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KAMAS Shareware GuideKAMASOFT

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0223911417OO èuþèpþBèkþèfþèaþè\þèWþèRþèJþèEþèFþFAMAS Shareware Guideideledge Outliningèøý0KAMAS Shareware Guideè¼ýè·ýè²ýè­ýè¨ýè£ýè¤ýPage è“ýèŽýè‰ýÿÿLH ([email protected]ÿÿèuýèsýPèkýAA
€KAMAS Shareware Guide ([email protected]ÿÿòLL















KAMAS (TM)



USER'S GUIDE
 (Shareware Version)



by




Anne Hickman
& Adam Trent










COPYRIGHT (C) 1989, All Rights Reserved World wide
KAMASOFT, P.O. Box 5549, Aloha, OR 97007 503-649-3765


KAMAS Program Created and Written by: Adam Trent

A* )Overview of KAMAS and Knowledge Outlining ([email protected]ÿÿ1‰DqLH KAMAS is a member of a new genre of personal productivity software that
we often call Outline Processing. We at KAMASOFT
coined this term and
helped pioneer this new genre of software (our first Outline Processor
was released in 1984). In the current Personal Computing revolution,
other terms are also used in the context of this new kind of software:
"Personal Information Managers" or "Knowledge Outliners" or even
"Knowledge Processors".

While earlier productivity software (like spreadsheet programs) dealt
primarily with numbers, the more recent tools enhance thinking and
organizing. Outline Processors help you organize your ideas as you
create, develop, and express them through the written word. As a
Knowledge Outliner, KAMAS helps you plan, organize, and retrieve the
knowledge you gather for specific projects or finished documents.

The benefit to you? A boost to your thinking and your writing. You can
harness the computer's power to help you brainstorm, plan, write, learn,
study, organize thoughts, classify data, analyze ideas, catalogue items,
track information, and make presentations.

Outline processors add a new dimension to processing text that most word
processors don't offer. Word processors are oriented toward producing
formatted, printed documents; they are output-document oriented.

Outline processors, on the other hand, help you express your ideas in
text to begin with; they are input/author oriented. Outline processors
allow you to tie together your creative ideas in a way that is
disciplined and structured, yet dynamic and flexible. You can name a
piece of text and juggle it around based on its relationship to other
pieces of text. Outline processors keep track of the structure embodied
in the text and let you manipulate the structure itself, separate from
the textual context. They truly offer a new dimension to creating and
organizing text. They are the natural next step from word processing,
and products like KAMAS integrate both Outline Processing and Word
Processing.

KAMAS lets you create and manipulate text outlines using the power of
your personal computer. The outlines contain what can be thought of as
structured text, which is kept in special files called outline files.
Outline files are internally organized in a familiar outline form. KAMAS
lets you create and modify outline files and it lets you traverse and
modify the structured text wi thin them. KAMAS is aware of the outline
structure of your outlines and presents the structure to you through an
interac!tive full-screen outline editor.

There are two major areas in which you control KAMAS: the File Manager
and the Outline" Editor. These two areas are closely integrated.

The File Manager allows you to Prepare new Outlines and to Delete
exis#ting ones. In addition, it provides utilities to manage the
Outlines on your disks.

The Outline Editor lets you edit bo$th the structure and the text content
of outlines. This is the heart of KAMAS. The Outline Editor provides a
rich varie%ty of commands to Insert, Move, Copy, Delete, Show, Input,
Format, Output, Search, and Retrieve outlines.

In addition to& all the commands for editing the outline structure, there
are two parts of the Outline Editor for editing the text conte'nt of your
outlines: the Title Editor and the Text Editor.

The Title Editor lets you edit the text in outline titles. T(he Text
Editor lets you edit the optional portions of text (up to 32,680
characters each) that you can attach to each tit)le in the outline. Both
editors are interactive, full screen editors.

You can control KAMAS through the comprehensive menu system or through
fast key commands that are entered directly.

AJ
+Learning to Use KAMAS ([email protected]ÿÿ1‰:LH,With all the features that KAMAS offers, calling it an outline processor
is, in some senses, an understatement. KAMAS he-lps you adopt an
organized approach to thinking. Start by entering your ideas and
brainstorming. Then, organize the ide.as into an outline. Finally, fill
in the details adding text to your outline and grow the outline all the
way to a compl/eted document. KAMAS can take you through all the steps.
But, how do you learn to apply this new tool to get the most be0nefit
from it?

Learning to use KAMAS is very easy. In fact, you only have to learn three
keys as a doorway to using the1 system:

- pressing F1 throughout KAMAS gives you context sensitive help
- pressing F2 starts the compre2hensive menu system
- pressing ESC cancels the current command

The context sensitive help ensures that you get h3elp that's relevant to
the part of the program you are currently using. For example, pressing
F1 at any menu gives help 4on the options for that menu.

With the menu system, you can start out quickly. You don't have to
learn lots of commands5 to take full advantage of KAMAS's features. As
you use the menus, press the F1 key at any time for help on the menu
opt6ions. In addition to providing help on each menu choice, the help
screens also include the fast keys that bypass the men7u to accomplish
each command. The fast keys offer an alternative method of issuing
commands. These keys are often on th8e main keyboard and can be faster
and easier to type than issuing commands through the menus.

By showing the fast keys c9orresponding to each menu option, the help
system doubles as a training system letting you gradually learn the
direct com:mands while you use the menus to get your work done. Stick
with the menus or switch to the direct commands -- the choice; is always
yours.

When you are not using the menu system, pressing F1 gives you a help
screen on all the fast keys that <are directly available. You never have
to wonder what keys to press.

And, if something goes wrong, the help system come=s into play again
giving you a complete diagnostic message listing possible causes for the
error and corrective actions y>ou can take.

KAMAS also comes with a DEMO file of sample outlines that you can
practice on when you are learning the pro?gram. Using a program is an
excellent way to learn it, and the DEMO file can help you start using
KAMAS quickly.

In thi@s KAMAS Shareware Guide, the following sections present a guided
tour of KAMAS usage. This tour is in the form of tutoriAal sessions that
you can follow at your computer. We highly recommend that you print out
this entire KAMAS Shareware GuiBde and follow the tutorial from the
printed copy as you actually operate KAMAS. See the README.TXT file for
instructionsC on how to print out the KAMAS Shareware Guide. The
following sessions concentrate on the KAMAS menu system, but you'll Dalso
sample some of the direct (fast key) commands along the way. And you'll
see just how easy it is to use KAMAS for ouEtline processing and
Knowledge Organizing. This tutorial includes sessions on:

- making a working system disk
F - starting KAMAS from DOS
- KAMAS's screen displays
- moving the cursor
- creating a new ouGtline
- editing an existing outline
- navigating through the menu system
- getting help in KAMAS
H - entering commands
- cancelling commands
- exiting from KAMAS

By the time you finish these tutoIrial sessions, you'll be familiar with the
basic operations of KAMAS, and you'll be ready to put outline processing to
work for you.

