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Archive-name: linux-faq/TOC
Last-Modified: 93/02/18
Version: 1.16.1

*********************************************************
* *
* TOC of the Frequently Asked Questions about Linux *
* *
*********************************************************

This post contains the TOC of the Linux FAQ (4 parts)
and a short introduction.


Hi Linuxers!

The original FAQ 1st version was posted on Dec. 19, 1991 by Robert Blum.

Most credits to Linus, Robert and Ted for the departure point of this
work. The first X11 section was written by Peter Hawkins, the rest was
either on the list posted by many (real) activists, not me ;-), either
in some other news groups, or else by direct posting to me (thanks
Humberto, Dan, Michael, Drew, Audoin). I haven't systematically
copyrighted them, so thanks to every one who participated even
indirectly to this FAQ.

Since September 1992, the FAQ is co-written by:

WHO (WHAT) E-MAIL
=============================================================================
Lars Wirzenius (META-FAQ) [email protected]
Mark Komarinski (DOS) [email protected]
Matt Welsh (GENERAL INFO) [email protected]
Matt Welsh (INSTALLATION) [email protected]
Drew Eckhardt (SCSI) [email protected]
Hongjiu Lu (GCC) [email protected]
Krishna Balasubramanian (X11) [email protected]
Zane Healy (BBS INFO) [email protected]
Philip Copeland (NET INFO) [email protected]
Rick Miller (DEVICE INFO) [email protected]
Peter MacDonald (SLS INFO) [email protected]
Rick Sladkey (EMACS) [email protected]
Dirk Hohndel (PROOF READER) [email protected]
Marc-Michel Corsini (FAQ collector) [email protected]{labri,firmin}.greco-prog.fr
=============================================================================

If anyone is interested in participating with this FAQ, just send me a
note with: your name/e-mail and the section you want to maintain.

Many of the questions could be avoided, if people had read the FAQ of
the following newsgroups: news.announce.newusers, comp.lang.c,
gnu.emacs.help, comp.unix.questions, comp.windows.x.i386unix.

[The last-change-date of this posting is always "two minutes ago". :-)]

This is the introduction to a list of frequently asked questions (FAQ
for short) about Linux with answers (Yeap!). This article contains a
listing of the sections *AND* queries.

This FAQ is supposed to reduce the noise level ๐Ÿ˜‰ in the comp.os.linux
newsgroup, and spare the time of many activists. I will cross-post it each
month to news.answers. This FAQ is NOT an introduction to UNIX, there
are many books for unix, and there is *also* a FAQ for unix (it's the
one of comp.unix.questions which contains things such as "How do I
remove a file named -". I DO NOT WANT TO ADD SUCH THINGS IN THIS FAQ
DEVOTED TO LINUX.

Some books to read:
The C Programming Language: Kernighan & Ritchie
POSIX Programmer's Guide: D. Lewine
Unix System Administration Handbook: Nemeth, Snyder & Seebass.
Unix for the Impatient: Abrahams & Larson
Unix System V Release 4, An Introduction, by Rosen, Rosinski and
Farber; Publisher Osborne MacGraw-Hill.
The X Windows System in a Nutshell: O'Reilly.
.....

BTW This FAQ is available at the main Linux sites in the doc
directory, the addresses are given in section II. of this FAQ. There
is also an automated FAQ mailserver archive at rtfm.mit.edu.
Send mail to [email protected] with the word "help" in
the body.

The information in this multi-parts FAQ is likely to change relatively
quickly. If this is more than two months old (it was released on
February 1993) then you should obtain a new copy. See the paragraph
above for details of where to find a more recent version.

Please suggest any change, rephrasing, deletions, new questions,
answers ...
Please include "FAQ" in the subject of messages sent to me about FAQ.
Please use [email protected] whatever will be the From part
of this message. Finally discussion about the FAQ can be done on the
DOC Channel (see section II).


Thanks in advance,
Marc

The FAQ can be found in LaTeX version, thanks to Pepe Flores Peters.

Future Plan:

- provide FAQ as diff too, since it seems to stay stable
except for very few sections.
- perform automatic post to c.o.l, c.o.l.a, c.a and n.a
every month as I promised long time ago.

================================8<=====8<==============================
CONTENTS
0. WARNINGS (part1)
I. LINUX GENERAL INFORMATION (part1)
II. LINUX USEFUL ADDRESSES (part1)
III. INSTALLATION and COMMON PROBLEMS (part2)
IV. SOME CLASSICAL PROBLEMS (part2)
V. LINUX and DOS (part2)
VI. MISCELLANEOUS HINTS (part3)
VII. MORE HINTS (part3)
VIII. FEATURES (part3)
IX. GCC MISC INFORMATION (part4)
X. SCSI SPECIAL (part4)
XI. NETWORKING and LINUX (part4)
XII. X11, THE MINIMUM and MORE (part4)
XIII. EMACS for LINUX (part4)



0. WARNINGS
===========

I. LINUX GENERAL INFORMATION
=============================
1) What is linux?
2) Does Linux support GCC, TCP/IP, X-Windows, MGR, etc.?
3) What is the current state of Linux?
4) I've just heard about linux, what should I do to get it?
5) Does it run on my computer?
6) Will Linux run on a PC or 286-AT? If not, why?
7) Will Linux run on a 386 Laptop?
8) Why the suggested 4Meg, for Linux?
9) How would this operate in an OS/2 environment?
10) (Dan) How long has Linux been publicly available?
11) What is the proper pronounciation for "Linux"?
12) What's about the copyright of linux?
13) Should I be a UNIX and/or a DOS wizard to install/use Linux?
14) Does Linux use TSS segments to provide multitasking?
15) If my PC runs under Linux, is it possible to ftp, rlogin,
rsh etc.. to other Unix boxes?
16) Does linux do paging? Can I have virtual memory on my small
machine?
17) Can I have tasks spanning the full 4GB of addressable 386
memory? No more 64kB limits like in coherent or standard minix?
18) Does the bigger program sizes mean I can run X?
19) What are the differences, pros and cons compared to Minix ?
20) What are the pros and cons compared to 386BSD ?
21) How much space will Linux take up on my hard drive?

II. LINUX USEFUL ADDRESSES
=========================

II.A. LINUX ON THE NET: ftp, mailing-list
II.B. OBTAINING LINUX FROM BBS'S: everything about bbs

II.A. LINUX ON THE NET
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
22) Where can I get linux?
23) I do not have FTP access, what can I do to get linux?
24) Is there a newsgroup or mailing-list about linux? Where can
I get my questions answered? How about bug-reports?
25) Could you be more explicit about the multi-channel list?
26) How can I join the channel XXX on the linux-activists
mailing list?
27) How can I leave the channel XXX on the linux-activists
mailing list?
28) I'm not an hacker, what are the channels I could be interested
in?
29) Does there exist a place where the traffic of the newsgroup
is kept?

II.B OBTAINING LINUX FROM BBS'S
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
30) I don't have access to FTP, how can I obtain Linux?
31) I got this FAQ from a local BBS, or a friend, and I see there
is a newsgroup called comp.os.linux . I don't have access to USENET or
mail, so how can I get the messages?
32) Do BBS's offer anything that the Internet does not?
33) What is a BBS?
34) How can I get a (Near) complete list of BBS's that carry Linux?
35) Now that I have a phone number, how do I go about accessing a
BBS?
36) There is a local BBS that carries Linux, but it isn't on the
latest Linux BBS List. How do I go about submitting it for inclusion in
the list?
37) What can I do to help ensure the continued development of
Linux?
38) How do I read the data contained in the Linux BBS List?
39) What are some of the best BBS's to check out?
40) What are File Requests?

III. INSTALLATION, SETUP, and COMMON PROBLEMS
=============================================

III.A. WHERE TO START: What are the reliable sources of information
III.B. LINUX PACKAGES: Where and how install a complete Linux package

III.C. SOME COMMON PROBLEMS: Simple problems and simple solutions


III.A. WHERE TO START
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
41) I want to install Linux on my machine. Where do I start?
42) Is there some kind of limit on how large my Linux partitions
and/or filesystems can be?

III.B. LINUX PACKAGES
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
43) Does there exist a way to get all (or nearly all) of the Linux
stuff?
44) Where can I get these versions of Linux?
45) What should I do to install the SLS release?
46) What's about SLS ?
47) What should I get to install the bootdisk/rootdisk combo
release?
48) How do I get and install H.J. Lu's "bootable rootdisk" release?
49) What is the MCC interim version of Linux?

III.C. SOME COMMON PROBLEMS
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
50) How do I make partitions and/or filesystems for Linux?
51) Linux mkfs doesn't accept the size I give the device,
although I double-checked with fdisk, and it's correct.
52) How can I get mkfs/mkefs to check for bad blocks?
53) How can I boot Linux off of my hard drive?
54) Cripes! I tried to install LILO, but screwed up somehow, and
now can't boot anything from the hard drive. How can I fix this?
55) When installing SLS, I get the error "You may have inserted
the wrong disk" when putting in the next disk in a series. What's
going on?
56) When installing SLS, the installation script creates a "boot
floppy" for me to boot Linux with. How can I make these myself (or fix
problems with them?)
57) When I login as non-root, I get tons of errors about
"shell-init: permission denied". Also, some things work as root but
not as a normal user. What's the deal?
58) I have the previous Linux version, how can I upgrade it?
59) Where is /usr/include/linux and /usr/include/asm, or,
Why won't the kernel compile correctly?
60) How can I upgrade to the newest version of GCC?
61) What's the deal with these things called "jump tables"?
62) How to upgrade jump tables? (Without hanging my system)
63) How can I be sure I won't be writing over anything important
when installing Linux? I have to use DOS on my machine, and I don't
want to lose any files.
64) I just rebooted my machine, and now Linux dies with a
"panic: trying to free unused inode". What's going on?
65) Can I use both OS/2 and Linux on my machine??
66) I use OS/2's Boot Manager on my hard drive. How can I get it
to recognize Linux?
67) When I run Linux's fdisk it says "OPUS" for OS/2's Boot
Manager partition. Is this right? What's OPUS?
68) (Denise Tree)
Where is /usr/include/linux and /usr/include/asm?" or "Why
won't my new kernel source compile without errors?", etc.

IV. SOME CLASSICAL PROBLEMS
===========================
69) While running du I get "Kernel panic: free_inode: bit
already cleared". Also, du produces a ENOENT error for all the files
in certain of my directories. What's going on?
70) How can I partition my hard-drive to use Linux?
71) I heard something about repartition a hard disk without
deleting everything on it, any clue?
72) What must I do to mkfs a floppy?
73) I have some trouble with tar/untar; any clue ?
74) I can do this as root but not as non-root, is it a bug?
75) "du" reports twice the size showed with "ls -l", is it a
bug?
76) Sometimes, I get "mount can't open lock file"; what does this
means?
77) When I try "mount /dev/hd?? /user", I get error 2.
78) Since I have upgrade my Linux kernel, ps won't work anymore,
why?
79) Since Linux 0.96b I have a lot of core file all over
my disk. How can I sweep them away ?
80) I can only log-in as "root", is it normal ?

