ordinary characters are inserted into or replace the
characters on the screen or in the file. The commands, on the other
hand, take actions on the text. The command may consist of one or more
keystrokes.

If you begin a sequence of command keystrokes and decide not to
complete it, you can cancel the command by pressing the Space Bar. Any
other invalid keystoke in the middle a sequence will have this same
effect of canceling the command.

The first four command groups are Cursor Control, Screen Control,
Character Control, and Help. These are basic editing commands which
are not defined in the built-in menus. You can review them while
editing by using the F1 key to call up Help. The next four command
groups are File/Quit, Structure, Block, and Entry/Line. These are all
oriented to objects in the outline and are found in the leftmost five
main menus. The last three command groups are Hide/Show, Search/Sort,
and Format. These are oriented to actions and are found in the
rightmost main menus.

In the descriptions that follow, if a command can be chosen from a
menu, the menu sequence is given in square brackets ([]) below the name
of the command. When there are two levels of menus, the main level is
given first, followed by the secondary level.


5.1. Cursor Control Editor commands

These commands correspond to their counterparts in conventional
text editors. They are responsible for moving the cursor around on the
screen.

5.1.1. Cursor left ..........................Left-arrow
Ctrl-S

This command moves the cursor one position to the left. If the cursor
is presently at the beginning of one line this command will move it to
the end of the previous line. The text on the screen will scroll down,
if necessary to accomodate this movement. The cursor will not move
beyond the beginning of the file.

5.1.2. Cursor right .........................Right-arrow
Ctrl-D

This command moves the cursor one position to the right. It will move
from the end of one line to the beginning of the next. The text on the
screen will scroll up, if necessary to accomodate this movement. The
cursor will not move beyond the end of the file.

5.1.3. Cursor down ..........................Down-arrow
Ctrl-X

This command moves the cursor down one line. If the line to which it
moves is shorter than the position the cursor occupied in its previous
line, the cursor moves to the end of its new line. The text on the
screen will be scrolled up, if necessary. The cursor will not move
beyond the end of the file.

5.1.4. Cursor up ............................Up-arrow
Ctrl-E

This command moves the cursor up one line. If the line to which it
moves is shorter than the position the cursor occuped in its previous
line, the cursor moves to the end of its new line. The text on the
screen will be scrolled down, if necessary. The cursor will not move
beyond the beginning of the file.

5.1.5. Skip word right ......................Ctrl-Right-arrow
Ctrl-F

This command moves the cursor one word to the right. A word is defined
here as any string of characters starting with a space or starting at
the left edge of the screen. This command will move from the end of one
line to the beginning of the next. The text on the screen will scroll
up, if necessary. The cursor will not move beyond the end of the file.

5.1.6. Skip word left .......................Ctrl-Left-arrow
Ctrl-A

This command moves the cursor one word to the left. It will move from
the beginning of one line to the end of the previous line. The text on
the screen will scroll down, if necessary. The cursor will not move
beyond the beginning of the file.

5.1.7. Left end of line .....................Home
Ctrl-Q S

This command moves the cursor to the extreme left side of the editable
text of the current line. This will be the first character of your own
text on the line, including any spaces you may have entered.

5.1.8. Right end of line ....................End
Ctrl-Q D

This command moves the cursor to the extreme right side of the text of
the current line. This is either the end of the line, if the whole line
fits on the screen, or the last edit column, if the line is too long
for the screen.


5.2. Screen Control Editor commands

These commands correspond to word processing counterparts. They
will scroll the document on the screen or change what is seen on the
screen.

5.2.1. Top of page ..........................Ctrl-Q E

The command moves the cursor to the top left-hand corner of the
editable text of the first line of the current screen.

5.2.2. Bottom of page .......................Ctrl-Q X

This command moves the cursor to the bottom line of the current display
screen. If possible, it will retain its current column position.

5.2.3. Scroll page up .......................Ctrl-W

This command moves the document up one line on the screen. The cursor
remains in its current position, except when the cursor is on the first
line and the command is invoked. In this case, the cursor will move
to the new first line.

5.2.4. Scroll page down .....................Ctrl-Z

This command moves the document down one line on the screen. The cursor
remains in its current position, except when the cursor in on the last
line and the command is invoked. In this case, the cursor will move
to the new last line.

5.2.5. Previous page ........................PgUp
Ctrl-R

This command calls in the previous screen of text. If there is none, no
action is performed. If there is less than a full screen above, the
first screen screen of the document will be displayed.

5.2.6. Next page ............................PgDown
Ctrl-C

This command calls in the next screen of text. If there is none, no
action is performed. If there is less than a full screen below, the
last screen of the document will be displayed.

5.2.7. Top of file ..........................Ctrl-Q R

This command calls in the very first page of text. The cursor is placed
on the very first character in the file.

5.2.8. Bottom of file .......................Ctrl-Q C

This command calls in the very last page of text and places the cursor
after the very last character of text in the file.



5.3. Character Control Editor commands

These commands correspond to their word processing counterparts.
They control the insertion and deletion of characters. The delete
commands documented here, along with the Line Delete command,
accumulate the deleted text in a single delete buffer. The characters
in this buffer may be then recalled as a group by using the Structure
Undelete command.

5.3.1. Insert new line at cursor ............Enter

The text on the current line will be split at the cursor into two
lines. If the current line has descendents, the line with the text to
the right of the cursor becomes the new first child. Otherwise, the
text becomes the next sibling. The new line will be a continuation line
if a continuation line follows the original line.

5.3.2. Toggle insert/replace mode ...........Insert
F7
Ctrl-V

Editing begins by default in insert mode. That is, every character
typed is added to the document; the character under the cursor is
pushed to the right. In replace mode, characters typed replace
characters under the cursor. This command allows you to switch at any
time between the two modes.

