Dec 132017
 
Good info re writing Word Perfect Macros.
File MACRODOC.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Word Processors
Good info re writing Word Perfect Macros.
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MACRODOC.TXT 62774 19057 deflated

Download File MACRODOC.ZIP Here

Contents of the MACRODOC.TXT file


ADVANCED MACROS

With the Macros feature, you can create and edit macros
using a programming language. Macro programming is done in
the Macro Editor. You can also do limited programming from
the editing screen. The programming commands are accessible
through the Macro Commands feature.

MACRO EDITOR
The Macro Editor allows you to view the individual commands
(keystrokes) of your macro. You can edit existing macros,
create new ones, and insert programming commands to create
complex macros. Each command is displayed in braces { }.
Characters and numbers appear as they normally do.

The Macro Editor requires that you enter the name of a macro
that already exists. If you want to create a new macro, you
must first create it with Macro Define (Ctrl-F10). Simply
press Ctrl-F10, enter the macro name and, optionally, a
description, then press Ctrl-F10. You are now ready to enter
the Macro Editor

1 Press Macro Define (Ctrl-F10) and enter the name of a
macro that already exists.

2 Select Edit (2) to enter the Macro Editor.

The Macro Editor screen displays the name of the macro, its
description (your explanation of its function), and the
keystrokes (Action).

3 If you want to type a description for the macro, select
Description (1) and enter the description.

4 Select Action (2) to enter the Action Editing Window.

5 Edit the macro (see Macro Editing below).

6 Press Exit twice to return to the Document Editing
Screen.

MACRO EDITING
While your cursor is inside the Action Editing Window, you
can delete commands, insert new ones, and format your macro.
Spaces you enter appear as small dots. Use Tab and Enter to
make your macro more readable.

INSERTING COMMANDS
To insert a WordPerfect command (e.g., {Spell}) into your
macro, press the feature's key. To insert text, simply type
the text.

You will probably want to use the editing keys (e.g., Enter,
Arrows, Home, Backspace, Pg Up) in two ways: 1) to edit
your macro, and 2) to insert the command into your macro.
For example, pressing Enter either inserts a line into your
macro or includes an {Enter} command.

When you want the editing command to be a part of the macro,
press Ctrl-v before pressing the key. This tells WordPerfect
to insert the command itself into the macro. For example, to
insert the {Enter} command into your macro, press Ctrl-v, then
press Enter.

If you will be inserting many of these commands, you can enter
the Command Insert Mode by pressing Macro Define (Ctrl-F10).
While in this mode, all keys you press will insert the key
command. When you want to use the editing keys to edit, press
Macro Define again.

You must either press Ctrl-v or enter the Command Insert
mode before pressing the key to insert the following
commands: Exit, Cancel, Tab, Insert, Macro Commands,
Variables, certain Control Characters, and Keyboard Macro
Contents.

To insert programming commands (commands not assigned to any
key), press Macro Commands (see Macro Commands below).

CANCELING CHANGES
If, after editing your macro, you would like to restore it
to it's previous state, press Cancel. WordPerfect will
prompt "Cancel Changes? (Y/N) No." Type y to have
WordPerfect cancel the changes you made and exit the Action
Editing Window. Type n to return to the edited macro.

VARIABLES
There are ten variables available in WordPerfect. A
variable is similar to a file macro in that it can store
keystrokes. A variable differs from a file macro in the
following ways:

Variables are named {VAR 0} through {VAR 9} and are
executed by pressing Alt-variable number (0-9). A variable
can be executed from anywhere in WordPerfect operation.

You can perform operations such as adding numbers, and
comparing the contents of one variable to another.

You can block text and assign it to a variable.

The method you use to assign variable contents determines
what kind (if any) codes you can assign.

A variable can only hold 120 characters.

Variables are temporary--their contents will be erased when
you exit WordPerfect.

USES FOR VARIABLES
A variable is useful as a temporary "macro" or as part of a
complex macro. You can also do simple calculations or assign
existing text to a variable.

As a temporary "macro"
Use a variable to hold text you would otherwise need to type
several times. The contents of a variable are executed one
key at a time, which means that it can act as a macro. For
example, you can record the keystrokes which would take you
to the Tab Set menu with {ASSIGN}1~{Format}lt~.

To assign existing text
You can assign on-screen text to a variable without retyping
it.

To calculate
You can define a variable to do simple calculations. For
example, to calculate 245 times 11, press Macro Commands
(Ctrl-Pg Up) while at the main editing screen, enter the
variable number (0-9), then enter 245*11. Press Alt-number
to insert the result (2695) into your document. A variable
can compute only one operation at a time. If you enter an
expression such as "2+3+4", the expression will be treated
as a string.

As part of a complex macro
You might want to create a macro which will calculate and/or
keep track of values and text which will change during macro
execution. Variables are an important part of these
procedures.

ASSIGNING VARIABLE CONTENTS
You can assign contents to a variable from any text-editing
screen, or with a macro command inside a macro.

OUTSIDE OF MACRO DEFINITION
From any text-editing screen, you can choose either to enter
the contents of a variable, or to assign existing text.

To enter the variable contents:

1 Press Macro Commands (Ctrl-Pg Up) from any text-editing
screen.

2 Type the variable number (0-9).

3 Enter the variable contents.

You can enter only characters and numbers when you assign a
variable in this way. You can enter up to 79 characters.

To assign existing text:

1 Block the text.

2 Press Macro Commands (Ctrl-Pg Up).

3 Type the variable number (0-9).

The first 120 characters of the block will be assigned to
the variable. When codes are encountered in the block, they
are converted (if possible) to the keystroke command that
would normally insert that code. For example, if the block
includes a [Tab] code, it will be converted to the command
{Tab}. All of the codes of the blocked text are ignored
except the following:

Tab, Indent, Hard Return, Hard Page, and Required Hyphen.

Soft Return is kept as a space.

Soft Page is kept either as the Enter key or a space.

DURING MACRO DEFINITION
During macro definition, the macro commands key allows more
options. After you press Macro Commands (Ctrl-Pg Up), a
menu of four options will appear. Select Assign (3) and
continue the steps as outlined above.

MACRO EDITOR
You can place commands in your macro which will assign
contents to a variable when the macro is executed (see
Assign, Char, Look and Text below). These commands will
allow you to assign any command to the variable.

EXECUTING A VARIABLE
To insert the contents of a variable, press Alt-variable
number. If the variable contains arithmetic or logical
expressions, the result of the expression will be inserted.
Variables may be executed at any point in WordPerfect
operation.

INSERTING A VARIABLE COMMAND
In the Macro Editor, you can insert a variable command
(e.g., {Var 1}) into your macro. The variable is executed
during macro execution.

1 Position the cursor where you want {Var n} to appear in
your macro.

2 Press Ctrl-v.

3 Press Alt-variable number.

If you want a macro to use the contents of a variable during
macro execution, simply place the {VAR n} command in the macro.

If you want to insert the variable contents into your macro
when it is displayed in the Action Editing Window, press
Alt-variable number.