Au*TKMaking a Working System Disk ([email protected]ÿÿ)‰!íLLLBefore attempting to run the examples in this tutorial, make sure you have
the equipment required by KAMAS:

- anM IBM PC/XT/AT or a fully compatible computer running PC/MS-DOS
Version 2 or 3

- at least 256K memory (NKAMAS uses about 200K of this when running)

- at least one floppy disk drive capable of reading 360K disks

O - a color or monochrome monitor with an 80 character x 25 line
display (CGA, EGA, or VGA)

KAMAS is not copPy protected and there are no special installation procedures
required to run the program. You don't have to set up or coQnfigure the
software before running it. We do recommend, however, that you create a
Working System Disk and save the MasRter System Disk in a safe place as a
backup. Follow the instructions below for making a backup. In these
instructions, Swe assume that you are familiar with the basic DOS commands
like FORMAT, COPY, DIR, TYPE, and PRINT. Refer to your DOS manual for
details on these commands.

A[JUHard Disk Systems ([email protected]ÿÿ‡"TÃLLVIf you have a hard disk computer:

1. Go to the root directory on your hard disk by typing:

C:>CD \

2. Make aW new directory for the KAMAS files using the DOS Make Directory
command:

C:>MD KAMAS

3. Change to the new direXctory using the DOS Change Directory command:

C:>CD KAMAS

4. Make sure that the KAMAS Master System Disk is wrYite protected with a
write protect tab. Insert the disk into drive A, and copy all the files to
the new directory on youZr hard disk:

C:>COPY A:*.*

5. When the files have been copied, put the master in a safe place as a
permanent backup. Note: you may want to save the KAMAS files on a second
floppy to be used as a further backup.

AbTJ\Floppy Disk Systems ([email protected]ÿÿ‡™LL]If you have a floppy disk system:

1. Format a new disk using the DOS FORMAT command. To do this, place your
DOS disk i^n drive A and a blank disk in drive B, and enter the Format
command as follows:

A:>FORMAT B: /S

2. Label the n_ewly formatted disk as the KAMAS Working System Disk and put
it into drive A, replacing the DOS disk.

3. Make sure that` the KAMAS Master System Disk is write protected with a
write protect tab. Insert the Master System Disk into drive B, aand copy all
the files from it to the newly formatted floppy now in drive A:

A:>COPY B:*.*

4. When the files have been copied, put the master in a safe place as a
backup.

A[JcFiles Supplied with KAMAS ([email protected]ÿÿLLdThere are six files supplied on the Shareware KAMAS Disk:

READ.ME - general overview of Shareware KAMAS erelease.
KAMAS.DOC - overview of KAMAS itself; License/Order form.
KAMAS.COM - the main KAMASf program.
HELP.KAM - all KAMAS help messages.
DEMO.KAM - sample outlines; used in sharewareg tutorial.
KAMASSHA.KAM - online Shareware KAMAS User's Guide.

When you obtain the registered KAMAS you get thhe following files along
with a complete printed User's Guide for all aspects of KAMAS usage.

README.TXT - iUpdate notes on KAMAS.
KAMAS.DOC - overview of KAMAS itself; License/Order form.
KAMAS.COM - jthe main KAMAS program.
HELP.KAM - all KAMAS help messages.
DEMO.KAM - sample outlines; usekd in manual examples.
QUIZDEMO.KAM - sample outlines; used in manual examples.
KCUSTOM.COM - lKAMAS customization/configuration utility.
KAMAS.PIF - Configuration file to run KAMAS under MS-Windows.
m TOPCNV.COM - outline format conversion utility.

You can use the DIR command on the KAMAS subdirectory of yourn hard disk
or on your Working System Disk to confirm that you have copied all the
files.

You need the KCUSTOM.COM file ion order to customize KAMAS. It allows you to
tailor certain features of KAMAS according to your own preferences. For
expample, you can change the colors used on the screen display. We
recommend, however, that you wait to run the customizatiqon program until
after you have used KAMAS for a while. For one thing, you might save some
time -- if you like the defaurlt values, you won't have to bother learning
how to change them. And, more importantly, by running KAMAS a while, you'lls
get a better understanding of the purpose of some of these custom features,
why you might want to change them, and what tchanges might be appropriate to
your situation. See the printed KAMAS User's Guide for full details on
running the customization program.

A€JvStarting KAMAS from DOS ([email protected]ÿÿ)‰2ªLLwTo run KAMAS from a hard disk system:

1. Change to the subdirectory containing KAMAS.

C:>CD \KAMAS

2. Type ixn the KAMAS command:

KAMAS

to start the program.

3. Type Y at the "[Ready]?" prompt.


To run KAMAS on a flopypy disk system:

1. Place the KAMAS Working System Disk in drive A, and a blank formatted
disk in drive B for your data zfiles.

2. Type in the KAMAS command:

A:>KAMAS

to start the program.

3. Type Y at the "[Ready]?" prompt.



{ WARNING

IF YOU ARE RUNNING KAMAS FROM FLOPPY DISK,
NEVER| REMOVE FLOPPY DISKS WHILE KAMAS
IS RUNNING WITHOUT FIRST ISSUING THE
ASSIGN NEWDISK COM}MAND BY TYPING F2 A N
WHILE YOU ARE IN THE KAMAS FILE MANAGER.
THEN, WAIT FOR THE PROMPT.~ WHEN YOU GET
THE PROMPT, THEN IT IS SAFE TO REPLACE
DISKETTES. PRESS Y TO CONTINUE. IF YOU
DON'T USE THE ASSIGN NEWDISK COMMAND WHEN
YOU CHANGE FLOPPY DISKS, YOU CAN LOSE
 DATA IN YOUR OUTLINE FILES. SEE CHAPTER
5 IN THE USER'S GUIDE FOR DETAILS.

A»uA Quick Tour of KAMAS ([email protected]ÿÿ‡ LN‚Once you type Y at the "[Ready]?" prompt, you enter the File Manager, the
first part of the KAMAS program. Each part of ƒKAMAS displays data on the
screen in a similar format. In this section, we'll start by exploring the
screen displays for„ the:

- File Manager
- Outline Editor
- Text Editor
- Format Setup Menu

KAMAS presents …your data on the screen in an 80 x 24 Work Area. Thus, most of
the screen is dedicated to your work and is not cluttered† with program
information. The specific data shown in the Work Area depends on what part of
the program you are using. ‡For instance, the Outline Editor shows outline
titles, while the File Manager displays a list of outline files.

The bottˆom line on the screen serves as the focus area for command entry and
is called the Status Line. The Status Line is used ‰to display status
information, menus, prompts, and error messages. Again, the specific
information displayed on the StatŠus Line depends on what part of the program
you are using, but the information is always shown in a similar format.

By p‹resenting a similar display in all parts of the program with only two
areas of focus, KAMAS reduces screen clutter and coŒnfusion. You can learn to
use KAMAS more easily since you know what to expect and where to expect it.


 HOT TIP

Notice that the Status Line almost always
shows the three keys tŽhat form the doorway
to the KAMAS system. These three keys (F1,
F2, and ESC) are the only commands you
have to remember to start using KAMAS.
Press F1 to get help, F2 to start the
menu system, and ESC to escape from
whatever you have started doing.

AŸ€‘Moving the Cursor ([email protected]ÿÿ#‡FNLL’As mentioned above, KAMAS presents your data in the Work Area of the screen.
Throughout the program, you can move the cur“sor around on your data in the
Work Area with full-screen scrolling and cursor control.

