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Quick Multiple Format/Copy/Verify for Diskettes

Sydex, Inc.
P.O. Box 5700
Eugene, OR 97405
Voice: (503) 683-6033
FAX: (503) 683-1622
Data: (503) 683-1385

Table of Contents

What is CopyQM?..............................................1


Getting Started..............................................5

Differences with Earlier Versions............................6

Memory Usage.................................................7

Diskette Image Files.........................................8

Copying Modes................................................9

Format Conversion............................................9

Inserting Serial Numbers....................................10

Copy Verification...........................................12

Audible Signals.............................................13

"Smart" Formatting..........................................13

Quick Mode Copying..........................................14

Display Color Set...........................................14

CopyQM Operation............................................15

Command Line Syntax.........................................18

Changing Operating Defaults.................................25

Status Messages.............................................26

Specifying a Diskette Configuration.........................31

A Quick Diskette Duplicator for Multiple Drives

Copyright 1992
Sydex, Incorporated
P.O. Box 5700
Eugene, OR 97405
(503) 683-6033

What is CopyQM?

CopyQM is a standalone utility to copy diskettes. It is designed
with the object of copying medium-to-large quantities of dis-
kettes, rather than making single copies. CopyQM supports copy-
ing to more than one disk drive at a session and possesses a cor-
nucopia of options and features.

CopyQM will:

* Read a master diskette, and make multiple copies of it.
Formatting, writing and verifying of copied diskettes
is performed in a single pass.

* Convert between diskette formats. That is, a 360K
5.25" diskette can be converted to a 1.2M 5.25", or a
720K, 1.44M or 2.88M 3.5" diskette.

* Store information that does not fit into conventional
memory in extended or expanded memory or on hard disk.

* Operate on more than one diskette drive at a time.
Only one copy is written at a time, however. Drives
are serviced in consecutive "round robin" fashion.

* Maintain images of diskettes as DOS hard disk files.
That is, a "recording" can be made of a diskette for
subsequent "playback" to copies.


Introduction 1

* Insert either ASCII or binary serial numbers into dis-
kette data. An audit trail of serial numbers that have
been written is maintained. Up to 150 instances of a
serial number on a single diskette can be processed by

* Copy non-DOS diskette formats, including Xenixtm and

* Execute under DOS, Windowstm or the OS/2tm DOS environ-

* Compare a number of copies against a master diskette or

CopyQM will not:

* Write copies on more than one drive simultaneously.
Hardware restrictions prevent CopyQM from doing this.

* Copy proprietary (e.g., Amiga, Apple ][, Atari 820) or
copy-protected formats.

* Copy individual files. The smallest unit of informa-
tion that CopyQM can deal with is an entire diskette.

* Copy one hard disk to another. CopyQM is a diskette-
copying utility.

* Copy files from a hard disk to a diskette.

CopyQM is fast--in most cases it will copy at the best-case
theoretical speed. The primary limitation in any diskette opera-
tion is the time that it takes the diskette to complete one
revolution. Our timings indicate that CopyQM can format, copy
and verify a full 360K diskette in about 50 seconds. Larger
capacity diskettes will, of course, require more time.


2 Introduction


At a minimum, the following three files are necessary for opera-
tion of CopyQM:

COPYQM.COM implements the primary functions needed for dis-
kette copying.

CQMENU.COM contains a menu interface and all on-line help.

VIEWCONF.COM is a utility to display the diskette configura-
tion information being used by CopyQM.

Other text files may be present which describe the operation of
CopyQM, but the three files mentioned above must be present for
successful operation.

In almost all cases, CopyQM will be able to determine the con-
figuration of a system without any sort of intervention. Unusual
or special disk drive configurations, however, may require that
the configuration be explicitly specified. For more information
on how to construct a configuration file for all Sydex utilities,
consult the section titled Specifying a Diskette Configuration
near the end of this document.

CopyQM requires the following operating environment for execu-

1. An IBM PC-compatible with an 8088, 80286, 80386 or
80486 processor. Other system operating environments,
such as PC emulation on non-PC systems (e.g., Commodore
Amiga or Apple Macintosh) may work, but operation under
them is not supported by Sydex.

2. PC-DOS or MS-DOS Version 3.2 or later. CopyQM has been
tested using a DOS session under IBM OS/2 Versions 1.3
and 2.0, but support of OS/2 operation is not supported
by Sydex. Other DOS-compatible systems such as
Novell's DR-DOS or The Software Link's PC-MOS may af-
ford successful operation, but have not been fully
tested by Sydex.


Requirements 3

3. At least 256K of available base memory, sometimes
referred to as "RAM".

4. A hard disk with at least 2MB of free space for tem-
porary files created by CopyQM.

5. At least one diskette drive local to the system running
CopyQM. Network diskette drives are not supported.

CopyQM does not require, but can make use of the following:

1. Extended memory that is managed by an XMS-compatible
memory manager such as Microsoft's HIMEM.SYS or
Quarterdeck's QEMM.

2. Expanded memory, or LIM (Lotus-Intel-Microsoft), that
is managed by a a driver that is compliant with EMS 4.0
or later.

3. Additional diskette adapters, provided that BIOS-level
support is furnished for them. Sydex has tested the
Micro Solutions Compaticard I, II and IV adapters.