KEYBOARD MACROS
Keyboard macros act much like variables when they are
executed in the Macro Editor. When you want the key to act
as it would in the main editing screen, simply press the
key. When you want to insert the commands assigned to the
key (the command(s) that are executed during macro execution),
press Macro Define (Ctrl-F10) or Ctrl-v before pressing the
key.

You can insert the contents of a macro into other macros by
assigning it to a key (see Keyboard Layout in Reference).
The commands of the macro will be inserted into the Action
Editing Window when you press Ctrl-v, key.

MACRO COMMANDS
The Macro Commands Key (Ctrl-Pg Up) is one of WordPerfect's
most versatile keys. It allows you to manipulate variables
and place programming commands in macros. The function of
the Macro Commands key differs depending upon where you are
in the program. For information on what options are
available, see Figure 1.

Pause Display AssignComment

Normal Execution

Block On

Macro Define
(edit screen)
Macro Define
(no edit screen)

Macro EditorAll Programming Commands

Macro EditorInserts {Macro Commands}
(with Ctrl-v)

NORMAL EXECUTION
In normal execution (no Block, no Macro Define, no menus,
etc.) Macro Commands (Ctrl-Pg Up) is used to assign a value
to a variable.

BLOCK ON
When Block is on, the highlighted text is assigned to a
variable.

MACRO DEFINITION/EXECUTION
Pressing Macro Commands (Ctrl-Pg Up) while defining or
executing a macro brings up either two or four options.
Four options are available if you are in an editing screen
and two options are available otherwise.

Pause stops the macro to allow for text from the keyboard.
When Enter is pressed, the macro continues.

Display determines whether the execution of the macro is
visible.

Assign functions as in normal execution (see Normal
Execution above).

Comment allows the user to make comments about the macro
during definition. The comments are displayed the Macro
Editor along with the macro commands. When the macro is
executed, the comments are ignored.

MACRO EDITOR
Pressing Macro Commands (Ctrl-Pg Up) in the Macro Editor
displays a list of keyboard commands (those that cannot be
entered by normal keys and are used strictly inside macros).

To insert a command, move the cursor to where you want to
insert the command. Press Macro Commands (Ctrl-Pg Up),
highlight the command, and press Enter.

You can use a Name Search function to highlight a command.
after pressing Macro Commands, start typing the name of the
command you want to insert.

To insert the command {Macro Commands} into your macro,
press Ctrl-v followed by Macro Commands (Ctrl-Pg Up). When
the macro is executed, you will be given access to the
functions listed under Macro Definition/Execution above.

PROGRAMMING COMMANDS
The programming commands can be categorized by the functions
they perform. The categories are: User Interface, Flow
Control, Decision Making, Terminate Macro or Subroutine,
External Condition Handling, Macro Execution, Variables,
System Variables, Macro Execution Control, and Programming
Aids. See the alphabetical listing of commands below for a
description of each command.

USER INTERFACE. These commands communicate with the user.
They display a prompt, allow input from the keyboard, or both.
{BELL} {CHAR} {LOOK} {ORIGINAL KEY} {PAUSE} {PROMPT} {TEXT}

FLOW CONTROL. These commands can change the flow of macro
execution.
{BREAK} {CALL} {CASE} {CASE CALL} {CHAIN} {ELSE}
{END IF} {GO} {IF} {IF EXISTS} {LABEL} {NEST}
{ON CANCEL} {ON ERROR} {ON NOT FOUND} {QUIT} {RESTART}
{RETURN} {RETURN CANCEL} {RETURN ERROR}
{RETURN NOT FOUND}

DECISION MAKING. These commands evaluate a condition and
perform different operations depending on the outcome.
{CASE} {CASE CALL} {IF} {IF EXISTS}

TERMINATE MACRO OR SUBROUTINE. These commands will
terminate either a macro or a subroutine.
{QUIT} {RESTART} {RETURN} {RETURN CANCEL} {RETURN ERROR}
{RETURN NOT FOUND}

EXTERNAL CONDITION HANDLING. These commands either determine
how a condition outside of macro execution (i.e., Cancel is
pressed) is dealt with, or create the condition.
{CANCEL OFF} {CANCEL ON} {ON CANCEL} {ON ERROR}
{ON NOT FOUND} {RETURN CANCEL} {RETURN ERROR}
{RETURN NOT FOUND}

MACRO EXECUTION. These commands start macro execution.
{ALT letter} {CHAIN} {KEY MACRO n} {NEST} {VAR n}

VARIABLES. These commands either assign a value to a
variable or determine the state of the variable.
{ASSIGN} {CHAR} {IF EXISTS} {LOOK} {TEXT}

SYSTEM VARIABLES. These commands are used by the macro as
variables.
{STATE} {ORIGINAL KEY}

MACRO EXECUTION CONTROL. These commands affect the speed or
visibility of macro execution.
{DISPLAY OFF} {DISPLAY ON} {SPEED} {WAIT}

PROGRAMMING AIDS. These commands can be used as programming
aids.
{:} {DISPLAY OFF} {DISPLAY ON} {SPEED} {STEP OFF}
{STEP ON}

Many of the commands use parameters or arguments (values)
which require that a tilde (~) be placed at the end. If a
macro is not working properly, check to make sure all the
comments and commands have their tilde marks correctly placed.

The Macros Keyboard Definition (see Keyboard Layout in
Reference) contains several advanced macros. Studying these
examples will help you see how the commands interrelate.
The examples have numerous comments included. The comments
help you follow the commands of the macro.

In the examples, "var" represents a variable. "Value"
represents a number, string (text), variable, command or

expression (or a combination).

{;}Comment~
The text you type between the comment command {;} and the
tilde (~) is ignored during macro execution. Comments are
useful in helping you (or someone else who might use your
macro) to quickly recognize what each part of your macro
does. You can also use comments to convert ("comment out")
a section of your macro so it won't execute with the macro.

If you want a column of comments to run side-by-side with
the related commands, keep in mind that a separate comment
must be entered on each line.

For example,

{ASSIGN}1~One~{;}Assign "One" to var 1~
{ASSIGN}2~Two~{;}Assign "Two" to var 2~
{ASSIGN}3~{VAR 1}{VAR 2}~ {;}Assign to var 3 the contents
of var 1 concatenated
(combined) with var 2~
{VAR 3}{;}Execute var 3 (Type the
string"One Two")~

Note the centered dot () between {VAR 1} and {VAR 2}.
Spaces are represented this way in the Macro Editor. If the
space were not there, variable 3 would hold "OneTwo".

{ASSIGN}variable~value~
The {ASSIGN} command assigns a value to a variable. A
number (0-9) indicates to which variable the value should be
assigned. See {;} above for examples of {ASSIGN}.