V. LINUX and DOS
=================
81) Is is possible to access DOS from Linux?
82) Why use mtools if you can just mount a drive?
83) How do I get the mtools package set up correctly?
84) What is the format of the file /etc/mtools?
85) Where can I find out more about mtools?
86) How do I use the DOS file system?
87) When I mount an MS-DOS disk, I get two lines of what seem to
be error messages and the message: No bmap support. Is my disk bad?
88) I want to use the DOS file system with either conv=binary or
conv=auto, but I want to convert text files from DOS to UNIX format,
or from UNIX to DOS format.
89) Where can I find out more about the DOS file system?
90) This sounds me like a chicken and eggs problem, how can I
install the mtools package at the very beginning.
91) Could someone explain how to use rawrite?
92) What is as86.tar.Z ?
93) Turbo (Microsoft) Assembler won't compile the Linux boot
code. In fact, some of the opcodes in these files look completely
unfamiliar. Why?
94) What about the dos emulator (dosemu)?
95) I have a Stacker volume on my hard drive. Can I access that?
96) How about OS/2 HPFS partitions, or MacIntosh/Amiga floppies?
Can I mount any of them?

VI. MISCELLANEOUS HINTS
=======================

VI.A. Misc information
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
97) It seems that $#@! ported on linux don't run correctly, what
do I do about reporting bugs?
98) Has $#@! been ported to Linux?
99) I've ported $#@! to Linux, what should i do to add it in the
standard distribution?
100) I want to port $#@! to Linux, what are the flags?

VI.B. Major/Minor device number
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
101) What are the device minor/major numbers?
102) Could some one give me indication about the meaning of the
IRQ's ?
103) (Chuck Boyer) Could some one clear up the devices meaning?

VI.C Special Serial
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
104) Is there a list somewhere where I can get help with serial
communications under Linux?
105) When I run kermit under Linux, I get "Warning, Read access
to lock directory denied". What am I doing wrong?
106) What are the major, minor numbers for the serial ports under linux?
107) can anyone give me a sample /etc/inittab entry for login
from a pc attached to serial line /dev/ttys2?
108) How do I set parameters like parity for serial login?

VII. MORE HINTS
===============
109) How can I backup my Hd under Linux ?
110) Where is 'which' ?
111) How to use setterm: for the novice?
112) I've tried clear/reset which exist on most of unix but it
doesn't work, have I missed something?
113) I know there are VC, but where is the setterm stuff?
114) I know there are shared libraries; does there exist an easy
way to check an executable for sharing ?
115) What is the rdev program provided in the images?
116) How to start Linux from drive B?
117) The program boot_b works fine /but/ once the first disk is
read the system go back to the first drive, any hints?
118) How can I get Linux to boot directly from the harddisk?
119) I use shoelace, but I want to change my root partition, what
is the process to get rid of it?
120) Sometimes, when I want to remove a directory, I get an error
message, is it a (known) bug?
121) I'm looking for init, getty, login, passwd stuff, where
can I find them?
122) How can I setup a user account other than root ?
123) I've been trying to get Linux to run on my [3/4]86 box. It
can't even boot. Any suggestions?
124) Does there exist games, languages (other than C), and
anything which make the system more friendly?
125) Whenever I use uemacs 3.1X on a symlink, the symlink does
not exist anymore, why?
126) Uemacs doesn't work anymore with 0.95a, whenever I want to
save a file; what can I do?
127) I have an SVGA, but Linux detect an EGAc/EGAm; is it normal?
128) How can I change the keyboard repeat rate?
129) I compiled fdformat.c and ran it on 1.44Mb and 1.2Mb, the
results are unreadable, any clue?
130) Is it possible to disable the 3-fingers salute
(ctrl-alt-del) ?
131) Could some one explain the information provided at boot-time?
132) What is the meaning of files ended by .T.Z (or .taz) ?
133) I have upgraded the kernel from XX to YY (XX > YY), however the
login screen still says YY.
134) What is doshell good for ?
135) I don't have the kernel sources, how can I change the keyboard
language?

VIII. FEATURES
==============
136) I've read that linux has virtual consoles, what must I do to
get them?
137) When Linux boots, I get the following message "8 virtual
consoles"; how can I acess to the 5-8 vc's ?
138) What kind of shell is /bin/sh ?
139) Does there exist a man page for **** ?
140) Is there a simple man package (groff is too big):
141) What are the editors available in linux?
142) Does there exist a printer package for Linux?
143) Are uucp, mail, and/or USENET news available for Linux?
144) How do I make swapping work?
145) When I boot I get one of the following messages:
"Unable to find swap signature" or "Bad swap-space bitmap"
146) How do I know if it is swapping?
147) How is it possible to remove a swap file?
148) How is it possible to remove a swap device?
149) How much swap space do I need ?
150) Could someone explain the swap process on Linux?, is it
swapping or paging ?
151) Is demand paging different from paging and How ?
152) Is there any way to tell how much swap space you are using
or have left?
153) I have a 2Megs box, but "free" reports only 1Meg why?
154) What tape drives work with Linux ?
155) Is there only the %$#@ keyboard ?
156) (special FINNISH/US) I booteed up with the new image and
everything work except that some keyboard keys produce wrong
characters. Does anyone know what is happening?
157) Does there exist shared libs ?
158) Does Linux work for SCSI drives?
159) Linux is supposed to work with ESDI drive. However I have
trouble with my Magtron MT-4115E (Joincom controler), any clue?
160) How does one go about applying a patch to Linux ?
161) There are a lot of patches available (ps patch, NFS patches,
CD-ROM patches ...) can I be fairly confident the subsequent patches will
work?
162) I got the patches on some ftp sites, and applied them to the
kernel and tried to compile. It didn't !!. Are the patches buggy?
163) What is VFS?
164) What's about Bus Mice ?
165) What's about TeX ?
166) What's about LILO ?
167) What's about MGR ?
168) I have successfully compiled MGR, but when I try to run the
program I get "can't find mouse" or "already in use", any clue?
169) Any tips for MGR?
170) What's about X11 ?

IX. GCC MISC INFORMATION
========================

IX.A. HLU Information
IX.B. OTHERS

IX.A. HLU Information
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
171) I don't know how to install gcc stuff, is there special
places?
172) What compiler should I use for Linux?
173) Where is the latest official gcc 2.xx for Linux?
174) What are the contents of them?
175) How do I install it?
176) What are the main differences with the old release?
177) Can I use the old version of gcc?
178) Is stdio ANSI compatible?
179) Is g++ in 2.xx?
180) How do I use gcc?
181) What options can I use for gcc?
182) Where is the source code of the new libc.a?
183) Why does g++ complain, even die?
184) How do I generate code for 486?
185) I heard malloc (0) wouldn't work with Linux, what should I
do?
186) Why does gcc say "xxxxx..h not found"?
187) I really followed every step in the documentation, but when
I do "make", why does it say "don't how to make xxxxxx"?
188) How do I compile programs under Linux?

IX.B. OTHERS
~~~~~~~~~~~~
189) I seem to be unable to compile anything with gcc. Why?
190) gcc complains about not finding crt0.o and the system
include files What am I doing wrong ?
191) I tried to port a /new/ version of gnu stuff. But in the
linking phase, gcc complains about the missing libg.a.
192) How to compile programs which may be debugged with gdb?
193) When compiling some code, cc1 complains about some insn
code, what's that?
194) When compiling #[email protected]!, I've got some problems with "SIGBUS"
signal that doesn't exist. Any clue ?
195) How can I write codes suitable for building shared library ?

X. SCSI SPECIAL
===============
196) What SCSI hosts are supported?
197) Which disks ?
198) What about SCSI tapes ?
199) What about CD ROMS?
200) What about flopticals, Bernoulis, Sysquests, and other removeable
media devices?
201) How do I get SCSI information?
202) How do I partition the disk?
203) My partitioning program can't figure out the disk geoemetry
204) The stock {f,pf}disk programs don't work.
205) Where is the latest version maintained?
206) What are the major / minor numbers for SCSI drives?
207) How do I reduce kernel bloat and eliminate the drivers I
don't want?
208) I get SCSI timeouts.
209) The seagate driver doesn't work.
210) The Adaptec driver doesn't work.
211) What about bugs?
212) What are the known bugs?
213) I get a message saying READ CAPACITY FAILED. What does this
mean?
214) Why does the system "hang" when SCSI disk access occurs.
215) Why can't I swap to a SCSI disk?, Why can't I mount a SCSI
disk as root?
216) What future developments are planned?
217) What drivers does the new code support.
218) WHEN?

XI. NETWORKING and LINUX
============================
219) Where can I find useful information about networking for
Linux ?

XII. X11 THE MAXIMUM and MORE
=============================

XII.A. X386 GENERAL INFORMATION
XII.B. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: Supported Video cards.

XII.C. LINUX DISTRIBUTION: Files required, Current version.
XII.D. LEARNING/USING X: Pointers to X documentation.

XII.E. DEBUGGING STARTUP PROBLEMS: Checklist, Screen restoration, Hanging.
XII.F. XCONFIG: Video mode settings and common errors in Xconfig.

XII.G. X-APPLICATIONS: Compiling X programs.
XII.H. BUGS

XII.J. MISC: the things that I don't know where to put ๐Ÿ™‚


XII.A. X386 GENERAL INFORMATION
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
220) What is the X11 release supported by Linux?
221) What is X386/xfree86?
222) Where can I get X386 1.2 (X11R5)?
223) Any tips on compiling X11R5?

XII.B HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
224) What VGA boards are supported?
225) What Mouses are supported?
226) Has anyone gotten the "Mini-DIN" mouse on an HP Vectra 486/33T
to work? The slight info I've been able to find says it's PS/2 compatible.

XII.C. LINUX DISTRIBUTION
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
227) What is the current version?
228) What Files do I need to download?
229) Where do the X11 files go? What are they?

XII.D. LEARNING/USING X
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
230) Where can I find the basic help for learning/using X ?
231) What docs are available besides man pages?
232) [suggested by Thomas Koenig]
How do I support national keyboards in X11 ?

XII.E. DEBUGGING STARTUP PROBLEMS:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
233) How do I start up X?
234) I cannot type in my xterm
235) What are some of the common omissions and errors?
236) Why is the server unable to find some of the fonts?
237) My server "hangs" Why?
238) When I try to use X11 I got "Cannot connect to
server" or "process does not exist", any clue ?
239) Why cant I run more than 4 xterms?
How can I have more than 4 pty's ?
240) I have trouble with my logitech Pilot mouse and X under
Linux, any clue ?
241) How does X11 start up?
242) How can I see what startx passes to xinit, and xinit to X?
243) What devices does X depend on:

XII.F. Xconfig: Xconfig and Video mode settings.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
244) What do the mode names mean?
245) How do I compute the numbers for the video modes?
246) How can I determine the clocks on the video chip?
Where can I find clock.exe or clock.pas ?
247) What are the settings used with a trident-8900C?
248) What are common problems with Xconfig?
249) What do I use in my Xconfig file to use the bus mouse?
Logitech doesn't work with my Logitech busmouse.

XII.G X-APPLICATIONS: Compiling X Programs.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
250) Does anyone know where I can find the libobz.a library ?
251) I get _setjmp undefined when linking xv from .a files.
252) How do I compile an X application that has an Imakefile?
253) gcc complains the X libraries are not found or links static.

XII.H BUGS:
~~~~~~~~~~~