CopyQM will operate under Microsoft's Windowstm or Quarterdeck's
Desqviewtm. However, because diskette copying is a time-critical
application, performance under any multi-tasking environment will
be degraded somewhat. The actual amount of the degradation
depends on several factors, including the scheduling algorithms
used by the multitasking software.

Executing more than one copy of CopyQM under control of a multi-
tasking executive, such as Windows is not recommended. Severe
performance degradation will result. If two sets of diskette
copies are required, running two CopyQM sessions consecutively
will result in significantly better performance than attempting
to execute the sessions concurrently.

CopyQM will support a total configuration of up to eight diskette
drives. A CopyQM session can make use of up to seven diskette
drives--one for reading and six for writing.


4 Requirements

Getting Started

To install CopyQM from a diskette to a hard disk, copy all ex-
ecutable .COM files to your selected hard disk directory. As an
example, suppose that the CopyQM distribution diskette is in-
serted in diskette drive A: and it is to be installed on hard
drive D: in the subdirectory MYCOPY. The following DOS command
can be used:


If CopyQM is to be used when logged in at any directory, the
directory and drive used for CopyQM's files must be included in
the DOS PATH environment variable. For details on specifying a
command PATH, consult the DOS reference manual.

In most cases, this is all that will be required to get CopyQM up
and running.

First-time users should execute CopyQM through the menu interface
furnished by CQMENU. Entering the following command at a DOS com-
mand prompt will initiate execution of CQMENU:


CQMENU takes the menu selections made and translates them into a
command line for CopyQM. After all selections have been made,
COPYQM.COM is located and read into memory overlaying CQMENU.

CQMENU also contains a full on-line help facility for CopyQM.
Help related to the current selected menu item can be obtained by
pressing F1. In addition, a general help facility which
describes command-line syntax and configuration file setup can be
displayed by pressing F1 a second time.

All of the features of CopyQM are not available through CQMENU's
interface. Some of the more obscure facilities, such as serial-
number insertion, are accessible only through the DOS command
line interface to CopyQM.


Getting Started 5

Differences with Earlier Versions

Users of versions 1.x and 2.x of CopyQM will notice many dif-
ferences in Version 3. A few of the more significant ones are as

1. Separate Source for Reading. CopyQM divides copying
activity up into two operations; reading the master dis-
kette and writing the copies. If a source drive is not
explicitly specified, the first drive in the list of
diskette drives will be used as the source drive. Writ-
ing, however, will commence with the first drive and
not with the second drive as was the case in previous

2. Sequence of Operations. The copy count is prompted for
after the master diskette has been read, not before.

3. Double-density 80 track 5.25" Format Not Supported.
Because version 3 of CopyQM uses BIOS-level interface
routines, the 80-track (720K) 5.25" double-density for-
mat is no longer supported on a 1.2M drive.

4. Overflow Specification. Version 3 automatically deter-
mines the availability of extended and expanded memory
or hard disk for overflow. Use of a specific type of
memory can be disabled by using the NOEMS or NOXMS
command-line options. Hard disk overflow file place-
ment can be specified by means of the CQTEMP environ-
ment variable.

5. Serial Number Support. Version 3's support of serial
numbering is more flexible than pervious versions.
However, the command syntax and operation is substan-
tially different.

6. Status Updating. Version 3 updates drive status after
every diskette; previous versions updated drive status
after every track. Under Version 3, a drive will main-
tain the same status until a disk has been processed.
This can be changed with the STATUS command-line op-
tion, however.


6 Differences

7. Configuration Specification. Version 3 maintains all
configuration information in an ASCII file called
DISKETTE.CFG. Previous versions maintained configura-
tion data by having it "patched" into the executable
files by a configuration program.

This represents only a partial list; there are many other
changes, refinements and additions to CopyQM.

Memory Usage

CopyQM reads a master diskette or image file in one uninterrupted
pass. Because most diskette formats can hold more data than can
be contained in conventional memory on a system, CopyQM uses a
variety of methods to store the "overflow" data:

1. As much data as can be contained in conventional memory
is first read. Sufficient memory must be available for
CopyQM execution; this can be as little as 256K.

2. A test for extended memory is then performed. Extended
memory, if it is to be used by CopyQM, must be managed
by a high memory manager, such as Microsoft's
HIMEM.SYS. Unmanaged high memory will not be used by
CopyQM. If the NOXMS command line option has been
specified, no check is made for extended memory.

3. After extended memory has been filled, or if extended
memory could not be located, a test for expanded memory
is performed. Expanded memory, or EMS, must conform to
the Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification
level 4.0 or later. If the NOEMS option has been
specified on the command line, no check is made for ex-
panded memory.

4. Finally, after expanded and extended memory have been
used, a search for an environment variable named
CQTEMP is performed. If found, it is taken to specify
a drive and directory on which a temporary file can be
created. If the CQTEMP variable cannot be located, a
search for an environment variable named TEMP is per-
formed and the drive and path specified by it is used.


Differences 7

If neither environment variable is found, the first
hard disk partition is used that has enough free space
available for the temporary file.

5. If sufficient memory or disk space cannot be located,
the master diskette or image file is rejected by CopyQM
and a NOT ENOUGH MEMORY error message is displayed.