The cursor is a blinking charact”er, which should be near the upper left
corner of the File Manager screen. Throughout KAMAS, the cursor marks your
curre•nt location in your data. The cursor location is important because
many KAMAS commands affect the data at the current lo–cation. Usually, to
issue a command, you must first move the cursor to the location where you
want the command to take a—ffect, and, then, type the command. Thus,
navigating through your data by moving the cursor is an important feature in
K˜AMAS, and it is done the same way throughout the program.

The following keys, found on the right side of the keyboard, c™ontrol the
cursor throughout KAMAS.


COMMANDS TO MOVE THE CURSOR

UP ARROW Cušrsor to previous line
DOWN ARROW Cursor to next line

PgUp Scroll to prev›ious screen
PgDn Scroll to next screen
CTRL-PgUp Move screen up by a linœe
CTRL-PgDn Move screen down by a line

CTRL-HOME Cursor to beginning of data
CTRL-END Cursor to end of data

Additional cursor commands are available in some parts of the prožgram as
described in the following sections. And you can use the convenient
Wordstar aliases for the cursor commands if you prefer. See Appendix C for
details.

A퐀 )The File Manager: Creating a New Outline ([email protected]ÿÿ0‰]$LN¡Go ahead now in the File Manager and move the cursor from triangle to
triangle using some of these cursor movement keys. ¢ The triangle character is
an icon for outline files. Each line of the File Manager display is an entry
for one outline £file. KAMAS displays one entry for each outline file that it
finds on the current drives.

Each entry line provides info¤rmation on a KAMAS outline file in the following
format:


DRIVE OUTLINE NAME LAST CHANGED LO¥CK SIZE USED
C: HELP 87-02-28 16:43 M 37K 100%
C: KAMAS Sharew¦are Guide 89-10-14 11:15 U 160K 100%
C: DEMO 87-02-14 09:45 U 48K§ 100%


Your screen may be a little different from what is shown here, depending on
the order you copied the files and ¨the drive you copied them to. You should,
however, see listed the HELP file, the KAMAS Shareware User's Guide, and the
D©EMO file which contains examples used in this online manual.

The purpose of the File Manager is to perform file-level opªerations. For
example, you create new outline files, delete existing outline files, rename
outline files, and copy outli«ne files in the File Manager. The general idea
in the File Manager, as with all parts of KAMAS, is to move the cursor to¬ the
location where you want the command to take place, then, issue the appropriate
command.


­ WARNING

NEVER EDIT KAMAS OUTLINE FILES (I.E., FILES
HAVING THE .KAM EXTENSION) WIT®H A WORD
PROCESSOR OR TEXT EDITOR. THEY ARE NOT
TEXT FILES, AND THEY WILL ALMOST
¯ CERTAINLY BE DESTROYED IF YOU TRY. ALSO,
DO NOT RENAME OUTLINE FILES WITH DOS
U°TILITIES. ALWAYS USE KAMAS FOR THESE
FUNCTIONS.


The heading line at the top of the File Manager screen± describes each column
of information for the outline entries:

DRIVE shows the drive where the outline² file is located.

OUTLINE NAME shows the full 31-character outline name.

LAST CHANGED shows the d³ate and time when the file was last
changed. This column can be toggled to two other
´ displays. See below.

LOCK shows the lock level for the file. Note that the
µ HELP file is Modify locked, meaning that you can't
modify it without the correct pas¶sword. The other
two outlines are Unlocked and can be accessed or
modifi·ed by anyone. You can also Entry lock an
outline, which means that nobody can even read the
¸ outline unless they have the correct password. See
Chapter 5 in the User's G¹uide for details on
security and locking outline files.

SIZE shows the size oºf the file.

USED shows the percent of the file that is used to store
your tex»t. As you enter and delete text in an
outline file, you may add to its size or reduce the
¼ percent of space that is used.

You can switch the LAST CHANGED column to show the DATE CREATED or the ½OWNER
of the file by typing F2 L T. F2 starts the menu system:

FILES: F1-Help Show Go Mark Edit Assign Utility ¾List

L selects the List option on the first menu:

FILES: LIST: F1-Help Togglefield Sort

T selects the Togglef¿ield option on the List menu.

Go ahead now and type F2 L T several times to switch this column. Since you
can switch (iÀ.e., toggle) this column between several values, it is called the
Togglefield.

Notice that all KAMAS menus work the sameÁ way. The options are shown on the
bottom line of the screen (called the status line). You type the first
highlighted cÂharacter of the option you want to select.

You might notice that the outline icon for the HELP file is filled in solid
iÃnstead of being empty like the icons for the two demo files. The filled in
icon indicates that the HELP file is marked fÄor searching. An empty triangle
means that the file is not marked for searching. Whenever you issue a search
command, KÅAMAS searches only the marked outlines. By marking and unmarking
files, you can control the scope of searching. In otheÆr words, you can define
the family of outlines that you want to work with. Unmarked files are still
accessible, and you Çcan edit them. It's just that KAMAS does not include them
in its searching. The marked files make up the search contextÈ or, more
simply, the context. You mark a file by moving the cursor to it and selecting
F2 M T on the menus or by editinÉg it with the Outline Editor. You unmark a
file by moving the cursor to it and selecting F2 M U on the menus. But
patieÊnce -- more on this later.

The Status Line in the File Manager is similar to the Status Lines in other
parts of the progËram. The first word or phrase indicates the part of KAMAS
you are using. In the File Manager, the word "FILES:" is dispÌlayed here.
Next is a menu of three basic commands that are always available making KAMAS
easy to learn and use:

Í FILES: F1-Help F2-Menu ESCape [C:\KAMAS] cnI

Throughout the program, you only need to know tÎhese three commands as a
doorway to using KAMAS. Press the F1 key for help on the commands currently
available; press thÏe F2 key to start the menu system; or press the escape key
(ESC) to exit this part of the program. In the File Manager, ÐESCape exits to
DOS. Once you are in the menu system, F1 shows help on the menu options, F2
backs out to the previous meÑnu prompt, and ESCape exits from the menu system.

Next, the Status Line shows the status information in square brackets.Ò In the
File Manager, the first drive in the current disk drive list is displayed
along with the current subdirectory onÓ that drive. Within KAMAS, you can
change to different subdirectories and add or remove disk drives from the
drive list.Ô Thus, you can access outline files on different drives and within
different subdirectories on the drives. See the sectÕion on "Administrative
Tasks" in Chapter 5 of the User's Guide for details.

In the lower right corner of the screen, KAMÖAS displays the last entry on the
Status Line, the three keyboard status characters:

c/C indicates the curre×nt status of the Caps Lock key. Press Caps
Lock several times to see this character shift from uppercaseØ
to lowercase and back again.

n/N indicates the current status of the Num Lock key. Press NÙum
Lock several times to see this character shift back and forth
between uppercase and loÚwercase.

I/O indicates whether you are in Insert or Overstrike Mode when
editing text. PresÛs the Scroll Lock Key several times to
see this character shift back and forth. See the section on
Ü "Editing Text" in Chapter 5 in the User's Guide for more
details.

The Status Line is temporarÝily replaced by menus, prompts, and error messages
when necessary.