XII.J. MISC
~~~~~~~~~~~
254) When using Makefiles generated by xmkmf why do I get many error
messages?
255) Why do I get the error message 'could not open default font'
when I start X?
256) Why is it I cannot get Xfree86 to work with my trident card?

XIII. EMACS for LINUX
=====================

XIII.A. GENERAL INFORMATION
XIII.B. GNU EMACS for LINUX

XIII.A. GENERAL INFORMATION
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

XIII.B. GNU EMACS for LINUX
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
257) Does Linux Emacs use the shared libraries?
258) What version of the compiler was used? Which shared libaries?
259) Which files do I need?
260) How do I install them?
261) Does Linux Emacs support eight-bit input/output?
262) How much disk space is required?
263) Why does Emacs crash under Linux 0.98 patchlevel 4 or higher?
264) Why can't Emacs find its support files anymore?
265) How do I get Emacs to recognize my cursor keys?
266) What packages are particularly useful under Linux?
267) Does Linux Emacs use the shared libraries?
268) Does Linux Emacs support the X Window System?
269) Do I need both Emacs if I don't always use X?
270) Why doesn't Emacs use the settings in my
.Xdefaults/.Xresources file?
271) I read about some menu that is supposed to pop up when I
press some mouse button. Does this work with Linux Emacs?
272) Sometimes Emacs crashes with a SIGALRM message. What's
wrong?
273) Why does Emacs always put me in the root directory?
274) Why doesn't Control-Z doesn't work right with Emacs?
275) Why doesn't job control work in shell mode?


================================8<=====8<==============================--
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
# LaBRI | #
# 351 cours de la Liberation | e-mail: [email protected] #
# 33405 Talence Cedex | #
# | #
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--
There will be a sig when our local net is reliable.
For now, I would rather stay anonymous.

Archive-name: linux-faq/part1
Last-Modified: 93/02/18
Version: 1.16.1

*********************************************************
* *
* Answers to Frequently asked questions about Linux *
* *
*********************************************************

This post contains Part 1 of the Linux FAQ (4 parts)

Hi Linuxers!

The original FAQ 1st version was posted on Dec. 19, 1991 by Robert Blum.

Most credits to Linus, Robert and Ted for the departure point of this
work. The first X11 section was written by Peter Hawkins, the rest was
either on the list posted by many (real) activists, not me ;-), either
in some other news groups, or else by direct posting to me (thanks
Humberto, Dan, Michael, Drew, Audoin). I haven't systematically
copyrighted them, so thanks to every one who participated even
indirectly to this FAQ.

Since September 1992, the FAQ is co-written by:

WHO (WHAT) E-MAIL
=============================================================================
Lars Wirzenius (META-FAQ) [email protected]
Mark Komarinski (DOS) [email protected]
Matt Welsh (GENERAL INFO) [email protected]
Matt Welsh (INSTALLATION) [email protected]
Drew Eckhardt (SCSI) [email protected]
Hongjiu Lu (GCC) [email protected]
Krishna Balasubramanian (X11) [email protected]
Zane Healy (BBS INFO) [email protected]
Philip Copeland (NET INFO) [email protected]
Rick Miller (DEVICE INFO) [email protected]
Peter MacDonald (SLS INFO) [email protected]
Rick Sladkey (EMACS) [email protected]
Dirk Hohndel (PROOF READER) [email protected]
Marc-Michel Corsini (FAQ collector) [email protected]{labri,firmin}.greco-prog.fr
=============================================================================

If anyone is interested in participating with this FAQ, just send me a
note with: your name/e-mail and the section you want to maintain.

Many of the questions could be avoided, if people had read the FAQ of
the following newsgroups: news.announce.newusers, comp.lang.c,
gnu.emacs.help, comp.unix.questions, comp.windows.x.i386unix.

[The last-change-date of this posting is always "two minutes ago". :-)]

This is the introduction to a list of frequently asked questions (FAQ
for short) about Linux with answers (Yeap!). This article contains a
listing of the sections and queries.

This FAQ is supposed to reduce the noise level ๐Ÿ˜‰ in the
comp.os.linux newsgroup, and spare the time of many activists. I will
cross-post it each month to news.answers. This FAQ is NOT an
introduction to UNIX, there are many books for unix, and there is
*also* a FAQ for unix (it's the one of comp.unix.questions which
contains things such as "How do I remove a file named -". I DO NOT
WANT TO ADD SUCH THINGS IN THIS FAQ DEVOTED TO LINUX.

Some books to read:
The C Programming Language: Kernighan & Ritchie
POSIX Programmer's Guide: D. Lewine
Unix System Administration Handbook: Nemeth, Snyder & Seebass.
Unix for the Impatient: Abrahams & Larson
Unix System V Release 4, An Introduction, by Rosen, Rosinski and
Farber; Publisher Osborne MacGraw-Hill.
The X Windows System in a Nutshell: O'Reilly.
.....

BTW This FAQ is available at the main Linux sites in the doc
directory, the addresses are given in section II. of this FAQ. There
is also an automated FAQ mailserver archive at rtfm.mit.edu.
Send mail to [email protected] with the word "help" in
the body.

The information in this multi-parts FAQ is likely to change relatively
quickly. If this is more than two months old (it was released on
February 1993) then you should obtain a new copy. See the paragraph
above for details of where to find a more recent version.

Please suggest any change, rephrasing, deletions, new questions,
answers ...
Please include "FAQ" in the subject of messages sent to me about FAQ.
Please use [email protected] whatever will be the From part
of this message. Finally discussion about the FAQ can be done on the
DOC Channel (see section II).


Thanks in advance,
Marc

The FAQ can be found in LaTeX version, thanks to Pepe Flores Peters.

Future Plan:

- provide FAQ as diff too, since it seems to stay stable
except for very few sections.
- perform automatic post to c.o.l, c.o.l.a, c.a and n.a
every month as I promised long time ago.

================================8<=====8<==============================
CONTENTS (of this part)

0. WARNINGS (part1)
I. LINUX GENERAL INFORMATION (part1)
II. LINUX USEFUL ADDRESSES (part1)

================================8<=====8<==============================

0. WARNINGS
===========

The FAQ contains a lot of information sometimes I've put it down
in 3 different ways because people seems not to understand what they
read (or what I wrote, you know I'm just a froggy and english is not
my natural language). What I mean is that not all is in the FAQ but
many things are there, so please just take time to read it this will
spare a lot of the other linuxers [and if you think I should rephrase
some Q/A just drop me a note with the corrections].

As the Linux kernel changes monthly (and even more ...), I define 2
pseudo variables a la C one for the version, and one for the date of
the release.

#define CURRENT_VERSION 0.99 /* the current version */
#define PATCH_LEVEL 5 /* the patch level */
#define KERNEL_DATE 10, Feb. /* Date of the CURRENT_VERSION */

In what follows I'll consider CURRENT_VERSION as the current version.

> From: [email protected] (Linus Torvalds)
> Subject: ANNOUNCE: linux 0.99 patchlevel 5
> Date: Wed, 10 Feb 1993 12:02:55 +0200
>
>
> "He's done it yet again - doesn't he ever rest?"
> - anonymous linux kernel hacker
>
> Only complete newbies don't know what this is all about, but I'd better
> tell you anyway: patchlevel 5 of the 0.99 kernel is now available on
> nic.funet.fi (pub/OS/Linux/PEOPLE/Linus) as both context diffs against
> pl4 and complete source code. I'm not even going to speculate on 1.0
> right now.
>
> The pl5 diffs are about 90kB compressed: the major changes are to the
> tcp/ip code and the serial driver, while there are various minor fixes
> strewn around the system:
>
> - serial lines/tty changes (tytso & Fred v Kempen)
> - NFS bugfixes (Rick Sladkey)
> - tcp/ip (Ross Biro)
> - coprocessor handling changes (me)
> - harddisk driver error handling (Mika Liljeberg)
> - various minor patches (me and others)
>
> Serial lines now implement non-blocking opens correctly and support
> dial-out lines (same minor, major==5). I changed the default startup
> mode to be CLOCAL so that people won't get confused by the modem line
> code when not using dial-in.
>
> Another interesting change is the 387 error-coupling tests at bootup:
> the code to check if the intel-recommended exception 16 error reporting
> is present is "non-obvious". If you have had problems with coprocessor
> error handling, or have a non-intel coprocessor, I'd suggest you test
> this out: I'd like to hear about problems/successes.
>
> Linus
>
> PS. If you tested out the latest ALPHA-diffs (the ones that already
> changed the kernel version to pl5), the changes to the final pl5 were
> only cosmetic.



I. LINUX GENERAL INFORMATION
=============================
*** This section is maintained by Matt Welsh ([email protected]). Mail
*** him if you have corrections, additions, other questions, etc.
*** Last update November 1992.


QUESTION: What is linux?

ANSWER: Linux is a small unix for 386-AT computers, that has the added
advantage of being free(*). It is still in beta-testing, but is slowly
getting useful even for somewhat real developement. The current
version is CURRENT_VERSION, date: KERNEL_DATE.

(*) Free means that you may use it, change it , redistribute it, as
long as you don't change the copyright. Free does not mean public
domain.


Linux is a freely distributable UNIX clone. It implements a subset of
System V and POSIX functionality, and contains a lot of BSD-isms.
LINUX has been written from scratch, and therefore does not contain
any AT&T or MINIX code--not in the kernel, the compiler, the
utilities, or the libraries. For this reason it can be made available

with the complete source code via anonymous FTP. LINUX runs only on
386/486 AT-bus machines; porting to non-Intel architectures is likely
to be difficult, as the kernel makes extensive use of 386 memory
management and task primitives.


QUESTION: Does Linux support GCC, TCP/IP, X-Windows, MGR, etc.?

ANSWER: Linux currently supports and uses a large amount of the GNU
software (i.e. GCC, bison, groff, etc) so all of that functionality is
there. X-Windows is also available, along with many client
applications. MGR is there too. TCP/IP is in testing, and is available
for you to try out.

(Dirk Hohndel:) TCP/IP is available. I use Linux boxes as Xterminals
and my "own" asterix has mounted half a Gig via NFS. Mitch DSuoza is
running an anonymous FTP server on his Linux box. This is definitely
more than testing. The newest SLS has a TCP/IP kernel by default.


See section VIII of this FAQ ("Features")!

In short, Linux supports many, many features and programs. One of the
biggest questions is:
"Does ***** work on Linux? Does Linux have *****?"
The answer, usually, is "yes". Just check out the rest of this FAQ,
the newsgroup, as well as the files on the FTP sites.


QUESTION: What is the current state of Linux?

ANSWER: read the comp.os.linux newsgroup, where the INFO-SHEET is
periodically posted.


QUESTION: I've just heard about linux, what should I do to get it?

ANSWER: FIRST read this FAQ, and especially section III
(installation). Choose a "release" of Linux (such as MCC, SLS,
bootdisk/rootdisk, etc). Download from your nearest FTP site, use the
"rawrite" program as needed to write the images to high-density
floppies (5.25 or 3.5). Specific instructions are given in section III
and in the README files for each release.

Note that some releases only give you the kernel and a few utilities,
and others give you everything you need (including X11, GCC, and more)
in that latter case the downloading is close to a douzen of SOFT. Just
check out section III for more info.


QUESTION: Does it run on my computer?

ANSWER: Linux has been written on a clone-386, with IDE drives and a
VGA screen. It should work on most similar setups. The harddisk should
be AT-standard, and the system must be ISA. (though *some* EISA
success has been reported [T. Koenig], Linux doesn't take advantage of
the EISA structure). A high density floppy drive -- either 5.25" or
3.5"-- is required.

{Drew's information:
Linux supports anything that's register compatable with a WD1003 MFM
disk controller (ie, the original PC-AT disk controller.) Most AT
MFM, RLL, ESDI, and IDE setups look like this.

XT compatable disk controllers won't work.

Generally, the rule is if you have the disk configured into the
CMOS setup of your machine, it will work (because the BIOS is talking
to a WD 1003 compatable board), otherwise it won't.}

IDE and MFM seem to work with no problem. It works, also, for some
ESDI drive (you might have to comment out the "unexpected hd
interrupt"-message from hd.c). There exists a high-level SCSI driver,
under which low-level drivers are placed; a ST-01/ST-02 low driver has
been completed see the FEATURES and the USEFUL ADDRESSES sections.


Otherwise the requirements seem relatively small: a 386 (SX, DX or any
486). Any video card of the following: Hercules, CGA, EGA, (S)VGA.

It needs at least 2M to run (with SWAP), and 4M is definitely a plus.
It can happily use up to 16M (and more if you want).

BTW There are problems with some MAXTOR drives on high speed machines