When converting between formats, CopyQM writes a temporary image
file and then reads it back into memory. A sufficient amount of
hard disk space must be available for the temporary image file
and any overflow storage required for the master diskette image.

Diskette Image Files

CopyQM has the ability to save the information contained on a dis-
kette in the form of a hard disk file called a diskette image
file. Diskette image files contain all of the data that would be
processed in the course of a diskette copy, along with other in-
formation necessary to construct a copy. After an image file has
been created, it can be read later by CopyQM to produce copies of
the original master diskette.

Diskette image files are unlike "archive" files in that in-
dividual diskette files cannot be manipulated. However, image
files of non-DOS diskettes can be created.

When CopyQM options are called out using the DOS command line in-
terface, the RECORD and PLAYBACK options respectively are used to
specify creation and reading of diskette image files.

Although a limited amount of data compression is performed within
a diskette image file, it is recommended that sufficient hard
disk space be reserved equal to the capacity of the master dis-
kette when diskette image files are created.


8 Memory Usage

Copying Modes

CopyQM contains logic to optimize copying of DOS diskettes. When
a DOS diskette is processed by CopyQM the master diskette is read
only as far as the highest cylinder containing active data.
While this mode ensures all active data is copied, areas of a dis-
kette which contain erased data may not be copied. Normally,
this presents no problem and the result is a fully functional dis-
kette. However, some copy-protected DOS products may record
their protection information as erased data.

When the DOS utility DISKCOMP is used to compare a master dis-
kette with a copy, it may report mismatches when erased data from
the master diskette is compared with the corresponding areas on
the copy.

If all areas of a diskette are to be copied, "blind" mode copying
may be specified. In this mode of operation, CopyQM does not at-
tempt to interpret the data being copied and no "shortcuts" are
taken. Usually, "blind" mode is specified when a diskette was
not created by a DOS system. However, "blind" mode may also be
used to DOS diskettes when it is desired that all data contained
on a master diskette be transferred to the copies. However, note
that format conversion, described below, operates differently in
"blind" mode.

The DOS command line option for CopyQM is BLIND.

Format Conversion

CopyQM can be used to translate one diskette format to another.
For example, a 360K 5.25" diskette can be converted to a 3.5"
1.44M diskette. This conversion can be specified by a CQMENU
menu choice or by the CopyQM CONVERT command-line option.

When DOS diskettes are being copied, CopyQM adjusts track sizes
and File Allocation Table (FAT) lengths and updates the informa-
tion contained in the boot sector. The resulting combination of
active data and new system tables must fit on the new format
specified. Thus, a 1.44M diskette containing less than 360K of
data can be copied to a 360K diskette.


Copying Modes 9

When non-DOS diskettes are being copied in "blind" mode, conver-
sion is performed differently. Data from the master diskette is
"re-packed" to fit the new track size; no other adjustments are

A special case occurs when conversion of a DOS 1.2M or 1.44M
master to a 2.88M format is specified. Because of limitations in
the conversion process, the result will exhibit only 2.04M of
available data space, rather than the entire 2.88M.

CopyQM Version 3 also supports non-conversion copies between some
formats. This undocumented capability in previous versions al-
lows copying of some smaller formats to larger ones without any
processing of the data. For example, a 1.2M 5.25" diskette can
be copied to a 1.44M 3.5" diskette. The result is a 3.5" 1.2M

Inserting Serial Numbers

Serial numbering of copies is a capability available only from
DOS command line operation of CopyQM. The operation of CopyQM
Version 3's serial numbering differs substantially from earlier
versions in specification and capabilities.

A serial number is a group of characters present on a master dis-
kette which is altered each time a copy is produced. Two types
of serial numbers are available, ASCII and binary. The two types
differ primarily in the manner in which they are incremented.

An ASCII serial number is a group of printable or displayable
characters containing at least one digit between 0 and 9. Before
CopyQM produces a copy, all digits contained in the serial number
are taken as a simple decimal number. Any intervening non-digit
characters are ignored. Each time a copy is written, the decimal
number formed by these digits is incremented by one. For ex-
ample, the serial number "AB1C2D3" would be incremented on succes-
sive copies as:


10 Format Conversion


Note that non-digits are not affected. After the highest number
that can be represented by the digits in the serial number has
been reached, the process starts over with the number zero.

A binary serial number is treated as a group of bytes, in Intel
"little-endian" representation. That is, the least significant
bytes appear to the left of, or before, more significant bytes.
Binary serial numbers can be of any length up to 127 bytes. Bi-
nary numbers are represented by hexadecimal numbers (digits 0-9
and letter A-F). However, binary serial numbers are specified in
their normal "big-endian" mode. That is, more significant bytes
appear to the left of less significant bytes. Thus, the number
specified by 00 00 20 would be stored in successive copies as:

21 00 00
22 00 00
00 01 00

Serial numbers are recorded in a user-specified ASCII file, one
serial number per line. CopyQM updates this file at the end of a
session to by appending the serial numbers written during the ses-
sion. The starting serial number for a CopyQM session is always
one greater than the last serial number in the file. For ex-
ample, to start serial numbering with A0001, a serial number of
A0000 must be the last number in the serial number file.