The first thing you'll want to do in KAMAS is create Þa file that you can use
for your own outlines. Once created, you can edit the new file and enter
your outline into it. ßSince the command to create a new outline file does not
affect any of the existing files, you don't have to move the cursàor to any
particular place. Just type F2 U P to create the new file. Notice that the
Status Line is temporarily replaceád with the following prompt:

New Outline Name:

Enter the drive spec followed by an outline name in the highlighâted area
where the cursor is now located. For example, if you are on drive C, type:

C:MY FIRST OUTLINE FILE

Doãn't specify a file extension since KAMAS creates the outline on drive C and
automatically makes a valid DOS filename baseäd on the outline name you
specified. Within KAMAS, you deal with outline files through their
31-character outline name. å The outline name can include spaces so you can
assign meaningful names. Complete the entry of the outline name by pressæing
the Enter key.

When the new outline file is created, KAMAS returns to the File Manager, and
the newly created file açppears in the display:


DRIVE OUTLINE NAME LAST CHANGED LOCK SIZE USED
C: HELèP 87-02-28 16:43 M 37K 100%
C: KAMAS Shareware Guide 89-10-14 11:15 éM 160K 100%
C: DEMO 87-02-14 09:45 U 48K 100%
C: MY FIRST OUêTLINE FILE 87-03-15 17:30 U 1K 100%

If you exit KAMAS and return to DOS and, then, later invoke KAMAS agëain, the
newly created file appears in the File Manager display, assuming it is still
on an available disk drive. Try exìiting now. Press the ESC key and type Y to
return to DOS. Then, immediately invoke KAMAS again as described above. This
time, in addition to the three files supplied by KAMASOFT, your own outline
file is now available for editing.

AsŸ€î,Outline Editor: Editing an Existing Outline ([email protected]ÿÿ(‰
LNïTo edit an outline, simply move the cursor in the File Manager to the outline
file that you want to edit and type F2 E O.ð For now, go to the DEMO file, and
type F2 E O. The entire screen changes as you enter the Outline Editor, the
second mñain part of the KAMAS program. You can now edit the outline contained
in the DEMO file. Initially, your screen should ròesemble the following:


* DEMO
: Mother Goose
. Pig Out!
. Transylvania University of Mediócine (TUM)
+ Prioritizing
+ Bin Sorting
+ Chaos
+ Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe
:ô Once Upon a Time
+ STATES AND CAPITALS
+ OUTFILE EXAMPLE
: ..PRINTER CONFIGURATION TEST..
õ + PRINT EXAMPLE











OUTLINE: F1-Help F2-Menu ESCape 2% [C:DEMO] cnI


The Outline öEditor provides commands for editing both the structure and
text content of your outlines. Once you have created an outl÷ine file in the
File Manager, you edit it with the Outline Editor to insert text and organize
it. Chapters 5 and 6 in thøe User's Guide describe the details on these
commands; but we'll cover the main ones here.

Note that the Status Line resùembles the File Manager Status Line except that
the word "OUTLINE:" appears, indicating that you are in the Outline Editoúr
part of KAMAS. The Outline Editor status information shows two things:

- the percent of memory used by the tiûtles that are displayed on
the screen

- the drive and outline name of the outline currently being editüed

In the Work Area of the screen, each line shows one title of the outline.
KAMAS uses indentation to show child titlesý below their parent. When you
first enter the Outline Editor like this, the top title and its first level
children are sþhown. The rest of the outline titles are hidden, i.e.,
collapsed from view. In a newly created outline file, there are ÿno titles
except the top title, which is the same as the outline name. The rest of the
screen is blank until you insert titles. Later in this section, we'll try
inserting some titles.

You might have noticed that each title on the screen is preceded by a
character (*, +, :, .) called a Title Character. Each title can have a text
leaf attached to it or a branch of titles below it as descendants. Text leafs
and branches are not always visible on the screen, so the title character
provides information about what is actually attached to (and possibly hidden
beneath) the title:

* indicates that the current stem has children and a text leaf
+ indicates that the current stem has children but no text leaf
: indicates that the current stem has a text leaf but no children
. indicates that the current stem has no text leaf and no children

A9í,Adjusting the Scope of Details in an Outline ([email protected]ÿÿ(‰+
PNNow, we'll look at one of the most significant features of KAMAS, its
ability to reveal and hide details in your text. P ress F2 E B to reveal
(i.e., expand into view) all the titles in this outline. The screen fills up
with a title on every
 line:

* DEMO
: Mother Goose
. Pig Out!
. Transylvania University of Medicine (TUM)
  + Prioritizing
. 333333333333333333333333
. 555555555555555555555555
. 111111111111111111 111111
. 444444444444444444444444
. 222222222222222222222222
. ------------------------

 + Bin Sorting
. BIN THREE
. BIN ONE
. BIN FOUR
. BIN TWO
. BIN FIVE
+ BIN SORT ITEMS
. 333333333333333333333333
. 111111111111111111111111
. 555555555555555555555555
. 444444444444444444444444
. 222222222222222222222222
. 333333333333333333333333
OUTLINE: F1-Help F2-Menu ESCape 21% [C:DEMO] cnI


Notice that the percent of memory used by titles has jumped from 2% to 21%.
In fact, there are more than 24 titles, and they won't all fit on a single
screen. Don't worry right now about what these titles mean; they are all used
in examples later in the manual.

There are some additional commands in the Outline Editor for moving the cursor
from title to title. Besides the commands described previously, there are
commands that "know" about the outline structure and can move up, down,
previous, or next following the structure:

TYPE: TO:

U Go up from a child to a parent.
D Go down from a parent to its first child.
N Go next from a sibling to the next item on its same level.
P Go previous from a sibling to the previous item on its same
level.

By following the structure, you can quickly move the cursor from deep down in
the outline back to the top simply by pressing U several times. You don't
have to scroll through all the intervening titles; instead, you follow the
structure back up to the top of the outline.

The other cursor movement keys (arrow keys, PgUp, PgDn, and so on) move the
cursor regardless of the outline structure scrolling through all the
intervening titles.

Try moving the outline cursor through the titles, following the outline
structure or ignoring it, until you get the feel of moving the cursor on the
titles and scrolling from screen to screen. Try all the different commands
and combinations. If the cursor can't go in the direction you specify, KAMAS
beeps, and the cursor stays on the same title without moving. For instance,
if you are on the top and you type U to go up, there is nothing up from the
top, so KAMAS beeps.

Now, go to the top title (press CTRL-HOME) and type F2 E H. All the titles
are  hidden, or collapsed, leaving only the top title remaining on the screen.

Normally, you would not want to reveal all the! titles in an outline, since
that defeats the purpose of selectively viewing only the parts of the outline
you are workin"g on. There is another command besides the branch reveal
command that is more useful for expanding hidden titles. Type #F2 E R to
reveal titles one level at a time, and you will see the first level children
in the outline. Type F2 E R again$ to reveal the second level of detail below
the top. Each time you type F2 E R, you reveal an additional level of detail%
below the title where your cursor is located. Go to various titles in the
outline, and type F2 E H to hide the children& titles and F2 E R to
successively reveal levels of detail below it.