(sometimes switching off "turbo" helps). There may also be a problem
with "slow" memory (under 60ns) on fast machines. Again, the solution
is to turn off "turbo". Mixed SIMMs (3 and 9 chip versions) have also
reported to be problematic.

NOTE1: It doesn't run (yet?) on a MCA machine
NOTE2: There is a driver for XT but not tested by me (see below)
NOTE3: There is also a support for 8514 and S3.

From: [email protected] (Pat Mackinlay)
Subject: ANNOUNCE: New XT disk driver
Date: Tue, 15 Dec 1992 15:24:27 GMT

This is a short note to annouce the second release of the XT hard disk
drivers for Linux. This set of patches is for Linux 0.99 (pl0) and
should be available on tsx-11 under
/pub/linux/ALPHA/xtdisk/xtdisk2.tar.Z and
/pub/linux/ALPHA/xtdisk/README.xtdisk.

Just a brief introduction: this driver allows you to use XT-style (8
bit) hard drive controllers. The advantage of these is that you can
use them in conjunction with normal AT-style (16 bit) controllers,
IDE drives and SCSI drives. The major problem with them is the fact
that they are very slow, so swapping to one of these
controllers/disks is not recomended .


QUESTION: Will Linux run on a PC or 286-AT? If not, why?

ANSWER: Linux uses the 386 chip protected mode functions extensively,
and is a true 32-bit operating system. Thus x86 chips, x<3, will
simply not run it.


QUESTION: Will Linux run on a 386 Laptop?

ANSWER: It works, including X on most of them.


QUESTION: Why the suggested 4Meg, for Linux?

ANSWER: Linux uses the first 640k for kernel text, kernel data and
buffercache. Your mother board may eat up 384K because of the chipset.
Moreover there is: init/login, a shell, update possibly other daemons.
Then, while compiling there is make and gcc (2.01 ~770k).
So you don't have enough real memory and have to page.


QUESTION: How would this operate in an OS/2 environment?

ANSWER: Linux will coexist with *ANY* other operating system(s) which
respects the "standard" PC partionning scheme - this includes Dos,
Os/2, Minix etc.

WARNING: Linux and OS/2 *can* co-exist on the same machine. BUT, you
cannot use Linux's fdisk to make Linux partitions! See the warnings in
section III about Linux and OS/2.



QUESTION: (Dan) How long has Linux been publicly available?

ANSWER (partial): Few months, v0.10 went out in Nov. 91, v0.11 in Dec.
and the current version CURRENT_VERSION is available since
KERNEL_DATE. But even it is pretty recent it is quite reliable. There
are very few and small bugs and in its current state it is mostly
useful for people who are willing to port code and write new code. As
Linux is very close to a reliable/stable system, Linus decided that
v0.13 will be known as v0.95. Believe it or not: the whole story
started (nearly) with two processes that printed AAAA... and BBBB...
BTW consult the digest#136 Vol2 for a complete story.


QUESTION: What is the proper pronounciation for "Linux"?

ANSWER: (Linus himself)
'li' is pronounced with a short [ee] sound: compare prInt, mInImal etc.
'nux' is also short, non-diphtong, like in pUt. It's partly due to
minix: linux was just my working name for the thing, and as I wrote it
to replace minix on my system, the result is what it is... linus' minix
became linux.

I originally intended it to be called freax (although buggix was one
contender after I got fed up with some of the more persistent bugs ๐Ÿ™‚
and I think the kernel makefiles up to version 0.11 had something to
that effect ("Makefile for the freax kernel" in a comment). But arl
called the linux directory at nic.funet.fi pub/OS/Linux, and the name
stuck. Maybe just as well: freax doesn't sound too good either (freax
is obviosly free + freak + the obligatory -x).

(Rick's note for English speakers: Linux - "LIH-nuhks".)


QUESTION: What's about the copyright of linux?

ANSWER: This is an except of the RELEASE Notes v.095a: Linux is
NOT public domain software, but is copyrighted by Linus Torvalds. The
copyright conditions are the same as those imposed by the GNU
copyleft: The GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2, June 1991 is part
of the source tree.


QUESTION: Should I be a UNIX and/or a DOS wizard to install/use Linux?

ANSWER: Not at all, just follow the install rules, of course it will be
easier for you if you know things about Unix. Right now Linux is used
by more than BIGNUM persons, very few of them enhance the kernel, some
adds/ports new soft, most of us are only (but USEFUL) beta testers.
Last but not least, various Linuxers work on manpages, newuser_help,
file-system organization. So join us and choose your "caste".

It is even used in production environments (Dr. G.W. Wettstein)


QUESTION: Does Linux use TSS segments to provide multitasking?

ANSWER: Yes!


QUESTION: If my PC runs under Linux, is it possible to ftp, rlogin,
rsh etc.. to other Unix boxes?

ANSWER: Kermit and ka9q have both been ported to Linux. Also, TCP/IP is
quite reliable, only a few clients are missing.
Read section XI. devoted to Ethernet and Linux.


QUESTION: Does linux do paging? Can I have virtual memory on my small
machine?

ANSWER: Yes, it does. Generally you set up a swap file or partition, and
enable it with the "swapon" command. Voila! Virtual memory.


QUESTION: Can I have tasks spanning the full 4GB of addressable 386
memory? No more 64kB limits like in coherent or standard minix?

ANSWER: Since 0.97 it uses 4 GB Process Space, 3 for userspace and
1 for the kernel space.


QUESTION: Does the bigger program sizes mean I can run X?

ANSWER: Yes! See section XII below for details on X11.


QUESTION: What are the differences, pros and cons compared to Minix ?

ANSWER (partial):
Cons:
- Linux only works on 386 and 486 processors.
- Linux needs 2M of memory just to run, 4M to be useful.
- Linux is a more traditional unix kernel, it doesn't use message
passing.

Pros:
- Linux is free, and freely distributable, BUT copyrighted.
- Linux has some advanced features such as:
- Memory paging with copy-on-write
- Demand loading of executables
- Page sharing of executables
- Multi-threaded file system
- job control and virtual memory, virtual consoles and pseudo-ttys.
- Linux is a more traditional unix kernel, it doesn't use message
passing.


QUESTION: What are the pros and cons compared to 386BSD ?

ANSWER: Linux and 386BSD started out as completely different projects,
with completely different goals and design criteria in mind. Personally,
my experience with 386BSD has shown that :
(a) its TCP/IP is more stable, and seems to work (on my NE2000 card,
which Linux doesn't support yet), but
(b) the interface and "feel" just wern't the same as Linux (which I liked
better ๐Ÿ™‚ ). You'll have to try it out for yourself. Here's information
from comp.unix.bsd, September 1992:

| This is a free BSD for the 386. It does NFS and X.
| Grab it from agate.berkeley.edu (128.32.136.1).
| Bill Jolitz is writing a book on it.
|
| It has a neat, small kernel, and is stable enough to run for a week or
| more without crashing/hanging. It works fine with 4MB RAM and 80MB
| disk. Running X however needs 8MB RAM, and supports only vanilla VGA.
| The TCP/IP implementation in this is functional, but not optimised.
| This means that FTP throughput is about 5KB/sec on Ethernet, when
| almost anything else gives you about 70KB to 100KB per second.
|
| Read comp.unix.bsd. That is almost entirely Jolitz's 386BSD now.
|
| 3. How much disk space for:
| *kernel
| *X
| *source to kernel
| *source to X
| Binary only: 49 M (30 disk, 5 swap, 14 extraction)
| Source: 125 M (49 bin, 37 disk, +6 extraction, 25 recompile)
| User software: +51 M
|
| X Binaries require about 61 Meg (?)
| I don't know about the sources.


To conclude this Q/A wrt Linux vs 386BSD, you should read the Linux News
Issue #5 of L. Wirzenius, where a true story of Mark W. Eichin is
reported.


QUESTION: How much space will Linux take up on my hard drive?

ANSWER: It depends on which release you choose. See the section
INSTALLATION below. Usually it's somewhere between 10 megs (for a
nominal system+swap space) and 30-40 megs (for everything plus space
for user directories, etc.).

BTW the full SLS needs around 60 MB (including TeX and other goodies).


II. LINUX USEFUL ADDRESSES
=========================

II.A. LINUX ON THE NET: ftp, mailing-list
II.B. OBTAINING LINUX FROM BBS'S: everything about bbs

II.A. LINUX ON THE NET
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

QUESTION: Where can I get linux?

ANSWER: Linux (all the software, binaries, sources, releases, and so on),
can be retrieved via anonymous FTP from :

[ Major sites ]
EUROPE:
nic.funet.fi (128.214.6.100):
directory /pub/OS/Linux
ftp.informatik.tu-muenchen.de (131.159.0.110)
directory /pub/Linux

US:
tsx-11.mit.edu (18.172.1.2):
directory /pub/linux
sunsite.unc.edu (152.2.22.81):
directory /pub/Linux

[ Mirroring sites (some of them, there are lots now) ]

AUSTRALIA:
kirk.bu.oz.au (131.244.1.1)
directory /pub/OS/Linux

EUROPE:
src.doc.ic.ac.uk (146.169.3.7):
directory /pub/os/Linux
ftp.mcc.ac.uk (130.88.200.7):
directory pub/linux
ftp.dfv.rwth-aachen.de (137.226.4.105):
directory /pub/linux
ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de (137.226.112.172):
directory /pub/Linux
ftp.ibr.cs.tu-bs.de (134.169.34.15):
directory /pub/os/linux

JAPAN:
kuis.kyoto-u.ac.jp (130.54.20.1):
directory /Linux
/Linux/mirror (for the tsx mirror)
KOREA:
cair.kaist.ac.kr (143.248.11.170):
mirror of sunsite; directory pub/Linux

US:
wustl.wuarchive.edu (128.252.135.4):
directory /pub/mirrors4/linux
ftp.eecs.umich.edu (141.212.99.7):
directory linux


You might want to check out which of these is the most up-to-date.


If you have no FTP capability, you are in trouble. See the next Q/A.
Also, you'll need the "UNCOMP.EXE" and "RAWRITE2.EXE" programs for DOS
(to make your install disks). These are usually found in the Linux
directories on the above FTP sites.


QUESTION: I do not have FTP access, what can I do to get linux?

ANSWER: You can either read the next subsection related to BBS's
otherwise, read the following.

The SLS release is distributable by snail-mail on floppies for those
without net access; see the SLS section in section III of this FAQ for
more.

Try to contact a friend on the net with those access, or try
mailserver/ftpmail server otherwise contact [email protected] You
might try mailing "[email protected]" with "help" in the body of
the mail. If you choose ftpmail server (example: [email protected]),
with "help" in the body, the server will send back instructions and
command list. As an exemple to get the list of files available at tsx-11
in /pub/linux send:

mail [email protected]
subject: anything
reply
connect tsx-11.mit.edu
chdir /pub/linux
dir -R
quit

In Europe ftp.informatik.tu-muenchen.de is accessible via e-mail (send
"help" in the body to [email protected])


QUESTION: Is there a newsgroup or mailing-list about linux? Where can
I get my questions answered? How about bug-reports?

ANSWER: The comp.os.linux newsgroup is literally *teeming* with postings.
So, to the first question, yes. ๐Ÿ™‚ The older newsgroup, alt.os.linux,
is being phased out and shouldn't be used anymore.

If you don't have news access you can get the digest of postings via
e-mail from: [email protected] This list
is gatewayed to the newsgroup as well. Only use the 'request' address
for subscribe/unsubscribe messages; don't post those to the newsgroup
or to the actual mailing list.

Questions and bug-reports can be sent either to the newsgroup or to
Linus himself at "[email protected]", depending on which you
find more appropriate.


And last but not least there is the original mailing-list, which is
now a multi-channel list.
contact [email protected]


QUESTION: Could you be more explicit about the multi-channel list?

ANSWER: Well, there are many things to say:
- these channels are rather devoted to hackers
- the ones I am aware of are: GCC, MGR, X11, SCSI, NEW-CHANNELS,
MSDOS (emulator discussion) , NORMAL, KERNEL, FTP, LAPTOP, DOC,
NET, CONFIGS, LINUXNEWS ...
- whenever you want to JOIN or LEAVE a channel you have to
contact the request address
- you have to use special header (X-Mn-Key and Mn-Admin); X-Mn-Key
is *ONLY* for regular post, the X-Mn-Admin is for *REQUEST*

(Ari Lemmke: 1 Nov. 1992):
Hmmm.... It seems our list has now about 1500 users
in 21 channels (mailing lists). 3960 without uniq.

"echo foo | mail [email protected]"
to get the Mail-Net User Guide.

QUESTION: How can I join the channel XXX on the linux-activists
mailing list?

ANSWER: just send a mail to the request address with help in the body;
you will get back a mail which gives you the list of channels and the
way to join/leave them. Basically you send mail to the request address
with the line:
X-Mn-Admin: join


QUESTION: How can I leave the channel XXX on the linux-activists
mailing list?

ANSWER: Same as above, basically. You send mail to the request address
that contains the line:
X-Mn-Admin: leave

QUESTION: I'm not an hacker, what are the channels I could be interested
in?

ANSWER: Probably these are the most interesting for you (IMHO)

Channel NORMAL:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Channel normal is the former Linux-Activists mailing list
(all the people who were on the old Linux-Activists list
are moved to this channel).


Channel DOC:
~~~~~~~~~~~~
This channel is for Linux document "project". Discussion about Linux
documents, manuals, papers, etc.