Placement of serial numbers is done by specifying an ASCII search
string on the CopyQM command line. Each time this string is
detected in data read from the master diskette, it is replaced by
a serial number unique to the copy being made. Up to 150 occur-
rences of a serial number on a single diskette can be processed
by CopyQM. A serial number can cross sector boundaries, but may
not straddle a track boundary.


Serial Numbering 11

The length of a serial number is determined by the length of the
search string, not by the length of the serial number represented
in the serial number file.

When a set of diskettes are being copied, that is, when the
REPEAT option has been specified, the same serial numbers will be
inserted into each set of diskettes. That is, the serial number-
ing process will be restarted when the master for each group of
copies is read.

For information on command line parameters for serial numbering,
refer to the section on CopyQM command line syntax.

Copy Verification

Several methods of checking the accuracy of data are offered by
CopyQM. CQMENU offers a menu selection for each verification

By default, CopyQM checks the part of a diskette known to contain
active data for readability by reading the copy diskette and dis-
carding the data. The part of the copy not containing active
data is not read. This corresponds to the VERIFY=DATA command
line option.

An entire diskette can be checked for readability by specifying
the VERIFY=ALL option on CopyQM's command line. Note that the
accuracy of the copied data is not checked, but only the
readability of the data.

Read-back checks can be completely disabled by specifying
VERIFY=NONE. This option is usually selected when the speed of
the copy operation is more important than the accuracy of the

A byte-by-byte compare can also be specified by use of the COM-
PARE command-line option. Comparison is performed only on the
part of the diskette containing active data. Inactive areas can
be checked for readability only.


12 Serial Numbering

An option not covered by a CQMENU selection alters the basic
operation of CopyQM. If the CHECK option is specified on the
CopyQM command line, copies are not formatted or written. In-
stead each copy is compared with the data from the master dis-
kette. This option is useful when the validity of a number of
copies needs to be checked against a master standard copy.

Audible Signals

CopyQM provides several audible "cues" during its operation:

1. A high-pitched "warble" that indicates that an opera-
tion has been successfully completed. This tone is
sounded after a master diskette has been read, after
after each copy has been written, and after keyboard
entries have been selected.

2. A low-pitched "beep" that signals an error condition.
This tone is sounded after unsuccessful disk read or
write operations, and when an erroneous keyboard entry
is made.

3. A medium-pitched "warble" that signals a need for atten-
tion. This tone can be selected as an option and is
sounded after intervals of 20 seconds of inactivity.
The command line option for this tone is NAG.

All audible signaling may be disabled by CQMENU menu selection or
by the SILENT command line option.

"Smart" Formatting

By default, CopyQM formats all copies before writing data.
However, it is possible to direct CopyQM to check for pre-
formatted media before writing. This option is available by a
CQMENU menu choice, or by the SMART command line option.


Verification 13

"Smart" mode attempts to write data without first formatting a
copy. If writing and verification succeed, the inactive area on
the copy is skipped. However, if an error is detected while writ-
ing active data, all remaining tracks on the diskette are for-
matted before being written.

"Smart" mode can result in substantial time savings over normal
format-then-write operation.

Quick Mode Copying

When copies of partially full DOS diskettes are made, a con-
siderable increase in copying speed can be obtained by specifying
the QUICK command-line option. When this option is selected,
only the part of the master diskette that contains active data is
copied or formatted.

However, when using unformatted blank diskettes, it is important
to realize that tracks at the end of each diskette will not be
formatted. This may make it impossible for users of the copies
to successfully write to the copies or duplicate them using the

This option is not available from CQMENU.

Display Color Set

In some instances, it may be desirable for CopyQM to show all dis-
plays with a black-and-white (monochrome) color palette. This
may be specified by means of the MONO command line option. This
option is not available from CQMENU.

A monochrome color set is particularly useful when portable sys-
tems with liquid crystal displays (LCD) are used. Many of these
systems support color as shades of gray, rather than actual
colors. A monochrome color set will be found to be more readable
in this case.


14 "Smart" Formatting

CopyQM Operation

Once menu selections have been made from CQMENU or the command
line for CopyQM has been entered, CopyQM begins execution. Opera-
tion of CopyQM is divided into two phases, reading the master dis-
kette or image file, and writing the copies or diskette image

Because CopyQM continuously accesses diskette drives to obtain
their operating status, diskette changes are permitted when drive
access indicators are illuminated. In addition, since CopyQM is
sensitive to drive changes, it may be necessary to remove a dis-
kette and then re-insert it into the same drive to indicate to
CopyQM that a change has occurred.


CopyQM Version 3.00 (Jul 00 1992)
Copyright 1992 by Sydex
Press ESCape to quit

| ===A:=== | READING

Sector size: 512
Sectors/track: 9
Sides: 2
Density: Low
Data cylinders: 54
Volume label: ** NONE **


Figure 1: Reading display


CopyQM Operation 15

When CopyQM reads a master diskette, a display similar to that
shown in Figure 1 appears. Note that an icon representing the
drive currently being accessed is shown along with the status of
the current operation appearing to the right of it. If the ES-
Cape key is pressed before CopyQM is able to read the master dis-
kette, execution terminates and CopyQM exits to DOS.