Do not enclose the value in quotes. If the value is an
expression, the expression is evaluated (see Expressions
below) and the result is assigned to the variable. Otherwise,
it is treated as a string. For example,

{ASSIGN}5~3~{;}Assign 3 to var 5~
{ASSIGN}5~{VAR 5}*2~{;}Multiply old value of var 5 by
2, assign the result as the new value of
var 5~
{ASSIGN}5~WordPerfect~{;}Assign string to var 5~

If you want to empty the variable of its contents, leave the
value section empty (e.g., {ASSIGN}0~~). It is a good idea
to empty variables at the beginning of a macro in which they
are used (unless the macro will assign new contents to
them). The {IF EXISTS} command checks for the existence of
variable contents. You can assign up to 120 characters to a
variable.

{BELL}
The {BELL} command sounds a beep. You might use {BELL} to
signal the end of a lengthy process. It is also useful to
prompt the user for input (in connection with {CHAR},
{PROMPT}, {PAUSE}, and {TEXT}). For example,

{BELL}{;}Sound a bell~
{TEXT}1~Please enter your name~{;}Prompt for a name and
place it in var 1~
Hello {VAR 1}.{;}Type "Hello name"~

Note: the text "Hello name ." will be typed at the cursor
position. The {BELL} command can be placed inside the
prompts for {CHAR}, {TEXT} and {PROMPT} commands (i.e.,
{TEXT}1~{BELL}Please enter your name~.

{BREAK}
When {BREAK} is encountered inside an {IF} structure, macro
execution is moved to the end of the {IF} structure (see
{IF} below). If {BREAK} is not inside an {IF} structure,
macro execution is moved to the end of the macro.

{BREAK} is useful when you want the macro to skip some
commands when an Error, Cancel or Not Found condition
occurs. For example, a macro might perform a search inside
an {IF} structure. If the search fails, the macro will end
unless you include an {ON NOT FOUND} command.

If you use the command {ON NOT FOUND}{BREAK}~, the macro
will not end when the search fails. Instead, macro
execution will continue directly below the {IF} structure.
For example,

{ON NOT FOUND}{BREAK}~{;}If search fails, break to end
the {IF} structure~
{IF}{VAR 1}=1~{;}If var 1 contains 1, continue~
{HOME}{HOME}{UP}{;}Move to top of document~
{SEARCH}test{SEARCH}{;}Search for "test"~
{BLOCK}{Word Left}{;}Block the word "test"~
{Backspace}y{;}Delete the word~
{END IF}{;}End of {IF} structure~

If the search fails, the commands directly after the search
will be skipped and macro execution will continue after the
{END IF} command.

{CALL}label~
The {CALL} command branches macro execution to a different
part of the macro. When that section of the macro is
completed, execution returns to the command following
{CALL}. It is as if another section of the macro is placed
where {CALL} is located.

The "other section" of the macro is often called a
subroutine. A subroutine is like a mini macro. You can use
a subroutine to perform any operation that you would
otherwise have to place in your macro several times (e.g.,
delete a block of text). There is no limit to the number of
subroutines you can have in a macro.

A subroutine is identified by two commands. The first
command, {LABEL}, marks the beginning of a subroutine. The
second command, {RETURN} marks the end. Since there may be
more than one subroutine in a macro, there is always a
unique name associated with each one. It is this name that
you enter after the {CALL} command. For example,

{SEARCH}test{SEARCH}{;}Search for the word "test"~
{CALL}delete~{;}Commence delete subroutine~
{BOLD}This line was deleted{BOLD} {;}Place the bolded
message in the document~
{RETURN}{;}Don't go on to the subroutine and
return from this subroutine~

{LABEL}delete~ {;}Subroutine "delete"~
{Home}{Home}{Left} {;}Move to beginning of line~
{Del to EOL} {;}Delete the line~
{RETURN} {;}End of {IF} structure~

Note the {RETURN} command after the search. This example
assumes that the search was called from another part of the
macro. After the search is completed, the macro returns to
the place from which this subroutine was called.

{CANCEL OFF}
The {CANCEL OFF} command is used to stop the Cancel key from
performing its normal function (which is to stop macro
execution). The default condition is for Cancel to be
enabled ({CANCEL ON}).

{CANCEL OFF} is useful if you want to be able to get a
Cancel key as input from the user in the {CHAR}, {LOOK} or
{TEXT} commands.

Even if a macro is in {CANCEL OFF} state, pressing
Ctrl-Break will generate a Cancel condition.

{CANCEL ON}
The {CANCEL ON} command is used to enable the Cancel key
after it has been disabled with the {CANCEL OFF} command.
See {CANCEL OFF} for more information.

{CASE}value~case1~label1~case2~label2~...~~
The {CASE} command allows the macro to branch to one of
several locations in the macro, depending on what the value
is. For example, your macro might ask the user to answer
yes or no to a prompt. If the answer is yes, the macro will
perform one function. If the answer is no, another function
will be performed. The commands that will perform these
steps are as follows,

{CHAR}1~Continue? (Y/N)~{;}Assign y or n to var 1~
{CASE}{VAR 1}~{;}Case: If var 1 contains...~
y~yes~Y~yes~{;}y or Y, go to label yes~
n~no~N~no~{;}n or N, go to label no~
~{;}End of Case statement~
{CALL}getchar~{;}Call Getchar if none of the
cases match~

It is often helpful to format the {CASE} statement (place it
on several lines) so it is more readable. Notice that there
is an extra tilde (~) required at the end of the {CASE}
command. Both the upper and lower case of y and n are
listed in the {CASE} statement because there must be an
exact match of the value and one of the case options.

If no match is found in the {CASE} statement (e.g., an i was
pressed), execution will continue after the {CASE} statement
(e.g., the {CALL}getchar~ command).

The {CASE} command does not require that program execution
return after the routine is completed. In other words, it
does not CALL the routine, rather, it will GO to the
routine. In this example, the {CALL}getchar~ command would
not be executed unless a character other than n or y were
pressed. If the {CASE} command were changed to {CASE CALL},
the subroutines would be CALLED, and macro execution would
return to the {CALL}getchar~ command.

{CASE CALL}value~case1~label1~case2~label2~...~~
The {CASE CALL} command is similar to the {CASE} command in
that it can branch to different subroutines. The difference
is that {CASE CALL} requires that program execution return
after a subroutine has executed. See {CASE} above for more
information.

{CHAIN}macro~
The {CHAIN} command stores the name of the indicated macro
and executes it after the current macro is completed. You
can enter a full path name if you wish (the .WPM extension
is not necessary).

For example, the following macro is equivalent to
WordPerfect 4.2's Repeating Conditional Macro Chain. It
will execute the notfound macro when the search fails.

{CHAIN}notfound~{;}Execute the notfound macro when
this macro is completed~
{ON NOT FOUND}{RETURN}~{;}When the search fails, stop this
macro, the chained macro will start~

{LABEL}loop~{;}Begin the repeating macro~
{Search}at{Search}{;}Search for "at"~
{PAUSE}{;}Pause (allow user to edit)~
{GO}loop~{;}Search was successful, repeat
the search~

The section of the macro between the {LABEL} and {GO}
commands is repeatedly executed until the search fails. As
soon as the search fails, the notfound macro begins.