Channel CONFIGS:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This channel will be devoted to send submissions of systems that have
Linux already running, AND those that, for any reason, can't get it
to work yet.

Mainly, what it's need from all the channel users is to send their
hardware configuration list (as complete as possible). Include
anything that you feel pertinent for information: CPU,
motherboard, RAM amount, HD & floppy controller, BIOS, monitor,
video card & memory, network adapter, etc. If you are having trouble
with your current system, or you find out that a program doesn't work
properly on your system due to a HARDWARE problem, it may be useful
for us to know your configuration; maybe you can get a lot of help.

Channel LINUXNEWS:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The LINUXNEWS channel will be used for distribution of Linux News, a
weekly (if I can find the time) summary of things that happen in the
Linux community. Discussion is not encouraged, if you have complaints
or suggestions, send them directly to me ([email protected]).

Channel NEW-CHANNELS:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
On the future users on this channel get the information about new
channels created.

By this way you can join the channels you want, and do not need to
send mail to Mail-Net info server or listen rumours.

QUESTION: Does there exist a place where the traffic of the newsgroup
is kept?

ANSWER: Yes, on nic and tsx-11 (see the ftp addresses above), and since
12th March, a Gopher server is up at beryl.daimi.aau.dk (130.225.16.86).
The archives go back to Nov. 18. 91. Also recently a WAIS server for the
linux mail archive has been setup at fgb1.fgb.mw.tu-muenchen.de. Contact
[email protected] for more info.

All back issues of the Digest are available on tsx-11.mit.edu
[18.172.1.2] in the following place(s):

pub/linux/mail-archive
~/Volume? /* where '?' in volume #
~/digestnnn.Z * and nnn is issue #
*/



II.B OBTAINING LINUX FROM BBS'S
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
*** This section is maintain by Zane Healy ([email protected])
*** Last Update November 1992.

QUESTION: I don't have access to FTP, how can I obtain Linux?

ANSWER: Linux is available from various BBS's around the world.

QUESTION: I got this FAQ from a local BBS, or a friend, and I see there
is a newsgroup called comp.os.linux . I don't have access to USENET or
mail, so how can I get the messages?

ANSWER: Some of the BBS's on FidoNet carry comp.os.linux as a FidoNet
conference. Also some of the other BBS's carry it in some form or other.

QUESTION: Do BBS's offer anything that the Internet does not?

ANSWER: Yes, on the information side there are the UNIX conferences on
both the RIME network and FidoNet. Although they are not dedicated to
linux, a large amount of the messages are linux related. Also at least
one software package being developed for linux, and also one port is
available via BBS's long before they are available via anonymous FTP.

QUESTION: What is a BBS?

ANSWER: A BBS is a Bulletin Board System, it let's you transfer
message's and file's via your phone line and all you need is a
computer with communications software and a modem. Some BBS's
transfer message's among each other forming large computer network's
similar to USENET. The most popular of these in the US are FidoNet
and RIME.

QUESTION: How can I get a (Near) complete list of BBS's that carry Linux?

ANSWER: I (Zane Healy) post a list of all known BBS's that carry Linux
to comp.os.linux as well as the RIME and Fidonet UNIX conferences on the
1st and 15th of each month.

QUESTION: Now that I have a phone number, how do I go about accessing a
BBS?

ANSWER:

1. You need a computer equipped with communications software and a modem.

2. For ALMOST all BBS's you will need to set the comm software up for:
8 - Data Bits
N - Parity
1 - Stop Bit

Although certain BBS's and Communication services require that the
software be set for:
7 - Data Bits
E - Parity
1 - Stop Bit

You will also need to set the comm software for the correct speed,
either the top speed, or the max speed for your modem.

3. Using the comm software, call the BBS. Once you connect with the
BBS (this may take awhile, as other people are likely to be using it),
you will be asked some questions.
If you are a registered user of the BBS it will normally only ask
for your name and password. However if you are not a registered user,
it will most likely require that before you do anything, you register.
The method of registration varies from BBS to BBS.
Normally the first thing that will happen is, you sign on to the
BBS, and tell it your name. It will then check it's list of user's
and see that you are not one of them. At which time it will ask you
if you are a new user, or if you wish to re-enter your name. When you
tell it you are a new user, it will then ask you some questions about
yourself, such as where you are calling from and your phone number. A
lot of BBS's will want some statistical info such as what type of
computer you are using, your communications software, your age, etc,
etc.
After this, most BBS's require some sort of validation, this is for
the System Operator's (SysOp's) protection. One type is where you
give the BBS software your phone number, hang up, and the BBS calls
your computer to verify that you gave it legitament phone number.
Some BBS's require that you mail the SysOp a postcard. Most, however
just require that you give the SysOp the request info and then he
upgrades your level of access a couple of day's later.
For the most part you will find that the registration process is
easy to follow and well documented.

QUESTION: There is a local BBS that carries Linux, but it isn't on the
latest Linux BBS List. How do I go about submitting it for inclusion in
the list?

ANSWER: Send the following information on the BBS to me:

BBS Name:
Phone Number:
Modem Speed:
City and State/Country:
Whatever Network it's on (i.e. FidoNet, RIME, etc.):
First Time access to D/L Linux Files (Y/N):
Free Access to Linux Files (Y/N):
Allow File Requests (Y/N):
BBS Rating (1-5):

I can be reached at one of the following E-Mail Addresses:
Internet -- [email protected]
CompuServe -- 70332,14
Prodigy -- SCNN49A
Fido NetMail -- Zane Healy at 1:109/615
RIME UNIX Conference -- Zane Healy

QUESTION: What can I do to help ensure the continued development of
Linux?

ANSWER: PLEASE UPLOAD FILES TO BBS'S

I would like to point out that a very large number of the Linux
enthusiasts don't have FTP access. In fact it is possible that by now
most of the Linux fan's don't. So I would like to suggest that those of
us that do, find at least one BBS to post the Linux file's to. I, for
one post every file that I get to at least one of the local BBS's, and
from there they the file's tend to find there way to other local BBS's.
I've seen posts about the future of Linux etc., well here is a way to
help guarantee it. I think it's safe to assume that most people with FTP
access also have a modem. So how about doing other Linux fan's a favor
and finding a BBS to upload the Linux files to.

QUESTION: How do I read the data contained in the Linux BBS List?

ANSWER: The list uses the following format:

State YYY BBS Name Phone Number Modem Speed
Rating City Other data

The BBS's are rated by the number of Linux related file's that they
carry. This is so you can choose one's that has a better chance of
carrying the file's you are looking for if you are calling long distance.
The BBS's are rated on a scale of one to five.

1 -- Only enough the most basic of files
2 -- The basics and a little more
3 -- So, so
4 -- A respectable amount
5 -- Pretty much everything you need

Information about the boards access policies can be obtained by
checking a three digit field.

YYY -- Either a Yes/No/? answer to the question
|||
||Free access to Linux files
|Allow file requests (FidoNet)
First time D/L of Linux related files

NOTE: Just because a board has N's in the first two fields does not
mean that it is a board to stay away from. A lot of boards require
that you register and be verified before you can access most of their
features, hence the first N. The second field is, to the best of my
knowledge, limited to BBS's that are part of FidoNet.

QUESTION: What are some of the best BBS's to check out?