A summary of information relating to the diskette is also shown.
Sector size indicates the size in bytes of each sector.
Sectors/track specifies the number of sectors that occur on each
track. Sides reports either 1 for single-sided formats, or 2 for
double-sided. Density can show values of low for double-density
(360K and 720K), high for high density (1.2M and 1.44M), or ex-
tended for 2.88M media. Data cylinders indicates the number of
cylinders containing active data.

Volume label shows the DOS volume label name or ** NONE ** if no
volume label can be found. The bar graph at the bottom of the
display shows the proportion of the total diskette space that has
been processed.

A similar display is shown when a diskette image file is

If creation of a diskette image file has been requested, the file
is written after the diskette has been completed. If the conver-
sion option has been specified, a temporary diskette image file
will be written and the requested conversion will be performed
while the image file is read back into memory.

If copying to diskettes has been requested, the following prompt
will appear in the lower part of the display:

How many copies? (Hit ESCape to exit) -

Between 1 and 9,999 copies may be requested; after the desired
number is entered, the Enter key is pressed. If the ESCape key
is pressed instead, no diskettes will be written and a new master
diskette will be requested. If an invalid number or digit is en-
tered, an error tone is sounded and the number is not accepted.


16 CopyQM Operation

After the master diskette or image file has been read and
processed, CopyQM begins the writing phase. A display similar to
that shown in Figure 2 appears.

Up to six drives can be shown on the writing status display.
Note that only those drives which support the diskette format cur-
rently being copied are shown. For example, if a high-density
5.25" (1.2M) master diskette were being copied, only drives
capable of high-density support would be displayed.

CopyQM Version 3.00 (Jul 00 1992)
Copyright 1992 by Sydex
Press ESCape to quit

0 of 999 Copies Done Volume Label: ** NONE **

|o===A:=== | WRITING




Figure 2: A Sample Writing Display


CopyQM Operation 17

When more than one drive is being used, it is important to ob-
serve that drive status messages are updated between diskettes,
not during the copying of diskettes. Thus, the status displayed
for non-active drives will not be updated until the diskette cur-
rently being written has been completed.

For example, the message INSERT BLANK DISKETTE will persist on
drives not currently being accessed after blank diskettes have
been inserted until the current diskette being written has been
completed. CopyQM can be set to status all drives at intervals
of a few cylinders by means of the STATUS command line option,
but performance will be somewhat degraded.

The bar graph displayed at the bottom of the screen tracks the
progress of the copy operation. A solid, red bar indicates that
active data is being transferred; a hatched, green bar indicates
that an inactive area is being formatted.

When all requested copies have been completed, the following mes-
sage appears:

All copies done. Press any key to continue...

If the ESCape key is pressed before all copies have been written,
the following message appears:

ESCape hit. Press any key to continue...

In either case, CopyQM requests the next master diskette after a
key has been pressed.

Command Line Syntax

Not all CopyQM options are available via the CQMENU menu inter-
face. Several options can be selected only by means of a command
line invocation of CopyQM.

The general syntax of the CopyQM command line is:



18 CopyQM Operation

specifies the diskette drives used to write copies
of the master diskette. A drive is specified by a drive letter
followed by a colon. At least one drive must be specified if
diskette copies are to be made. A write drive need not be
specified if a diskette image file is to be generated. If more
than one drive is specified, the first copy is written in the
first drive named, the second in the second drive and so on.

If no drive is explicitly named as a source drive (see the
SOURCE option, below), diskettes are read in the first destina-
tion drive named.

refers to a list of special terms. A term may consist
of a single word or it may require a value, denoted by following
the word with an equal sign (=). No spaces are allowed between
the word, the equal sign, and the assigned value. In cases
where a value can contain spaces or other special characters, it
may be enclosed in double quotation marks (").

In most cases, the keyword in a term can be abbreviated. In the
following discussion of options, the minimum number of letters
that can be used to denote a word are given after the word.

CopyQM recognizes the following options:

BLIND (BL) specifies that CopyQM may not assume that the
master diskette is a DOS diskette. No interpretation
of the diskette's data is attempted; the diskette is
copied in its entirety. Note that the CONVERT options
functions differently when BLIND is specified.

CHECK (CH) specifies that no writing of diskettes is to take
place; rather, diskettes are to be compared against the
master. Essentially, formatting and writing are dis-
abled, while COMPARE-type verification is enabled.

COMPARE (COM) specifies that verification is to be performed
by comparing the copied data with data read from the
master diskette. Normally, verification checks for
readability of data, not for accuracy.


Command Line Syntax 19

CONVERT (CON) requires one of the following values: 360K,
720K, 1.2M, 1.44M or 2.88M. It specifies that the
source data is to be converted to the specified format
before writing. When DOS diskettes are being copied,
the boot sector and File Allocation Tables are altered
to conform to the new format. When BLIND mode copying
is performed, source tracks are simply "re-packed" to
the indicated format and no table modification is per-
formed. Thus, CON=360K specifies that data is to be
converted to a nine-sector 360K format.

COUNT (COU) requires a numeric value and specifies the num-
ber of copies to be made of a single master. This term
is useful when the number of copies prompt is not
desired. COUNT=3 specifies that three copies of the
master are to be produced.

LOGO specifies that the Sydex name and product logo displays
are to be shown on startup. This option has meaning
only on registered CopyQM versions; evaluation copies
always display the Sydex and CopyQM logos.