HOT TIP

' Revealing and hiding detailed levels
are two of the most important features
in an (outline processor. Being able to
selectively reveal and hide details lets
you stand back) and get an overview of
your text and see the forest instead of
being lost in the trees.
*
Thus, you will probably want to learn the
fast keys for these commands right away.
+ The fast keys will save keystrokes and
bypass the menus. Just type R to reveal
, a level at a time, H to hide the titles
in a branch, and B to reveal an entire
branch a-t once.

You should be at the main outline prompt
"OUTLINE: F1-Help F2-Menu ESCape" when .you
issue any fast key command. If you are in
the menu system, press the ESC key to get
/ out before issuing the fast key command.


Another important feature of an outline processor is its abili0ty to uplift, or
hoist, a branch and edit the branch as if it were an entire outline. This
way, you can keep more than o1ne document in an outline file. You can uplift
the branch containing the document you want to edit, thus, eliminating th2e
clutter and detail of other documents in other parts of the outline.

To uplift a branch in KAMAS, go to the top title 3in the branch and type
F2 E U (for Edit Uplift). Try it now on the title "Prioritizing." KAMAS
re-displays the outline4, showing only the branch below "Prioritizing." Type
F2 E D (for Edit Downlift) to restore the entire outline to view.

5
HOT TIP

The fast keys for these two commands also
save 6you keystrokes. Type E U to uplift a
branch and E D to downlift and restore the
entire o7utline.


KAMAS's ability to deal with parts of your document intelligently can be a
real timesaver. Revealing and hidin8g combined with uplifting and downlifting
allow you to adjust the scope of detail that you want to view at any given
time.

Aí:Inserting Text into an Outline ([email protected]ÿÿ)‰8æ
PJ;As a final exercise, we'll insert some titles into the outline file you
created earlier (MY FIRST OUTLINE FILE), and we'l<l edit the outline structure
of those titles. To do this, you have to somehow jump to the other outline
file. Use the K=AMAS Jump command to edit another outline without returing to
the File Manager. To select this command from the menus, t>ype F2 G J. (The
fast key command is issued by typing F9). The Jump command prompts for the
name of the other outline f?ile. Go ahead and enter the name as shown below:

To What Outline: MY FIRST OUTLINE FILE

By the way, you don't@ have to enter the entire outline name. The first 8
significant letters, excluding spaces, is enough for KAMAS to find tAhe file.
In this case, entering MYFIRSTO would be enough to get to the other file. You
can optionally put a drive spec Bin front of the name to make sure KAMAS finds
the right file on the right drive, e.g., C:MYFIRSTO.


C HOT TIP

KAMAS has two other commands for switching
outline files: Go OutlinDe and Lookup. Go
Outline is the same as pressing the ESCape
key. It returns you to the EFile Manager so
you can select another outline file for
editing. Type F2 G O for the GoF Outline command.

The Lookup command is one of several commands
for searching outline fiGles. Type F2 G L
and enter a word or phrase, and KAMAS will
search your outline files foHr candidate stems
that contain the specified word or phrase. If
you accept a candidate, IKAMAS switches to the
outline containing the candidate. See Chapter
5 in the Printed UseJr's Guide for more details
on the KAMAS searching and information retrieval
features.


WKhen you press the Enter key, KAMAS jumps to the other outline file. The
screen is almost empty since this is a new file Land does not have any titles.
The outline name serves as the top title:

. MY FIRST OUTLINE FILE

To insert titlMes through the menu system, type F2 A I to get the Insert menu
and then type D to insert the first new title down from thNe top. Type "File
Manager" and press Enter. Then, type F2 A I key followed by N to insert a new
title next. Type "OutlOine Editor" and press Enter. Type F2 A I D and enter
the title "Text Editor Example." Go back to the title "File ManagePr" using
the cursor movement keys. Type F2 A I D and enter the title "Copy Outline
Files." Type F2 A I N and enter the Qtitle "Create Outline Files." Again,
type F2 A I N and enter the title "Rename Outline Files." At this point, your
screRen should appear as follows:

+ MY FIRST OUTLINE FILE
+ File Manager
. Copy Outline Files
S . Create Outline Files
. Rename Outline Files
+ Outline Editor
. Text EditorT Example

Using the Insert command, you can add new titles anywhere you want to.
Additional Insert commands (Insert Auto Uand Insert List) let you rapidly add
titles without having to type the insert command first each time. See Chapter
5 in Vthe User's Guide for more details on these commands. Also, the fast key
counterpart for inserting titles (just press theW INS key followed by N for
next or D for down) can save keystrokes.

Let's say you decide to put the title "Create OutlinXe Files" before "Copy
Outline Files." Go to "Create Outline Files" using the cursor movement keys.
Type F2 M B to mark Ythis branch for a move. KAMAS highlights the title to
show you that it is marked. Now, type U to go up to the title "FiZle Manager."
Type F2 A M D to Move the previously marked branch Down from the title "File
Manager." The marked title "Cr[eate Outline Files" is moved from its old
location to its new place as the first child of "File Manager."

+ MY F\IRST OUTLINE FILE
+ File Manager
. Create Outline Files
. Copy Outline Files
] . Rename Outline Files
+ Outline Editor
. Text Editor Example

The Move Next command is very simi^lar, except that it moves the marked branch
next instead of down. Go to the title "Copy Outline Files" and type F2 M B t_o
mark it. Go to "Rename Outline Files" and type F2 A M N to switch these two
titles. You can use the move commands to `rearrange the titles in your outline
until you get the organization just the way you want it.

KAMAS also offers two Copya commands that are very similar to the two Move
commands: Copy Down and Copy Next. Go to the title "File Manager" and tbype
F2 M B to mark it. Now, go to the title "Outline Editor" and type F2 A C N.
You'll get a duplicate copy of the "Filce Manager" branch after "Outline
Editor." The Copy Down command is similar, except that it copies the marked
branch as ad child instead of a sibling.

The Copy commands also aid your brainstorming and organizing. They can be
used to create oeutline templates that are copied from one outline file to
another. Just mark the source and go to the destination. The fdestination
can even be in a different outline file. Issue the Copy command to
duplicate the outline template, and startg filling in the details.

In this demo tutorial, you don't need the duplicate of the "File Manager"
branch, so go to the hsecond copy and delete it. Type F2 A D to get the delete
menu and type B for Branch to delete the entire branch. Type Yi at the prompt
to carry out the delete. You can also delete a single stem by typing S at the
Delete prompt.

KAMAS offerjs many more commands for editing the outline structure, including
more variations on the Move, Copy, and Delete commands.k There is a bin
sorting command (Move to Bins), a command to prioritize titles (Move
Prioritize), a command to make all lthe descendants of a stem even on the same
level (Move Even), a command to extract a branch into its own outline file
(Compy Extract), a command to join two stems into one (Copy Join), commands to
alphabetize the items on a level (Sort Ascendinng and Sort Descending), and
commands to mark and gather stems (Copy Gather, Move Gather, Delete Marked,
Print Marked, anod Outfile Marked). If this list whetted your curiosity, you
can find full details in Chapter 5 of the printed KAMAS Userp's Guide.

You can also try exploring the fast keys for these commands. As mentioned
above, the INS key bypasses the topq level menus and goes directly to the
Insert menu. Pressing the M key goes directly to the Move menu; C goes to the
Copyr menu; and the DEL key goes to the Delete menu. These commands not only
save you keystrokes, but they are also easy to remember.