ANSWER:

In the US:

CA YNY hip-hop 408-773-0768 14.4k V.32bis/HST
5 Sunnyvale Login: guest (no password)
DC NNY When Gravity Fails 202-686-9086 14.4k
5 Washington
FL ??? Slut Club 813-236-1232 14.4k
5 Tampa/St.Pete Fidonet 1:377/42
GA YYY Information Overload 404-471-1549 9600 HST
5 FidoNet 1:133/308
ID ??? Rebel BBS 208-887-3937 9600
5 Boise
IL YYY EchoMania BBS 618-233-1659 14.4k HST
3 Belleville Fido 1:2250/1 (f'reg LINUX)
F'reqs from unlisted nodes, online callback verifier (works L.D.)
MD ??? Brodmann's Place 301-843-5732 14.4k
5 Waldorf RIME ->BRODMANN
NC ??? MAC's Place 919-891-1111 DS modem
5 Dunn RIME ->MAC
NY YYY Prism BBS,Middleton 914-344-0350 9600 HST/v.32
5 Middletown, NY Fidonet 1:272/38
NY YYY The Laboratory 212-927-4980 16.8k HST, 14.4k v.32bis
3-4 FidoNet 1:278/707
OR YYY Intermittent Connection 503-344-9838 14.4k HST v.32bis
5 Eugene, Ore 1:152/35
TX YYY Advanced BBS 512-578-2720 9600
5 Victoria, TX Fidonet 1:3802/215
VA ??? VTBBS 703-231-7498
5 Blacksburg
WA YYY S'Qually Holler 206-235-0270 9600
5 Renton Fidonet 1:343/34

And here are all the known BBS's outside the US:

AUSTRALIA:
NSW YYN Linux-Support-Oz +61-2-418-8750 2400
2-3 Sydney Intlnet, SBCNet
? ??? 500cc Formula 1 BBS +61-2-550-4317 V.32
? (2-3)
CANADA:
ON ??? EX-10 Kitchner 519-725-4400
?
ON ??? Ned's Ottawa 613-739-1591
2
ON ??? Bytown 613-236-1232
2 SmartNet
PQ ??? Synapse 819-246-2344 819-561-5268
5 Gatineau RIME->SYNAPSE
GERMANY:
??? bakunin.north.de 00 49 421 870532 9600
? D 2800 Bremen [email protected]
??? ?????????????? +49-40-735-5349 14.4k
1
??? Hipposoft's Mail Server +49-241-875090 14.4k V.32bis/HST
3 D-W5100 Aachen Fidonet 2:242/6
IRELAND:
??? TOPPSI +353-1-711047 or 773547 9600
? Fidonet 2:263/151
NORWAY:
??? Thunderball Cave 472567018
? RIME ->CAVE ?
NETHERLANDS:
??? DownTown BBS Lelystad, Linux Support BBS 14.4k
? +31-3200-48852 FIDONET
SOUTH AFRICA:
??? Andre Skarzynski - Linux Activists of Southern Africa
? +27 2231 78148 (Is this voice or data?)
UNITED KINGDOM:
NYN The Purple Tentacle +44-734-590990 HST/V32bis
3-4 Reading Fidonet 2:252/305
??? A6 BBS +44-582-460273 14.4k
? Herts Fidonet 2:440/111


QUESTION: What are File Requests?

ANSWER: FidoNet BBS's with the right type's of front-end mailer's can
call other Fido BBS's and request their front-end mailer to send them
files that they want. All this can be done automatically. File
Requests (freqs) are basically the FidoNet equivallent to UUCP.


===================8<==========>8================--
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
# LaBRI | #
# 351 cours de la Liberation | e-mail: [email protected] #
# 33405 Talence Cedex | #
# | #
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--
There will be a sig when our local net is reliable.
For now, I would rather stay anonymous.

Archive-name: linux-faq/part2

Last-Modified: 93/02/18
Version: 1.16.1

*********************************************************
* *
* Answers to Frequently asked questions about Linux *
* *
*********************************************************

This post contains Part 2 of the Linux FAQ (4 parts).
It must be read *after* the first part.

================================8<=====8<==============================
CONTENTS (of this part)

III. INSTALLATION, and COMMON PROBLEMS (part2)
IV. SOME CLASSICAL PROBLEMS (part2)
V. LINUX and DOS (part2)

===================================8<====>8============================


III. INSTALLATION, SETUP, and COMMON PROBLEMS
=============================================
*** Note: this FAQ section should be kept up-to-date, and should
*** be the most 'reliable' source for installation info. Please mail
*** any corrections or changes to this section's coordinator,
*** Matt Welsh ([email protected]). Last update 9 Feb 93.

III.A. WHERE TO START: What are the reliable sources of information
III.B. LINUX PACKAGES: Where and how install a complete Linux package
III.C. SOME COMMON PROBLEMS: Simple problems and simple solutions

III.A. WHERE TO START
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

QUESTION: I want to install Linux on my machine. Where do I start?

ANSWER: The first thing you should do is read through the various
introductory files, and ESPECIALLY the FAQ (this file). Especially
this section :). A lot of effort has been done on these intro files,
but note that some of them conflict with each other and cover older
versions of Linux. When in doubt consult this file.

These files are all found on tsx-11.mit.edu:/pub/linux/docs...

FAQ
The Linux Frequently Asked Questions list
It's sitting in your hands now. This section is probably the best
place to start to get the most up-to-date Linux installation
information.

INFO-SHEET
Linux Information Sheet, by J. Winstead/L. Wizenius
This is a collection of general info about Linux. It's
a good place to start if you've never heard of the package
before.

README.kernel
Kernel compilation README file, by L. Wirzenius
This is the README notes for recompiling the Linux kernel from the
sources. You don't need it unless you're planning to upgrade
your kernel by compiling it yourself.

Others
Every "release" of Linux (such as SLS, boot/root, HLU's disks, etc.,
see below) has its own up-to-date README files and docs that explain
how to install that release. This FAQ section summarizes, but for more
info on how to install Linux, read the READMEs and docs for the release
that you choose.

Old docs
There are a number of obsolete, old docs lying around. Most of these
tell how to install Linux from the old boot/root disk combo. I DO NOT
SUGGEST that you use these docs unless you know what you're doing--
the best thing for beginners to do is read this FAQ and install the SLS
release (using the docs and READMEs for the SLS release).
These old docs are things like "install.txt", "guide.txt", "RELNOTES",
"CHANGES", and so on, and are all geared towards old versions of the
boot/rootdisk. They are *NOT* relevant to current versions of Linux.


QUESTION: Is there some kind of limit on how large my Linux partitions
and/or filesystems can be?

ANSWER: There's no limit on partition size (just the size of your drive),
but Linux mainly uses the minix filesystem which limits filesystems to
64 megs each. You can also use the extended filesystem (which is still
in testing, but has been included with recent kernel versions) which has
a limit of 4 terabytes. Probably enough unless you have a disk array. ๐Ÿ™‚

See section III.C below on creating partitions and filesystems for more info.


III.B. LINUX PACKAGES
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This section contains information about *SOME* of the current Linux
packages available.

QUESTION: Does there exist a way to get all (or nearly all) of the Linux
stuff?

ANSWER: Yes. To install Linux, you're going to want to choose one of the
"releases" of Linux, all of which have a different method of installation
and set up. Each release also has its own README and installation docs,
which you'll want to read first. But I'll summarize here. The major
releases are:

* The "Softlanding Linux System Release"
Also known as the "SLS" release, consists of 14 disks for Linux
and 8 for X11. The nice thing about this release is that you can
pick and choose which disks and packages you want to install. The
first 2 disks must be "rawritten" (using rawrite.exe) on floppies,
and the rest of the images are put onto DOS format floppies.
Contains all of the softs you'll ever need, and is easy to install
for newcomers.

This is the release that I suggest everyone new to Linux should
install. It's the most complete and up-to-date package. HLU's
disks, below, are good for upgrading, and (unfortunately),
the MCC-interim is quite dated at this point. If you install
SLS you'll save yourself a lot of trouble.

* The "TAMU" (Texas A&M University) Linux Release
This release is supposedly like the SLS release, but has some
different softs and a different installation procedure. From Dave
Safford, "The installation procedure is the main difference from
SLS. A single boot diskette is used, and it boots directly into
an automated installation program." This installation program
asks a few questions about the desired configuration, and sets up
everything, including your filesystems, booting from the hard
drive with LILO (see section III.C below), and a simplified
X-Windows configuration.

This humble author has never installed the TAMU release but I've
heard good things about it.

* H.J. Lu's "bootable rootdisk"
This is a release of the Linux kernel and basic binaries on
a single floppy. It, along with HLU's 'gccdisk', 'libdisk',
and so on, are good for upgrading or installing basic
Linux system by hand. It's not reccommended for newcomers,
because there's no real install script, it's mostly meant
as an upgrade of the basic system software. Beginners should
install SLS or MCC-interim (see below) instead.
The images and docs are found at tsx-11.mit.edu:/pub/linux.

* Others but OUTDATED
There are other releases and distributions of the Linux software,
such as the "MCC-Interim" and "MJ" releases. There is also an older
"boot/root" disk combo (0.98.1) which is like HLU's bootable
rootdisk, above, but it's no longer supported (as far as I know).

The MCC-Interim release (the previous de facto Linux standard)
isn't going to be updated anymore, according to Owen LeBlanc. So
if you install it, be warned that you'll have to upgrade it all
in some other way (the last version of MCC-Interim was 0.97.2,
quite dated).

The "MJ" release, according to Martin Junius, is no longer
maintained. The last version was 0.97.1.

QUESTION: Where can I get these versions of Linux?

ANSWER:

The SLS release is at tsx-11.mit.edu:/pub/linux/packages/SLS and
sunsite.unc.edu:/pub/Linux/SLS.

H.J. Lu's "bootable rootdisk" release is found at tsx-11.mit.edu:
/pub/linux/packages/GCC, as well as the mirror sites.

TAMU.99p4 is available from sc.tamu.edu in pub/free_unix/TAMU.99p4.


QUESTION: What should I do to install the SLS release?

ANSWER: Basically all of the releases are alike. You need to get the
DOS program 'rawrite.exe' (or 'rawrite2.exe'). This program takes a
binary file and writes it, block by block, to a blank formatted
floppy. This is the way to take a Linux floppy image and put it onto a
disk from DOS.

For the SLS release, you need to get the files in the a1, a2, a3, and
a4 directories at least. You also need the README's there. Basically,
you use rawrite to copy the a1 and a2 images onto floppies. Or, you
can use 'dd' on your UNIX system to transfer the files directly to
floppies (assuming you have a floppy drive on your UNIX system) in
place of rawrite.

The rest of the files all go onto DOS-formatted floppies, just using
DOS copy. The SLS release is nice because it reads the DOS floppies
during installation, so you don't have to rawrite all of those disks.

Once you have these 4 disks, you're ready to go. You can also get all
of the files in the b1-b7 directories (for extras, like man pages and
emacs), c1-c4 directories (for the GCC compiler and libraries), the
x1-x8 directories (for Xwindows), and so on, but they're all optional.
I suggest at least getting the files in the a, b, and c directories.
Remember that only the a1 and a2 images need to be rawritten, ALL of
the other files just do onto the floppies in DOS format.

First you boot the a1 disk. It will load up Linux, and will ask you to
put in the a2 disk at some point. You'll be left with a prompt... from
here you want to look at the SLS README file on-line (it tells you
how). Then you'll run 'fdisk' to create your Linux partition(s), and
then reboot the a1 disk again (putting in the a2 disk, again, when
asked). Then you'll run 'mkfs' and 'mkswap' to make your filesystems
and swap space. Then you're ready to install the software-- type
doinstall /dev/PART

where PART is the main Linux partition you created with fdisk, above.
>From here on it's pretty automatic-- you simply flip disks while it
installs the software. First it will ask you how much software you
plan to install-- just choose the correct option depending on which
sets of disks you got.

You will need to have a blank DOS-formatted floppy on hand. The
installation procedure makes a Linux kernel boot disk out of it.

QUESTION: What's about SLS ?