MONO (MO) specifies that a white-on-black color scheme
should be used in all displays. Normally a monochrome
display adapter is automatically detected, but there
may be instances where a monochrome color set is

NAG specifies that a distinctive tone is sounded after 20
seconds of inactivity. This option is ignored if
SILENT is also specified.

NOCOMPRESS (NOC) specifies that data compression is not to
be performed on image files. This option can make writ-
ing of image files faster at the expense of file size
on very slow machines; little time is saved when read-
ing a non-compressed file.

NOEMS (NOE) specifies that expanded memory (LIM or EMM)
should not automatically be used for overflow data
storage. When NOEMS is specified, expanded memory is
assumed not to exist.


20 Command Line Syntax

NOPAUSE (NOP) specifies that CopyQM should not pause for a
keystroke after the last copy of a set is written. Nor-
mally CopyQM pauses to allow the status of the last
copy to be evaluated.

NOXMS (NOX) specifies that extended memory (as managed by
HIMEM.SYS) should not be used for overflow data
storage. If NOXMS is specified, extended memory is as-
sumed not to be present.

PLAYBACK (PL) requires a file name as a value and indicates
that the master data is to be read from an image file,
rather than from a diskette. The image file must previ-
ously have been created by CopyQM using the RECORD op-
tion. "Wildcard" characters of "*" and "?" may be used
to specify more than one image file; each image file is
read in succession and the data used to create a set of
diskette copies. For example,


indicates that image data is to be taken from the file

PROTECT (PR) specifies that the master diskette must be
write protected before it will be read. This option
ensures that master diskettes aren't confused with
blank diskettes.

QUICK (Q) specifies that the area of a copy diskette that
lies after the last track used for data not be for-
matted. Normally, unused tracks are formatted by
CopyQM. This option can result in a great increase in
speed if the master diskette contains little data.
There are drawbacks to this option that are discussed
in the section on Quick Mode copying.

RECORD (REC) requires a file name and indicates that data
read from the master diskette be written to a file,
rather than to diskette copies. This image file can be
used later with the PLAYBACK option to create diskette
copies without first reading a master diskette. The
"wildcard" character "?" can be used in the file name


Command Line Syntax 21

and is processed by CopyQM as follows: The file name is
scanned from right to left, each occurrence of "?" is
replaced by the digit "0". Before each image file is
written, the number formed by the substituted digits is
incremented by one. For example, a name specified by


would result in the creation of image files named
A0B0C1D, A0B0C2D and so on.

REPEAT (REP) specifies that the copy count should be re-
quested only once and taken as the number of copies to
be made of all master diskettes. This option allows
quick duplication of a set of diskettes. When perform-
ing serial numbering, each set of diskettes will be num-
bered with the same set of serial numbers as other

RETRIES (RET) requires a numeric value and specifies the num-
ber of times unsuccessful diskette write operations
should be repeated until the diskette being written to
is considered to be unusable. Normally, three retries
are performed. Thus, specify RETRIES=10 specifies that
failed write operations will be repeated up to 10

SIDES (SID) requires a numeric value of either 1 or 2 and is
used in conjunction with BLIND to specify the number of
sides to be copied. Normally CopyQM checks for data on
both sides of diskette, SIDES=1 can be used to force
single-sided copying.

SILENT (SIL) disables all audible tone production by CopyQM.
Normally, CopyQM produces tones indicating success or
failure each time a diskette is read or written.

SMART (SM) indicates that CopyQM is to assume that diskettes
used for copying are pre-formatted. If no format is
detected, or a error in writing occurs, the remainder
of the diskette is formatted by CopyQM.


22 Command Line Syntax

SNFILE (minimum SNF), SNPATTERN (minimum SNP) and SNTYPE
(minimum SNT) all require values and are used to per-
form insertion of serial numbers on diskette copies.
SNFILE is used to specify a text file containing a list
of serial numbers, one per line. SNPATTERN is used to
specify an ASCII string for which to search; each occur-
rence of the pattern is replaced with the current
serial number. SNTYPE may be given the value BINARY or
ASCII (default) and specifies how the serial number
file is to be interpreted. Up to 150 occurrences of a
serial number on a single diskette is supported by
CopyQM. For example, the terms:


specify that the starting serial number is to be taken
from the file "MYSNS" and that all occurrences of
"XXXXXX" are to be replaced with ASCII serial numbers.
After a set of copies has been completed, the serial
numbers that have been written are appended to the
serial number file.

SOURCE (SO) specifies the drive to be used to read the
master diskette. This drive may or may not be one of
the drives used to write copies. Thus, SOURCE=A:
specifies that master diskettes are to be read in drive

STATUS (ST) requires a numeric value which specifies the
period between status checks on other drives performed
during writing. The default is to status between dis-
kettes only. For example, setting STATUS=8 specifies
that statusing will occur every 8 cylinders while writ-
ing a copy. There is a degradation in performance if
this option is specified that depends on the number of
diskette drives in use and the frequency of statusing.