5.3.3. Delete character at cursor ...........Delete
F8
Ctrl-G

The character under the cursor will be deleted. If you are at the right
end of a line and there are no characters further to the right, the
next continuation or sibling line will be appended to the current line.

5.3.4. Delete character to left of cursor ...BackSpace

The character to the left of the cursor will be deleted. If you are at
the left side of a line, the current line will be appended to the end
of the previous continuation or sibling line.

5.3.5. Delete word with the cursor ..........Ctrl-Backspace
Ctrl-T

The word containing the cursor will be deleted. If you are at the right
end of a line and there are no characters further to the right, the
next continuation or sibling line will be appended to the current line.

5.3.6. Delete line to the right of cursor ...F3
Ctrl-Q Y

All characters to the right of the cursor on the current line will be
deleted. This command has no effect if the line is currently empty.



5.4. Help Editor commands

5.4.1. Show all command sequences ...........F1

This command will blank out the entire screen and present a menu with
the names of the 11 command groups. Press Escape to return immediately
to your working document. Otherwise, press a number or a letter for a
second screen with a table of all the commands currently defined in the
selected group. Pressing any key will then return you to your working
document.

5.4.2. Activate the command menus ...........Esc

Pressing this key activates the main menus on the second line of the
screen. 'File' will be highlighted, and a list of the secondary File
menu items are given on the third line of the screen. See Section 3.3
for an explanation of how the menu system works.


5.5. File/Quit Editor commands

These options allow you to save your edit session to a file, print

or export your edit session, read an external file into the edit
session, and make other changes that affect the entire file.

5.5.1. Save file / exit to DOS ..............Alt-X
[ File Save ] Alt-F S
Ctrl-K X

With this command, the edit session is saved to disk under the name
with which it was begun. It will be formatted much as you saw it last
on the screen, with these exceptions: all hidden lines will be saved,
and outline labels are always stored in their decimal format. However,
control returns to DOS and not to the startup screen.

5.5.2. Save file / exit to startup ..........Alt-F N
[ File New ] Ctrl-K D

With this command, the edit session is saved to disk under the name
with which it was begun. It will be formatted much as you saw it last
on the screen, with these exceptions: all hidden lines will be saved,
and outline labels are always stored in their decimal format. Control
returns to the startup screen of OutlinePlus.

5.5.3. Quit / abandon all changes ...........Alt-F Q
[ File Quit ] Ctrl-K Q

With this command, the session can be abandoned; it will NOT be saved
to a file on disk. Since this could be disasterous, you are asked
"Are you sure? (Y/N)". If you answer "Y", control returns to the
startup screen without saving the file you were just editing.

5.5.4. Update file / remain in edit .........Alt-F U
[ File Update ] Ctrl-K S

With this command, the edit session is saved to disk under the name
with which it was begun. It will be formatted much as you saw it last
on the screen, with these exceptions: all hidden lines will be saved,
and outline labels are always stored in their decimal format. Control
remains in the edit session and the cursor remains in its last location
in the edit session.

5.5.5. Print the edit buffer ................Alt-F P
[ File Print ]

This command will print the entire document in the edit buffer. You
will be asked the standard series of questions about printing. These
are described in Section 6, below. Labels, if any, and their current
type will be printed.

5.5.6. Export edit buffer to a file .........Alt-F E
[ File Export ]

With this command, you can write out the whole edit buffer to a file in
the format in which it is presently found. You will be prompted for a
file name. You may press Escape while entering the name of a file to
return to the edit session without starting the export operation.

If any part of your document is hidden, ONLY THE PARTS OF THE
DOCUMENT IN VIEW WILL BE WRITTEN TO THE FILE. If you want the hidden
parts exported as well, they must be brought back into view. This
feature allows you to write just the high level(s) of your outline to a
file. (The other commands that save your document to a file will write
all text in the document to the file.)

If you are editing a labelled outline, the current type of label
will be used. This is the only way to save a classical outline to file
and preserve the classical labels. Note that after exporting to a file
with classical labels, the file cannot be subsequently read and
processed as an outline. A file exported with decimal-style labels can
be edited again as an outline however.

5.5.7. Import a file to the edit buffer .....Alt-F I
[ File Import ] Ctrl-K R

You will be prompted to enter the name of a file to be read into the
current document. While entering the name, you can cancel the command
with escape. If you are editing an outline, the contents of the file
will be incorporated into the outline. If the file read has a decimal
outline structure, it will be integrated into the session as part of
your current outline. If you are editing a text file, the contents of
the file will be integrated into the text.

5.5.8. Outline / text toggle ................Alt-F T
[ File Text ]

A labelled outline file can be converted into a structured text file
and vice versa, by using this command. When an outline is changed into
a text file, the formerly labelled lines are marked with '>' and
indentation is kept. When a text file is converted into an outline
file, all lines with '>' are assigned outline labels.

NOTE: If you intend to switch back and forth between the text and the
outline formats in a single document, be sure to load the document into
OutlinePlus in the very same format as it was saved. That is, load as
an outline document if it had been saved as an outline; load as a
structured text document if it had been saved as structured text. If
you don't, the loading will not correctly manage the document's label
structure and you may loose the structure you intended. In any case,
though, the sequence of the text llines will be preserved.

5.5.9. Reformat all text in edit buffer .....Alt-F R
[ File Reformat ]

This powerful command goes through the entire edit buffer and adjusts
every line so that it fits as many words as possible in view. This
operation is performed on each paragraph in turn. A paragraph is any
group of lines that begin an entry or follow a blank line. You will be
asked if you are sure you want to do this, since any special formatting
of paragraphs with spaces and new lines may be destroyed in the
process.