Next, we'll explore the Text Editor screen, but only after a quick detour
through the Title Editor.

A³í€t Text Editor ([email protected]ÿÿ)‰9LNuThe Text Editor and Title Editor are two parts of the Outline Editor for
editing the text content of your outline. (As dvescribed in the previous
section, the Outline Editor also contains commands for editing the outline
structure.)

The Titlwe Editor screen is almost identical to the Outline Editor, except
that the current title is highlighted and the cursor isx on the title text
instead of the title character (*, +, :, or .). You should still be in the
file you created "MY FIRSTy OUTLINE FILE." Go to the top title (CTRL-HOME) and
type F2 E B to reveal all titles. Type F2 E T to enter the Title Edzitor.
You can use the cursor movement commands within the Title Editor to go to
different titles and edit them.

Go to th{e title "Text Editor Example." Use the right arrow key to move the
cursor over to the space before the word "Example." |Type CTRL-Enter to delete
this the remainder of the title. Press the up arrow key to go up to the title
"Outline Editor.}" Again, use the right arrow key to go to the end of the
title and type the text: " - edits the outline structure and t~ext content of
outline files." Don't press the Enter key. Instead, use the up arrow key
again to go to the title "File Manager." Go to the end of this title and type
the text: " - deals with outlines as files." Using the Title Editor
com€mands, you can change the text in any of your outline titles. The Title
Editor is covered in more detail in Chapter 5 of the User's Guide.

For now, press the Enter key to stop editing titles and we'll take a look at
the Text Editor.

You ca‚n think of a text leaf as being like a text file attached to each title
in the outline. The text leaf can contain up to ƒ32,680 characters. You
insert and edit text with the Text Editor. The Text Editor is similar to the
full-screen text ed„itors included in most word processors.

Go back to the DEMO outline by typing F2 G J to jump to it and enter the name
"D…EMO." A quick way to browse through the text in an outline is using the
spacebar key. Press the spacebar key to display† the text, if any, attached to
the DEMO title, and keep pressing it to move forward displaying the text
attached to each ‡title in the DEMO outline.

Next, move the outline cursor to the title "Mother Goose" (the first child
below the top titlˆe) and type F2 E L to edit the leaf text (the fast key for
this is the Enter key). The screen of outline titles is clear‰ed and replaced
by the following text:

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
JaŠnuary 14, A Very Long Time Ago

A. Literati
Literary Agent to the Giants
PO Box 30
Very Far Away, NL 99999

Dear Mr. Lit‹erati:

Once upon a time, I was an unknown author and unpublished. My works were
widely known, but most of them were pubŒlished under the name Anon. Then,
you came into my life. Oh, how different things are now! The royalty
checks are rolling in. My life has truly improved.

Well, I feel that another major change is coming soon. I recently bought a
personaŽl computer and a program called KAMAS. I'm really getting organized.
Why, I've cranked out a whole new book of nursery rhymes in the last month
alone.

And this is why I'm writing to you. I've just had a wonderful idea about
expanding into the area of folk tales and fables. I was just talking to
Aesop the other day, and he tells me that the fable market is w‘ide open. He
has a virtual monopoly.

I'm sure we could do something with this idea. Of course, I would need more
than ’my usual 12% royalty. As a matter of fact, I've been meaning to talk to
you about this subject, too. It seems to me, no“w that I'm a bestselling
author, that I should be getting a higher percentage. Aesop and the Grimm
Brothers are getting ”15%, and I hear that Hans Christian Anderson can get 18%
on some of his titles. I think that Beanstalk Publishing is goi•ng to have to
renegotiate my contract real soon now.

Well, let me know what you think about both of these ideas as soon –as
possible.

Love always,



Mother Goose

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------—-

This is the text leaf associated with the title "Mother Goose." The cursor is
blinking at the first character in the ˜upper left corner of the Work Area.
Just as with other parts of KAMAS, you can move the cursor to different
locations in™ the text and issue commands to insert, delete, copy, or move
text. If there is no text in the stem, a blank screen is dšisplayed ready for
you to insert text in the Work Area.

Notice that the Status Line is similar to the status in other pa›rts of KAMAS:

TEXT: F1-Help F2-Menu ESCape 5% [Mother Goose] cnI

The word "TEXT:" is shown œindicating that you are working with the Text
Editor. In the Text Editor, the status information includes the percent of
the text leaf that contains text. Each text leaf can have up to 32,680
characters. This one is only 5% full. The percžent full is followed by the
title of the stem being edited, shown in square brackets.

The cursor movement keys describedŸ previously all work in the Text Editor to
scroll through the text. Besides the cursor keys already described, the
follo wing keys also work in the Text Editor to move the cursor within each
line:

TYPE: TO MOVE:

¡ HOME Cursor to beginning of line
END Cursor to end of line

¢ LEFT ARROW Cursor back one character
RIGHT ARROW Cursor ahead one character
£ CTRL-LEFT ARROW Cursor back by a word
CTRL-RIGHT ARROW Cursor ahead by a word

By the way, the Title E¤ditor also obeys these additional cursor keys to move
the cursor within a title line.

Try moving the cursor through the ¥text leaf using different combinations of
commands. If you want, you can even add some text. When you are in Insert
Mod¦e, the characters you type are inserted at the cursor location pushing the
other characters to the right. Press the Scro§ll Lock key to switch to
Overstrike Mode. Then, the characters you type replace the existing text,
overstriking it. The¨ Scroll Lock key toggles between Insert and Overstrike.

As you enter text into a paragraph, the paragraph gets out of al©ignment. Move
the cursor to the first of the paragraph, and type F2 R P to reform the
paragraph. If the cursor is not aªt the start of the paragraph, this command
reformats from the cursor to the end of the paragraph.

There are several comm«ands for deleting text:

DEL deletes the current character
Backspace deletes the previo¬us character
CTRL-T deletes the next word
CTRL-Enter deletes from the cursor to the end of ­the line
CTRL-Y deletes the entire line where the cursor is located

The KAMAS Text Editor also offers b®lock move and copy commands for cutting and
pasting larger amounts of text and a search and replace command for replacing¯
one word or phrase with another. These commands are covered in detail in
Chapter 5 of the User's Guide.

Notice as you °scroll through the text that paragraphs are separated by a blank
line, not a 5-character indentation. In KAMAS, you use ±blank lines as
paragraph separators, not indentation.

When you are done experimenting, press the ESC key to exit ignorin²g any
changes you have made. (You would type F2 Q if you wanted to save the changes
and exit). Type Y at the "Abandon Changes?" prompt to return to the Outline
Editor.

As€´Format Setup Menu ([email protected]ÿÿ$‰$=LLµYou should be back in the Outline Editor now. The last screen display to
take a peek at is the Format Setup Menu. This ¶menu is displayed whenever
you print an outline or write an outline to a text file. It controls how
the text is formatte·d during output.

In the Outline Editor, type F2 F S to get the Format Setup Menu. Once
again, try using the up and down¸ arrow keys to move through the parameters
on the menu. Don't worry about what each parameter on the menu means. We
cov¹er that in detail in Chapter 5 of the printed KAMAS User's Guide. For
now, just take a look at the screen display and prºactice moving the cursor
around.

When you are done, press the ESCape key to cancel the command and return to
the Outline Editor.