ANSWER: (this is part of the FAQ written for SLS 0.98p5 by Peter
MacDonald).
SLS (Softlanding Linux System) Copyright 1992, Softlanding Software.

which is NOT just an image dump of someones Unix system.

Also note that in the interest of preventing ftp storms, the version
of SLS that appears on the internet, is not quite the same as the
version distributed by Softlanding. Softlanding regularly gets a
whole new version which has the changes integrated. But the updates
to the Internet version are tailored to minimize the amount that has
to be downloaded to become current. That is why bugs manage to creep
in on me. I am not installing and testing the Internet version,
although, functionally, it should be quite close to the Softlanding
one.

So, why am I telling you this? After the next period of stability
(few changes to SLS), I will be uploading the Softlanding version of
SLS to tsx-11.mit.edu.

This distribution is freely available if you have internet
access, or an obliging friend with access to it.

The purposes of the SLS are the following:
0) provide an initial installation program (for the queasy).
1) utilities compiled to use minimal disk space.
2) provide a reasonably complete/integrated U*ix system.
3) provide a means to install and uninstall packages.
4) permit partial installations for small disk configs.
5) add a menu driven, extensible system administration.
6) take the hassle out of collecting and setting up a system.
7) give non internet users access to Linux.
8) provide a distribution that can be easily updated.

SLS is a binary mostly distribution (except for the kernel), and is
broken into multiple parts, or series, each of which is denoted by a
letter followed by the disk number as follows:

a1-aN: The minimal base system
b1-bN: Base system extras, like man pages, emacs etc.
c1-cN: The compiler(s), gcc/g++/p2c/f2c
x1-xN: The X-windows distribution
i1-iN: Interviews (doc and idraw)
t1-tN: TeX (document processing)

This scheme allows new disks to be added to the distribution without
changing the disk numbering. Also, the sysinstall program doesn't
have to be changed when new disks are added as the last disk is marked
by the presence of the file "install.end". And when interviews is
added, say as a new series "i", it can be installed with:

sysinstall -series i

Highlights of the base are: gcc/g++, emacs, kermit, elm/mail/uucp,
gdb, sc (spreadsheet), man pages, groff, elvis, zip/zoo/lh and menu.
Highlights of X are: X, programmers libs, 75 dpi fonts, games (spider,
tetris, xvier, chess, othello, xeyes, etc) and utilities like xmag,
xmenu, xcolormap and ghostscript. Approximate usage is as follows:

Tiny base system: 9 Meg (Series 'a')
Main base system: 25 Meg (Series 'a', 'b' and 'c')
Main base system + X11: 45 Meg (Series 'a', 'b', 'c' and 'x')

Please read the file COPYING which outlines the GNU copying
restrictions. The linux kernel is copywrite Linux B. Torvalds.
Various other copywrites apply, but the upshot is that you
may do whatever you like with SLS, except restrict others
in any way from doing likewise, and you must leave all copywrites
intact, and you can not misrepresent or take credit for others work.

AVAILABILITY

SLS is available from the address:

Softlanding Software
910 Lodge Ave.
Victoria, B.C., Canada
V8X-3A8
(604) 360-0188

More details about SLS can be asked to [email protected]


QUESTION: What should I get to install the bootdisk/rootdisk combo
release?

ANSWER: Essentially it's a lot like the SLS installation, above. You
get the boot disk and root disk, and use rawrite to transfer them to
floppies. Then you boot the boot disk, and put in the root disk when
asked. At this point you login as 'install' to install the software.


QUESTION: How do I get and install H.J. Lu's "bootable rootdisk" release?

ANSWER: It's just like the boot/root disk and the SLS release. Just
get the bootroot disk image and use rawrite to transfer it to a
floppy, and then boot it. You'll probably want to get the 'gccdisk'
and 'libdisk', etc. images and rawrite them to floppies as well. Note
that this release doesn't have a user-friendly installation script,
it's meant mostly to upgrade or install the system by hand. Unless
you're familiar with Linux this may prove difficult. ๐Ÿ™‚


QUESTION: What is the MCC interim version of Linux?

ANSWER: The MCC-Interim release of Linux was put together by Owen
LeBlanc of the Manchester Computing Centre. Unfortunately, it's quite
dated, and isn't going to be updated anymore. ๐Ÿ™



III.C. SOME COMMON PROBLEMS
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

QUESTION: How do I make partitions and/or filesystems for Linux?

ANSWER: For most Linux installations (such as SLS) you'll need at
least two partitions: one for swap space (used as virtual memory) and
another for your "root filesystem" (that is, the actual Linux software
itself). You can also make seperate partitions for your /usr
filesystem, etc. (however, the SLS doinstall program, at this point,
mounts your root filesystem for you before installing, thus, you can't
have a seperate /usr filesystem to start out with).

But that's beside the point. First thing you need to do is resize the
existing partitions on your drive (if any) to make space for Linux;
for example, if you have a DOS partition taking up all of your drive,
you need to use FDISK under MS-DOS to delete it and recreate it with a
smaller size. Of course, in so doing you'll lose everything on that
DOS partition-- just back it up first and reinstall after you've
recreated and reformatted the partition. That's life! ๐Ÿ™‚

Now you can boot up Linux (say, from SLS, or from the boot/root disks).
>From there you run 'fdisk' to create your partitions: it's very self-
explanatory. If you make a swap partition you need to change it's type
to "Linux swap" with the fdisk 't' command.

And, if you want a Linux partition larger than 64 megabytes, you'll
need to use the extended filesystem (as opposed to the default, the
Minix filesystem). The extended filesystem ("extfs" for short) has a
4 terabyte size limit (and lets you have filenames longer than 14
characters). If you want to use it just set the type of the partition
to "Linux extfs" with the fdisk 't' command.

NOTE: "Extended filesystem" does NOT equal "extended partition". An
extended partition acts as a "container" for logical partitions, which
is nice because you can have many logical partitions inside the
extended partition, and only use up one of your four available primary
partitions on the drive. (You can have only one extended partition
per drive). Extended partition can't hold data on their own: you need
to create logical partitions on top of it first. They are numbered
/dev/hda5, /dev/hda6, and so on.

The extended FILESYSTEM on the other hand has nothing to do with
extended partitions. It's just the name of another filesystem used by
Linux which lets you have larger filesystem sizes and other features.

Once you've got your partitions created, you need to reboot the system
so that changes to your partition table are picked up. Then you need
to 'format' the partitions (i.e. create filesystems on them). For your
swap partition, use the command 'mkswap '. For
example, if you have a swap partition on /dev/hda2 with a size of 8208
blocks (about 8 megs), use the command
mkswap /dev/hda2 8208

If you have a partition set up for a Minix filesystem (the default
type) use the command 'mkfs '. If however you're
going to use the extended filesystem (a must for partitions over 64
megs) use the command 'mkefs '.


QUESTION: Linux mkfs doesn't accept the size I give the device,
although I double-checked with fdisk, and it's correct.

ANSWER: Be sure you give the size in Linux BLOCKS (1024 bytes), not
sectors. Also make sure that you have the right partition: partitions
are numbered "/dev/hda1", "/dev/hda2", and so on (and "/dev/hdb1",
"/dev/hdb2" for the second hard drive)... DON'T use "/dev/hda" or
"/dev/hdb" as they correspond to the entire disk, not just single
partitions.

Also remember that SCSI drives use /dev/sda1, /dev/sda2... and
/dev/sdb1, /dev/sdb2, and so on for their partitions.


QUESTION: How can I get mkfs/mkefs to check for bad blocks?

ANSWER: Unfortunately the -c option on mk(e)fs does not work; it
cannot detect bad blocks on the drive, and thus if you create a
filesystem over a part of your hard drive with bad blocks, things will
eventually go wrong. So you need to generate a bad block list (in a
file) and use the -l option on mk(e)fs so it will flag those blocks
when making a filesystem.

NOTE: This is only needed for older RLL and MFM drives. SCSI and IDE
drives have bad block logic on-board.

Generating a bad block list for mk(e)fs
=======================================
Nov 11, 1992 Gerhard Kircher ([email protected])

Introduction
------------
First of all: the -c option (check bad
blocks) of mk(e)fs does not work (the code used cannot detect any bad
blocks). Fortunately there is another option -l to tell
mk(e)fs where the bad blocks are. SCSI and IDE drive users do not
need any bad block management - the drive logic does it for them.
However, users of old MFM or RLL drives do need it.

1 Where are my bad blocks ?
---------------------------
Every MFM or RLL drive is tested by the manufacturer and the locations
of bad blocks are usually printed directly on the drive case. If you
cannot find any bad block information on your drive, you can use the
common disk test software (Norton,...) to check your drive and obtain
a defect list.

Locations of bad blocks are given in terms of cylinder and head
coordinates. Cylinder and head together specify a certain track. Some
manufacturers are more specific about the location of the bad spot
within the track but if you know how to use this information you
probably do not need to read this guide. So if we know the track
where the bad spot sits, we declare the entire track as bad (even
experts do this).

What we have now is a table of the form

CYLINDER HEAD
... ...
... ...
... ...


2 calculating all bad sectors
-----------------------------
Each sector on the drive can be addressed by three cordinates:
Cylinder = [0..CYLINDERS-1]
Head = [0..HEADS-1]
Sector = [0..SECTORS-1]
where
CYLINDERS ... total number of cylinders
HEADS ... total number of heads
SECTORS ... number of sectors per track

The absolute address of a sector on the disk is then calculated
according to the formula

Abssector = HEADS*SECTORS*Cylinder + SECTORS*Head + Sector.

We can now calculate the absolute addresses of all sectors
of every bad track on our disk according to

for each bad track given by Cylinder and Head do
begin
for Sector=0 to SECTORS-1 do
begin
Abssector = HEADS*SECTORS*Cylinder + SECTORS*Head + Sector
end
end

obtaining a list of all bad sectors.


3 Converting absolute sectors to partition relative sectors
-----------------------------------------------------------
Partitions are like separate disks, that means that sector counting
starts with 0 for each partition. So what we have to do next is to
generate a bad sector list for each partition we want to use for
linux. To do that, we must know where each partition starts and ends.
We can get this information from fdisk. When we start fdisk and type
'p' to view the partition table, the begin, start and end information
will be given in terms of cylinders. When we type 'u' to toggle the
units, an then again 'p' we get what we need: Start and End of each
partition in terms of absolute sectors. Here is what I see on my
system (I use my second disk for linux):

# fdisk /dev/hdb

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/hdb: 8 heads, 17 sectors, 1024 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 136 * 512 bytes

Device Boot Begin Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/hdb1 1 1 963 65483+ 81 Linux/MINIX
/dev/hdb2 964 964 1024 4148 82 Linux swap

Command (m for help): u
Changing display/entry units to sectors

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/hdb: 8 heads, 17 sectors, 1024 cylinders
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 bytes

Device Boot Begin Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/hdb1 1 1 130967 65483+ 81 Linux/MINIX
/dev/hdb2 130968 130968 139263 4148 82 Linux swap

Sector counting (as counting always should do ๐Ÿ™‚ starts with 0.
The first partition begins with sector one, as sector 0 is
always the boot sector.

This is how we calculate the addresses for one partition:

a) From the list obtained in section 2, cancel all addresses
that are not in the range [Start..End] (including limits)
shown by fdisk.
b) Subtract Start from each remaining entry.