Every paragraph is displayed on the screen after it is
reformatted. This allows you to observe if your own formatting is being
altered in ways you did not intend. Pressing any key during this
process will stop reformatting immediately. See Section 5.8.3 for
further information about Entry Reformat, which formats only one
paragraph at a time.



5.6. Structure Editor commands

These commands operate on structures of your outline. See the
Glossary for the definition of a structure.

5.6.1. Promote structure up a level .........Alt-F9
[ Structure Promote ] Alt-S Up-arrow

The whole structure descending from the current entry will be shifted
up one level (promoted), if this is logically possible. If the current
line is at level 0 or at level 1 with siblings preceding it, this is
not possible.

NOTE: This command may have the effect of reorganizing your outline.
Suppose your outline is structured as follows:

A. Mammals
1. Cats
a. Persian
2. Dogs
3. Rabbits

If the entry "Cats" alone were promoted, "Dogs" and "Rabbits" would
become children of "Cats", as follows:

A. Mammals
B. Cats
1. Persian
2. Dogs
3. Rabbits

However, if the structure "Cats" were promoted, it would be moved so
that the relationship "Mammals" has to its other children would not be
affected. That is, the structure would be changed to:

A. Mammals
1. Dogs
2. Rabbits
B. Cats
1. Persian

Promote structures with care because, as this demonstrates, the
structure may be moved to an unexpected place in the document as a
result of promotion.

5.6.2. Demote structure down a level ........Alt-F10
[ Structure Demote ] Alt-S Down-arrow

The whole structure descending from the current entry will be shifted
down one level (demoted), if this is logically possible. This is not
possible for any line that relates to its father as a first child,
since this would introduce a gap between the generations.

5.6.3. Write current structure to file ......Alt-S W
[ Structure Write ]

The structure beginning with the entry on which the cursor sits can be
saved to a file. You will be asked to name the file. The name of the
current file being edited may not be used. While entering the name, you
can cancel the command with escape. If the cursor is on the root line
at the very top, the whole document is saved to file. Labels are
adjusted to start with the number 1 and at level 0.

5.6.4. Print current structure ..............Alt-S P
[ Structure Print ]

The structure beginning with the entry on which the cursor sits can be
printed. If the cursor is on the root line, the whole document is
printed. If you are editing a labelled outline, the current type of
label will be used, with the labels adjusted to start numbering with 1
at level 0.

5.6.5. Delete current structure .............Alt-S D
[ Structure Delete ]

The structure beginning with the current line will be deleted. The
entire entry in which the cursor is found will be deleted and all
descendents will be deleted. This command should be used carefully,
since large parts of a document can be removed with one use of this
comand. Fortunately, if this is a mistake and it is caught in time,
the recall command, described below, should correct the problem.

5.6.6. Undelete last deleted structure ......Alt-U
[ Undelete ] Alt-S U
[ Structure Undelete ]

If you delete characters, words, lines, a structure, or a block, it can
be restored with this command. Characters, words and individual lines
will accumulate (if there are no other intervening commands) for
undeleting. But only one deleted block or structure at one time can be
deleted and restored in this way. You can use this command to make
multiple copies of the delete buffer through the document. Repeatedly
restore the deleted object with this command as often as necessary and
wherever needed.


5.7. Block Editor commands

These commands create and operate on blocks in your outline. See
the Glossary for the definition of a block and the term "well-formed"
applied to a block.


5.7.1. Promote block up a level .............Alt-B Up-arrow
[ Block Promote ] Shift-F9

This command causes every structure in a well-formed block to be
promoted a level in the hierarchy of the outline, if this is possible.

5.7.2. Demote block down a level ............Alt-B Down-arrow
[ Block Demote ] Shift-F10

This command causes every structure in a well-formed block to be
demoted a level in the hierarchy of the outline, if this is possible.

5.7.3. Begin block mark .....................Alt-B B
[ Block Begin ] Ctrl-K B

Use this command to mark the beginning of a block. If the block is well-
formed, a 'B' appears in the leftmost column against the entry so
marked, and the remaining structures in the block are indicated by ':'s
in the leftmost column. If the block is not well-formed, a lower-case
'b' appears against the entry.

5.7.4. End block mark .......................Alt-B E
[ Block End ] Ctrl-K K

Use this command to mark the end of a block. To create a well-formed
block, this should mark a sibling or descendent line after the
begin mark. If a descendent is marked, all remaining descendents are
also marked as part of the block. If the block is well-formed, an 'E'
appears in the leftmost column against the entry, and the rest of the
structures in the block are indicated by ':'s in the leftmost column.
If the block is not well-formed, a lower-case 'e' appears against the
entry.

5.7.5. Write block to file ..................Alt-B W
[ Block Write ]

If there is a well-formed block in the edit session, it can be saved to
a file. You will be asked to name the file. While entering the name,
you can cancel the command with escape. The name of the current file
being edited may not be used. If you are editing a labelled outline,
the current type of label will be used, with the labels adjusted to
start numbering with 1 at level 0.

5.7.6. Print current block ..................Alt-B P
[ Block Print ]

If there exists a well-formed block, it will be printed. If you are
editing a labelled outline, the current type of label will be used,
with the labels adjusted to start numbering with 1 at level 0.

5.7.7. Copy block ...........................Alt-B C
[ Block Copy ] Ctrl-K C

This command works only if a well-formed block exists. If so, a copy of
the block is transferred to the location of the line with the cursor.
The block marks move with the transferred copy of the block.

5.7.8. Move block ...........................Alt-B M
[ Block Move ] Ctrl-K V

This command works only if a well-formed block exists. If so, the block
is transferred from its previous location to the line with the cursor.
The block is deleted from the old location and inserted in the new
location. The block marks move with the transferred block.