Only the last macro chained at this level of nesting will be
executed. If macros are nested, one macro may be chained at
each level. See {NEST} for a discussion on nesting macros.

{CHAR}variable~message~
The {CHAR} command prompts the user on the status line with
a message and then waits until a single key is pressed. The
key is then assigned to the variable. This command is
useful to simulate WordPerfect menus and prompts.

The user can press any key (including a feature key such as
Search). If Cancel is pressed, the macro will end unless
the {CANCEL OFF} or {ON CANCEL} commands have been
previously executed in the macro.

Once the key has been assigned to the variable, a {CASE},
{CASE CALL} or {IF} command can be used to perform different
operations. For example,

{CHAR}1~{;}Prompt the user for input~
1 Memo; 2 Letter; 3 Itinerary: 0~ {;}and assign the
character to var 1~
{CASE CALL}{VAR 1}~{;}Check var 1 and branch to~
1~memo~{;}the appropriate subroutine~
2~letter~
3~itin~
~{;}End of {CASE CALL} statement~

See Control Characters below for information on affecting
the way messages are displayed.

{DISPLAY OFF}
The {DISPLAY OFF} command turns off the display of macro
execution. When you create a macro, this command is
automatically inserted into your macro. You can delete this
command if you want the macro to display menus, inserted
text, etc. as it is executing.

In addition, you can turn macro display on or off while you
are defining a macro with Macro Define. Press Macro
Commands (Ctrl-Pg Up), select Display (2), and enter y or n

to turn macro display on or off.

In many cases, you will want to turn the display off because
macro execution is faster when it doesn't display. An
important exception to this is when a macro ends in a
{PAUSE} or does a {PAUSE} at a menu. The display cannot be
rewritten by the macro and so the display should be left on
or turned on before entering the menu.

{DISPLAY ON}
The {DISPLAY ON} command is used to turn on the display of
macro execution after it has been turned off by the
{DISPLAY OFF} command (see {DISPLAY OFF} above).

{ELSE}
The {ELSE} command is used in connection with the {IF},
{IF EXISTS} and {END IF} commands. It marks the beginning
of the commands which will execute should the {IF} value be
false (see {IF} below).

It often helps to think of {ELSE} as the word "otherwise".
For example, in the steps below, if variable 1 contains a
negative number, add 2. OTHERWISE, subtract 2.

{IF}{VAR 1}<0~{;}If var 1 is less than 0~
{ASSIGN}1~{VAR 1}+2~{;}Add 2 to var 1~
{ELSE}{;}Otherwise~
{ASSIGN}1~{VAR 1}-2~{;}subtract 2 from var 1~
{END IF}{;}End of {IF} statement~

The {ELSE} command does not have to be part of an {IF}
statement. It should be used when there are certain steps
that need to be performed only when the {IF} value is false.

The commands below {END IF} will be executed whether or not
the {IF} value is true.

For example, in the steps below, "if variable 1 contains a
negative number, convert it to its corresponding positive
number. Then, multiply by 2 the number in variable 1 (which
will be positive after going through the {IF} statement).

{IF}{VAR 1}<0~{;}If number in var 1 is negative~
{ASSIGN}1~-{VAR 0}~{;}Change it to positive~
{END IF}{;}End of {IF} statement~
{ASSIGN}1~{VAR 1}*2~{;}Multiply number in var 1 by 2~

Note that the {END IF} command is needed whether or not the
{ELSE} statement is used.

{END IF}
The {END IF} command marks the end of an {IF} structure.
See {IF} and {ELSE} for more information.

{GO}label~
The {GO} command sends macro execution to another place in
the current macro. It is used in conjunction with the
{LABEL} command. (The label marks the place to go to.) For
example,

{IF}"{VAR 1}"="{Search}"{;}If var 1 contains {Search}~
{GO}search~{;}go to the Search Label~
{END IF}

(middle section of macro)

{LABEL}Search~{;}Perform the search~
(Steps of the search)
{QUIT}{;}Stop macro execution~

This macro checks to see if the Search command has been
entered in variable 1. Notice that the steps between
{END IF} and {LABEL} will be skipped if variable 1 contains
{Search}.

Unlike the {CALL} command, {GO} does not require that the
macro return. In the example, the macro will end after the
search has been completed.

The {GO} command is useful when you want a part of your
macro to be executed several times. Whenever the same
commands execute several times, that section of the macro is
called a loop. For example,

{LABEL}top~{;}Top of the loop~
endless loop {;}type "endless loop"~
{GO}top~{;}Go to top~

In this example, the words "endless loop" will be written
continuously to the screen. There is no way to stop the
macro without pressing Cancel, or Ctrl-Break, etc. Whenever
you create a loop, it's very important to have a way for the
loop to end. In the following example, a count is kept of
the number of times the text has been written to the screen.

After the tenth time, the loop ends.

{ASSIGN}0~0~{;}Assign 0 to var 0~
{LABEL}top~{;}Top of the loop~
{ASSIGN}0~{VAR 0}+1~{;}Add 1 to var 0~
Loop {VAR 0}{;}Type "loop" #~
{IF}{VAR 0}=10~{;}If this is the tenth time~
{QUIT}{;}quit the macro~
{ELSE}{;}Otherwise,~
{GO}top~{;}go to top (repeat the loop)~
{END IF}{;}End of {IF} structure~

{IF}value~
The {IF} statement is used to execute certain commands only
if a certain condition exists. If the condition exists (the
value is true) the commands directly below the {IF} command
will be executed.

The value is usually an expression or variable. A value is
true if it is evaluated as a non-zero number. For example,
when the expression 4=4 is evaluated, the result is -1
(which corresponds to true). The value is false if it
results in a 0 or contains nothing at all. See Expression
Evaluation below for more information.

In the example below, the Setup menu is displayed only if
the appropriate password is in variable 1.

{IF}"{VAR 1}"="password"{;}If var 1 contains the password~
{Setup}{;}enter the Setup menu~
{END IF}

Notice that quotes are placed around both {VAR 1} and the
password. String values must be enclosed in quotes to be
evaluated correctly.

If the value is true (e.g., the contents of variable 1 equal
the password), the commands directly after the {IF} are
executed. If the value is false (or there is no value at
all), the commands after {IF} are skipped, and execution
continues after the {END IF} command.

An {IF} statement always begins with {IF} and ends with
{END IF}. If you want certain commands to be executed only
when the value is not true, use the {ELSE} command (see
{ELSE} above).

It is possible to nest {IF} commands. See {STATE} below for
an example of nested {IF} statements.

{IF EXISTS}variable~
The {IF EXISTS} command checks for a value in the indicated
variable. If there is a value, then the commands following
{IF EXISTS} are executed. The format of an {IF EXISTS}
statement is the same as that of an {IF} statement (see {IF}
above).