TRACKS (TR) requires a numeric value and is used in conjunc-

tion with BLIND to specify the number of cylinders to
be copied. Normally, this value is either 40 or 80,
depending on the diskette format and drive type, but


Command Line Syntax 23

some special formats may require non-standard values.
Thus, TRACKS=77 specifies that 77 tracks are to be

VERIFY (V) specifies how copies are to be checked.
VERIFY=DATA is the default and indicates that written
data should be tested for readability; any unused area
of copies are not checked. VERIFY=ALL specifies that
the entire diskette is to be checked for readability.
VERIFY=NONE specifies that no checks for readability
are to be made. For a variation on the type of
verification performed, consult the COMPARE keyword.

Here are a few examples of CopyQM command lines:


Read master diskettes and write copies using drive A:.


Read master diskettes in drive B:, write copies in drive I:.
Performs readability verification over the entire diskette.
Enables 20-second inactivity audible alert.


Read master diskette in drive G: in "blind" mode, write a
diskette image file called MYFILE in the \IMAGES subdirec-
tory of drive C:.


Read diskette images from drive F:, using files matching the
file specification TEST*. Convert the images to 1.44M,
write copies on drive A:, verify by comparing data from the
copies with the master.



24 Command Line Syntax

Read a diskette image file on drive C: called RELEASE, write
copies on drives A: and B:, insert 4-byte ASCII serial num-
bers in the place of the ASCII pattern "XXXX" using the
serial number file C:SERIALS.


Read master diskettes in drive A:, verify, but do not write
the data on copies using drive A:.

Changing Operating Defaults

CopyQM standard operating defaults can be changed by assigning
command line option values to the environment variable COPYQM.
For example, to set the 20 second inactivity alarm as a default,
the following DOS SET statement could be used:


However, one problem arises--the DOS SET command does not allow
the equal (=) sign within value strings. To get around this
problem, CopyQM allows substitution of the equal sign by a semi-
colon (;). For example:


Any options permitted on the CopyQM command line can be assigned
to the COPYQM environment variable. If a conflict aries between
the options given in the COPYQM environment variable and those
given on the CopyQM command line, the command line variable takes
precedence. For example,


would result in VERIFY=NONE operation.

An environment variable also controls the placement of the hard
disk overflow file. Consult the section titled Memory Usage for


Command Line Syntax 25

Status Messages

CopyQM displays the following status messages during the process
of reading and writing diskettes:


Meaning: The drive has become not ready during reading or
writing. This is usually the result of opening the drive
door or removing the diskette from the drive. The current
read or write operation is canceled and the operation is
retried from its beginning.


Meaning: CopyQM is awaiting insertion of the master dis-
kette. If there is a diskette already in the diskette
drive, the diskette should be removed and re-inserted into
the drive to signal that the correct diskette has been in-


Meaning: CopyQM is awaiting insertion of the next blank
copy diskette. This message persists after the blank dis-
kette has been inserted and is changed only when writing has
begun on the drive.


Meaning: This message occurs only when CopyQM is being run
with the CHECK option. The next diskette copy to be
verified should be inserted. This message is not removed
until verification of the copy has actually begun.


Meaning: CopyQM has begun reading the master diskette and
is evaluating its structure and contents.


26 Status Messages


Meaning: The structure of the master diskette has been
determined and data is being read and stored for later writ-


Meaning: CopyQM is in the process of writing a copy.


Meaning: A diskette image file is being written to disk.


Meaning: Diskette data is being converted to the requested


Meaning: This message occurs only in CHECK mode. CopyQM is
reading a diskette copy and comparing the data with the


Meaning: CopyQM has finished reading the master diskette.
The diskette should be removed from the drive.


Meaning: The master diskette did not read without errors.
Reading of the same diskette can be attempted again, or a
new master diskette may be inserted.


Status Messages 27


Meaning: The boot sector on the master diskette does not
conform to any DOS standard layout. If the diskette is not
a standard DOS format, it may be possible to copy the dis-
kette by specifying the BLIND option. This message may also
occur if the diskette contains a computer virus in its boot
sector. Diskettes infected with the so-called "Stoned"
virus will cause this message to be displayed.


Meaning: Not enough memory and hard disk storage could be
located to contain the data from the master diskette. It
may be possible to avoid this message by explicitly specify-
ing the location of the overflow hard disk file.


Meaning: The specified diskette image file has been read.
A blank diskette can be inserted into the drive for copying.


Meaning: The PROTECT option has been specified and the
master diskette is not write-protected.


Meaning: A diskette copy has been successfully completed
and can be removed from the diskette drive.



28 Status Messages

Meaning: Writing the diskette failed because of an un-
recoverable error. Either the wrong media type (high den-
sity instead of low density) has been used or the diskette
contains a permanent flaw.


Meaning: This message occurs only when CopyQM is being run
with the CHECK option. The diskette copy has been success-
fully verified and may be removed from the drive.


Meaning: Writing has failed on a diskette because the dis-
kette was write protected. The diskette should be re-
inserted after the diskette has been write-enabled.


Meaning: CopyQM has detected an error in the diskette image
file being read. No recovery from the error is possible.
This message can occur if a version of CopyQM prior to 2.10
was used to create the image file.


Meaning: The requested diskette image file has been written
and the master diskette can be removed from the drive.