Press the ESC key one more time to return to the File Manager for the next
set of exercises.

AGetting Help in KAMAS ([email protected]ÿÿ(‰LL½KAMAS includes a comprehensive, online help system that provides three kinds
of help screens:

- Help Screens for¾ All Menu Options
- Help Screens for All Fast Key Commands
- Help Screens for All Errors

This three-leve¿l help system makes KAMAS easy to learn. And, since the help
screens are context sensitive, you get help relevant to whaÀt you are
currently doing or relevant to the error you just encountered. The screen
is not cluttered with help on featurÁes that are not currently available.
The HELP outline file contains all the help screens for menus, commands, and
errorsÂ.

To get the command help screens, press the F1 key. You can do this at
almost any part of the KAMAS program.

You shouÃld be in the File Manager now, so press the F1 key to get a help
screen summarizing File Manager Fast Key commands. ThesÄe direct commands
bypass the menu system. You can type them at the main File Manager prompt
(FILES: F1-Help F2-Menu ESCaÅpe). Notice the commands that deal with
outlines as files: copy, delete, and create. After each screen, type Y to
evenÆtually return to the File Manager.

Within the menu system, you can also get help. Type F2 to start the menu
system. ThÇen, type F1 again to get a help screen on the options available
on that first menu. Type Y when you are ready to return Èto the menu prompt.
Type U to select the Utility option from the first menu. Then, press F1
again to get a different helÉp screen on the Utility options. When you are
done, type Y to return to the Utility prompt. Type F2 to go back to the
fÊirst menu. Type F2 again to get out of the menu system.


HOT TIP

ThereË are three prompts used throughout
KAMAS: the "[Ready]?" prompt, the
"[More]?" prompt, aÌnd the "[Edit]?"
prompt. All three prompts are similar
in that they appear on the StatusÍ
Line at the bottom of the screen and
require a Y for yes or N for No
resÎponse.

The "[More]?" prompt is used when
KAMAS displays more than one screen
Ï of text and means that there is
more text to display whenever you
finish viewing theÐ current screen.

The "[Ready]?" prompt is similar. It
is used when there is no more texÑt to
display, but the last screen is retained
until you are ready to continue.

Ò The "[Edit]?" prompt is used when a
screen of text is displayed in the
Outline EdiÓtor, and KAMAS offers you the
chance to edit it without first
returning to the Outline EdÔitor display
of titles.


Next, go to the DEMO outline entry, and type F2 E O to edit the outline.
PressÕ the F1 key to get the Outline Editor Fast Key help screens. Notice
the many move and copy commands for editing the outlÖine structure, the
reveal and hide commands for expanding and collapsing branches, and the
insert, delete, and edit comma×nds for brainstorming and adding text to the
outline. Press Y at the "[Ready]?" prompt when you are done.

Try starting Øthe menu system here by pressing the F2 key. Then, press F1
for help on the first menu options. When you are done, typeÙ Y to return to
the first menu. Type A to select the Alter option. Type F1 again to get
help on the Alter options. TypÚe Y to return to the Alter menu. Type I to
select the Insert option on the Alter menu. Type F1 for help on the Insert
oÛptions. Type Y to return to the Insert menu. Type ESC to exit the menu
system.

Finally, to see the Text Editor help scÜreen, press the Enter key to edit the
top stem in the DEMO outline and press the F1 key. Here, notice the many
commands Ýfor inserting, deleting, moving, and copying text. Again, press Y
until you return to text editing.

Type F2 to start thÞe Text Editor menu system. Type F1 to get help on the
first Text Editor menu options. Type Y to return to the first menßu. Type S
to select the Show option. Type F1 to get help on the Show options. Type Y
to return to the Show menu. Thenà, press the ESC key two times, first to
exit from the Text Editor menu system and then to exit back to the Outline
Editorá. Press ESC one more time to exit back to the File Manager.

As mentioned above, you can use the F1 key at almost any tiâme to get help,
whether you are at a menu or you are entering text at a KAMAS prompt. You
can even get help when you areã entering data on the Format Setup Menu.


HOT TIP

The ? key gives you aän additional introductory
help screen in the File Manager and Outline
Editor. This introåductory help screen
provides an overview of the KAMAS system
and gives general pointers oæn how you
can use the KAMAS outline processor.


When KAMAS detects something wrong, it stops the currentç command and
displays a single line message describing the error condition detected. In
addition, it shows the "MORE HELèP?" prompt. If you type Y at this prompt,
you get a screen of help specifically for the error encountered. The help
scréeen includes the possible causes of the error detected as well as
suggested actions you can take to avoid or recover fromê the error. After
the help screen is displayed, type Y or press the spacebar whenever you are
ready to return to KAMAS oëperations.

You might look at the KAMAS Menu and Help system as a set of training
wheels. Once you learn your way aroundì, you may want to remove the training
wheels and drive KAMAS on your own. Start out using the menu system. The
menu helíp screens include the fast key commands for each menu option, so you
can learn the direct commands while you use KAMAS. Then, gradually you can
start using the direct commands especially the ones mentioned in this
section.

A»ïEntering Commands ([email protected]ÿÿ0‰ LNðTyping in KAMAS commands is easy. The basic idea with most commands is to
move the cursor to the point where you want thñe command to take place and,
then, issue the command. For example, in the File Manager, move the cursor
to the outline fòile that you want to edit, and type the command to edit the
outline to enter the Outline Editor. In the Outline Editor, ómove the cursor
to the title that you want to delete, move, or copy, and issue the appropriate
command. If you want to iônsert a new title, move the cursor to the point
where you want the new title, and issue the insert command. Specific comõmands
are covered in detail in this User's Guide. For now, just keep in mind
this general tactic for using most commandsö.

As you have already seen, most functions are available through the
easy-to-learn menu system. The menu is shown on th÷e Status Line at the bottom
of the screen. Typing F2 starts the menu system.


HOT TIP

ø KAMAS offers a set of ALT keys that
bypass the first level of the menu system
ù and allow you to type them in without
leaving the main keyboard. See Appendix
C forú a list of these ALT key shortcuts.


The menus always work the same way throughout KAMAS. Type the first character
of oûne of the options shown to select that option. For example, edit the DEMO
outline by going to the DEMO file and typing Fü2 E O (or just go to the DEMO
outline and press the Enter key, the fast key command for editing the
outline). Once you aýre in the Outline Editor, type F2 to get the menu of
Outline Editor commands; type S to select the Show option; and on thþe next
menu, type V to select the View option. Press Y at the "[Ready]?" prompt when
you have finished looking at the viÿew display.

You never have to press the Enter key after a menu option. This is another
general tactic to remember when issuing commands and selecting options from
menus. Some commands, however, do prompt you for additional parameters like
filenames or drive specifications. To respond to these prompts, type in the
information requested, and press the Enter key. In this manual, whenever you
have to press the Enter key, we tell you to "enter" the information. When we
say to "type" or "press" a key, you only press the keys mentioned without the
Enter key.


HOT TIP

At any prompt where you must enter data,
you can edit the text string before you
 press the Enter key using a set of line
editing commands, which work throughout
 the KAMAS program. See the "Line Editing"
section in Chapter 5 of the printed KAMAS
User's Guide for details.