You might want a macro to know whether there is text in the
other Document Editing Screen. For example,

{Switch}{;}Switch to other document~
{Home}{Home}{Up}{;}Move to top of document~
{Block}{End}{Right}{;}Block the text~
{Macro Commands}31{;}Assign the block to var 1~
{IF EXISTS}1~{;}If there is anything in var 1~
{Prompt}The document is not empty~
{ELSE}{;}Otherwise (var 1 is empty)~
{GO}nofile~{;}go to the label nofile~
{END IF}{;}End of {IF EXISTS} statement~

{IF EXISTS} is also useful when you want a macro to wait
until a key is pressed (see {LOOK} below).

{LABEL}name~
A {LABEL} command marks a place in the macro. After the
place has been marked, macro execution can be sent directly
there from any place in the macro. The {GO}, {CALL},
{CASE}, and {CASE CALL} commands are used to direct macro
execution to the {LABEL}. There can be several labels in
the same macro as long as each has a different name. If the
name is duplicated, the first one in the macro is used. The
other is ignored.

The label name distinguishes each label from the others.
Label names have no restrictions regarding length or the
characters used (e.g., the label can include spaces).

A {LABEL} is used to mark the beginning of a subroutine (see
{CALL} above).

{LOOK}variable~
The {LOOK} command checks to see if a character has been
typed by the user. If a character has been typed, it is
assigned to the variable. If a character has not been
typed, the contents of the variable are deleted and
execution is continued without stopping. {LOOK} is often
useful inside a loop which waits for a character to be
typed. For example,

{LABEL}Wait~{;}Top of the Wait loop~
{WAIT}1~{;}Wait one tenth of a second.
{LOOK}0~{;}Check to see if a character has been typed~
{IF EXISTS}0~ {;}If there is a character in var 0 (it was
typed), drop out of the loop~
{ELSE}{;}Otherwise (there was no character)~
{GO}wait~ {;}go to the top of the loop~
{END IF}{;}End of {IF} structure~

The WAIT command in this example is used to allow any
background printing to take place before the user responds.

{NEST}macro~
The {NEST} command transfers control to another macro. When
that macro is completed, this macro resumes. It is as if
the macro contents are placed where the {NEST} command is.

If, there are certain procedures which you frequently use in
your macros, you can assign them to macros, and then nest
them when they are needed. You can enter a full path name
if you wish (the .WPM extension is not necessary).

For example, if you have a macro which saves a document on
the screen, you can nest it within another macro.

{IF}{VAR 0}~{;}If var 0 is non-zero, save the document~
{NEST}save~{;}Nest macro "save"~
{END IF}{;}End of {IF} structure~

You can nest macros several levels deep. For example, the
main macro nests a second macro. The second macro nests a
third. After the third macro has finished, the rest of the
second macro is completed, and finally, the remaining part
of the first macro is completed.

You can have up to 20 levels of macro execution. Each
{NEST} command uses 2 levels (one for executing the macro
and one for a possible CHAIN command). Each CALL or
{CASE CALL} command uses 1 level. Each variable also uses 1
level.

{ON CANCEL}command~
The {ON CANCEL} command tells WordPerfect what should happen
if a user presses Cancel or if a {RETURN CANCEL} command has
been returned by a nested macro (or subroutine). When a
Cancel occurs, WordPerfect will know what to do next only if
it has already encountered the {ON CANCEL} command. For
this reason, it is a good idea to place the command before a
Cancel can occur. See {BREAK} for an example.

The default is {RETURN CANCEL} if no {ON CANCEL} command is
entered. The only other commands allowed are: {BREAK},
{CALL}, {GO}, {QUIT}, {RESTART}, {RETURN}, {RETURN ERROR},
and {RETURN NOT FOUND}.

Since {GO} and {CALL} require a tilde (~) after the label,
there must be two tilde marks (~ ~) at the end (e.g.,
{ON CANCEL}{GO}label~~.

If no command is specified, the cancel condition is ignored
and the macro continues executing as if there had been no
cancel. Not only is the cancel condition ignored, but if
the Cancel key was pressed, the key will be thrown away. In
other words, if either a {LOOK} or {ORIGINAL KEY} were used,
they would not detect that the Cancel key had been pressed.

If you want the cancel key to be used as input, use the
{CANCEL OFF} command.

As the macro is executing, the last {ON CANCEL} command will
be used. So if conditions change during macro execution, a
new {ON CANCEL} command can change what will happen.

Each level of execution has its own {ON CANCEL} option which
defaults to {RETURN CANCEL}. For example, if a subroutine
has been called by {CALL} or {CASE CALL}, it does not
remember the {ON CANCEL} command which was entered in
another location of the macro. When there is a cancel
condition detected, the subroutine executes
{ON CANCEL}{RETURN CANCEL}~, which means it stops executing
and returns a cancel condition to the location from which it
was called.

When a new macro is executed or a subroutine is called, a
new {ON CANCEL} command is required to override the default
if desired.

{ON ERROR}command~
The {ON ERROR} command tells WordPerfect what should happen
if an error is detected in macro execution, in normal
WordPerfect operations, or while you are in DOS. The
default command is {RETURN ERROR} (see {ON CANCEL} above).

{ON NOT FOUND}command~
The {ON NOT FOUND} command tells WordPerfect what should
happen if a search fails (e.g., Search, Word Search, Replace
or Name Search). The default command is {RETURN NOT FOUND}
(see {ON CANCEL} above). See {CHAIN} for an example.

During Name Search, if you enter a non-existent name, the
Not Found Condition will not be generated at the first
character which does not match. Name Search does not check
for an exact match unless you press Ctrl-Enter "{HPg}" after
the name.

{ORIGINAL KEY}
The {ORIGINAL KEY} command performs the original (unmapped)
action of the last key entered at the keyboard. The last
key pressed could be either a key that was read before the
macro started (which may be the key which invoked the macro)
or it would be a character input with a {CHAR}, {LOOK},
{TEXT}, or {PAUSE} command.

This command is useful if your keyboard has been remapped
with a keyboard definition (see Keyboard Definitions above).

For example, you might want your macro to check if a user
has typed a specific key, regardless of the keyboard
definition. For example,

{LOOK}1~{;}Check to see if a key has been pressed.
Assign it to var 1~
{IF}"{ORIGINAL KEY}"="{Exit}"~ {;}If the unmapped key is Exit~
{Exit}{;}Exit~
{END IF}{;}End of {IF} statement~

{PAUSE}
The {PAUSE} command causes the macro to pause until Enter is
pressed. This command allows the user to edit or type new
text as if there were no macro running. {PAUSE} does not
prompt the user. Because of this, the {PROMPT} and/or
{BELL} commands are often used with {PAUSE}.

{PROMPT}message~
The {PROMPT} command displays the message on the status
line. See Control Characters below for information on
affecting the way messages are displayed.

{QUIT}
The {QUIT} command terminates all macro execution. If
macros are nested or chained, it will also stop that
activity.

{RESTART}
The {RESTART} command terminates all macro execution at the
end of the current subroutine or macro. This command can be
used if you don't want a subroutine to return to a {CALL} or
{CASE CALL} command.