Meaning: There was not enough hard disk space to success-
fully create the requested diskette image file. This mes-
sage also occurs when there is insufficient hard disk space
to hold temporary files when format conversion has been re-


Status Messages 29


Meaning: After the requested format conversion was per-
formed, CopyQM determined that the data from the master dis-
kette would not fit on a single diskette of the requested


30 Status Messages

Specifying a Diskette Configuration

Normally, CopyQM can determine a system's configuration without
intervention. However, there are cases where add-on diskette
adapters make it impossible to accurately sense the system setup.

To determine if CopyQM has correctly sensed your system's con-
figuration, use the VIEWCONF command that is included with

If necessary, a text file, named DISKETTE.CFG can be prepared
using any text editor or word processing program in non-document
mode. This file can be placed anywhere in the DOS command search
path and will be automatically located by CopyQM.

The layout of the configuration file is straightforward. Each
line in the file begins with the letter of the diskette drive
being described, followed by a colon (:). The rest of the line
contains keywords and numeric values which specify the configura-
tion for that drive. Each item on the line is separated by one
or more spaces. In most cases, keywords can be abbreviated.

A configuration file line can contain any of the following
keywords. The minimum abbreviation for each keyword is shown in

360K (3) specifies a 5.25" 360K drive.

720K (7) specifies a 3.5" 720K drive. Most utilities also
support the less common 5.25" 720K quad-density drive.

1.2M (1.2) specifies a 5.25" 1.2M drive.

1.44M (1.4) specifies a 3.5" 1.44M drive.

2.88M (2.8) specifies a 3.5" 2.88M drive.

8INCH (8) specifies an 8" drive.

Note that the drive type must be specified.


Specifying a Configuration 31

BIOS (B) specifies the BIOS drive number for the drive. The
word BIOS is followed by a a number between 0 and 127.
This number is also the same one used for the /D: parameter
when DRIVER.SYS is used to support the drive in the system's

PORT (P) specifies the base I/O port of the adapter con-
nected to the drive. The first or primary adapter is always
described by the number 3F0H (observe the "H" at the end of
a hexadecimal number.) Secondary adapters are usually ad-
dressed by the number 370H and sometimes by 360H or 3E0H.
If not specified, a PORT value of 3F0H is assumed.

UNIT (U) specifies the physical unit number of the drive on
the adapter. This unit number must be within the range of 0
to 3 and should not be confused with the BIOS unit number.

DMA (DM) specifies the Direct Memory Access channel which
services the adapter. If omitted, DMA channel 2 is assumed.

INTERRUPT (I) specifies the system interrupt which services
the adapter. If omitted, interrupt 6 is assumed.

SEEK (S) specifies the track-to-track stepping time of the
drive in milliseconds. If omitted, 6 milliseconds is as-

CHANGE (CH) specifies that the drive possesses diskette
change detection circuitry. If this term is omitted, the
drive is assumed not to support change detection. Usually,
1.2M, 1.44M and 2.88M drives have change detection cir-
cuitry; 360K, 720K and 8 inch drives do not.

DUAL (DU) is applicable for 1.2M 5.25"drives only. Some inex-
pensive secondary adapters require that 1.2M drives be con-
figured for dual-speed operation in which the spindle motor
spins at 360 revolutions per minute for high-density opera-
tion and 300 revolutions per minute for low-density opera-
tion. If omitted, normal single-speed operation is assumed.


32 Specifying a Configuration

COMPATICARD (CO) specifies that the drive is connected to a
MicroSolutions Compaticard Itm or Compaticard IItm adapter.
If the Compaticard IVtm is being used, this term should not
be specified.

DAA (DA) indicates that the drive is connected to an IBM
PS/2 Diskette Adapter/A. This adapter is present on external
drives on Microchannel systems only and is assumed not to be

A number is required to follow the following words:


A number is assumed to be a decimal value unless suffixed by the
letter "H" which indicates a hexadecimal quantity. Thus, 1000
and 3E8H refer to the same quantity.

Here is an example of a DISKETTE.CFG file:

B: BIOS 1 UNIT 1 1.2M CH
Q: BIOS 4 PORT 370H UNIT 0 360K

There are two other items which may start a configuration line.

DEFAULT: initializes the configuration to the values that would
be obtained if automatic configuration sensing were to be per-
formed. Use of DEFAULT is useful if automatic sensing has cor-
rectly sensed all but one or two drives. For example, suppose
that the configuration given above is correctly sensed, with the
exception of drive Q:. The DISKETTE.CFG file could be stated as:

Q: BIOS 4 PORT 370H UNIT 0 360K

DEFAULT must appear as the only item on a line.


Specifying a Configuration 33

NOTE: causes the remainder of a line to be ignored. Comments may
be inserted into the DISKETTE.CFG file in this manner. For ex-

NOTE: Automatic sensing gets everything but
NOTE: drive Q: connected to a special second
NOTE: adapter.
Q: BIOS 4 PORT 370H UNIT 0 360K
NOTE: This is the end of the configuration file.

Certain terms used in this document are trade marks of one or
more of the following companies: Microsoft Corporation, Interna-
tional Business Machines Corporation, Quarterdeck, Inc.,
Microsolutions, Inc., Digital Research Inc., The Software Link,


34 Specifying a Configuration

  3 Responses to “Category : Utilities for DOS and Windows Machines
Archive   : CPYQ302.ZIP
Filename : COPYQM.DOC

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