5.7.9. Hide block marks .....................Alt-B H
[ Block Hide ] Ctrl-K H

This command allows you to remove both the block begin and the block
end mark. You may want to do this to improve the readability of the
text.

5.7.10. Delete block ........................Alt-B D
[ Block Delete ] Ctrl-K Y

This command works only if a well-formed block exists. If so, the block
is deleted from the document being worked on. The deleted block is
stored in the delete buffer and can be immediately recalled with the
Structure Undelete command described in Section 5.6.6.


5.8. Entry/Line Editor commands

These commands create and operate on entries and lines in your
outline. See the Glossary for the definition of both.


5.8.1. Promote entry up a level .............F9
[ Entry Promote ] Alt-E Up-arrow

The entry containing the cursor will be shifted up one level
(promoted), if this is logically possible. If the current line is at
level 0 or at level 1 with siblings preceding it, this is not possible.

5.8.2. Demote entry down a level ............F10
[ Entry Demote ] Alt-E Down-arrow

The entry containing the cursor will be shifted down one level
(demoted), if this is logically possible. This is not possible for any
line that relates to its father as a first child.

5.8.3. Reformat entry text after cursor .....Ctrl-B
[ Entry Reformat ] Alt-E R

Words in the current paragraph, starting with the line with the cursor,
are reorganized so that each line is made up of as many complete words
as will fit on a line. The paragraph in this context is considered to
end with the first labelled line or the first completely blank
continuation line. Lines are broken at either a space or a hyphen. All
runs of space characters are reduced to a single space. The cursor is
placed at the end of the reformatted paragraph.

Lines can easily exceed the width of the screen, e.g., by
inserting characters. Characters to the right are hidden and marked by
a '+'. To bring these characters back into view, place the cursor on
the line with the '+' and use the reformat command to wrap the
remaining text into view. The entire text can be reformatted, and not
just the current entry. To do so, use the File Reformat command,
described in Section 5.5.9.

5.8.4. Extend entry with blank line .........Alt-E E
[ Entry Extend ]

A single blank continuation line is added to the end of an entry (a
labelled line and the continuation lines that follow it). You may want
to do so for two reasons. First, it improves the visual presentation of
the outline by allowing the user to easily distinguish paragraphs.
Second, it allows continuation lines to be entered as part of an entry,
even when carriage returns are used to terminate lines. Without a
continuation line following, a carriage return will produce a new
labelled line in an outline document.

5.8.5. Add new line above current line ......F5
[ Line Above ] Alt-L A

The current line is moved down one line. A new empty line is created on
the current line. This will have a label if the current line has a
label.

5.8.6. Add cont line below current line .....F4
[ Line Below ] Alt-L B

This command adds a new line below the current line. The new line will
never have a label; it will always be a continuation line of the
current line. If the current line has descendents these will be
transfered to the new continuation line.

5.8.7. Toggle label on/off line .............F2
[ Line Label ] Alt-L L

The current line can be changed from a labelled line to a continuation
line and back again by using this command. The first child cannot be
converted into a continuation line as long as the entry remains the
first child.

5.8.8. Delete the current line ..............F6
[ Line Delete ] Alt-L D
Ctrl-Y

The current line will be deleted. Normally, the line will be removed
from the outline altogether. It will simply be cleared, though, if the
line has children and is a first child itself. This will also happen if
the line has children and the preceding sibling also has children.



5.9. Hide/Show Editor commands

These commands allow different parts of your outline to be
temporarily hidden from or restored to view. This allows you to get
the "big picture" of your outline, for instance, by hiding details.

5.9.1. Specify depth displayed ..............Alt-H D
[ Hide Depth ]

You will be prompted for the depth of display. Enter a value between 1
and 9. Only entries down to the level specified will appear on the edit
screen.

5.9.2. Increment depth displayed ............Alt-H I
[ Hide Increment ]

The current maximum level seen, or depth, is increased by one, up to
the maximum depth of 9.

5.9.3. Decrement depth displayed ............Alt-H E
[ Hide dEcrement ]

The current maximum level seen, or depth, is decreased by one, down to
the minimum depth of 1.

5.9.4. Hide / show continuation lines .......Alt-H C
[ Hide Continuation ]

Continuation lines can be removed from and restored to view during an
edit session. This can give a more compact view of the document in that
only the labelled lines, the first line of each entry, will be seen.
Operations that produce continuation lines will automatically restore
them, if hidden. These operations include reformatting and word-
wrapping as text is added to the outline.

5.9.5. Hide / show path from root to node ...Alt-H R
[ Hide Root ]

With this toggle command, the edit screen is split in half. The top
half contains all the antecedents of the top line shown in the bottom
half of the screen. All editing is now done in the bottom half. If the
edit screen is already presenting this half screen view, this command
will restore the full screen to editing.

5.9.6. Show node's parent at screen top .....Alt-H P
[ Hide Parent ]

The parent of the current entry is presented at the top of the screen,
followed by its immediate descendents (children). The depth for
editing is set to the level of the current entry. This will hide all
descendents of the current entry.

5.9.7. Show node at top of screen ...........Alt-H N
[ Hide Node ]

The current line is presented at the top of the screen, followed by its
immediate descendents. The depth for editing is set to the level of the
current entry's children. This will hide all descendents below the
current item's children.


5.10. Search/Sort Editor commands

The search commands allow you to search for text, and to replace
one textual phrase with another. The sort commands allow you to
reorder entries at a specific level in alphabetic or inverse alphabetic
order.

