Category : Word Processors
Archive   : CAWF.ZIP
Filename : CAWF.MAN

Output of file : CAWF.MAN contained in archive : CAWF.ZIP

CAWF(1) Unix Programmer's Manual CAWF(1)

cawf - C version of the nroff-like, Amazingly Workable (text) Formatter

cawf [ -fb|e|i ] [ -macros ] [ file ... ]

Cawf formats the text from the input file(s) (standard input if none) in
an approximation of nroff. It comes closest to duplicating nroff's man
or ms macro package styles.

Options must precede file names.

-fb specifies that backspace and underline sequences are to be used to
emulate bold and italic characters. This is cawf's default mode.

-fe specifies that ESC, followed by `B' is to be used to precede each
bold character; and ESC, followed by `I', each italic character.

This option is normally used with a post-filter that converts the
ESC sequences into device-specific controls - e. g., fontfilt(1).

-fn specifies that no special character sequences are to be used to
represent bold or italic characters.

specifies the macro file to be used. The standard cawf distribution
supplies macro files to support `-man' or `-ms'. Cawf finds a macro
file by constructing its name from `m', acro and .mac - e. g., -man
is converted to man.mac. The default directory for macro files is
defined when cawf is compiled; it's c:\sys\lib\cawf in the cawf
MS-DOS distribution.

file ...
are the names of files containing nroff source text.

Cawf accepts the following raw nroff requests:

.\" .ad .bp .br .ce .de .di .ds
.el .fi .ft .i0 .ie .if .in .it
.lg .li .ll .ls .na .ne .nf .nr
.ns .pl .po .ps .rm .rr .rs .so
.sp .ta .ti .tm .tr

and the following in-text codes:

\$ \% \* \c \f \h \k \n \s \w

plus the full list of nroff/troff special characters in the original V7
troff manual.

Many restrictions are present; the behavior in general is a subset of
nroff's. Of particular note are the following:

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CAWF(1) Unix Programmer's Manual CAWF(1)

+o Point sizes do not exist; .ps is ignored.

+o Special vertical spacing - the .vs command included - is ignored.

+o Conditionals cover only numeric comparisons on \n(.$, string compar-
isons between a macro parameter and a literal, and n (always true) and
t (always false).

+o The handling of strings is generally primitive.

+o Horizontal motion via \h must be supplied with a number register
interpolation and must be positive - e. g., \w\n(NN, where the value in
NN is >= 0.

+o The \k function is reliable only after TAB characters, so it is useful
only for measuring table positions.

+o The .di command only turns output on and off - any macro name is

+o Expressions - e. g., .sp - are reasonably general, but the |, &, and :
operators do not exist, there must be white space between the end of
the nroff command and the beginning of the expression, and \w requires
that quote (') be used as the delimiters. \w counts the characters
inside the quotes and scales the result in ens, so that, for example,
\w'\(bu' equals 4n, and \w'\(bu'/1n equals 4.

+o The only acceptable count for the .it command is one, and it is
effective only with man or ms macros.

+o The default scaling factor is `v' for the .ne, .sp, and .pl raw nroff
requests; it is `u' for .nr; and `n' for .in, .ll, .ls, .po, .ta and
.ti. (A different scaling factor may be specified with a trailing

+o Some obsolete or meaningless commands - .i0, .lg and .li - are silently

White space at the beginning of lines, and embedded white space within
lines is dealt with properly. Sentence terminators at ends of lines are
understood to imply extra space afterward in filled lines. Tabs are im-
plemented crudely and not exactly, although usually they work as
expected. Hyphenation is done only at explicit hyphens, em-dashes, and
nroff discretionary hyphens. Bolding and italicization are done with
backspacing and overprinting.

The man macro set replicates the full V7 manual macros, plus a few semi-
random oddballs. The full list is:

.AT .B .BI .BR .BY .DE .DS .DT .HP .I
.IB .IP .IR .IX .LP .NB .P .PD .PP .RB

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CAWF(1) Unix Programmer's Manual CAWF(1)

.BY and .NB each take a single string argument (respectively, an indi-
cation of authorship and a note about the status of the manual page) and
arrange to place it in the page footer. .AT and .IX do nothing.

