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Contents of the PROLIX30.DOC file




UpDate
v3.0
[UP.EXE compiled 5 June 1986]

User's Manual
-------------


TYPE this manual to your printer with PRINT.COM!


System Requirements:
IBM PC/XT/AT or IBM-compatible computer
One or more hard-disk drives
and(or)
One or more floppy drives
[Floppy-Only Systems require High-Capacity Drives]
80-column screen
PC-DOS or MS-DOS, v2.0 or higher
192K RAM


Copyright Holder hereby grants permission to copy and distribute
UpDate programs freely, without any charge whatsoever,
on condition that no changes are made in program content.

This software is provided freely on an "as is" basis, without any warranty,
express or implied. In particular, the author disclaims all warranties or
fitness for any particular purpose, and the user waives all claims against
author for special, direct, indirect, or consequential damages arising out of
or in connection with the use or performance of this software.

WARNING: This program ERASES FILES! Read the documentation before use.

Please report bugs/criticisms/suggestions to Copyright Holder.


Copyright (C) 1986
ArtTrack (tm)
Robert Holmgren
410 Central Park West, 11A
New York, New York 10025
Voice: (212) 749-7882
Messages: Manhattan South BBS (212) 432-7288

UpDate User's Manual


UpDate


Preliminary, for Experts.
------------------------
N.B. If you have a version of UpDate lower than 2.5, you MUST DELETE your
existing LASTDATE.CNF file and let v3.0 re-create it.

Version 3.0 is sleeker than earlier versions. 2.5 implemented an
automatic integration and single-run version of UPDATE N/standard UPDATE,
which identifies and copies both old-date but freshly-added, and new-date or
newly-changed, files simultaneously. In 3.0 the PATHS.CNF editor (about half
of the code) is totally redesigned, the largest part being error-checking.

UpDate incorporates a large set of user-defined variables which
control source and destination drives, directories, and files. This power is
inherently complex; the documentation explains it carefully. Although you are
expert, review the following material, because the conventions which UpDate
observes are not universal or "similar to" other programs. Proper one-time
installation pays off in daily hands-off execution.

This PROLIX.DOCumentation was prepared as part of a commercial
inventory control package for museum, gallery, and art professionals who are,
in general, aggressively non-technological. A "friendly" orientation to
novices persists in the current revised docs (cf. TERSE.DOC for a brief
summary).


General Introduction.
--------------------
UpDate automatically identifies and makes exact byte-for-byte COPYies
of files newly-created or changed since the last time you executed the UpDate
procedure. UpDate is a general purpose utility, for use with any or all of
your hard-disk directories or high-capacity floppy diskettes. UpDate
outperforms DOS's BACKUP utility or manual COPYing, because it possesses
intelligence and rigorous economy, it copies only what must be copied, it is
broadly configurable, precise to the minute (rather than the date), universal
across your system, and entirely automatic. Backups do not need to be
RESTOREd.

You control UpDate. You pre-select (with a configuration file called
PATHS.CNF) the range of files to back-up (as well as specific filenames within
this range to Skip and not back-up). PATHS.CNF enables UpDate to run
(essentially hands-off) every day, and copy the files you consider important.

At runtime you copy, skip, or delete files. You may copy to/from
single or multiple hard-disks, high/low-capacity floppy drives, and/or RAM


(page 2)

UpDate User's Manual


disks. Dates and times may be altered to recapture files and repeat backup
routines from any previous point in time, to any backup destinations (floppy
and/or hard-disk). UpDate offers a unique, fast hard-disk alternative to the
usual "swap-floppies" back-up routine, for single hard-drives: the "Parallel
destination directories" option.

An UpDate sub-system (UPDATE N) locates and copies files of older date
which have been newly added to your monitored directories.

UpDate incorporates a screen editor, and self-tests, which simplify
the processes of installation and operation.

UpDate is fast. You can back-up all files across all directories with
one keystroke. UpDate scans directories, and copies files, at DOS speed.

UpDate is NOT SUITABLE for a floppy computer system equipped only with
low-capacity diskette drives!


How UpDate Works.
----------------
UpDate relies upon ordinary DOS v2.x/3.x commands to copy or delete
files. All UpDate disk operations are executed from simple DOS batch files
constructed without "go to" labels (labels degrade batch processing speed).

UpDate consists of two system files. UPDATE.BAT initializes the
program and opens a chain of batch files. UP.EXE directs logical operations
(sorts, timers); it also writes several other files, which are deleted when
the program terminates. UP.EXE is an IBM BASICA program compiled with the IBM
BASIC Compiler (v1.0 for smaller, faster code).


Preliminary.
-----------
Before you use UpDate, designate each of your hard-disk directories
and floppy backup diskettes to contain a related group of files. As a
practical matter, system files like COMMAND.COM and UP.EXE are never changed
or rewritten; they need not be copied again after an initial backup is made,
so group permanent files together on several backup disks and put those
floppies on ice. Remember, however, that your active "user files" will
enlarge and eventually outgrow any initial backup diskette organization, so
leave plenty of empty space on active diskettes.

Establish logical groups of backup diskettes for all your programs,
e.g. word-processor and spreadsheet, or for your directories.

Use UpDate once per day. If your systems, especially your floppy
drives, are prone to error, also use DOS's DISKCOPY utility on a regular


(page 3)

UpDate User's Manual


basis, to make second backup diskette copies of your UpDate backup diskettes
(diskettes are usually less reliable than hard disks). REMEMBER: Every
experienced computer user has lost data in a hardware or software crash. You
are not going to be the exception, so don't be complacent. However dependable
your machine and media have been, their time will come, sooner or later.

UpDate is not memory-resident. It requires approximately 78K RAM when
invoked; during operation UpDate will utilize (briefly, then relinquish) a
variable amount of disk space in the UpDate module directory (typically 8K to
50K).


Dates and Times.
---------------
UpDate assumes that your computer knows the CORRECT current date and
time. If your computer does not automatically keep track of the current date
and time, you MUST enter these two figures with reasonable accuracy when you
power-up -- otherwise, UpDate WILL NOT WORK (place DATE and TIME statements in
the root directory's AUTOEXEC.BAT file, and respond accurately each time you
begin a computer session). Remember, if for any reason you mis-calibrate
DOS's intrinsic DATE or TIME functions, or if you deliberately advance
UpDate's record of the "last" backup date and time, UpDate may fail to backup
files.

UpDate's own internal "LASTDATE clock" [not the DOS clock] comprehends
the period 1 January 1977-31 December 2076. Do not attempt to set this UpDate
clock to a future date (i.e. a date subsequent to the "current" date
recognized by DOS); UpDate will reject it.

U.S.A. Time/Date Formats: UpDate REQUIRES that DOS directory
date/time formats, e.g. "11-19-86 11:02a", conform to those of the U.S.A.
(the default setting of most IBM microcomputers; otherwise place the statement
COUNTRY=001 in your CONFIG.SYS file). This does not prevent use of a non-USA
keyboard: load your keyboard of choice as KEYBxx in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file.


First-Time Setup/Configuration of UpDate.
----------------------------------------
Console prompts explain most procedures.

The UpDate module files are: coordinator UPDATE.BAT, and UpDate
processor UP.EXE. Additionally, UpDate will configure (on its first run, with
data which it interactively obtains from the user) a "path specification file"
PATHS.CNF. For its own internal use, UpDate will create (again, with user


(page 4)

UpDate User's Manual


input) and maintain a set-up parameter and date/time record called
LASTDATE.CNF.1

INSTALL the two UpDate module files UPDATE.BAT and UP.EXE together in
a single hard-disk directory or subdirectory, on any drive.

Buffers: A reasonable number of disk buffers (determined by a
BUFFERS= statement in boot file CONFIG.SYS) will dramatically
accelerate UpDate operation, and may affect many or all of your other
programs. Typical statements are BUFFERS=15 for a ten megabyte hard-drive, or
BUFFERS=30 for a twenty meg drive. You can roughly determine the optimum
number of buffers for your computer by stopwatch-timing the operation of DOS
utility CHKDSK with different BUFFER=n statements. Too many or too few
buffers both retard computing speed, so fine-tune.