5.10.1. Find text phrase .....................Alt-Q
[ Query ] Ctrl-Q F

After entering this command, you will be prompted for the phrase. Then
you must specify whether or not you are doing a case-sensitive search.
If it is, the search will match only on items with the same upper- and
lower-case letters. All lines in the entire document will be searched
for the first occurrence of the phrase. No lines below the depth
currently in effect will be searched. If the text is not found, the
computer will beep. An Escape will let you escape from the prompt and
will return you to the edit session.

Once you have entered a search string, it will remain in effect
until you edit or replace it. Replace it by entering as your first
keystroke any ordinary displayable character. You can edit the search
string by using BackSpace (Control-H), Delete, Left arrow, and Right
arrow. These all behave as you would expect. After using any of these
edit commands, the search string is no longer replaced, but instead is
modified, by ordinary displayable characters.

5.10.2. Find and replace phrase ..............Alt-R
[ Replace ] Ctrl-Q A

After entering this command, you will be prompted for two phrases in
turn. A search will be done of the document for the first occurrence of
the first phrase, following the rules given above. If the phrase is
found, the second phrase will be substituted for it. If it is not
found, the computer will beep. Escape will escape from the either
prompt and return you to the edit session. Both the search and the
replace phrase can be edited, as described in Section 5.10.1, above.

5.10.3. Find or replace next occurrence ......Alt-O N
[ Order Next ] Ctrl-L

This command allows you to repeat the last search or replace operation.
The operation may be repeated until no more search phrases are located
in the document. At this point, the program will beep.

5.10.4. Sort siblings in ascending order .....Alt-O A
[ Order Ascending ]

All sibling entries will be sorted in ascending order. Continuation
lines will be kept with their entries. Only the labelled lines will be
sorted. This powerful command can change the entire order of a set of
siblings, so it should be used with caution.

5.10.5. Sort siblings in descending order ....Alt-O D
[ Order Descending ]

All sibling entries will be sorted in descending order. Continuation
lines will be kept with their entries. Only the labelled lines will be
sorted. This powerful command can change the entire order of a set of
siblings, so it should be used with caution.


5.11. Format Editor commands

Various values can be set by command during an edit session. Some
allow you to define the size and shape of your working screen. Others
allow you to define indent and tab formatting in your text. The default
values for all of these options can be set before editing by using
OUTINST, but can be over-ridden at any time during your use of the
program.

5.11.1. Toggle decimal/classical labels ......Alt-V D
[ View Decimal ]

The labels on an outline document are changed from a decimal form
to a classical form or vice versa. This command has no effect on an
unlabelled text document. Classical labels, from highest to lowest
level are (with examples):

I. upper-case Roman numerals
A. upper-case Roman letters
1. Arabic nunerals
a. lower-case Roman letters
i. lower-case Roman numerals
(A) parenthesized upper-case Roman letters
(1) parenthesized Arabic numerals
(a) parenthesized lower-case Roman letters
(i) paren'd lower-case Roman numerals


5.11.2. Toggle continuation line margin ......Alt-V M
[ View Margin ]

This shifts the left margin of continuation lines from the leftmost
column to a position indented below the label, and vice versa.

5.11.3. Specify # spaces for Tab key .........Alt-V T
[ View Tab ]

The TAB key can be defined to move the cursor to every column that
is a multiple of some small number. A value of 5 or 8 is often used,
although any value in the range of 1 to 15 may be defined for this
purpose. TABs entered in the text are converted to spaces for
presentation and storage.

5.11.4. Specify spaces to indent per level ...Alt-V L
[ View Level ]

You will be prompted to enter the number of spaces for indentation. To
get the number of leading spaces for each level, multiply the level
number by this value. The change will be reflected both on the screen
and in the file stored to disk.

5.11.5. Specify rightmost edit column ........Alt-V W
[ View Width ]

This command allows you to define the last column in which your
document text is seen on the screen. It must be at least one column
less than the currently defined rightmost screen column. This command
allow you to "shape" your edit window on the right edge. It also
defines the length of the line for the reformat command.

5.11.6. Specify rightmost screen column ......Alt-V S
[ View Screen ]

This command allows you to define the column in which the '+' mark is
shown when the line has undisplayed text beyond the right of the
screen. It also is the rightmost column in which the help lines will be
shown. The value specified must be at least one more than the currently
defined rightmost edit column.

5.11.7. Specify bottom edit row ..............Alt-V B
[ View Bottom ]

This command allows you to define the last row for the display of
editable text on your screen. The maximum number of lines is 25. This
command allows you to "shape" your edit window at the bottom. Also, you
can use it to retain in view one part of a document while you edit
another part of the same document elsewhere. Use this command very
carefully as the results are undefined if the value exceeds the actual
number of rows on the screen. The program does not determine this
maximum value from the hardware. Exceeding the possible number of lines
for your computer may cause the program to fail.



6. More about printing options

From the startup screen of OutlinePlus, you may choose to print a
file. To do so, press the space bar until the top prompt line asks for
the name of a file to be printed. Then enter the name of any outline or
ASCII text file to be printed. During the edit session itself, you can
use the File Print, Structure Print or Block Print commands to print
each of those objects in turn. Labels will be "normalized" when
printing a structure or block. That is, the highest level will be 0 and
numbers in the labels will start with 1.

After printing is selected from the main screen or requested by
command during an edit session, you will get the print options screen.
In it, you may accept or change the values of seven print options.
These options are:

-- number of copies to be printed
-- number of spaces on the left margin
-- number of lines on a page or form
-- number of lines at the top margin
-- number of lines at the bottom margin
-- number of lines to skip between printed lines
-- whether Form Feeds should be used between pages


The initial values of these options are set under the Defaults
section of the OUTINST program. The individual values may be accepted
by pressing for each in turn. By pressing the Space bar at any
time you can accept all the default values at once. You may cancel
printing at any time by pressing Control-U.