{RETURN}
The {RETURN} command marks the end of a subroutine and
signals the macro to return from a {CALL}, or {CASE CALL}
command. If a macro is nested, {RETURN} signals the macro
to return to the macro from which it was nested. If the
macro is not nested and there is no {CALL} or {CASE CALL} to
return to, {RETURN} marks the end of a macro (see {CALL}
above).

{RETURN CANCEL}
The {RETURN CANCEL} command causes macro execution to leave
the current level (subroutine or macro) and indicate Cancel
to the higher level. Pressing the Cancel key while that
part of the macro is executing performs the same function
(see {RETURN} and {ON CANCEL} above).

{RETURN ERROR}
The {RETURN ERROR} command causes macro execution to leave
the current level and indicate an error to the higher level
(see {RETURN CANCEL} above).

{RETURN NOT FOUND}
The {RETURN NOT FOUND} command causes macro execution to
leave the current level and indicate a search not found
condition to the higher level (see {RETURN CANCEL} above).

{SPEED}100th's seconds~
The {SPEED} command can slow down macro execution. It
causes macro execution to wait the amount of time indicated
between each key input. The default speed is no delay
between characters (e.g., {SPEED}0~).

{STATE}
The {STATE} command indicates the current executional state
of WordPerfect. This allows you to create macros which are
aware of the environment in which they are executing. The
states of WordPerfect are listed below.

3 Current Document
4 Main Editing Screen
8 Editing Structure Other than Main Document
16 Macro Definition Active
32 Macro Execution Active (always set)
64 Merge Active
128 Block Active
256 Typeover Active
512 Reveal Codes Active
1024 Yes/No Question Active

State 8 (Editing Structure Other than Main Document) refers
to a screen which is used for editing footnotes, headers,
styles, etc. Macro Execution (32) is labeled as "always
set" because the {STATE} command is always used in a macro
as it is executing.

You can determine what the state of WordPerfect is by
forming an AND (&) expression with a value called a mask
(e.g., {STATE}&3). The result of the operation will
indicate what the current state of WordPerfect is.

To choose a mask, determine which state(s) you want to check
for. Note the numbers associated with each state and add
them together. For example, if you want to know what
document screen you are currently in (1,2 or 3), the mask
value is 3. If you want to know if you are at the main
editing screen (4) and if Reveal Codes is Active (512) the
mask value is 516 (4+512=516).

After you have determined the appropriate mask, create an
AND expression,

{ASSIGN}1~{STATE}&3~ {;}Assign the current document
number to var 1~

{ASSIGN}2~{STATE}&516~ {;}Assign the result (either 4,
512, 516 or 0) to variable 2~

In this example, the mask values are 3 and 516. Variable 1
contains the current document number and variable 2 contains
a number which indicates whether the Main Editing screen
(4), Reveal Codes (512), Both (516) or neither (0) are
active.

If the result of the AND operation is 0, then the state you
were checking for is not present. If the result is a non-
zero number, then some (or all) of the states you checked
for are present.

For example, if you want to check for both types of editing
screens, (4) and (8), the mask is 12. {STATE}&12 gives four
types of information. If the result is 0, then neither the
main editing screen or another editing screen is active
(some type of menu is active). If the result is 4, the
Document Editing screen is on. If the result is 8, a menu
is active, but you are editing a style, footnote, etc.
(e.g., you pressed Format while editing a footnote). If the
result is 12, you are in the Document Editing Screen, and
you are editing a style, footnote, etc.

Since the {IF} command interprets 0 as false, you can form
{IF} statements that will perform functions when a certain
condition exists. For example, the Macros Keyboard contains
a macro which takes you to the Main Editing screen from any
menu. The following is a portion of the macro,

{IF}{STATE}&4~{;}If at the main editing
screen, check for other states
which may be present~
{IF}{STATE}&8~{;}If in an editing structure~
{Exit}{;}exit to main editing screen~
{ELSE}{IF}{STATE}&64~{;}If in a merge~
{^Q}{;}stop the merge.~
{ELSE}{IF}{STATE}&128~{;}If Block is on~
{Block}{;}turn Block off.~



{END IF}{END IF}{END IF}{;}End of {IF} statements~
{END IF}{;}End of first {IF} statement~

When {STATE} is executed by itself (not in an expression),
it returns a number which represents the total state of
WordPerfect. All applicable numbers are added together.
For example, if the cursor is in the Main Editing Screen (4)
of Document 1 (1), and if Block is on (128) and a macro is
executing (32), then the executional state of WordPerfect is
4+1+128+32=133.

{STEP ON}
The {Step On} command is useful for debugging macros. It
causes the macro to execute one step at a time. Between
each step, a message at the bottom of the screen indicates
what the next key or command will be. (The key or command
will execute when any key is pressed.) If the next step in
the macro is a key (e.g., A), that key will be displayed.
If it is a command (e.g., Save), a label followed by a
number will be displayed. The five labels are:

ALT (Alt-Macro Execution)
KEY CMD (WordPerfect Command, Cursor Control, etc.)
KEY MACRO (Soft Keyboard Macro Execution)
MACRO CMD (Specific Macro Command)
VAR (Variable Execution)

The number or letter following the label indicates the
specific command. Examples:

Label Command
KEY CMD 41 Save
MACRO CMD 1 {Assign}
VAR 2 Variable 2
ALT A ALT-A macro
KEY MACRO 13 Key Macro 13

The KEY MACRO number is assigned by WordPerfect when you define
a keyboard macro. You can see the numbers in the keyboard
definition editing screen (right-most column).

The following table outlines the labels and numbers with
their corresponding command.


NUMERIC VALUES RETURNED BY THE {STEP ON} COMMAND

ALT (A - Z)

Letter Meaning
(macro letter) Alt Macro


KEY CMD (1 - 98)

Decimal Meaning
0^@ - Compose
1^A
2^B - Page number
3^C - Merge from console
4^D - Merge Date
5^E - Merge End of record
6^F - Merge Field
7^G - Merge Macro
8^H - Home
9^I - Tab
10^J - Enter
11^K - Delete to End of Line
12^L - Delete to End of Page
13^M - Search value for [SRt]
14^N - Merge Next record
15^O - Merge Output prompt
16^P - Merge Primpary filename
17^Q - Merge Quit
18^R - Merge Return
19^S - Merge Secondary filename
20^T - Merge Text to printer
21^U - Merge Update the screen
22^V - ignore meaning of following code
23^W - Up
24^X - Right & Search wildcard - same as typical ?
25^Y - Left
26^Z - Down
27^[ - Escape
28^\
29^]
30^^ - Reset Keyboard map
31^_
32Cancel
33Forward search
34Help
35Indent
36List files
37Bold
38Exit
39Underline
40Merge return
41Save
44Setup
45Backwards search
46Switch
47Left/right indent
48Date/outline
49Center
50Print
51Format
52Merge commands
53Retrieve
56Thesaurus
57Search/replace
58Reveal codes
59Block
60Mark Text
61Flush right
62Math/columns
63Style
64Graphics
65Macro
68Shell
69Spell
70Screen
71Move
72Text in/out
73Tab align
74Footnote
75Font
76Merge/sort
77Define macro
80Backspace
81Delete right
82Delete word
83Word right
84Word left
85Home-home-right (by hitting end key)
86Home-home-left (by hitting begin key on
88Goto
89PgUp
90PgDn
91Screen down
92Screen up
93Typeover
94Left margin release (reverse tab)
95Hard page (Ctrl-Enter)
96Soft hyphen
97Hard hyphen

98Hard space


KEY MACRO (1 - 254)

DecimalMeaning
(macro #)Macro Number

MACRO CMD (1 - 45)

DecimalMeaning
1{ASSIGN}var~value~
2{BELL}
3{BREAK}
4{CALL}label~
5{CANCEL OFF}
6{CANCEL ON}
7{CASE}val~case1~label1~c2~l2~...~~
8{CASE CALL}val~c1~l1~c2~l2~...~~
9{CHAIN}file~
10{CHAR}var~message~
11{;}comment~
12{DISPLAY OFF}
13{DISPLAY ON}
14{ELSE}
16{END IF}
20{GO}label~
21{IF}value~
22{LABEL}label~
23{LOOK}var~
24{NEST}file~
27{ON CANCEL}action~
28{ON ERROR}action~
29{ON NOT FOUND}action~
30{PAUSE}
31{PROMPT}message~
32{QUIT}
33{RESTART}
34{RETURN}
35{RETURN CANCEL}
36{RETURN ERROR}
37{RETURN NOT FOUND}
38{SPEED}100ths~
39{STEP ON}
40{STATE}
41{TEXT}
42{WAIT}10ths~
44{Macro Commands}
45{STEP OFF}

VAR (0 - 9)

DecimalMeaning
(variable #)Variable Name

The {Step On} feature is particularly useful when you want
to track the contents of a variable. When a variable (e.g.,
{Var 1}) is encountered in the macro, its contents (if they
exist) are displayed after the VAR 1 message. For example,
if Variable 2 contains 14, the first message, VAR 2 is
followed by a 1 which is then followed by a 4.

During macro execution, press Exit (F7) to turn off the Step
mode. Pressing Cancel (F1) will terminate the macro unless
the macro traps Cancel (see {Cancel Off} above).

{STEP OFF}
The {STEP OFF} Command turns off single step execution after
it has been turned on (see {STEP ON} above).

{TEXT}variable~message~
The {TEXT} command prompts the user by displaying a message
on the status line. It gets an input string (up to 120
characters) from the user and assigns it to the variable
(see {CHAR} above). See Control Characters below for
information on affecting the way messages are displayed.

{WAIT}10th's second~
The {WAIT} command delays further execution of the macro for
the indicated time. This command is useful when you want a
message to be displayed (e.g., with {PROMPT}) for a certain
amount of time.

EXPRESSIONS
Expressions are used for values in the {ASSIGN}, {CASE},
{CASE CALL}, and {IF} commands. Expressions can perform
operations on either numbers or strings.

NUMERIC EXPRESSIONS
The following is a list of numeric expressions. The values
must contain only numbers (or variables which contain
numbers). If non-numeric values are found, or the
expression is invalid, no operation is performed.

The highest positive number you should use is 32,767.
Internally, WordPerfect represents negative numbers as large
positive numbers from 32,768 to 65,535.

The terms n1 and n2 represent number 1 and number 2. For
definitions of the terms used in this list, see Expression
Terms below.

ExpressionOperation
!n1The result is the logical NOT (bitwise) of the
number n1.
Example: !0 is -1.

-n1 The result is the negative (opposite) of the
number n1.
Example: If variable 1 holds 5, -{VAR 1} is -5.

n1+n2Add n1 and n2.
Example: 5+4 is 9.

n1-n2Subtract n2 from n1.
Example: 10-1 is 9.

n1*n2Multiply n1 by n2.
Example: 6*5 is 30.

n1/n2Divide n1 by n2 and return the integer result.
Examples: 20/5 is 4. 5/2 is 2.

n1%n2Divide n1 by n2 and assign the remainder as the
result.
Examples: 20%5 is 0. 5%2 is 1.

n1&n2Logical AND (bitwise) n1 with n2.
Examples: 7&4 is 4. 3&4 is 0.

n1|n2Logical OR (bitwise) n1 with n2.
Examples: 7|4 is 7. 3|4 is 7.

n1=n2If n1 and n2 are equal, the result is true (-1).
Otherwise, it is false (0).
Example: If variable 1 holds 5, then {VAR 1}=5 is
true and {VAR 1}=3 is false.

n1!=n2If n1 and n2 are not equal, the statement is true.
Otherwise, it is false.
Example: If variable 1 holds 5, then {VAR 1}!=3
is true and {VAR 1}!=5 is false.

n1>n2If n1 is greater than n2, the statement is true.
Otherwise, it is false.
Examples: 6>4 is true. 4>6 is false.

n1Otherwise, it is false.
Examples: 2<10 is true. 10<2 is false.

STRING EXPRESSIONS
A string is a name for any series of characters. For
example, "Apple", "245", and "QB12" are strings.

The expressions outlined below are used to compare strings.
The terms s1 and s2 represent string 1 and string 2. All
strings must be enclosed in quotes. If the expression is
invalid, no operation is performed.

ExpressionOperation
"s1"="s2"If string 1 is identical (including case) to
string 2, the result is true (-1). Otherwise,
it is false (0).
Examples: 'true'="true" is true.
"true"="TRUE" is false.

"s1"!="s2"If string one is not identical (including case)
to string 2, the result is true (-1),
Otherwise, it is false (0).
Examples: If variable 1 holds the string
"string", then "{VAR 1}!="strung" is true.
"{VAR 1}"!= "string" is false.

STRING DELIMITERS
A string delimiter is a character which marks the beginning
or end of a string. In string operations, the " and '
characters serve as string delimiters. Delimiters must be
paired correctly. But one string can use the " character
while the other uses the ' character (e.g.,
"string"='string').

String delimiters must be used whenever you compare strings.

If you are comparing the string contents of two variables,
both variable commands must be enclosed in quotes. For
example, "{VAR 4}"="{VAR 7}".

EXPRESSION EVALUATION
An expression must be written in a specific way so
WordPerfect can evaluate it correctly. The following
information will help you create and use expressions.

When an expression is encountered in a command, the
expression is evaluated first, and then the result of the
expression is used to complete the command. For example, in
the statement {ASSIGN}1~{VAR 1}+1~, the original contents of
variable 1 are incrememted by one, and the result is
assigned as the new value for variable 1.

Only one operation can be used in each expression. If you
want to perform an operation that involves more than two
operations (i.e., 4+7*8), use a series of {ASSIGN} commands.

