Format/Copy/Verify Diskettes FAST!
TURBO COPY is Licensed by Sydex to PAS Software
PASS-AROUND Copyright (c) 1989 PAS Software
TURBO COPY Copyright (c) 1987, 1988, 1989 Sydex
All Rights Reserved
PAS Software Sydex
P.O. Box 3679 153 North Murphy Ave
Federal Way, WA 98063 Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Some of the terms used in this document are trademarks of the following
firms: International Business Machines, Sony, Microsoft, Lotus
Development Corp., Intel Corporation, MicroSolutions, Inc.
Pass-Around Distribution License
U.S. Copyright Law and international treaties prohibit duplication and
transfer of copies of the software without permission from PAS
Software. However, PAS grants to everyone permission to duplicate and
give away, sell, or otherwise distribute copies, provided no portion of
the software is omitted.
Registered users are paid quarterly, by the 20th of the following
month, less a 50 cent service fee. Payments under $5.50 will be held
until the amount due exceeds $5.50.
PAS Software does not claim that any money will result from
registration. There are no guarantees of any kind.
PAS Software reserves the right to refuse registration to anyone,
provided the registration fee is not accepted.
PAS Software reserves the right to stop paying commissions to any
registered user that violates any law or regulation or causes any
damages to PAS Software.
PAS Software makes NO WARRANTY of any kind, express or implied,
including without limitation, any warranties of merchantability and/or
fitness for a particular purpose. PAS Software shall not be liable for
any damages, whether direct, indirect, special or consequential arising
from a failure of this program to operate in the manner desired by the
user. IN NO EVENT WILL PAS SOFTWARE BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY LOST PROFITS, LOST SAVINGS OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF YOUR USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE
PROGRAM, OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY OTHER PARTY.
Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or
consequential damages. So the above limitation or exclusion may not
apply to you.
What Is TURBO COPY?
TURBO COPY is a utility written to fit a distinct need for multiple
copy production. Those with Formasters or other automatic duplication
equipment are lucky - the rest of us usually have to suffer with
FORMAT, DISKCOPY and DISKCOMP.
Well, no longer. We now have TURBO COPY. TURBO COPY:
* Reads all allocated tracks from a DOS diskette and saves the data in
* Formats a blank diskette "only" on the allocated (used) tracks,
copies the data from the original source, and verifies the copy.
* Optionally formats the rest of the blank diskette.
* "Records" and "Plays Back" diskette images from hard disk.
TURBO COPY reads all of the data from the master diskette and stores it
away. If you're copying a relatively full 720K, 1.2M or 1.44M
diskette, this means that you'll have to have some sort of additional
memory available, be it EMS (expanded memory), extended memory (on the
PC-AT) or hard disk storage. 360K diskettes on a 512K PC usually will
manage to fit all of the diskette data into available memory.
TURBO COPY uses a "Look Ma - no hands!" method where the PC keyboard is
never used during the copy process; diskette changes are simply
"sensed" by the program. A graphic display of what's going on makes
for quick and easy operation.
What Won't TURBO COPY Do?
TURBO COPY will not handle non-DOS diskettes or DOS diskettes with copy
protection. Nor will TURBO COPY handle master diskettes with errors,
or diskettes formatted in non-standard formats. Otherwise, TURBO COPY
will copy all standard IBM PC-DOS formats, provided that you have
enough memory of some kind available to hold the data contained on the
TURBO COPY requires a PC XT-, AT- or PS/2-compatible computer to run.
It will not work with the Tandy 2000, IBM PC Jr. or similar non-
Installing TURBO COPY
TURBO COPY will not run without first being installed.
Installation is easy. You'll need a PC XT, AT or PS/2-compatible
computer. Your video display may be monochrome, CGA, EGA or VGA, and
your diskette drives may be internal or external to your computer. If
you have more than one diskette adapter card, TURBO COPY will access
drives attached to the primary or secondary diskette adapters.
At the DOS command prompt, execute the installation program by typing
TCOPY and pressing the ENTER key.
You'll be guided through a series of displays which will install
TURBO COPY on the disk of your choice. If your system configuration
changes, you'll probably need to re-install TURBO COPY to reflect the
new configuration. TURBO COPY may be installed "in place"; that is,
the same file may be used as the installation source and destination.
During the installation process you will have an opportunity to specify
what type of diskette drives and controllers your computer supports. If
you have a single diskette adapter, all drives are connected to the
primary adapter. If you have an additional adapter, such as the SYSGEN
Omni-Bridge or MicroSolutions' CompatiCard, this is the secondary
adapter. In all cases, if your computer supports high-density diskette
formats, you must specify that it is an "AT" type of computer,
regardless of its actual model.
Starting TURBO COPY
TURBO COPY may be run with DOS command-line controls, or you may wish
to be prompted by TURBO COPY for execution parameters. Typing the
following at the DOS command prompt:
TCOPY HELP and pressing the ENTER key
will cause TURBO COPY to display a detailed list of command-line
controls and explanations.
TCOPY PROMPT and pressing the ENTER key
will cause TURBO COPY to prompt for some of the more common controls.
The simplest form of a TURBO COPY command is:
which will perform a series of copy operations using diskette drive A:
TCOPY A: B:
will cause both drives A: and B: to be used, "ping-ponging" between
them for alternate copies. For a description of TURBO COPY operation,
see the section entitled "Operating TURBO COPY".
TURBO COPY has many command options which can be used to modify its
operation. The general form of the TURBO COPY command is:
TCOPY drives options...
drives refers to a list of diskette drives to be used for copying. A
drive name consists of a drive letter followed by a colon. More than
one drive may be specified; TURBO COPY will use one drive, then the
next to perform the copy operation. The drives specified must be able
to support the diskette format that is being copied.
options refers to an optional list of terms which specify how the
operation of TURBO COPY is to be modified. An option may be specified
in full or in abbreviated form. In the following discussion, the
minimum abbreviation for an option is specified; anything from this
minimum to the full word can be used. Thus, VERIFY has as a minimum
abbreviation V; however VE, VER, or VERIF can all be used as well.
Specifying Faster Copying
If QUICK (minimum abbreviateion: Q) is specified, tracks not containing
data are not formatted. However, since there will be no format pattern
present on the resulting diskette,
a surface copy will fail if it is copied with DOS DISKCOPY. Similarly,
any attempt to add data to the copy will fail with a diskette write
error. However, a normal DOS file COPY will work just fine. "Quick"
mode can save a lot of time copying diskettes which contain relatively
little data, but does place some restrictions on the application of the
Verifying the Copy: None, Part or All
If VERIFY (minimum abbreviation: V) is specified, the area of the
diskette to be checked after copying can be modified. If VERIFY=NONE
(minimum abbreviation: V=N) is specified, no part of the diskette will
be verified. This is not recommended unless the accuracy of the copy
is of secondary importance to the speed of the copy. If VERIFY=DATA
(minimum abbreviation: V=D) is specified, only that part of the
diskette containing file data is copied. This is the default condition
when VERIFY has not been specified.If VERIFY=ALL (minimum abbreviation:
V=A) is specified, the entire diskette is verified after formatting and
Specifying Overflow Storage
When a diskette which contains a large amount of data is copied, it
may not be possible to hold the data entirely in main memory. OVERFLOW
(minimum abbreviation: O) specifies where the excess data is to be
kept. OVERFLOW=E specifies that Expanded memory should be used to hold
data that will not fit into the computer's main memory. Expanded
memory is also referred to as EMS, EEMS, or LIM (Lotus/Intel/Microsoft)
and should not be confused with the additional memory present on an
80286 (AT class) machine. It is helpful to remember that the "E" stands
OVERFLOW=X specifies that Extended memory should be used to hold data
that will not fit into main memory. Extended memory is that 384K out
of the 1 Megabyte space on a PC-AT
that can't be used as normal DOS program memory. Caution: As there is
no formal mechanism to manage this memory, note that if Extended memory
has already been allocated for use as a RAM Disk or has been used for
other purposes, TURBO COPY will overwrite whatever had been previously
OVERFLOW=Hd specifies that the hard disk should be used to hold data
that will not fit into main memory. The disk to be used is specified by
placing its drive letter immediately after the "H" in this term. For
example, HC specifies that data will be diverted to disk C: when memory
is filled. The file used to hold TURBO COPY's data is created in the
current directory and is deleted when TURBO COPY terminates execution.
It is possible to specify more than one type of "overflow" memory.
TURBO COPY makes use of any specified additional memory in the
1. Extended (X) Memory.
2. Expanded (E) Memory.
3. Hard disk (H) Storage.
Modifying the Screen Display
SILENT (minimum abbreviation: SI) omits the opening product "logon"
NORULER (minimum abbreviation: N) causes the "ruler" line indicating
copy progress displayed at the bottom of the copy status display to be
omitted. This option can be used where relatively slow display
hardware (such as CGA) is used to improve the speed of the copy
Keeping Hard Disk Masters
Sometimes it's desirable to maintain copies of diskette masters as hard
disk files. RECORD (minimum abbreviation: R) specifies that a master
diskette is to be read and its
contents placed in the disk file denoted by filename. After the file
has been written, TURBO COPY exits to DOS; no other copying is performed.
PLAYBACK (minimum abbreviation: P) specifies that the recorded master
file filename is to be copied to diskette. Instead of reading a master
diskette, TURBO COPY reads the indicated file; the copy operation then
proceeds as if a diskette master had just been read.
Specifying the Copy Count
When TURBO COPY is started from a batch file, it is occasionally
desirable to bypass its internal prompt for a copy count. When the
number of copies is specified by COUNT=number (minimum abbreviation:
C=number), the copy count prompt is bypassed; TURBO COPY will produce
exactly number copies and then exit to DOS. Number is a decimal value
in the range of 1-9,999.
Inserting Serial Numbers
TURBO COPY will insert a serial number into any sector already
containing data on a copy. The master diskette is not affected. The
serial numbering terms are specified as follows:
SNSECTOR=sector (minimum abbreviation: SNS) specifies the relative
sector on the diskette containing the serial number. This number can
range from 0 to the number of sectors on the diskette, minus 1. This
number is exactly the same as the relative sector specified in a DOS
DEBUG absolute sector read or write operation. Note that this number
SNOFFSET=offset (minimum abbreviation:SNO) specifies the offset within
the sector containing the serial number.This number ranges from 0 to
511 and is also decimal.
SNLENGTH=length (minimum abbreviation: SNL) specifies the length of the
serial number field. This is a decimal number and it, plus the offset,
may not exceed 512 (the length of a DOS sector).
S/N =string indicates the actual text of the serial number to be
inserted. If longer than the specified length, it is truncated on the
right. If shorter,it is padded with spaces on the right. String may
contain any printing characters; if necessary the entire term may be
enclosed in double quotation marks (").
If the serial number is specified as PROMPT, a prompt for a serial
number entry from the keyboard is issued by TURBO COPY.
In some production situations, it is desirable to keep a record of all
the serial numbers that have been issued. If S/N=FILE is specified,
TURBO COPY will look for a file named SERIAL.NOS in the current
(default) directory. If a file with is name is found, the last line in
the file is used as the beginning serial number less one for the
current session. At the conclusion of the TURBO COPY session, the file
will have the serial numbers of all copies produced appended to its
After each copy is made by TURBO COPY, the serial number is
incremented. Normally, this operation affects only the numeric
characters in the number, and proceeds from right to left. Consider
the following examples of incrementing:
"1234" becomes "1235"
"1239" becomes "1240"
"123ABC9" becomes "124ABC0"
"UGLY" remains "UGLY"
If BINARY (minimum abbreviation: B) is specified, the entire serial
number field is treated as a multi-byte binary number. Consider the
following examples of binary incrementing:
Hex 0000 becomes 0001
Hex FFFF becomes 0000
Hex 34FF becomes 3500
The sector containing the serial number must be one of those copied by
TURBO COPY. Unallocated sectors are not examined by TURBO COPY. The
serial number sector is not examined for valid data or position; the
serial number field is simply inserted where specified. During the
process of copying with serial numbers, TURBO COPY displays the serial
number of the current copy.