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7. Advanced Installation and Customization

The program OUTINST allows you to define the keystrokes for all 76
commands, default values, and the help messages used in the OutlinePlus
program. You may be quite happy with those provided as a part of the
package. If so, you should use the OP.EXE version of the program. If
not, use OUTINST.EXE to create and update support files used by
OUTLINE.EXE. This is the way to add of change command sequences that
cause each operation and values that affect presentation and use.

Why would you want to redefine the keystrokes that carry out
commands? First, you may want OutlinePlus commands to be the same as
similar commands in other packages with which you are familiar. Second,
you may want to take advantage of certain function keys combinations on
your microcomputer that were not considered as part of the standard
package. Finally, you may want to design a new command structure and
prompting system just for the challenge it presents!

Call up the program by entering at the DOS command prompt:

OUTINST

The main screen gives you a menu of five options:

[C]ommand installation
[H]elp line installation
[D]efaults installation

[K]eep changes
[A]bandon session

The sections that follow will provide an explanation of the first
three options. The program is organized as a hierarchy of menus. You
are always brought back to the main screen before leaving the program.
The fourth and fifth options, [K]eep changes and [A]bandon session,
allow you to decide what to do with all changes made during the
session. Then these options return you to the DOS level.


7.1. Command installation

If you press the letter "C" you will get a menu of eleven command
groups and a [P]rint and a [Q]uit option. If [P]rint is selected by
pressing "P", you will print all 76 commands sequences at once. If
[Q]uit is selected, you will return to the main menu.

If you choose the number or letter of one of the command groups,
another numbered list of the individual commands in the group will now
appear on the screen, followed by the [P]rint and [Q]uit options. These
last two options allow you to print the current menu or to leave it. If
you choose a number or a letter for a command, you will get prompts
appropriate for defining the command.

If you pick a command not yet defined, you will immediately be
asked to enter the keystrokes that you want to cause the given action.
Enter the key sequences for each command in turn. The backslash ('\')
key and the key serve special control purposes when you are
defining command sequences. These purposes are:

The backslash, '\', will cancel the last keystroke in the
sequence. The key is used to end defining a sequence of
characters. Pressing as the first response to the prompt will
cause the previous value for the command to be retained. If you want to
define , or Control-M, as part of the sequence, you must enter
the letter "M". A command sequence may not begin with the TAB key
(Control-I) as this serves its normal role in an edit session.

Ordinary displayable characters are converted into Control values
for presentation when they are being defined. Only the first keystroke
in a sequence must be qualified by the Control key when used in the
main program. Characters with ASCII values higher than 127 (Delete)
retain their control value. A command sequence may match the initial
keys of another command as this makes the definitions ambiguous. The
Alt-keys defined for the menu take priority over the same keystrokes
defined under OUTINST.

If the command chosen from the menu already has at least one
definition, you will be given the following options:

[A]dd definition
[C]hanged definition
[D]elete definition
[Q]uit

If you choose [A]dd, you will be prompted to enter an additional
command sequence. You may enter as many such synonyms as you wish. If
the sequence already defines another command, the program will ask you
to choose which command you really want the sequence to define. Either
of the conflicting commands may be redefined at this time. If the
sequence matches the initial keys of another command, you must re-enter
a sequence for the current command.

If you choose [C]hange and only one command sequence has been
defined for the current command, you will be immediately prompted to
enter the replacement sequence. If more than one sequence defines the
command, you will be asked to choose from a menu the sequence to be
changed. The rules for resolving conflicting definitions, described
under the [A]dd above, apply to the [C]hange option as well.

If you choose [D]elete and only one command sequence has been
defined for the current command, that definition will be immediately
deleted. If more than one sequence defines the command, you will be
asked to choose from a menu the sequence to be deleted.


7.2. Help line installation

From the main menu of the program, choose "H" for help line
installation. You will see one of two possible screens. If help has not
been defined before, you will be asked to enter the two initial help
lines. These are the lines that appear at the top of the outline
program's edit screen before any command sequence has begun. Otherwise,
if help lines have been defined, you will be given the following
choices:

[A]dd help
[C]hange help
[R]eview help
[D]elete help
[P]rint helps
[Q]uit

If you choose [A]dd, you will be prompted to enter a sequence.
This must be the initial key sequence of a group of commands. Help
lines will appear at the top of the screen of OutlinePlus when those
initial keys have been entered. You will then be prompted for the two
help lines that are to appear on the screen following those keys.

If you choose [C]hange, you will get a menu of all sequences.
Choose the sequence to be changed and redefine the sequence and the
help lines. You will be able to keep or change any of the lines.

If you choose [R]eview, you will again get a menu of sequences.
Choose by number the sequence of interest. You will be given the
corresponding help lines.

If you choose [D]elete, you will again get a menu of sequences.
Choose by number the sequence to be deleted. You will have a chance to
confirm that these help lines should be deleted.

If you choose [P]rint, all sequences and help lines will be sent
to the printer.

Help lines are stored in the file OUTLINE.HLP, a text file that
can be directly edited with a text editor. All help lines related to a
given keystroke are saved together at the top of this file in pairs.
New pairs of lines can be typed in and subsequently associated with a
lead-in sequence under the "Help option" of OUTINST. The bottom of this
file contains the help frames that summarize the keystrokes for the
commands of OutlinePlus.


7.3. Defaults installation

Return again to the main menu of the OUTINST program If you
choose "D" for defaults, you will see a menu with the three major
default groups. These groups are: (1) Toggle defaults; (2) Screen
format defaults; and (3) Miscellaneous defaults. The first two groups
correspond with the toggle condition commands and the format screen
commands. The last group corresponds to other miscellaneous states that
you can set for the main program.