Besides the comprehensive menu system, KAMAS also offers Fast Keys for the
most common commands. Instead of starting the menu system by typing F2 and
selecting options, you simply type the command directly, e.g., C f or Copy or M
for Move in the Outline Editor. This provides a clean, responsive keyboard
control that is optimized for th
e task at hand and is not overly burdened with
menus. You can, of course, get a summary of these direct commands by pres sing
the F1 help key when you are not in the menu system. As you use KAMAS over
time, you will probably use the Fast Key s whenever they are available.
In the printed User's Guide, Chapter 5 concentrates on these Fast Key commands
and Chapte
r 6 provides a summary of them.

For ease of learning, the commands and menu options are mnemonic, i.e., the
letter you type is usually the first letter of the word describing the
command. For example, you type C for the Copy command, M for the Move
command, F for the Format command, and so on.

For ease of use, some commands in KAMAS have aliases or shortcuts, i.e., other
keys that duplicate the same function. For example, typing CTRL-R is the same
as PgUp. (CTRL-R is a Wordstar-compatible command for scrolling the screen
up.) Command aliases are listed in Appendix C. If you find one of the
aliases more convenient to use, feel free to use it instead of the main
command. Many of the editing commands have Wordstar-compatible aliases.
These Wordstar-compatible aliases have two advantages:

- Many people are already familiar with them and don't have to spend
as much time learning new commands.

- Many of the Wordstar-compatible aliases are on the main keyboard
which can be an advantage. If you know how to touch type, you can
 often enter these commands on the main keyboard more quickly.

One final characteristic that makes KAMAS commands easy to learn and easy to
use is that many of the commands are supported throughout the program.
Whether you are in the File Manager, the Outline Editor, or the Text Editor,
the function keys perform the same or similar functions, and the cursor keys
work the same. Even some commands, like the Show commands, are always
available no matter what part of KAMAS you are currently in. The advantage of
this design is that you don't have to learn different commands to do the same
thing in different parts of the program. This approach gives KAMAS its unique
personality and makes it easier to learn since you can depend on KAMAS to
respond consistently to your commands.

A"îCancelling Commands ([email protected]ÿÿ‡!ELLWhen you are at a menu prompt or at a prompt where you are entering text,
you can always press the ESC key to cancel the command that has been
started.

Press the F2 key right now to start the menu system. Then, press the ESC
key to cancel t he menu.

At the "[More]?" or "[Ready]?" or "[Edit]?" prompts, ESC is the same as
typing N.

When you are running a comma!nd that shows text on the screen, e.g., a Show
command or a Print command preview, you can type CTRL-C to abort the
operation and return to KAMAS to enter another command.

A+#Exiting from KAMAS ([email protected]ÿÿ‡#SLL$You can exit to DOS from any part of KAMAS by typing ESC repeatedly until
you get the "Exit KAMAS, OK?" prompt. Or you c%an use the Fast Key (just
press the F10 key). If you are editing text in the Text Editor, you get the
"Abandon Changes?&" prompt to remind you to save the text before exiting if
you want to retain it permanently. In all cases, you get the p'rompt:

Exit KAMAS, OK?

before KAMAS actually returns you to the operating system. Type Y to return
to DOS or N( if you change your mind and want to stay in KAMAS.


WARNING

DO NOT EVE)R EXIT KAMAS BY RESETTING
OR POWERING OFF YOUR SYSTEM. YOU CAN
PERMANENTLY DAMAGE YOUR O*UTLINE FILES
IF YOU DON'T USE THE APPROPRIATE KAMAS
COMMANDS TO EXIT.


Go ahead now and type F10 to exit KAMAS. Type Y at the prompt to return to
DOS.

A",Global Threads ([email protected]ÿÿ#‘£LL-This concludes the beginning tutorial sessions on KAMAS. Through this
tutorial, you have learned the basics of operating. KAMAS with its menu
system and you have tried a few of the fast key commands as well. You have
learned how to:

/ - start KAMAS from DOS
- understand the KAMAS screen displays
- move the cursor on the screens
-0 create a new outline
- edit an existing outline
- navigate through the menu system
- get help in1 KAMAS
- enter commands
- cancel commands if you change your mind
- exit from KAMAS and return to2 DOS

Furthermore, you have also learned some general tactics that will help you
with specific KAMAS commands. The main 3tactic of importance is the set of
global threads that tie together different parts of the program. These are
commands t4hat are supported the same way throughout KAMAS. They provide
unifying themes that serve as an organizational metaphor a5nd help you to
learn KAMAS more easily. Like the toolbelt worn by a carpenter, you carry
these commands around with you 6to the different parts of the KAMAS program.

For example, the Show commands are always available by typing F2 S. And th7e
cursor movement commands are the same throughout KAMAS. Together, these
commands provide a Windowing Theme. As with v8iews seen from different
windows in your house, these commands allow you to change your view of
your text. The cursor mo9vement commands let you scroll through text and
move the screen on your text, while the show commands let you get your
be:arings and show where you are, compared with the rest of the outline.

Another group of commands, the F7 - F10 function k;eys (also available
on the Go menus) provide a Doorway Theme. As with walking through a
doorway, with these commands, yo<u change your focus and edit a different
outline or exit KAMAS altogether. For example, the Lookup command (the F8
key o=r F2 G L through the menus) lets you go to another outline while F10
lets you exit from KAMAS.

The F3 - F6 function keys> provide an Operational Theme. Each of these
commands lets you operate on your data no matter what part of KAMAS you are?
in. For example, F4 copies data and F5 deletes it. In the Text Editor,
they copy or delete sequences of text; in the O@utline Editor, they copy or
delete stems in the outline; in the File Manager, they copy or delete
outline files. So theyA operate on different data depending on what part of
KAMAS you are in, but they perform the same or very similar operatioBn in all
parts of KAMAS.

Finally, the F1 and F2 function keys provide a Help Theme. These commands
give you help and meCnus no matter what part of KAMAS you are in. Together
with the ESCape key, they form the 3-command doorway to using KAMADS.

The last thing you have learned is that KAMAS commands are optimized based
on what your focus is in different parts oEf the program. For example, in
the Text Editor, your main focus is to insert and modify text. So any
character you typeF is inserted directly into your text. To issue a command
in the Text Editor, you type control keys, function keys, and tGhe cursor
keys on the numeric keypad. On the other hand, in the Outline Editor, the
main focus is to edit the structure Hof your outlines. Commands in the
Outline Editor are optimally suited for this task. You issue Outline Editor
commands Iby typing single key characters. To insert characters into your
text, you issue an edit command first to edit the title Jor text leaf.

The comprehensive Online help system provides a summary of commands, which
you can use as a guide for explKoring KAMAS further on your own. This help
information is available via the F1 help key; but it is also available for
reLading as an outline (it is simply a KAMAS outline file, HELP.KAM). If you
select to enter the HELP outline file for readMing, just use the R (Reveal),
H (Hide), and SpaceBar keys to browse in it.

So jump in and explore. Experiment. Make an Noutline. Follow the KAMAS menu
prompts and the online help screens. They'll provide a safety net as you
launch your KAMAOS adventure. Chapter 5 of the printed KAMAS User's Guide
contains many comprehensive examples and tactics for efficiently using KAMAS
commands.