For example,

{ASSIGN}0~4+7~{;}Add 4+7, assign the result to var
0~
{ASSIGN}1~{VAR 0}*8~{;}Multiply contents of var 0 (11)
by 8 and assign the result to var 1~

TRUE/FALSE
In several of the expressions, the result of the operation
is either true (-1) or false (0). WordPerfect assigns a
numeric value to true and false. These values were chosen
because they are opposites (numeric complements) of each
other (see NOT in Expression Terms below). For example,

{ASSIGN}1~5=4~{;}Assign false (0) to var 1~
{ASSIGN}1~!{VAR1}~{;}Assign var 1 the complement of false
(true)~

is the same as,

{ASSIGN}1~5!=4~{;}Assign true (-1) to var 1~

EXPRESSION TERMS
The following are technical terms referenced in the
discussion of expressions above. An understanding of these
terms is not an essential part of creating macros. These
definitions are provided for those who are somewhat familiar
with programming.

AND (&)
A bitwise AND operation compares the bits of both numbers.
When both values have a 1 bit in the same position (in other
words, a 1 is in the first number AND in the second), a 1 is
placed in the same position in the result. For example, the
expression 21&47 would be evaluated as follows:

Value Bits
210000000000010101
470000000000101111
21&470000000000000101

The resulting bits represent the number 5. So, 21&47=5.

BITWISE OPERATION
In the computer's memory, numbers are represented as a series
of sixteen 1's and 0's. Each of the 0's and 1's represents a
bit. The pattern for each number is unique. The following
table outlines some values and their corresponding bits:


Value Bits
00000000000000000
-11111111111111111
30000000000000011
40000000000000100
70000000000000111
210000000000010101
470000000000101111

A bitwise operation is one which is done on a single
bit from each number at a time. The operation is done
16 times so each bit is operated on.

EVALUATE THE EXPRESSION
Perform the operation on the expression.

NOT (!)
A bitwise NOT operation takes the bits of the number and
complements them. For example, if the expression is: !0 (0 is
0000000000000000), the resulting value will be -1 (-1 is
1111111111111111).

OR (|)
A bitwise OR operation compares the bits of both numbers. A 1
is placed in the result when there is a 1 bit in the first OR
second number. For example, the expression 21|47 would be
evaluated as follows:

Value Bits
210000000000010101
470000000000101111
21|470000000000111111

The resulting bits represent the number 63. So, 21|47=63.

CONTROL CHARACTERS
The following control codes affect the way text messages are
displayed on the screen. They may be put into the message
strings of the {CHAR}, {PROMPT}, and {TEXT} commands. If more
than one line is included in the message, the text will scroll
up from the bottom of the screen.

The characters are divided into three categories: Cursor
Positioning, Attribute On/Off Characters, and Attribute
Characters. Some of the characters have different functions
depending on where they appear in the string (i.e., which
character precedes them).

The Character column lists the control characters you should
press to display the commands listed in the second column
(the Shown As column). You may also press the key which
corresponds to the command. For example, to display the
{HOME} command, you can press either ^H (Ctrl-H), or Ctrl-v
followed by Home.

See Examples below for examples of how these control
characters can be used.

CURSOR POSITIONING
The following characters are used as cursor control
commands:

Character Shown As Action
^H{HOME}Position cursor to upper-left corner of screen.

^J{Enter}Position cursor at beginning of next line.

^K{DEL TO EOL}Clear text to end of the line. Cursor remains.

^L{DEL TO EOP}Clear the screen, position cursor to upper
left.

^M{^M}Position cursor to beginning of line.

^P{^P}Position cursor (followed by two characters:
column, then row). See Control P below.

^W{UP}Position cursor up one line.

^X{RIGHT}Position cursor right one character.

^Y{LEFT}Position cursor left one character.

^Z{DOWN}Position cursor down one line.


ATTRIBUTE ON/OFF CHARACTERS
The following characters are used to control attribute
display:

Character Shown As Action
^N{^N}Turn on display attribute (followed by attribute
character). See attribute characters below.

^O{^O}Turn off display attribute See ^N above for more
information.

^Q{^Q}Turn off all display attributes.

^R{^R}Turn on reverse video.

^S{^S}Turn off reverse video.

^T{^T}Turn on underline.

^U{^U}Turn off underline.

^V{^V}Turn on mnemonic attribute (the attribute
selected with Display menu of the Setup key).
Turn off with ^Q.

^\{^\}Turn off Bold.

^]{^]}Turn on Bold.

ATTRIBUTE CHARACTERS
The following characters turn on/off a display attribute
when they are preceded by {^N} or {^O}. To turn an
attribute on, precede the appropriate character with {^N}.
To turn the attribute off, precede the character with {^O}.
The text will be displayed with the settings you have
selected on the Screen Attributes menu of the Setup key.

Character Shown As Attribute
^A{^A}Very Large

^B{^B}Large

^C{^C}Small

^D{^D}Fine Print

^E{^E}Superscript

^F{^F}Subscript

^G{^G} Outline

^H{Home}Italics

^I{Tab}Shadow

^J{Enter}Redline

^K{Del to EOL}Double Underline

^L{Del to EOP}Bold

^M{^M}Strikeout

^N{^N}Underline

^O{^O}Small Caps

^P{^P}Blink

^Q{^Q}Reverse Video


CONTROL P (Cursor Positioning)
The Control P (^P) code positions the cursor to a specific
location on the screen. It has some limitations and is
useful for those who are familiar with ASCII characters and
codes. It is only a shortcut to position the cursor.
Moving the cursor can be easily accomplished by using
{Left}, {Right}, {Up}, and {Down} Control Characters.

{^P} should be followed by two codes or characters. The
first code represents the column position and the second
represents the row. ASCII characters and codes should be
used to indicate the positions (i.e., {^A} represents 1,
{^B} represents 2, etc.). For example, to position the
cursor in the fifth column of the first row, the string
would be {^P}{^E}{^A}.

EXAMPLES
The following two examples were taken from the Document
Macro included with the Macros Keyboard Definition.

In this first example, the {CHAR} command below displays the
following message at the bottom of the screen:

Is the Author Name? (Y/N) Yes

{CHAR}1~IstheAuthor{^N}{^N}{VAR 9}{^O}{^N}?(Y/N)Yes
{Left}{Left}{Left}~

The first ^N signals that an attribute character will
follow. The second ^N turns underline on. Notice that the
contents of variable 9 will be displayed next. The ^O
signals that the attribute associated with the next
character should be turned off. Since ^N represents
underline, underlining is turned off. The three {Left}
commands position the cursor three spaces to the left. When
the message is displayed, the cursor will be on the "Y" of
"Yes".

In this second example, the {CHAR} command will display this
message:

1 Memo; 2 Letter; 3 Itinerary:0

{CHAR}1~
{^]}1{^Q}{^V}M{^Q}emo;
{^]}2{^Q}{^V}L{^Q}etter;
{^]}3{^Q}{^V}I{^Q}tinerary:
{^]}0{Left}~

The codes turn Bold on, the codes turn off all
attributes (including Bold). The ^V codes turn on the
mnemonic attribute (in this case, Bold). Again, is used
to turn the mnemonic attribute off.


 December 13, 2017  Add comments

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