The ms macro set is a substantial subset of the V7 manuscript macros.
The macros are:

.AB .AE .AI .AU .B .CD .DA .DE .DS .I
.QP .QS .R .RE .RP .RS .SH .SM .TL .TP

Size changes are recognized but ignored, as are .RP and .ND. .UL just
prints its argument in italics. .DS/.DE does not do a keep, nor do any
of the other macros that normally imply keeps.

The DY string variable is available. The PD, PI, and LL number registers
exist and can be changed.

Cawf allows the placement of text into the five line header and footer
sections from the LH, CH, RF, LF, CF, and RF string variables, via the
control of the .^b command:

.^b fh 1 enables header string placement on the first page
.^b fh 0 disables header string placement on the first page
.^b HF 1 enables header/footer string placement
.^b HF 0 disables header/footer string placement

There are appropriate .^b commands in the distribution man and ms macro
files. (The ms macro file uses another .^b command, .^b NH, to enable
numbered header processing.)

The default output format supported by cawf, in its distributed form, is
that appropriate to a dumb terminal, using overprinting for italics (via
underlining) and bold. The nroff special characters are printed as some
vague approximation (it's sometimes extremely vague) to their correct

Cawf's knowledge of the output device is established by a device file,
which is read before the user's input. The search for it begins in
cawf's library directory, under the name (where term is the
value of the TERM environment variable). Failing to find that, cawf
searches for The device file uses special internal commands to
set up resolution, special characters, fonts, etc., and more normal nroff
commands to set up page length, etc.

Cawf has limited support for special forms of bold and italic characters.
It is provided through the -fe option and post-filters - e. g.,
fontfilt(1). The -fe option causes cawf to precede each bold character
with ESC and `B'; each italic character, ESC and `I'. The fontfilt
post-filter converts these escape sequences into appropriate device
control codes. (Fontfilt will also select a font (once).)

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CAWF(1) Unix Programmer's Manual CAWF(1)

All files are located in c:/sys/lib/cawf (the author's MS-DOS environment
default). This default can be overridden by the CAWFLIB environment
variable, or changed in the source code.

common common device-independent initialization
*.dev device-specific initialization
m*.mac macro package files

bsfilt(1), colcrt(1), fontfilt(1), man(7), ms(7) and nroff(1).

Unlike nroff, cawf complains whenever it sees unknown commands and
macros. All diagnostics appear on the standard error file.

Vic Abell of Purdue University derived cawf from
awf, ``the Amazingly Workable (text) Formatter'' that was written by
Henry Spencer of the University of Toronto. The Toronto work was a
supplement to the C News project. The Purdue effort was aimed at
producing a C language version that would run on small systems,
particularly MS-DOS ones.

The MS-DOS version of cawf has been compiled with version 2.5 of
Microsoft's Quick-C compiler. It runs under the Mortis Kern Systems
Toolkit KornShell, ksh(1), and COMMAND.COM.

Nroff and troff mavens will have many complaints. Some may even
represent bugs and not deliberate omissions.

Watch out for scaling factors - especially on commands like \w.

The overprinting required to create bold and italicized characters is
tiresome on a slow printer. Use cawf's -fn option or the bsfilt(1)
post-filter from this distribution to manage backspacing.

The printing of bold and italic characters is sometimes better handled by
special printer codes. Use cawf's -fe option to produce output that can
be easily filtered, and a post-filter, such as fontfilt(1), from this
distribution to filter it.

Cawf has a small amount of built-in code for the man and ms macro
packages, but none for any others.

The stacking for the .so command is limited.

Purdue University February, 1991 4

  3 Responses to “Category : Word Processors
Archive   : CAWF.ZIP
Filename : CAWF.MAN

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: