Output of file : MANUAL contained in archive : PC-UTIL.ZIP
| The PC Magazine Utilities |
| Volume I |
| Copyright (C) 1986 Ziff-Davis Publishing Co. |
| Manual assembled and edited by Craig L. Stark |
ATTR (Attribute) Charles Petzold
Command No. 1
Purpose: ATTR.COM permits display and modification of
the archive, system, hidden, and read-only
ATTR [+A|-A] [+S|-S] [+H|-H] [+R|-R]
Remarks: Entering ATTR without any parameters, as in
the first format shown above, produces a help
display (essentially identical to the third
form above) that shows which file attributes
can be changed.
ATTR.COM permits the use of the global ? and
* characters (as in the second format above).
Entering ATTR filename displays a specific
file's attributes. For example,
returns the display
IBMBIO.COM Arc Sys Hid R-O
showing that the Archive, System, Hidden, and
Read-Only bits of the attribute byte are set
for this file.
When wildcards are used to list the
attributes of all the files in a directory,
subdirectory names are shown as Dir (between
the Arc and Sys in the example above).
Unlike the DOS DIR command, ATTR lists hidden
files, whether sought by specified filename
or through a *.* listing. However, ATTR does
not show Volume names or the dot and double-
dot entries in subdirectories.
The syntax for changing file attributes is
indicated in the third format above. After
typing ATTR (and a space) you simply precede
the file specification with a plus or minus
sign, followed by the letter A (Archive), S
(System), H (Hidden), or R (Read-Only). A
plus sign turns on the specified attribute; a
minus sign turns it off. More than one
attribute can be changed at once, and the
attribute-designating letters may be entered
in any order and in upper- or lowercase. No
space may be used between the plus or minus
and the letter that follows it, however.
Example: To convert the file 85TAX.WKS to hidden and
read-only, you would enter
ATTR +H +R 85TAX.WKS
Since DOS itself normally sets the Archive
would produce the display
85TAX.WKS Arc Hid R-O
Since the Hidden attribute has been set,
however, the DIR command will produce the
message, "File not found." And since the
Read-Only flag has also been set, a DEL
command will produce the message, "Access
1. Requires DOS 2.0 or later.
BAC (Backup Directory) John Dickinson
Command No. 2
Purpose: Backs up all (or selected) files in a
directory to hard or floppy disks, permitting
disk changes when target disks become full.
Format: BAC [d:][path]filename[.ext] [d:][path]
Remarks: Unlike the DOS COPY command, BAC.COM permits
you to change (formatted) target disks when
backing up files to disk. Furthermore, it
only backs up files whose date stamp is later
than those of identically named files on the
target disk. Unlike BACKUP, BAC does not
change the setting of the archive bit. Also,
files copied with BAC.COM are fully usable at
all times; they do not need first to go
through a RESTORE process.
BAC.COM supports the use of global (* and ?)
characters in filenames and extensions. It
does not, however, permit you to REName files
Example: You are working at a PC AT with a hard disk
drive (C:) on which you keep your copy of
BAC.COM, and you want to back up all the .DOC
files stored on a 1.2-Mb floppy disk (drive
A:) onto regular 360K disks (drive B:).
Since these .DOC files will require
approximately 600K, you must have two
formatted blank floppy disks ready to use in
drive B:. From the C> prompt you enter
BAC A: *.DOC B:
When the first target disk in drive B: is
full, you will be prompted to change disks.
1. BAC.COM compares the date stamps of
identically named files and will not
overwrite a newer version with an older
one. This may cause files to be skipped
if you omit to keep your date/time
2. Requires DOS 2.0 or later.
Browse Charles Petzold
Command No. 3
Purpose Permits scrolling forward and backward
throughout a file without use of a word
Format: BROWSE [d:][path]filename[.ext] [/W]
Remarks: The DOS TYPE command does not permit you to
scroll ahead or go back to previously
displayed material in a file. It also exits
at the first instance of Ctrl-Z (ASCII 26,
conventionally used as an End-of-File
marker), making it impossible to scan binary
(e.g. .COM) files for error messages,
copyright notices, and the like.
BROWSE.COM overcomes these shortcomings,
giving you the chance to go immediately to
the top or to the end of a file (the Home and
End keys, respectively), to the succeeding or
previous screen (PgUp and PgDn), or to move
up or down a line at a time (Up Arrow or Down
Arrow). To return to DOS, simply press the
Escape key or Ctrl-Break.
Wide displays, e.g. a spreadsheet file, are
not broken at 80 columns, as with TYPE.
BROWSE ignores carriage returns (ASCII 13),
breaking lines only on line feeds (ASCII 10).
The Right Arrow key scrolls the display to
the right in eight-character increments (see
Note 3 below) to view wide displays; the Left
Arrow key returns you immediately to column
BROWSE expands tab characters (ASCII 9) to
the next eight-character boundary, but does
no other character processing unless the /W
parameter is specified. Use of the /W option
permits using BROWSE with WordStar files.
1. BROWSE can run under TopView or Windows;
specify "writes directly to screen" in
the .PIF and use the default 52K memory
requirement. (The program actually
requires only approximately 33K to run.)
For the TopView PIF, specify that the
program intercepts Interrupt 23h.
2. BROWSE is compatible with the IBM
monochrome, CGA, and EGA displays, and
will even run in the EGA 43-line mode.
Files prepared with word-processors that
employ a one-line-per-paragraph format
(such as Microsoft Word and XyWrite) may
to require excessive right scrolling,
3. BROWSE.COM can be patched with DEBUG so
that its right-scroll jumps by more than
the default eight characters. The
address to patch is 10F in the .COM
file. After entering DEBUG BROWSE.COM
and the default value (08h) will appear.
Type the desired hexadecimal number (28
for a 40-column increment; 50 for an 80-
column increment) and press .
Then type W to write to the disk
and Q to quit DEBUG.
4. Requires DOS 2.0 or later.
COLORSET (Automatic Color Setter) Charlie Butrico
Command No. 4
Purpose: Memory-resident utility that sets the
foreground, background, and border colors on
color systems, and prevents attempts by
applications software to reset these colors
Format: [d:][path]COLORSET FG/BG BORD
Remarks: While dozens of small programs can set your
screen colors, many popular programs (such as
dBASE II) will reset them to a drab gray-on-
black. The first time you execute COLORSET,
it will set your colors, remain in memory,
look for such resetting instructions, and
will instead set the colors to the ones you
specified. Later executions of COLORSET will
update the attributes only.
FG/BG is the foreground and background color
(a decimal number from 0 to 255). To
calculate FG/BG, multiply the number of the
background color by 16 and add the number of
the foreground color to it.
Example: The FG/BG number for blue text on a white
background is 113, i.e., ( (7*16) + 1 ).
The number for red text on a cyan background
is 52, i.e., ( (3*16) + 4 ).
BORD is the border number (a decimal number
from 0 to 15).
Keying just one number or using COLORSET on
an EGA will change only the foreground and
After running COLORSET, the DOS CLS command
will clear the screen to the colors you chose
rather than to the default DOS gray-on-black.
1. DOS does not permit you to use bright
background colors; trying a FG/BG number
higher than 127 will produce text that
2. ======== COLOR CHART =========
1-Blue 9-Bright Blue
2-Green 10-Bright Green
3-Cyan 11-Bright Cyan
4-Red 12-Bright Red
5-Magenta 13-Bright Magenta
7-White 15-Bright White
DDIR (Double Directory) Charles Petzold
Command No. 5
Purpose: Displays all (or selected) directory entries
in double columns, sorted in alphabetical
Format: DDIR [d:][path][filename[.ext]]
Remarks: If no parameters are specified, DDIR will
list all files in the current directory. Use
of the global characters ? and * in the
filename and extension parameters is
If more than one screenful (50 entries) is
required, the display pauses at the bottom,
showing the message, "Press any key to
1. Because DDIR.COM loads a secondary
command processor, it will not operate
under the Run option of WordStar and
possibly with some other programs that
normally allow calling up external
programs. For the same reason, it
cannot be automatically reinvoked using
the F3 key when at the DOS command
2. Requires DOS 2.0 or later.
DELZ (Delete file entirely) Steven Holzner
Command No. 6
Purpose: Allows you to delete a file absolutely by
writing over the sector(s) it occupies.
Remarks: DOS does not delete files by overwriting
them. Rather, the sectors used by the
"erased" file are simply made available for
use by subsequently written files. Until
they are so used, however, the original file
can be recovered with UNDEL.COM (included in
these utilities) or by using a comparable
Because it overwrites the sectors used by a
file, DELZ provides complete deletion. A
memory-resident utility, it attaches itself
to DOS when loaded, normally as a command
entered through your AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
Thereafter, until you reboot, it provides a
/Z (for "zero out") option for the DEL
Example: The disk from which you boot up your PC on
drive A: has a copy of DELZ.COM on it, and
the disk in drive B: has a file called
TAXCHEAT.85 that you wish to ensure is
completely obliterated. From the A> prompt
you enter DELZ to load the command into
memory. Then you enter
Even if the TAXCHEAT.85 file is unerased, its
original contents will now be unrecoverable.
(The contents of that file will, in fact, be
the machine language code of DELZ.COM
1. The Z in DEL/Z must be typed uppercase.
The use of the global characters ? and *
2. Because of possible conflicts with other
memory-resident programs and utilities,
you must check whether DELZ can be
installed on your own system. While
SideKick has caused no reported
difficulties, running XyWrite II or III,
with or without its XYKBD.COM file, is
impossible after DELZ is made resident.
3. The use of DELZ.COM is likely to be
reasonably infrequent, but sometimes it
will be absolutely necessary. If you
find at those times that co-residency
conflicts prevent putting it in your
AUTOEXEC.BAT file, you may wish to keep
a bootable disk (formatted with the /S
option) with a copy of DELZ.COM and an
AUTOEXEC.BAT file that loads the
program. If you then boot up from this
disk you can destroy any file(s) you
wish, remove the DELZ disk, and reboot
your computer normally.
4. Requires DOS 2.0 or higher.
DISKSCAN Charles Petzold
Command No. 7
Purpose: Locates and identifies disk errors on hard
and floppy disks, Bernoulli Boxes or other
similar storage devices.
Format: DISKSCAN [d:]
Remarks: The DOS "Abort, Retry, Ignore?" and the
CHKDSK "x lost clusters found" messages tend
to appear after it is too late to save
possibly valuable data. Regular use of
DISKSCAN will show when a hard disk is
beginning to go bad--for example, when a
specific sector or two in an as-yet
unallocated cluster has become unusable since
the disk was formatted. (DOS marks and does
not use bad clusters it finds while
formatting. DISKSCAN reports these "Flagged
DISKSCAN error messages include:
CRC Error: Data checksum as recalculated
during read does not agree with checksum
stored on disk when written.
Sector Not Found: Sector boundary created
during formatting is no longer readable.
File Alloc. Table and Can't Read FAT: Very
serious error: Back up what you can
with COPY and reformat disk before
trying to put files back on it.
Boot Sector: If this sector of a hard disk
goes bad, put a DOS disk in drive A: and
issue SYS C: command. Then COPY
COMMAND.COM C:. This will put a fresh
copy of the system files on drive C:.
If this does not work, boot up again
from the external DOS floppy disk, back
up all hard disk files, and reformat the
Root Directory: Errors here could keep you
from later being able to load a file or
save updates to it. CHKDSK will
probably indicate unallocated cluster
chains or cross-linked files, and you
may have to use CHKDSK/F to save what
Unallocated: As yet, not serious, as the bad
sector is not being used. When it is,
though, and you try to save a file with
this sector, you'll get an "Abort,
Retry, Ignore" message. Select "Ignore"
to save what you can, then REName the
file and save again under the new name.
Use RECOVER filename with the original
file; this will cause DOS to flag its
cluster(s) as bad. (DISKSCAN does not
enter the bad cluster numbers in the
File Allocation Table; FORMAT and
RECOVER do.) Then delete the original
(RECOVERed) filename and check the
second version you saved (under the new
name) to see how much (if any) of it is
Used by file: While DISKSCAN reports the bad
sector number, it does not do a cross-
check to see which of your files is
using that sector. You may be able to
identify this by issuing the command
SWEEP COPY *.* NUL
When COPY encounters the file with the
bad sector it will report "Abort, Retry,
Ignore." Note the bad file and press
"I" to continue.
Read Fault and General Failure: The sectors
so designated are bad, but the errors
reported don't fall into any of the
1. Requires DOS 2.0 or higher.
DOORS John Dickinson
Command No. 8
Purpose: Permits switching between two simultaneously
connected displays without leaving an
application program and thereby losing the
contents of the alternate screen.
Format: DOORS (loads memory-resident program)
(toggles between screens)
Remarks: When the second screen display is invoked by
pressing Alt-Right Shift, DOORS begins by
copying the first screen to the second. The
first screen display remains resident on that
monitor, for reference, but the focus of your
work shifts to the second screen, on which
you may continue working. If you then
subsequently switch back to the first monitor
(by pressing Alt-Right Shift again), the
second monitor's current contents will remain
on its display but will initially be copied
to the first monitor.
Since the monochrome display cannot support
40-column text or color graphics modes, DOORS
can only be used with your color monitor set
for 80-column text mode. In addition to
switching between monochrome and color text
modes, however, DOORS permits you to store
a screen from either a monochrome or a high-
resolution EGA text display to the other
monitor, though you must toggle back to re-
sume your work on the display from which
1. DOORS.COM may not work with
"compatibles" that do not use the same
keyboard interrupt structure as the PC.
Further, as with all memory-resident
software, it may not be compatible with
2. Requires DOS 2.0 or later.
DOS-EDIT Charles Petzold
Command No. 9
Purpose: Permits moving to, editing, and reentering
on-screen DOS commands without retyping.
Format: DOS-EDIT (loads memory-resident program)
(enables DOS-Edit keys)