Examples of TURBO COPY Command Lines
Here are some examples of TURBO COPY control statements:
TCOPY A: B:
Format and copy using drives A: and B:; verify only the tracks
containing data. No overflow storage is used.
TCOPY A: V=A
TCOPY A: VERIFY=ALL
Format and copy using drive A:; verify all tracks of the copy. No
overflow storage is specified.
TCOPY A: B: H: QUICK S/N=12345 SNS=30 SNO=140 SNL=5
Format and copy using drives A:, B: and H:; do not format non-data
tracks, start with a serial number of "12345". Sector 30 contains the
serial number at an offset of 140 bytes from the start of the sector.
The serial number is 5 bytes long and will be incremented as an ASCII
TCOPY A: RECORD=C:MYFILE
TCOPY A: R=C:MYFILE
Make a hard disk file of ("record") the image of a master diskette in
drive A:. The name of the file is "C:MYFILE".
TCOPY A: PLAYBACK=C:MYFILE OVERFLOW=HC
TCOPY A: P=C:MYFILE O=HC
Copy using the master diskette image file ("playback") "C:MYFILE". Use
drive A: to make the copies, use drive C: to hold overflow information.
Display a summary of the TURBO COPY command syntax.
TURBO COPY prompts for parameters for a simple copy.
TCOPY B: COUNT=15
Make 15 copies using drive B:.
Operating TURBO COPY
TURBO COPY uses a "no keyboard" style of copying. That is, TURBO COPY
determines when a drive has had a diskette inserted or removed and
proceeds with the copy operation when a diskette change is detected.
The only time you need to touch the keyboard after you have entered the
TURBO COPY command is to terminate operation of TURBO COPY with the
TURBO COPY is sensitive to "changes" in diskette drive status. When
you start TURBO COPY, you will need to insert the master diskette in
the drive indicated by TURBO COPY, even though you may have already
placed the master in the correct drive before entering the TURBO COPY
command. Simply "popping" the diskette out and then in again will be
TURBO COPY must have a "perfect" master diskette. That is, the master
must contain no bad or unreadable sectors. Similarly, TURBO COPY
produces "perfect" copies; that is, the copy will contain no bad
sectors within the copied data. In the interest of speed, unused areas
of the diskette are "not" verified.
Operation of TURBO COPY is simple and can usually be managed by non-
TURBO COPY first prompts for the number of copies to be made. If the
ESCape key is pressed, TURBO COPY will exit to DOS. Otherwise the
number of copies to be made (from 1 to 9,999) is entered, followed by
the ENTER key, and the TURBO COPY status display appears.
In this display, TURBO COPY indicates graphically which drive is active
and the outcome of each copy operation. Error messages are displayed
in blinking text (bright red, if you have color) and a count is kept of
the number of successful copies made.
When either the requested number of copies has been made, or the ESCape
key is pressed, TURBO COPY exits to the display requesting the number
of copies to be made. Another number may be entered and another
diskette may be copied. This process repeats until the ESCape key is
depressed in answer to the copy quantity query.
Use of Pass-Around Distribution Method
PAS Software will apply for patents on the use of the Pass-Around
distribution method in software products as soon as practicable.
"Pass-Around" is a trademark of PAS Software. If you would like
permission to use the Pass-Around distribution method and trademark,
call (206) 838-3989.