File Control Blocks (FCBS): This specification, in CONFIG.SYS, may
also speed-up many of your programs. The UpDate minimum is FCBS=10,10 but
FCBS=100,100 is a frequently-used spec. You might raise the FILES=n spec to
FILES=20. DOS defaults for all these values are absurdly low: BUFFERS=2 or
3; FCBS=4,0; FILES=8.


The UpDate Path Specification File PATHS.CNF: Description.
----------------------------------------------------------
File PATHS.CNF informs UpDate which source drives, directories, sub-
directories, or filenames you have elected to back-up on a regular basis.
Usually these will be the active disks, directories, and/or files with which
you work every day.

Before using UpDate you MUST describe, in PATHS.CNF, as much of the
directory structure of your hard (or high-capacity floppy) disk(s) as you wish
to UpDate on a regular basis.

Usually, you create PATHS.CNF before your first use of UpDate, and
then forget about it.

UpDate's built-in editor (UPDATE T) collects -- then organizes, re-
writes, and tests -- data which you provide to PATHS.CNF.

You supply PATHS.CNF with as many as 255 path or path + filename
specifications, or as few as 1 (an advantage of UpDate is that the range of


____________

1 The following filenames are reserved for the exclusive use of UpDate; do
not locate any other files with these names in the UpDate module directory:
UP.EXE; UPDATE.BAT; PATHS.CNF; LASTDATE.CNF; ARCH-UPD.CNF [UpDate `N' option
only]; ZQ*.* .


(page 5)

UpDate User's Manual


files backed-up regularly can be very broad, or precise and narrow). These
"path specifications" define the directories or filenames which UpDate will
monitor regularly, and backup as required.

The largest specifiable PATHS.CNF instruction is to copy a whole
directory; the smallest instruction is to copy one file. You may NOT specify
an entire drive, except by mentioning all (sub)directories on that drive.

You may backup source files on SEVERAL source drives. If you choose,
you can specify particular filenames to backup with UpDate, and/or use the DOS
universal wildcards "?" and "*".

If you specify a directory path without filenames, every new file in
the specified directory is UpDated, with two important exceptions: ALL files
which have the extensions .BAK or .TMP (superceded files usually preserved by
a text editor) are deleted from every indicated directory as a cleanup and
conservation measure [give your fun files .TMP extensions, then get rid of
them]. However, if you specify particular FILENAMES or EXTENSIONS including
any combination of the wildcards * or ? (e.g. the "all files" designation
"*.*", which is the functional equivalent of specifying a path without
filenames), then no .BAK or .TMP files will be deleted.

WARNING!!: You may ABORT execution of UpDate at several points in the
program, but .BAK and .TMP files will ALREADY have been DELETED unless you
have specified wildcards or filenames!

You may type path specifications in UPPER or lower case (UpDate path
test utility UPDATE T translates all characters to UPPER case).

Every path specification begins with a foreslash (e.g. C:\), which
indicates that paths to the source directory or filename(s) are specified from
a drive's root directory (regardless of whether the UpDate module itself is
located in the root or in another directory, on the specified drive or on
another drive).

Each specified path can be described in 72 characters WITH filenames,
or 59 characters WITHOUT filenames (no blank spaces permitted, except in
below-described "Skip", "Hard-only", and "Floppy-only" filename
specifications).2 Note that you must specify ALL directories which you wish
to UpDate, including the current UpDate module directory and/or the root
directory.


____________

2 Avoid long strings of intricate, literal sub-directory names like
\ADMINISTRATION\INVENTORY\ACCOUNTING\RECEIVABLES\DEADBEATS, which are designed
for novices but excruciating for everyone: use instead brief mnemonics like
\ADMIN\INV\ACC\AR\BUMS, or better yet \AD\I\A\R\B.


(page 6)

UpDate User's Manual


You may specify exceptional `Skip' filenames, within a broader back-up
category, which should NOT be backed-up. Some programs incessantly re-write
inconsequential auxiliary files or indices, which really need never be copied;
it is annoying to confront them each time you UpDate.

UpDate further enables you to limit the backup destination of whole
source directories to either hard or floppy disks, by means of specifications
in PATHS.CNF: see section entitled "Floppy-Only and Hard-Only Path Specs", at
the end of this manual.


Configure path specifications in PATHS.CNF: Procedure.
------------------------------------------------------
In the UpDate module directory, from DOS, type UPDATE T return> (the "Enter" key, hereinafter called ). Note the space between
UPDATE and T.

If no PATHS.CNF file currently exists in the UpDate module directory,
UpDate loads an editor that prepares a PATHS.CNF file for you.

Each path (or narrower path + filename) specification occupies a
separate line in the PATHS.CNF file, and has the same format. Enter first the
single-letter designation of the drive on which the SOURCE directories or
files to be backed-up are located [e.g. C]. UpDate immediately displays this
driveletter plus the syntactical characters :\ and then invites you to
complete the full path specification. Enter a lone if you wish to
specify the ROOT DIRECTORY ONLY (e.g. C:\); otherwise write the rest of the
path specification (e.g. C:\TEXTS), then . If you make a mistake in one
specification, you could write it correctly in the next specification and then
delete, or else correct, the bad line when you edit your file after entering
all New specs. The "Enter New path spec" procedure loops until you at
the initial drive designation, to quit entering new lines. Then edit the file
(see below).

To Skip particular filenames (assumed to be included within more
encompassing path specifications), write a normal path spec (one of 255
maximum) indicating the complete drive:\path\filename[.extension, if one
exists] -- NO wildcards are permitted in Skip specs! Then add a single blank
space, plus an ampersand and letter S ( &S). UpDate requires a separate "Skip
filename specification" for EACH individual file to be skipped.


(page 7)

UpDate User's Manual


Example specifications with gloss:

C:\ (copy all files in the root directory)
C:\A (copy all files in directory \A)
C:\A\CONTROL &S (a "Skip filename specification" [with
appendage &S] for file CONTROL [no .EXTension] in directory
\A; all other files in \A will be copied)
C:\B\*.DAT (copy all \B directory files with extension .DAT)
D:\WEIGHTY.TOM (copy only file WEIGHTY.TOM on the D: drive root
directory)
D:\BOOK\*.* (copy all files in D: drive directory \BOOK, using
*.* wildcards to inhibit automatic deletion of .BAK and .TMP
extension files)
D:\BOOK\CHAPTER?.TXT (copy chapter numbers 1-9 using ? wildcard)
C:\NAOMI\ART\INDIAN (copy all files in sub-directory \INDIAN with
path from the root directory described as \NAOMI\ART\INDIAN)

Observe that, in PATHS.CNF, you give no direct instructions to the
system; you do not indicate any operations (e.g. COPY) to execute, nor do you
state the destination drive or directory for those operations, because UpDate
performs all these functions for you. You simply describe PATHS from the ROOT
to the DIRECTORIES and/or FILES which serve as sources for UpDate. (The
directory you select as the actual location of the UpDate utility is
irrelevant.)

First-time users: Specify one directory only for starters, to get a
feel for the program.

In practice, users who require very tightly-defined PATHS.CNF files
have two choices: either to specify only those individual path + filenames
which will be monitored, or else to specify broader directory or filename
categories and then use "Skip filename specifications" to exclude unwanted
files. In most cases, the preferred choice is a liberal use of "Skip filename
specifications", simply because you cannot anticipate the names of files which
you may create in future, but you will undoubtedly wish UpDate to find and
copy (or at least signal the fresh presence of) those new files -- whereas, it
will be clear from the outset that certain existing files are of no importance
to you and can be skipped, and thenceforth new "Skip specs" will be added one
by one, as particular files become pests. The presence in PATHS.CNF of 40 or
80 "Skip filename specifications" has no discernible effect on UpDate
processing speed, but many narrow copyfile specifications will slightly
prolong file-scanning and -sorting at the outset of the UpDate procedure.

On the other hand, if you have a byzantine directory organization and
wish simply to monitor a few files in each directory, then specify filenames
to copy.


(page 8)

UpDate User's Manual


Edit a pre-existing PATHS.CNF file.
----------------------------------
Type UPDATE T from DOS. The screen offers three options: select the
first, E for Edit , and look at your existing list of specifications.

To EDIT (change) a line in PATHS.CNF, enter the line number , then
alter the line. You can edit (using the insert, backspace, delete, and cursor
keys) just like a word processor.

To DELETE a line, enter the line number , then hit a
minus sign - (no !) as your FIRST key struck. If you enter a minus sign
after the FIRST key is typed, it becomes a true character in the path spec.

To ADD a line, enter "N" for New, and append a new line to the
file.

LIST and examine the file's contents by pages (type "L") as often
as necessary (to learn the line numbers you wish to Edit).

Each time you add/modify/delete a line in PATHS.CNF, the entire file
is re-displayed in its new form, for perusal. You may edit, add, and/or
delete as many lines as you choose, in any order. UpDate alphabetizes the
specifications whenever they are re-displayed, and thus line-numbering may
change. Some simple errors in specifications are corrected at this stage;
other subtler problems are examined only when you Test the file after entering
all your specs.

Type "T" to quit editing. UpDate now automatically Tests your
PATHS.CNF file for validity.

Type "A" to Abort to DOS (no Test) only if you intend to re-enter
and test the file later.


Test validity of PATHS.CNF.
--------------------------
You MUST REPEAT the error-trapping UPDATE T "T"est option until you
achieve an error-free PATHS.CNF file: UpDate will crash (!) without a valid
PATHS.CNF, and it will run very if the Test has not re-organized PATHS.CNF
prior to first use.3



____________

3 Although you may write PATHS.CNF with a text editor or word processor
instead of UPDATE T's editor, you MUST re-organize and Test the file with
UPDATE T before use! Beware of word processors (e.g. Wordstar) that do not
normally write clean ASCII text to disk.


(page 9)

UpDate User's Manual


UPDATE T is an INDISPENSIBLE (one-time, hands-off) Test utility. It
re-organizes and re-writes PATHS.CNF on disk, and then makes sure that each
listed path actually travels from the root to its targeted source directory or
file(s).

Test an existing PATHS.CNF file by typing UPDATE T from DOS, and
then select the second of three menu options, Test, by entering "T" . You
can also Test from the edit menu.

Error-checking is performed by both UpDate and DOS. If you have
specified an invalid/nonexistent path or filename, or use an improper syntax,
UPDATE T halts and points to the problem. If there is a DOS error (e.g. a
forbidden character such as a comma in a spec), DOS responds "Bad command or
file name". Repair all errors by re-loading the UPDATE T editor.

PATHS.CNF is error-free ONLY if UpDate signals "PATHS ARE OK!" on
completion of the Test AND no DOS "Bad command or file name" error-messages
appear.

Study the examples above, or read the DOS manual section "Specifying
the Path to a File", if you have trouble with path syntax.

N.B.: The UPDATE T test does not thoroughly evaluate "Skip filename
specifications" [ &S] for validity (the proof will reside in the pudding
only).

Note: Two special situations cause UPDATE T to flag a path as "bad":

1) If, at the end of a path, you specify a filename which has NO
EXTENSION, e.g. C:\ART\OBJECTS, UpDate is unable to tell whether OBJECTS
is a sub-directory of directory ART, or a filename with no extension
called OBJECTS which exists in directory ART -- by convention, UpDate
defaults to the former assumption (that OBJECTS is a sub-directory), and
UPDATE T crashes if OBJECTS is actually a filename. Solution: To
distinguish the two, write filenames with no extension in the
form C:\ART\OBJECTS.*, adding a ".*" wildcard extension.

But: Do NOT (!) add wildcards or superfluous extensions to
"Skip filename specifications" [ &S]; enter each individual Skip spec in
PATHS.CNF precisely as it appears in the DOS directory, with or without an
extension, and then append " &S" to the line.

2) Directories which contain NO FILES at all, or which do not presently
contain a specified filename, are always flagged "bad directories" by the
UPDATE T test utility, even if they are properly described in PATHS.CNF.
Moreover, UPDATE T halts and will not test the remainder of PATHS.CNF.
Solution: Copy one file into every EMPTY directory, before testing paths;
or place in the directory one real filename of the categorical type (e.g.


(page 10)

UpDate User's Manual



*.DOC) specified, as a dummy that fulfills the test's need to find such a
file present (e.g. re-name an existing file temporarily).


(page 11)

UpDate User's Manual


Run UpDate.
==========

To start UpDate:

Situate in the UpDate module directory by means of DOS command
CH[ange]DIR[ectory] DRIVELETTER:\DIRECTORYNAME,
e.g. CHDIR [or CD] C:\A if UpDate is located in dir C:\A
N.B. Never load UpDate from a different directory!
Type UPDATE at the DOS system prompt.4

After a brief interval, during which your diskfiles are scanned and
listed off-screen, the UpDate Main Menu (reproduced below) appears.


Date and Time File LASTDATE.CNF.
-------------------------------
If you are running UpDate for the very first time, UpDate poses (and
then records semi-permanently in file LASTDATE.CNF) five set-up questions
concerning your (1) floppy drive designation, (2) floppy drive designation,
(3) backup directory organization, (4) level of copy/skip control to be
exercised over UpDate, and (5) linkage with UpDate's `N' option (which keeps
track of older-date files). The program then solicits a Date and Time that
serve as a terminus ad quem for the UpDate processor, an estimate of when you
"last" UpDated your files.

Like PATHS.CNF, LASTDATE.CNF set-up is usually a one-time affair
unless you change your system or choose to experiment with different possible
configurations. You can optionally establish a new "last" Date and Time
(and/or change the set-up parameters) ANYTIME you run UpDate, from within the
program itself.


The five LASTDATE.CNF set-up questions:

1) UpDate solicits the designation of the FLOPPY disk drive to which
floppy back-ups, if any, will be sent. Enter this as a single letter, e.g. A,
B, or any other drive_letter through Z. Enter a lone if there will be NO
floppy copying.

2) Indicate the drive designation of your HARD BACK-UP disk (the
DESTINATION drive for copies), if any. Generally, make NO entry (a lone


____________

4 You may, for speed, re-name UPDATE.BAT to a shorter or different name such
as U.BAT (load as U ; load UPDATE T as U T ). But NEVER re-name
UP.EXE.


(page 12)

UpDate User's Manual


only) unless you have a virtual (RAM) disk, or MORE THAN ONE hard-disk or
"logical" drive. Designate this hard-disk back-up destination drive with a
single letter, e.g. D, E, or any other drive_letter A through Z.

3) Define the hard-disk DIRECTORY ORGANIZATION which UpDate will observe
during operation, as explained in the discussions of "Parallel hard-disk back-
up directories" and "Copying between Two Drives", q.v. below section entitled
Drive and Directory Organization. In brief, question 3 asks whether UpDate
shall collect back-ups in:

a) "Mirror-image directories" which bear the same directory names as their
sources, on one DIFFERENT backup hard drive [= M ];
b) "Parallel backup directories" which bear slightly different directory
names than their sources, and are located on the SAME drive as the
source files [= P ];
or c) One catch-all Root directory on either a single DIFFERENT hard drive, or
on FLOPPIES ONLY [= R ]

For first-time use, default to Root directories only (R). You may wish to
change this entry (easily done) after you learn more about UpDate's options
for drives/directories/sources/targets.

4) Use "Universal" or "Selective" Copy Mode, explained in the following
section entitled "Universal or Selective Copy Modes". First-time users should
enter S for "Selective" mode (always adjustable at runtime); in "Selective"
mode, you can skip all copying operations if your initial set-up is faulty.

5) Search, on every UpDate run, for all files with OLD creation dates
which have been newly-added to the monitored PATHS.CNF directories, as well as
for all newly-created or -changed files. To search for both, specify `Y'es;
for new files only (i.e. standard UpDate), specify `N'o. This UPDATE N option
takes more time, but it covers you completely, and backs up EVERYTHING newly
WRITTEN in the specified directories. Note that, if you specify `N'o, you can
still run UPDATE N separately or only, as needed; but it is most reliable if
run simultaneously (or "Linked") on every run -- if you need this facility.
DOS file SORT.EXE must be present in the UpDate module directory for UPDATE N.
See section entitled "Locating and UpDating Newly-Added Files Bearing Old
Dates: UPDATE N", at end. First-timers: Enter N[o Link].


An important chart at the end of this manual describes typical system
configurations with their corresponding LASTDATE.CNF entries.


The two LASTDATE.CNF Date/Time questions:

UpDate's internal "clock" sets the Date and Time of the "last" back-up
routine. Console prompts illustrate the correct form for Date and Time


(page 13)

UpDate User's Manual


statements.5 On a first-time run, it's a good idea to set the date back a few
days, to copy numerous files and learn how UpDate works.

LASTDATE.CNF need never be set manually again. In future, UpDate will
automatically keep track of the last backup time, and continuously copy new
files as necessary.

But ANYTIME you wish to repeat the backup of, for example, yesterday's
or last week's files, simply change the date (option 5 on the main menu) as
UpDate begins, and enter a date which PRECEDES the time you created the files
that are to be UpDated again (e.g. yesterday morning at 0000 hours [Midnight],
just to be sure that you catch all of yesterday's transactions). Altering the
"last" date has no lingering effect upon UpDate, because UpDate will backup
all changes (in the directories specified in PATHS.CNF) from e.g. yesterday
morning until the present moment, and it will then make an internal note of
the current correct Date and Time.

The LASTDATE.CNF Change Menu opens like this:

* * *

Last UpDate on 120586 at 0513 hours = Monday 12 May 1986 at 5:13 AM
(Now: Tuesday 13 May 1986 at 1:40 AM)
==============================================================================
REPLACE DATE/TIME RECORD

Create a replacement LASTDATE.CNF file for UpDate.

At the next (`Last backup date') prompt, Type:
A to Abort changes & restore existing LASTDATE.CNF defaults;
P to alter UpDate system Parameters; or
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Last backup Date in form DDMMYY, e.g. 090586 = 9 May 1986

Enter the Last backup date: ------

Enter the Last backup time: ------

* * *

If in hindsight you decide that you don't really wish to change the
"last" Date/Time, you can Abort to the existing LASTDATE.CNF record of these
values by typing A at the "Last backup date" prompt.

____________

5 For keystroke economy and intuitive order-of-importance logic, UpDate uses
European date and time formats: DDMMYY (day month year) and HHMM (hour
minute), e.g. 011286 (1 December 1986) and 1400 (2 PM).


(page 14)

UpDate User's Manual


Never erase file LASTDATE.CNF. If you wish to alter the system's set-
up Parameters, select main menu option 5 (no ) when you enter UpDate, then
type P at the "Last backup date" prompt. You may now re-create a
LASTDATE.CNF file from scratch. If you regret this choice, Abort to your
existing LASTDATE.CNF file with A when the "Last backup date" prompt
reappears again (after entering dummy responses to the first five LASTDATE.CNF
set-up questions); no new LASTDATE.CNF file will be logged on disk.
Otherwise, re-run the five set-up questions by entering P at the "Last
backup date" prompt until you are satisfied that your five Parameter responses
are error-free.


Run UpDate (continued).
======================
The UpDate Main Menu looks like this:

* * *

Last UpDate on 220586 at 0638 hours = Thursday 22 May 1986 at 6:38 AM
(Now: Thursday 22 May 1986 at 6:51 AM)
==============================================================================

Selective UpDate Processor Enabled


Copy To: Options:
======= =======

1 Hard Disk --, 4 Switch to Universal UpDating
|=>3 BOTH 5 Change Last Date/Time, or Parameters
2 Floppy Disks --' 6 Abort to DOS

* * *


Options 1-3: Execute and Copy.
-----------------------------
Options 1, 2, or 3 (no ) execute UpDate. If your drive
designations exclude floppy or hard-drive copying, UpDate offers one valid
"Copy To:" back-up destination only.

In many UpDate configurations, no further action is required unless
you are swapping floppy disks; file-copying is automatic.


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UpDate User's Manual


Option 4: Universal or Selective Copy Modes.
-------------------------------------------
UpDate offers the option of "Universal" or "Selective" copying: at
the main menu, type 4 to toggle between Universal and Selective copy modes.
Toggling affects the current run only; the default copy mode is determined by
set-up parameter #4 in LASTDATE.CNF.

"Universal" means that every new or changed file is copied to hard-
disk and/or floppy backup areas. Leaving the UpDate processor permanently in
"Universal" copying mode is the safest and often fastest (hands-off) method of
backing up all files; furthermore, a degree of copy/skip control is still
exercised with PATHS.CNF "Skip filename specifications".

In "Selective" copy mode, UpDate pauses to enable a deliberate
decision about each file, whether to COPY it, DELETE it, or SKIP it. UpDate
then proceeds to the next file awaiting copying, to make the same decision
again. You must hit the "Y"[es] key to copy, or the minus sign "-" to delete,
the source file; all other keys are omit-copy or "Skip" instruction keys.
Save time and space by "Selectively" copying only those files which have truly
changed or are important, while deleting those which are superfluous.

To Delete a file, you must hit a minus sign (-) key TWICE, as a
precaution against fatal user-error (abort deletion by hitting any other key
than a minus sign at the second delete prompt). "Delete" erases the source
file only, not files of the same name on destination directories or disks.

N.B.: The Delete option is available ONLY in "Selective" copy mode.

If you ABORT deletion at the second delete prompt (by hitting any
other key), the opportunity to instead Copy that file is lost. If you are
backing up both to floppies and hard-disks, and you abort deletion on the
first (floppy-copy) opportunity, you may still copy to the hard disk, but you
can no longer delete the file (a minus sign `-' entry yields a skip).

Deletions are final, and unrecoverable with DOS [try Norton's UNERASE
utility, to reclaim a file].


Option 5: Change Last Date/Time, or Parameters.
----------------------------------------------
See previous discussion of "Date and Time File LASTDATE.CNF".


Option 6: Abort to DOS
----------------------
Option 6 quits to DOS with these consequences: No new LASTDATE.CNF
file is written to disk, unless you have previously changed LASTDATE with
option 5. You may backdate on the next run without penalty. But if you are


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UpDate User's Manual


running the linked version of UPDATE N (copy old files), the old archival file
ARCH-UPD.CNF is replaced by a new archival file, and UpDate's capacity to
locate and copy old files newly-added to your directories since the previous
UpDate run is irrevocably LOST.


Run UpDate (continued).
==========
Send your backups this first time to floppy disks only: select backup
destination `2'. Then repeat the process with hard-drive back-ups only (if
you use them), by backdating at the start of the UpDate program to the same
date a few days ago, and selecting backup destination `1'. This experiment
indicates the varying times consumed by the two procedures.

Regardless of destination, a list of files that were altered or added
since your last UpDate passes by the screen twice, the first time for
information only (file sizes, etc), the second time as copy operations
proceed. Changed files which will be omitted due to PATHS.CNF "Skip filename
specifications" are also listed on the first pass, with the label [SKIP]
appended -- as an advisory.

Anomaly: The UpDate processor writes an up-to-date LASTDATE.CNF file
in the UpDate module directory only after it searches through the directories
specified in PATHS.CNF and finds at least one new or changed file. If
LASTDATE.CNF is encompassed within a PATHS.CNF source specification,
LASTDATE.CNF will appear in the first advisory screen listing of files; but if
no OTHER new or changed files are found, UpDate ends with the message
"No Files Were Changed Since Last UpDate", and the previously-existing
LASTDATE.CNF remains the file of record.

Whenever you copy in UNIVERSAL mode and respond option `1' [UpDate to
hard-disk backup directories only], you are finished with UpDate; the computer
takes over and performs a series of copying operations, listed on screen as
they occur.

If, in Universal mode, your response is option `2' (back up to
floppies only) or `3' (back up to BOTH hard disk and floppies), UpDate will
"pause" before each file to be copied, to permit you to insert in the floppy
back-up drive the correct floppy diskette. "Strike a key when ready", i.e.
after you have inserted the disk in the floppy drive and locked the drive
latch. The name and destination drive\directory for each file to be copied
are displayed on screen, to enable selection of the right floppy. If you do
not need to switch disks, simply .

If, in Universal mode, you pick destination `3', copies are
simultaneously and automatically made to the designated hard disk backup
areas.


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UpDate User's Manual


In SELECTIVE mode, respond either "Y"es to Copy, "-" to Delete, or any
other key (an implicit "Omit Copy"), for EACH copy operation, both hard-disk
and floppy. Swap floppies first, if you intend to copy.

Before writing a copy on floppies (destinations `2' or `3'), UpDate
always checks whether the file already exists on the floppy back-up disk that
is inserted. If UpDate does not find the file on that diskette, a "WARNING"
message is displayed. You MAY have the wrong disk in the floppy drive. You
are given ONE opportunity to switch floppies, if required. (Naturally, if the
file is brand-new, no backup will exist on any diskette, so hit any key to
proceed with copying.)

Caution: if you interrupt (crash) UpDate at any point (with
or ), files may not be copied! The rule is, don't
crash deliberately. UpDate's internal Date/Time record may have been reset,
without actually having completed the file-copying routine. The best
procedure is always to pencil a note of user-errors, continue the UpDate
routine as usual, then repair mistakes manually (or re-run UpDate). Be sure
to back-date the next time you use UpDate if a crash occurs.


Drive and Directory Organization.
================================

Copying between Two Drives.
--------------------------
Preliminary:

UpDate will copy source files from one hard drive, to destination
directories on another hard drive (or from one floppy to a second floppy
drive). Another identical hard drive is, after all, the ideal backup vehicle!
SEE 1) BELOW.

"Another" hard drive means ALSO "logical" drives, i.e. SINGLE hard
drives which have been subdivided into several separate "logical" drive
designations (e.g. C:, D:,...Z:): SEE 2) BELOW.

RAM drives, or virtual memory "drives" which mimic logical drives and
possess separate drive_letter designations, are also included in this
category: SEE 3) BELOW.

UpDate offers a unique method of backing-up to the SAME hard-drive if
you only have one. This method has distinct advantages and disadvantages.
Consider it only if you have a SINGLE hard drive: SEE 4) BELOW.

With some restrictions, floppy systems may also use UpDate: SEE 5).

UpDate's only limitation when copying between two or more "drives" is
that it sends every copy without exception, from whatever source, to ONE other


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UpDate User's Manual


hard drive destination. You can NOT send, from an UpDate module on C:, file X
to D: and file Y to E:. But you could establish on C: two separate UpDate
modules, one with a D: back-up destination and the other with an
E: destination.

Additional copying to floppies is always recommended.


1) Copying between Two Hard Drives.
------------------------====-------
The directory(ies) to which files are sent on the backup drive are
selected in LASTDATE.CNF directory definition parameter #3. When copying
between two different hard drives, you have two choices: M for "Mirror-image
directories"; or R to collect all backup files in the Root directory,
regardless of source directory:


M: = Mirror-image. A "Mirror-image" of the source hard-drive means that
the (sub)directory "tree" of the source drive is replicated precisely on the
destination drive (at least with respect to those directories which UpDate
will back-up: e.g. if C:\ART\LETTERS is a subdirectory of C:, UpDate looks to
back-up drive D: for a D:\ART\LETTERS subdirectory).6 Respond `M' to set-up
parameter question #3, to make mirror-image copying your default.

Additionally, you MUST create directories on your backup hard drive
identical to those on your source hard drive [MKDIR for every specified
directory]! UPDATE T can perform this step for you (respond "B" at the
first UPDATE T screen to Make Backup Directories, then respond "M" to make
mirror-image backup directories -- but only AFTER you have fully Tested all
paths). If you are adding new backup directories to a pre-existing set, you
will receive "Unable to create directory" messages; these directories already
exist.

Note that, in Universal mode, backing up to the hard-disk only
(execute option 1) results in fast hands-off operation.


R: = Root directory backups. Suppose that you wish to copy files from
various discreet subdirectories on e.g. C: [and/or E: and F: etc] to one large
catch-all back-up "holding area" in the e.g. D: root directory. In other
words, you don't wish or care to have a Mirror-image of your source
directories on D:. Procedure: Respond `R' to set-up parameter question #3,


____________

6 N.B.: Back-up directories on different hard drives may NOT be
"Suffix-1" directories: "Suffix-1" Parallel directories are used ONLY when
backing up to the same hard drive!


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UpDate User's Manual


to make root directory copying the default. All files from all drives and
directories will, in this example, be copied to D:\ (the root directory of
drive D:).


2) "Logical Drive" Systems (usually one actual hard drive)
-----=======-=====-----------------------------------------
If your system consists of various "logical" drives, i.e. one (or
more) hard drives subdivided into various "logical" drives or "partitions"
each of which possesses a separate drive_letter designation, you may use one
of your "logical" drives as a back-up area to collect all back-ups from the
other "logical" drives. It is always a good idea, on a one hard-drive system,
to make floppy back-ups also, for protection against a hard-disk crash. (See
further the discussion of Parallel backup directories, #4 below).


3) Virtual [RAM] Disks.
-------------===--=====
UpDate is an ideal RAM disk back-up. Do your daily work on a RAM
disk, for lightning speed. At the end of a session, before cutting power to
the computer, run UpDate and store all new RAM files on your hard disk.

Procedure:
You need not (but could) put UpDate on your RAM disk. However, you
require PATHS.CNF and LASTDATE.CNF files configured for use with the RAM
disk.

Suppose that D: is the RAM disk, and C: is the hard drive:

The PATHS.CNF specification might be simply D:\ or D:\*.*
[Optional] LASTDATE.CNF floppy backup destination
Set the LASTDATE.CNF hard disk backup destination to C
Set LASTDATE.CNF directory definition to M or R

In this example, run UpDate off C:, and it will transfer all new files
from D: to C:.

If you establish several directories on your D: drive RAM disk and use
the M "Mirror-image" directory definition, be sure that UpDate finds
corresponding ("Mirror-image") directories on C:!


4) Parallel hard-disk backup directories on single hard-drive systems.
----========-----------======-===========-----------------------------
If you have ONE HARD-DISK ONLY, UpDate offers an optional enhancement
to your directory organization: a duplication of files which is costly in
disk space and may seem over-cautious, but which you will find both prudent
and useful in any environment that drives its computer intensively.


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UpDate User's Manual


UpDate can create, for every master directory or subdirectory
mentioned in PATHS.CNF, a Parallel hard-disk backup directory or subdirectory
on the same hard-disk drive. This yields (among other advantages) an
ultra-high-speed/hard-disk-only backup system, with a capability of
subsequently backdating to the last floppy UpDate procedure and thus bringing
your floppies "up-to-date" at any time. However, it cannot be used if you do
not have plenty of available hard-disk space, equivalent at least to the
combined size of all the files you will be backing up.

Observe that Parallel back-ups are the FUNCTIONAL EQUIVALENT of
Logical Drive UpDating on one real hard drive -- with the same advantages and
disadvantages -- but the directory definition in LASTDATE.CNF question #3 is P
rather than M or R. If a different logical drive is available for use,
logical UpDating is probably cleaner and simpler (DOS 3.1+ command SUBST can
make a logical drive).

UpDate views this Parallel directory structure as highly advantageous,
rather than restrictive. In reality, rigorous "backing up" of a hard disk has
meant, in the past, either switching dozens of floppies for 10-30 minutes/day,
or down-loading to a streaming tape system which protected your data if the
computer failed, but was impractical as a substitute read/write medium when
you needed to recall one old file or your hard disk was off-line.

People who were unwilling to take the time to swap floppies (the vast
majority) didn't backup -- period.

But backing up serves more purposes than simply protecting against
media failure. About 99% of backups recover from accidental erasure, or bad-
judgment alteration, of files. UpDate's Parallel backup option is a
compromise solution for single hard-disk systems that can bring your floppies
"up-to-date" whenever you wish. It allows you to recall older versions of
files at any time, or consult a complete second fileset. It does NOT protect
your data in case of total hard-disk failure, so back-up to floppies with a
prudent frequency.

"Parallel hard-disk backup" operation is selected by responding `P' to
the LASTDATE.CNF directory definition question #3, described above. Create
Parallel hard-disk directories before first execution of UpDate but AFTER your
PATHS.CNF file has received the ** PATHS ARE OK! ** blessing from UPDATE T's
path tester and you set-up the LASTDATE.CNF parameters. Then re-load UPDATE T
from DOS, select the "B" (Make Backup Directories) option, and create
"P"arallel back-up directories on the same hard-drive for all specified source
drives. It doesn't matter if some (or all) of these backup directories
already exist (e.g. if you are adding new parallel directories to a pre-
existing set), because UpDate will ignore a "Make Directory" instruction with
the message "Unable to create directory" for those directories already in
existence.


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UpDate User's Manual


Each independent Parallel back-up directory is nested at the same
tree-level as the master (source) directory or subdirectory which it backs up.
It bears a name identical to the name of the PATH from the ROOT directory to
the SOURCE directory, plus the numeric suffix "1". Thus, for example, a
C:\ART master directory has a Parallel back-up directory labelled
C:\ART1. The only EXCEPTION to this "Suffix-1 rule" applies to a drive's root
directory which, because of DOS conventions, must be totally renamed: UpDate
calls this root directory Parallel backup area d:\D, e.g. C:\D.

A Parallel hard-disk backup directory need not contain programs or
control files which never change (although it's often convenient to have a
complete second system available anyway). If you have limited space on your
one hard-disk, don't cram backup directories with "system files" because they
never change.

Bring floppies up-to-date at any time:

Procedure:
The UpDate module directory (or at least file LASTDATE.CNF) must be
specified in PATHS.CNF. Each time you execute UpDate to floppy
diskettes, a copy of the current Date/Time file will be written (unless
you omit it in Selective copy mode) upon one of these floppy disks
(filename LASTDATE.CNF). Suppose that you subsequently decline to copy
to floppies for one or more UpDate routines, and instead backup only to
the Parallel hard disk directories (for hands-off convenience and high
speed). You can bring your floppies up-to-date by manually copying the
LASTDATE.CNF file from this diskette to the main UpDate hard-disk
directory.7 Then run UpDate as usual, sending copies to floppies only.
All files written since the last FLOPPY UpDate procedure will be copied
to floppies.


5) Dual-Drive or Single-Drive Floppy Diskette Systems (No Hard Drives!).
-------------------------------======----------=======------------------
UpDate functions on computers with no hard drive. But the usefulness
of UpDate is sharply restricted if the floppy drives are small-capacity (e.g.
320 or 360K), because UpDate module files will occupy approximately 78K bytes
of space on EACH source diskette (unless you locate the UpDate module on a RAM
disk, a fine idea), and UpDate will require additional floppy (or RAM) disk
space (typically to 50K) during operation.

____________

7 UpDate relies upon you to find the proper diskette and restore LASTDATE to
your UpDate module directory: from the UpDate directory,
syntax
COPY [FLOPPY_DRIVELETTER]:LASTDATE.CNF [HARD_DISK_DRIVELETTER]: thus e.g.
COPY A:LASTDATE.CNF C:


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UpDate User's Manual


Therefore, UpDate is not recommended for small-capacity floppy-only
computer systems.

However, with high-capacity diskettes (e.g. 1.2M byte capacity),
UpDate may be useful, because most users organize their diskettes to contain
related groups of files, and they often fill a mere fraction of available
space on these more spacious diskettes.

Procedure:
Suppose, as most IBM computers do, that A: is the source drive. Whether
you have one or two floppy drives, it will be necessary to designate the
destination drive as a DIFFERENT drive, e.g. B:, even if the actual
destination drive is also A: (DOS will resolve this problem internally):

Set PATHS.CNF to read, e.g., A:\
Define LASTDATE.CNF floppy back-up drive as B
Define LASTDATE.CNF directory structure as R
Run UpDate normally

On ONE-DRIVE FLOPPY-ONLY systems, DOS will prompt you to swap source and
destination diskettes as required; when DOS prompts to insert floppy B:,
it really means that the destination diskette should be inserted in A:

On TWO-DRIVE FLOPPY-ONLY systems, you can create a "hands-off" copyfile
facility by treating the floppy destination drive as a HARD drive in
LASTDATE.CNF (no "floppy drive" should be designated in LASTDATE.CNF).
"Universal" mode yields hands-off operation, while "Selective" mode
offers the usual skip/copy option.

Furthermore, on a two-drive floppy system, if you set LASTDATE.CNF's
directory definition to M (for "Mirror-image" directories), a
hierarchical (sub)directory structure on floppy source disks will be
maintained on the destination diskettes (an exception to UpDate's usual
practice of collecting floppy back-ups in FLOPPY root directories only,
made possible because UpDate has been informed falsely that your floppy
destination drive is a "hard drive").


Comments.
--------
Note that, if you select Mirror-image or Parallel directory
organization on your backup hard-disk, and during operation also send back-ups
to floppy diskettes, normally UpDate will collect floppy back-ups in the
floppy Root directory only! In other words, Mirror-image or Parallel
directories will be sought ONLY on hard-disk backup drives, and not on the
floppy drive. Backup floppy diskettes are usually assumed by UpDate to
possess a single root directory only (note that there are several ways to


(page 23)

UpDate User's Manual


circumvent this assumption, one of which is exampled in the first paragraph of
section "General Considerations", below).

Notwithstanding the drive/directory defaults, you always have the
option of using UpDate to backup only to floppy diskettes, or only to hard
disk.


Floppy-Only and Hard-Only Path Specs.
====================================
N.B.: This section is relevant ONLY if UpDate addresses BOTH floppy AND
hard-drive back-up areas.

UpDate permits blanket path specifications for whole directories, to
restrict them to FLOPPY ONLY [ &F] or HARD-DISK ONLY [ &H] backup
destinations. "Floppy-only" and "Hard-only" directory specifications are
similar to "Skip filename specifications" [ &S], previously described.
PATHS.CNF is again the vehicle for these instructions.

Suppose that one of your directories (e.g. C:\DATA) contains an important
database; you maintain a complete, second backup fileset of this database
on BOTH hard-disk and floppies. Suppose further that your OTHER
directories and files don't require this degree of backup protection, or
that you're pinched for hard-disk space; you elect to back the others up
to FLOPPIES ONLY. (It sounds like Selective copy mode, but actually it's
pre-configured with PATHS.CNF, and it runs hands-off.)

"Hard-only" directory specs [ &H] reflect the same concept: file-
copying operations are directed to hard-disk destinations only, for the
directories specified.

Example PATHS.CNF specifications (with gloss):
line #
------
1 C:\DATA (normal spec: copy all \DATA files to floppies & hard disk)
2 C:\ART (copy all directory \ART files ...)
3 C:\ART &F (but copy them to floppy destinations only)
4 C:\CHINESE\LETTERS &H (copy specified files from subdirectory
\LETTERS to hard-disk destinations only, ...)
5 C:\CHINESE\LETTERS\TAN.TXT (for example, the letter to Tan ...)
6 C:\CHINESE\LETTERS\DENG.TXT &S (but skip Deng's letter)

Note some conceptual differences when " &F" and " &H" directory specs
are used: &F and &H are akin to ENVIRONment statements about whole
directories; you must ALSO, first, specify the directories or individual
filenames which you wish to monitor and copy, with REGULAR path specs. Thus,
the sample directory specifications above indicate, in line 2, that ALL FILES
in \ART will be copied (because the entire directory C:\ART is specified


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UpDate User's Manual


without filenames), but in line 3, that they will be copied only to floppy
disks (no hard-disk back-up option will be offered).

RULE: If you wish to back-up an ENTIRE DIRECTORY, make a general directory
specification, and then REPEAT this specification with the appendage " &F"
or " &H" (one blank space plus an ampersand "&" plus letter "F" or "H").

The specs in lines 4-6 for subdirectory C:\CHINESE\LETTERS are
different. Only individually specified filenames in \CHINESE\LETTERS will be
copied, because there is no general specification for this (sub)directory.
The &H spec in line 4 serves no function other than to inform the UpDate
processor that individual filenames (e.g. line 5) will be copied to hard-disk
backup areas only (no floppy back-up option will be offered).

RULE: If you wish to back-up SPECIFIC FILENAMES ONLY, specify the
directory (without any filename) and append " &F" or " &H", then specify
filename(s) individually. Wildcards are permitted in filename
specifications.


Locating and UpDating Newly-Added Files Bearing Old Dates: UPDATE N.
------------------------------------------------------------======-=
If you acquire a new program, and add its files to PATHS.CNF
directories, the standard UpDate procedure will not copy them because they
will usually bear creation dates which PRECEDE the date/time record in
LASTDATE.CNF.

But UpDate's "N" option locates all files newly-added to the PATHS.CNF
specified directories bearing dates EARLIER than the date recorded in
LASTDATE.CNF. It also spots differently-dated or -sized versions of filenames
ALREADY located in your directories, e.g. if you acquire the latest
implementation of a program. UPDATE N is practical for modem users, who
acquire date-stamped files (via the Ymodem protocol, or from ARChives and
LiBRaries).

UPDATE N may be utilized as a SEPARATE procedure, executed from DOS
with the command UPDATE N , or it may be LINKED with standard UpDate so
that the two always function simultaneously and deliver one integrated report
with file copying after file searching and sorting is complete. Linkage is
the preferred method, because occasional runs of UPDATE N will report many
files already identified and copied on intervening runs of standard UpDate.

N.B.: UPDATE N (linked or separate) REQUIRES the presence of DOS file
SORT.EXE in the UpDate module directory.

UPDATE N establishes (hands-off on the initial run), and thereafter
maintains in the UpDate module directory, an archival file called ARCH-UPD.CNF
which serves as the reference for all old-date files. Each time you run


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UpDate User's Manual


UPDATE N, current file listings are compared with ARCH-UPD.CNF, and all newly-
added files dated earlier than the LASTDATE.CNF date/time record are flagged
for copying. A new ARCH-UPD.CNF is then written to disk, for reference the
next time you run UPDATE N.

On the first advisory listing of files, all "old" files bear the
appended label "OLD". Old files may be SKIPped, or sent to HARD ONLY and
FLOPPY ONLY destination drives, just like standard UpDate.

Because the additional time required by linkage may be objectionable
if you monitor many directories/files, new files might be collected in one
directory only (e.g. a special modem download directory), with a separate
Linked UpDate module located in this directory. Another un-linked UpDate
module could then cover your other active directories.

If UPDATE N and UPDATE are linked, commanding "UPDATE N" from DOS
yields the same result as command UPDATE: a linked run of both programs.


Run UPDATE N as a Separate program (`N'o Link in set-up parameter #5).
----------------------------------
A listing of newly-added files is displayed on-screen after your
directories are sorted, and you may either Abort (lone ) the UPDATE N
procedure, or type Y (no ) to proceed. If you proceed, UPDATE N operates
like the standard UpDate except that filenames listed are all newly-added to
your drives/directories, but dated PRIOR TO the LASTDATE.CNF date/time record
(new files dated AFTER the LASTDATE.CNF date/time record will be flagged
during standard UpDate execution).

Run UPDATE N first, BEFORE you run UPDATE. If you only run UPDATE N
occasionally, and not each time you UpDate, UPDATE N may flag files which have
already been UpDated during the standard procedure (Skip them).


Run UPDATE N and standard UPDATE as Linked programs (`Y'es Link).
---------------------------------------------------
Linkage is established by set-up parameter question #5: respond Y[es
Link]. If you were not previously linked, UpDate restarts and creates a new
archival file ARCH-UPD.CNF which will serve as the basis for comparison the
NEXT time you run linked UpDate (no "old" files will be flagged on this run
unless an old ARCH-UPD.CNF exists on disk, in which latter case you may suffer
a run with many files needlessly flagged).

To UN-LINK, respond N[o Link] to system parameter #5. Although UpDate
has just compiled a list of old files for copying, these will now be skipped,
and only "new" files will be reported/copied.


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UpDate User's Manual



Differences Between Standard UPDATE and UPDATE N.
------------------------------------------------
Note that in standard UpDate, you can "backdate" the procedure and re-
run it for identical results; but you can never REPEAT an UPDATE N procedure
with identical results: UPDATE N flags newly-added "old-date" files ONCE only
(because the old ARCH-UPD.CNF file that spotted them is immediately replaced
by a new, current ARCH-UPD.CNF file).

If you add new directories to PATHS.CNF between UPDATE N runs, EVERY
file in the new directories will be flagged. Deleting a PATHS.CNF directory
has no effect.

Run as a separate program, UPDATE N cannot change or re-write the
current LASTDATE.CNF file. In separate UPDATE N, you may not elect Universal
Copy Mode; the default is always Selective Mode.

UPDATE N ignores .BAK and .TMP extension files, but does NOT delete
them. Standard UpDate also preserves .BAK and .TMP files if you indicate *.*
wildcards or filenames in your path specifications. Standard UpDate reports
and copies these .BAK/.TMP files if wildcards or filenames are specified;
UPDATE N does not (because these files are not "newly-added" but simply
superceded and, probably, previously copied by UpDate).


General Considerations.
----------------------
The last paragraph of Drive and Directory Organization ("Floppy
Diskette Computers", section 5, above) represents one of the (sometimes
unorthodox) variations by which PATHS.CNF and LASTDATE.CNF can be harmonized
to configure a system that works, day-in day-out.

A chart at the back of this manual suggests the most typical
configurations of LASTDATE.CNF's system definitions. If none of them fit your
computer system, experiment! (UpDate will forbid some, but not all, illogical
or unworkable configurations.)

Remember that the UpDate procedure takes slightly more time as you add
more directories and/or multiple filenames within the same directory --
although not "Skip filename specifications" [ &S] -- to PATHS.CNF.

In an environment of intense use, backing up four or five directories
once a day, you may complete UpDate in about 2-5 minutes if you manually
switch floppies, and about 1-2 minutes if you back-up only to the hard disk in
"Universal" copy mode.

In both single-user and multi-user (multi-terminal) environments, you
can install several UpDate modules in the system, e.g. one for your databases,
another for your text files -- or one for each user -- but locate the modules
in different directories!


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UpDate User's Manual


Password security should not present a problem, assuming that the user
possesses permission to enter each of the directories named in PATHS.CNF and
doesn't need to "show" his/her password every time these directories are
accessed.

Always enter path designations in PATHS.CNF for your master source
directories only, and not for any backup directories.

UpDate is entirely automatic and self-regulating, but if you opt to
back up to floppies, or to both floppies and your hard disk backup areas
(either of which will entail some disk-switching), you will want to pay close
attention to the prompts which appear. If you make a mistake and copy data
onto the wrong backup diskette, either repair this error manually using DOS's
COPY command after UpDate is finished, or else re-run UpDate and backdate the
procedure.


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UpDate User's Manual


Summary of UpDate:


First-Time Installation:
Install UpDate module programs together in one directory
List path specifications in the PATHS.CNF configure file
Re-organize PATHS.CNF on disk and then TEST that specified paths
actually travel to their targeted directories or files, with the
UPDATE T utility
Create back-up directories, with the "B" ("Make Backup Directories")
option of UPDATE T
Assign floppy back-up diskettes to logical "groups" of files
Run UpDate and set-up LASTDATE.CNF: 1) floppy destination drive; 2)
hard-disk destination drive; 3) an M, P, or R directory
definition; 4) Universal or Selective copy mode; and 5) UpDate
`N' Linkage; Time and Date of "last" backup routine

Operation:
Set accurate current time & date in DOS on power-up [if necessary]
Type UPDATE N [optional] at DOS level, from within the UpDate
module directory
Type UPDATE at DOS level, from within the UpDate module
directory
Reset time of last UpDate [optional]
Choose Universal or Selective copying [optional]
Indicate destination for back-up copies (hard-disk, floppies, or
both)
Prepare to switch floppy diskettes [if necessary]


Table of User Variables:

Function Implementation
-------- --------------
Current Date/Time DOS
Alter LASTDATE.CNF Parameters/Backup Date and Time Runtime
Directory to Copy [Path specification] PATHS.CNF
Filename to Copy [Path specification] PATHS.CNF
Directory to Copy to Floppies Only [ &F Path spec] PATHS.CNF
Directory to Copy to Hard-Disk Only [ &H Path spec] PATHS.CNF
Filename to Skip (Omit-Copy) [ &S Path spec] PATHS.CNF
Optional Copy/Skip Control [Selective mode only]Runtime/LASTDATE.CNF
Delete File [Selective mode only] Runtime
Copy Old-Date Files Linked or Separate UPDATE or UPDATE N
Hard Disk Only UpDate All Files Runtime/LASTDATE.CNF
Floppy Only UpDates All Files Runtime/LASTDATE.CNF
Floppy AND Hard UpDates All Files Runtime/LASTDATE.CNF


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UpDate User's Manual


Structure of sample LASTDATE.CNF file (length=15 bytes):


a = Floppy Drive Designation
b = Hard Drive Designation
c = Directory Definition
d = Universal/Selective Copy Mode
e = UpDate `N' Linkage
f = Last Date
g = Last Time

coded as above: ffffffggggabcde ffffffggggabcde
--------------- ---------------
e.g. for one hard drive YYMMDDHHMMA PUN
e.g. for multiple hard drives YYMMDDHHMMADMSY
e.g. for floppy drives only YYMMDDHHMMB RSN or YYMMDDHHMM BRUY


______________________________________________________________________________


UpDate Version History

1982 author's personal-use version
1.0 4 Apr 85 ArtTrack version 1.0
1.1 1 Jun 85 Configurable LASTDATE.CNF file
Support for multiple hard drives and RAM disks
1.2 12 Aug 85 Extensive docs
1.3 15 Oct 85 Incorporated PATHS.CNF editor
&Skip specs
Nested conditional batch file logic
1.4 17 Oct 85 Simplified source
1.5 12 Nov 85 Parallel Suffix-1 directories
2.0 9 Jan 86 &Floppy/&Hard-only specs
2.1 22 Feb 86 New screens and docs
2.2 24 Apr 86 UPDATE N option for newly-added files of "Old" date
2.3 29 Apr 86 Revised docs and screens
2.4 9 May 86 Code changes; fixes to UPDATE N
2.4x Fixes
2.5 22 May 86 Link/integrate UPDATE N and standard UPDATE
New screens
3.0 3 Jun 86 New PATHS.CNF editor
Enhanced error-checking


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UpDate User's Manual

Index


Advantages of UpDate.........................................................2
Append specifications to PATHS.CNF...........................................9
Back-up directories, hands-off method for creating..........................21
Back-up drives, define......................................................12
Back-ups, reasons for.......................................................21
BAK files, automatic deletion or preservation by UpDate......................6
Buffers, number to install...................................................5
Change "last" backup Date and Time..........................................14
Clock limits, past and future................................................4
Copy to root directories only...............................................19
Cr, carriage return or "Enter" key......................................7
Cr, carriage return, abbreviated ........................................7
DATE and TIME functions (DOS), importance of.................................4
Date and time records of last UpDate procedure..............................12
Date/Time formats, must conform to USA (COUNTRY=001).........................4
Delete files, how to........................................................16
Delete specifications from PATHS.CNF.........................................9
Destination directories, define.............................................13
Differences in operation between UPDATE and UPDATE N........................27
Directory paths, how to specify (UpDate).....................................5
Disk buffers, number to install..............................................5
Disk failure.................................................................3
Dual hard-drive copying.....................................................18
Duration of typical UpDate run..............................................27
Edit PATHS.CNF...............................................................9
Empty directory/filename specifications.....................................10
Enter key ...............................................................7
Erase files, how to.........................................................16
Experimentation, with unorthodox configurations.............................27
File Control Blocks (FCBS), specify minimum FCBS=10,10 in CONFIG.SYS.........5
Floppy Backup Drive_letter, LASTDATE.CNF....................................12
Floppy diskettes, arrangement of.............................................3
Floppy-disk only directory specifications...................................24
Floppy-disk only, example specifications....................................24
Floppy-Only Systems: installation and use [and Limitations]...............22
Floppy-swapping, pause to enable............................................17
Hands-off hard-disk copying.................................................17
Hard-Disk Backup Drive_letter, LASTDATE.CNF.................................12
Hard-disk only directory specifications.....................................24
Hard-disk only, example specifications......................................24

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UpDate User's Manual

Index

Hard-drive back-ups on single-drive systems (Parallel directories)..........20
History of Backing-Up.......................................................21
Keyboards, USA and non-USA...................................................4
LASTDATE.CNF set-up.........................................................12
LASTDATE.CNF, drive and directory designations, change......................15
Length of UpDate procedure, variables which affect..........................27
List of Files, first pass on-screen as an advisory..........................17
Logical drive copying: procedure...........................................20
Logical drives..............................................................18
Menu, main, appearance of...................................................15
Mirror-image directories: definition.......................................19
Mirror-image, Parallel, or Root dir definition, LASTDATE.CNF...........13
Multi-user considerations...................................................27
N option, locate old-date files newly added to directories...................3
Newly-added files of older date.............................................25
Parallel (Suffix-1) directories, definition.................................20
Parallel directories, installation (with UPDATE T's `MPD' option)...........21
Parallel directories, theory and structure..................................22
Parallel hard-disk backup directories: Installation........................21
Password security, effect of................................................28
Path specifications, definition of...........................................6
Paths, examples of specifications............................................8
Paths, examples of specifications...........................................24
Paths, specifying for UpDate.................................................5
PATHS.CNF path specification file, definition................................6
PATHS.CNF, example specifications............................................8
PATHS.CNF, function .........................................................5
PATHS.CNF, how to specify directories/filenames..............................7
PATHS.CNF, philosophy........................................................8
Preliminary preparations.....................................................3
RAM disk copying: procedure................................................20
Re-organize PATHS.CNF with UPDATE T, necessity of............................9
Root directory collects all floppy back-up files............................23
Run UPDATE N and UPDATE together (make a batch file)........................26
Security, effect of.........................................................28
Selective copy mode: description...........................................16
Set-up of LASTDATE.CNF......................................................12
Single-drive hard-disk backup option (Parallel directories).................20
Skip filename specifications, definition.....................................7
Skip filenames, how to specify...............................................7
SORT.EXE required in UpDate module directory for execution of UPDATE N......25

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UpDate User's Manual

Index

Specify filenames, or specify skip filenames: how to choose.................8
Specify FILENAME[no .EXT] with wildcard ".*"................................10
Suffix-1 (Parallel) directories, definition.................................20
Test "Skip filename specifications" (not done)..............................10
Test PATHS.CNF, possible errors.............................................10
Test the validity of PATHS.CNF...............................................9
TIME function (DOS)..........................................................4
TMP files, automatic deletion or preservation by UpDate......................6
Two hard-drives: copying between............................................19
Universal copy mode: description...........................................16
UPDATE N, UpDate newly-added files of old date..............................25
UPDATE T, UpDate path specification test utility............................10
UpDate installation procedure................................................5
UpDate module disk files, list of............................................4
UPDATE T, UpDate's PATHS.CNF editor..........................................7
UpDate, comparison with other backup utilities...............................2
UpDate, everyday operation of...............................................12
UpDate, general description..................................................2
UpDate, how it works.........................................................3
UpDate, quick operation checklist...........................................29
UpDate, repeating by backdating LASTDATE.CNF file...........................14
UpDate, run.................................................................12
UpDate, setting the date and time of last back-up procedure.................12
Virtual disk copying: procedure............................................20
Warning if wrong floppy diskette inserted in drive..........................18


(page 33)



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