By choosing each group, you will get the defaults that can be set
for every edit session. Many of these can also be changed under command
control during an edit session. Note that defaults are values, not
commands themselves, so one and only one value may be defined for each
default.


7.4. Installing commands from scratch

The program OUTINST will read and rewrite the files OUTLINE.DAT
and OUTLINE.HLP. The main OUTLINE program must be able to find and read
these files for their definitions to be used. See Section 3.8 for a
description of how the main program finds these files. OUTINST,
however, will only work on copies of these files in the directory in
which OUTINST.EXE is found.

If you want to replace many of the commands and help screens in
the two files, you may find it easier to install the new commands from
scratch. On your working diskette, or on your hard disk (never on the
original program disk!) delete the OUTLINE.DAT and OUTLINE.HLP files.
Then run OUTINST, selecting every command in turn to define the
keystroke sequences that you prefer. You will notice that they will
initially be reported as "Undefined" and will remain so until you
provide a definition.

After defining the command sequences, define the help screens for
all initial key sequences for which you want help. You may find it
easier to type in some brief indication of the keystroke instead of all
the details for each help line. Then use OUTLINE itself in text mode,
or some other text editor, to read the file OUTLINE.HLP and complete
the detail on the help lines. It is very important that you do not use
the default outline mode to modify the help file. For instance, enter
"OUTLINE OUTLINE.HLP /T" on the command line. Remember, too, that the
number and order of lines should not be changed, and that all help
lines related to each initial sequence must be kept together as a pair.


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8. The Files on the distribution disk

OutlinePlus is delivered with six files. These files are:

OP.EXE -- the stand-alone outline processor program
OUTLINE.EXE -- the customizable outline processor program
OUTINST.EXE -- the installation / customizaton program
OUTLINE.DAT -- pre-defined command values and data
OUTLINE.HLP -- context-sensitive on-screen prompts
OUTLINE.MNU -- pre-defined menu text file
OUTLINE.DOC -- the user manual / documentation file

The three programs, OP.EXE, OUTLINE.EXE and OUTINST.EXE, are
discussed extensively above. The OP.EXE program alone is sufficient if
you do not intend to customize your commands. If you intend to do so,
you will need all the other files.

OUTLINE.DAT is a data file that stores the command keystrokes and
default vales defined by OUTINST.EXE. This data file is read by
OUTLINE.EXE as part of its start-up activity. OUTLINE.EXE will then
recognize and act upon the defined values.

OUTLINE.HLP is a data file that contains user-defined on-screen
helps. These helps appear when initial keystrokes of commands have been
completed. The prompts will guide you in the selection and construction
of the various command sequences. OUTLINE.HLP also contains the help
frames describing all the keystrokes of all the commands.

OUTLINE.MNU is a text file that contains all the informatin found
in the menuing system. You should not normally need to edit or
otherwise modify this file. It is possible to do so, however. A
description of this file's internal structure is given in Section 9.

OUTLINE.DOC is a machine readable copy of this documentation. It
can be loaded and reviewed under either OP.EXE or OUTLINE.EXE -- as a
long outline document.


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9. Systems Background

Development of OutlinePlus was developed using TurboPascal from
Borland, International. The application builds an in-memory tree to
store the document. The standard Pascal heap contains all the lines of
the working document in a structure. This structure reflects the user
model of the outline, the concepts and their relationships.

When invoked, the entire file is loaded into memory for editing.
OutlinePlus cannot process files that exceed the size of available
memory. The largest file that can be handled depends on the amount of
memory in your microcomputer. All memory remaining after loading the
operating system, any co-resident programs, and the OutlinePlus program
will be used for editing the document.

OutlinePlus provides compatibility with many other word processors
and text editors. The documents it creates and revises are standard
ASCII text files, with no control or extended codes. It does use some
characters of standard text in unconventional ways explained below.
Because of this, it is usually easier to move files originally created
under OutlinePlus to other word processors than it is to move files
developed under other word processors to OutlinePlus.

The first line of every outline file is the control line. This
line consists of a sequence of spaces and tabs. It serves as a record
of two format parameters for each file: (1) the number of spaces of
indentation per level and (2) the initial placement of the left margin
of continuation lines. The number of spaces on this line is equal to
the number of lead-in spaces per level. If one tab follows,
continuation lines are flush left; if two tabs follow, they are
indented below the entry. These values over-ride the defaults; if the
control line is missing the defaults in OUTLINE.DAT are applied.

All continuation lines are marked by one space at the end of the
line. If no decimal label is found at the beginning of a line, it
becomes a continuation line. Numbers in decimalized labels are
not validated. Only the presence of digits followed by periods are used
to construct a labelled line. Thus, a number like '0.0.0.' or even
'0...' will convert to the appropriate level 3 entry in the sequence.

The depth of an entry in a structured text file is determined by
the amount of indentation at the beginning of the line. In structured
text files, continuation lines are also marked by a trailing space.
Lines without a trailing space become the first line of an entry.
These will be converted into labelled lines with the toggle command
File Text.

The file OUTLINE.MNU is a text file that defines the menu
structure. There are groups of lines corresponding to each menu. Each
line has the same internal structure:

GC\Name~Description.

The first letter of each line, G, defines the group. It is '*' for
the main menu and the command letter for subsidiary menus. The next
component, C, is either the command letter of the next menu level or
the command number for a direct action. The command number is a
sequential number, starting with 1, representing the commands as they
are defined in OUTINST and the User Documentation. 'Name' is the name
of the command as it is to appear in the menu on the second line of the
screen. 'Description' is the corresponding one-line description that
appears on the third line of the screen. Take care to preserve the
form of this file if you modify it.


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10. Glossary of terms

Following are definitions of and comments on terms used elsewhere
in the User Manual.

10.1. Antecedents

All entries above and containing an entry, from the entry's parent
to the root, are known as its antecedents. The antecedents can be
reviewed by using the Hide Root command.

10.2. Block

A stucture or group of contiguous sibling structures can be marked
as a block. All descendents are part of the block. The block can be
copied, moved, promoted, demoted, deleted, printed or written out under
command control. Blocks consist of whole lines. A block may consist of
a single line, in which case both the beginning and end of the block
mark the same line.

The block is indicated in the left margin of the screen by the
letter 'B' for the beginning of the block, a set of colons for internal
lines of the block, and the letter 'E' for the end of the block. If
available, the intensity of text in a well-formed block differs from
that of text outside the block. If the block is not well-formed, only
the beginning and ending lines are marked by lower-case 'b' and 'e.'
See the definition of "Well-formed" also in the Glossary.

10.3. Children

All entries directly below, or descending from, an entry in a
hierarchy are known as that entry's children.

10.4. Continuation Line

Lines in a labelled outline that have no label are continuation
lines. Unnumbered lines can be created in one of four ways: (1) by
typing enough characters on a line so that it wraps to the next line,
(2) by a command that explicitly turns the label off, (3) by a command
that introduces a blank continuation line at the end of an entry or
below the current line, and (4) by any command that creates a line in
front of an existing continuation line.

10.5. Depth

The depth of an outline is the last level displayed before the
entries are hidden from view.

10.6. Descendents

All the children of an entry, together with their children, etc.,
are known as the entry's descendents.

10.7. Entry

A labelled lines plus all the continuation lines that immediately
follow it are known as a entry. An entry may consist of one or more
paragraphs, following the conventional usage of that word.

10.8. Group

OutlinePlus commands are organized into collections, or groups, of
related commands. There are 11 such groups, which are defined, one
screen to a group, in OUTINST. These groups can be reviewed in help
frames by pressing F1 while using OutlinePlus.

10.9. Hierarchy

A hierarchy is a method of organization in which higher levels
contain one or more entries at lower levels.

10.10. Label

Labels are provided and maintained by OutlinePlus to mark the
beginning of entries and clarify the hierarchy of the outline. Labels
come in two styles: classical and decimal. Classical labels correspond
to traditional outlines; decimal labels consist of numbers separated by
periods. The numbers in a decimal label are sequential and represent
the level and place an entry has in the hierarchy.

10.11. Level

Each entry is at some level between 0 and 9. The first, or root,
entry and the continuation lines that follow it are at level 0. The
level of a line is reflected by the label at the beginning of the line.
In a decimal outline, level corresponds to the number of decimal points
on a labelled line.

10.12. Line

The document is made up of lines that correspond with lines of
text that are seen on the screen. Lines may have an optional outline
label. Lines without a label are called continuation lines.

10.13. Node

When an outline is viewed as a tree structure in memory, every
line is a node of this tree. A continuation line is simply a node
without a label.

10.14. Parent

The entry above an entry in the hierarchy (one level up) is known
as its parent. An entry's parent is said to contain that entry.

10.15. Root

The first line of the file is called the root of the document
structure. The root and its continuation lines make up level-0 in the
hierarchy. The last level-0 line is the parent of all level-1 lines.
Labels are first seen at level-1. In a labelled outline, no label is
ever assigned to the root. The letter 'T' (for Title) is always given
in the first column of the root line.

10.16. Siblings

All lines at the same level in the hierarchy and that have the
same parent are known as a line's siblings.

10.17. Structure

An entry, its continuation lines, and all its descendents is known
as a structure. In OutlinePlus, certain operations can be applied to an
entire structure. These include promoting, demoting, deleting,
undeleting, printing, and saving to a file.

10.18. Structured text file

A file containing a hierarchical structure but no explicitly
labelled lines or entries is called a structured text file. Only text
is seen in the edit screen. OutlinePlus can create these files. It can
also convert them to a file with labelled entries and back again with
the toggle command, File Text.

10.19. Well-formed

This term is applied to a block of lines on which operations can
be performed. To have a well-formed block, there must be a line with a
begin mark followed by a line with an end mark. The line with the end-
mark must be a sibling, a descendent, or a descendent of a sibling of
the line with the begin mark. A well-formed block can be detected by
the presence of a capital 'B' for begin and a capital 'E' for end,
marking the block on the left of the screen.


-----------------------------------------------------------------


11. Error Code Table

During filing and printing operations, errors may occur which
prevent the program from completing the operation. For instance, the
printer may be out of paper, or the floppy disk may be physically
write-protected. Numeric error codes will be reported on the top line.
To continue with the program, you must press some key. A brief
interpretation of these standard Turbo Pascal numeric codes follows.

2 File not found
3 Path not found
4 Too many open files
5 File access denied
6 Invalid file handle
7 Invalid file access code
100 Disk read error
101 Disk write error
102 File not assigned
103 File not open
104 File not open for reading
105 File not open for writing
150 Disk is write protected
151 Unknown unit
152 Drive not ready
153 Unknown command
154 CRC error in data
155 Bad drive request
156 Disk seek error
157 Unknown media type
158 Sector not found
159 Printer out of paper
160 Device write fault
161 Device read fault
162 General hardware failure


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12. Copyright Acknowledgements

12.1. Turbo Pascal is a trademark of Borland Internatinal
12.2. MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation
12.3. IBM-PC is a trademark of Internatinal Business Machines
12.4. WordStar is a trademark of WordStar Corp.


 December 13, 2017  Add comments

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