4 Converting to blocks
----------------------
A disk sector has a length of 512 bytes (this is the usual size
BIOS/DOS can handle). Linux groups two sectors to an entity called
block. A block therefore consists of two physical sectors and has a
size of 1024 bytes (I read somewhere that larger blocks will be
supported in the future). The mk(e)fs program wants to know the
addresses of bad blocks, not sectors. So we convert our partition
relatve sector addresses to partition relative block addresses by
dividing by two and taking the integer part. Doing that we certainly
get a lot of duplicate addresses which we have to get rid of, so we
simply delete redundant entries.

What we have now is a list of bad blocks for each partition. Mk(e)fs
likes to get this information from a file, one address per line, one
file for each partition.


5 Automating the process
------------------------
Doing all the calculations by hand is tedious and error prone.
So we may decide to automate the whole thing.
We can do everything in dos when we use the proper utilities
(see later)

5.1 The Input File

We need a single file containing the coordinates of all bad tracks of
one entire disk. Each line of the file consists of two fields, the
first of which is the cylinder number and the second is the head
number. These are the first few lines of the file for my second disk:

48 0
105 4
150 2
224 1
380 2
427 6
435 1


5.2 An AWK script for doing all the calculations

In the following we present an awk script that does all the work for
us. We just have to plug in the correct values of the partition and
drive parameters and off we go. I use gawk211.zip and sort03.arc
which I downloaded from a simtel20 mirror. Sort is used to remove the
duplicates.

#---the awk script starts here
# generates linux bad blocks file (starting count with 0)
# for partition ONE
# for micropolis drive 8 heads, 17 sectors
# input file: cyl[0.. ] head[0.. ]\n
# stdout: abs blocks of corresponding partition\n
BEGIN { start = 1;
end = 130967;
sectors = 17;
heads = 8;
}
{ sec=$1*sectors*heads+$2*sectors;
if (sec>=start && sec<=end)
for (i=0; i }
#---the awk script ends here

Suppose that our input file is named 'badtrack.lst' and that the awk
file is 'part1.awk', then we can generate a bad block list for mk(e)fs
by typing the command

gawk -f part1.awk badtrack.lst > badblk1.lst

This is the file we need.

5.3 Making the file system

What we must do now is to have this file accessible for linux during
installation. There are several ways to do this. You can either mount
your DOS partition and copy the file over to Linux, or use mtools (as
in 'mcopy c:badblk1.lst /user/badblocks').

Now we can make the file system. In this case the bad blocks file is
in /user/badblocks, and the partition we're making a filesystem on is
/dev/hdb1. We're making an extended filesystem with a size of 65483
blocks:

mkefs -l /user/badblocks /dev/hdb1 65483

Thats it!


Bugs
----
I only tried mkfs but I'm rather convinced that it works with
mkefs as well.


QUESTION: How can I boot Linux off of my hard drive?

ANSWER: You need to install the "LILO" program which changes the boot
sector of your hard drive to allow you to choose between a DOS or a
Linux partition to boot from. These programs are provided with most
major releases, or you can get them seperately from one of the FTP
sites.

As of LILO version 8 there is a "quick install" script available which
should make LILO installation quick and easy. See Section VII for LILO
information.


QUESTION: Cripes! I tried to install LILO, but screwed up somehow, and
now can't boot anything from the hard drive. How can I fix this?

ANSWER: Simple. First you need an MS-DOS 5.0 bootable floppy with
FDISK.EXE on it. Boot it and run the command
FDISK /MBR
which will (hopefully) restore your hard drive's master boot record to
a standard MS-DOS boot record. Now you can go back and reinstall LILO.
๐Ÿ™‚


QUESTION: When installing SLS, I get the error "You may have inserted
the wrong disk" when putting in the next disk in a series. What's
going on?

ANSWER: Each disk has a small file on it which contains the name of
the disk. For example, the SLS a3 disk has a file on it called
"diska3". If it doesn't exist, or is named something else (like
"diska3.z"), then just create it/rename it.

Also, the last disk in a series (i.e. the a4 disk, b5 disk, etc.) has
a file on it called "install.end". You need this file as well. These
files are used by the SLS doinstall program to keep track of where it
is.



QUESTION: When installing SLS, the installation script creates a "boot
floppy" for me to boot Linux with. How can I make these myself (or fix
problems with them?)

ANSWER: The SLS install scripts just copy the kernel image to a blank
floppy for you to boot Linux with. When SLS is installed, a copy of
the kernel is stored in the file /Image on your hard drive: since you

use the kernel on your boot floppy to boot, this file isn't used
during the bootup process (unless you install LILO).

To make a boot floppy yourself, you must do two things:
1) Run 'rdev' (a.k.a. 'rootdev') on the kernel in the file /Image to set
the root partition it uses. For example, if your root partition is
/dev/hda3, run the command
rdev /Image /dev/hda3
2) Copy the kernel to a new floppy. You may need to DOS format the floppy
first (who knows why). Then run the command
cp /Image /dev/fd0
if the floppy is in /dev/fd0 (the first floppy drive). You can use a
command like
dd if=/Image of=/dev/fd0 bs=16k
as well; they should accomplish the same thing.

Many folks have problems with their SLS boot disks made in this manner
because they forgot to run 'rdev' on the kernel image before copying
it to the floppy.


QUESTION: When I login as non-root, I get tons of errors about
"shell-init: permission denied". Also, some things work as root but
not as a normal user. What's the deal?

ANSWER: This is a really common problem which comes from not having
permissions set right and a misunderstanding of some UNIX terms. Some
installations won' t have the file permissions set correctly on the
various directories that normal users (i.e. non-root) will use. For
example, if your user directories are in /home, then /home must be of
mode rwxr-xr-x, or 'chmod 755 /home'. Also, a home directory must be
owned by the user who it belongs to (i.e. /home/mdw must be owned by
'mdw'... just 'chown mdw /home/mdw', for example). Also, the
permissions must be set correctly for / (the root directory). Here's a
list of permissions that should work (although you can use other
permissions, these are just suggestions that shouldn't cause trouble):

permissions (chmod) owner file
----------- ------- ----- ---------------------------------------------
rwxr-xr-x (755) root /
rwxr-xr-x (755) root /home
rwxr-xr-x (755) mdw /home/mdw
rwxr--r-- (744) mdw /home/mdw/.profile (or other startup files)
rwxr--r-- (744) mdw /home/mdw/foo (normal files)

In most cases the group of the file doesn't matter, but in general
most files are set to group 'root' (except for binaries which are
group bin, and so on) and user files are set to group 'user' (or
whatever group users are in).

In general you want directories that everyone can access to be
rwxr-xr-x (chmod 755). Files that everyone can read are rwxr--r--
(chmod 744), and programs that everyone can run are rwxr-xr-x (chmod
755).

Thus /bin, /usr, /usr/bin, /etc, and so on, should all be rwxr-xr-x.
All binaries should be rwxr-xr-x (unless, of course, they're setuid
programs). For UNIX newbies, setuid programs run under the user id of
the owner, thus programs owned by root which have a permission of
rwsr-xr-x (note the 's') run as root, with root's priveleges. So
before changing permissions on a program check to see if it's setuid
first. To make a program setuid prepend a '4' to the permissions you
give to chmod, i.e. rwsr-xr-x is 'chmod 4755'.

Here's a list of common uses for permissions:

permission effect on files effect on directories
---------- ----------------------- ---------------------------------
read lets you look lets you see what's in the directory
at a file, lets you with ls
run a shell script

write lets you edit a file or lets you delete a file from the
copy over it directory (*)

execute lets you run a binary or lets you cd into the directory
shell script

(*) Note that you can delete a file from a directory even if you DON'T
have write access to the file itself! Write access to the DIRECTORY
that the file is in will let you delete any file in that directory.
The permissions of the file itself have nothing to do with being able
to delete a file. This is standard across all UNIX systems, nothing

new with Linux.


QUESTION: I have the previous Linux version, how can I upgrade it?

ANSWER: If you've never done this before, get the kernel sources from
your nearest FTP site (in a file named something like linux-*.tar.Z)
and unpack them into /usr/src/linux. As of Linux-0.99 there is a
script to autoconfigure your kernel, and you need at least GCC version
2.3.3. First run 'make config' and answer the various questions. Then
edit /usr/src/linux/Makefile to set the root partition, keyboard, etc.
Finally, do a 'make dep' (to set dependencies: VERY important!) and
finally 'make'. Assuming you have GCC installed correctly, the kernel
should compile and you'll be left with a new "Image" which is your new
kernel: if you boot from harddrive, copy the Image to wherever you
told LILO to look for it, or if you boot from floppy dd the Image to a
new floppy. Make sure that you run "rdev" on the Image to make it look
for the correct partition for your root filesystem (if you specified
this correctly in the Makefile you don't need to do this).

** Make sure you read /usr/src/linux/README, which explains in detail
** what to do when recompiling the kernel.

If you HAVE done this before, you can just apply the source patches to
your old sources and then recompile (i.e. you don't have to get the
entire kernel sources all over again). Use the "patch" program to do
this. Before you recompile the kernel do a 'make dep' to set
dependencies and a 'make clean'.


QUESTION: Where is /usr/include/linux and /usr/include/asm, or,
Why won't the kernel compile correctly?

ANSWER: The files /usr/include/linux and /usr/include/asm are symbolic
links to /usr/src/linux/include/linux and /usr/src/linux/include/asm,
respectively. In other words, all of the Linux include files are
actually under /usr/src/linux/include, but to access them you need two
symbolic links in /usr/include:
/usr/include/linux -> /usr/src/linux/include/linux
/usr/include/asm -> /usr/src/linux/include/asm
To make these, run the commands
ln -sf /usr/src/linux/include/linux /usr/include/linux
ln -sf /usr/src/linux/include/asm /usr/include/asm
NOT the other way around. ๐Ÿ™‚ If you dont have these links then many
compilations will surely fail.


QUESTION: How can I upgrade to the newest version of GCC?

ANSWER: See section IX on GCC for more information, but essentially
all you need to do is FTP to sunsite.unc.edu (or one of the other
Linux FTP sites) and look in /pub/Linux/GCC. You'll see a number of
.tar.Z files there (often abbreviated .TZ). The names change from time
to time: you need to get the compiler (often in a file such as
'gcc233.TZ'), header files, and library files. At this point, the
compiler lives in /usr/bin, the compiler's setup files are under
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-linux, and the libraries (shared, jump table,
and static) are all in /usr/lib. It's all very straightforward once
you actually unpack the tar files and everything falls into place.


QUESTION: What's the deal with these things called "jump tables"?

ANSWER: There's more information in section IX and VII, but to be
brief: There are three kinds of libraries for Linux. As of gcc v2.3.3
they all live in /usr/lib. The files are...
/usr/lib/*.a static (non-shared) libraries (use gcc -static ...)
/usr/lib/*.ca classic shared lib stubs (use gcc -nojump ...)
/usr/lib/*.sa jump table shared lib stubs (use gcc -jump ...)
When you compile a program, depending on the options you give gcc
(-jump is the default) it will link it against one set of these
libraries. The static libs contain all of the code and thus make your
executable very big; no shared code is used. The classic shared libs
are actually 'stubs' which reference the shared code in
/lib/libc.so.VERSION (where VERSION is a number like '4.2').
/lib/libc.so.VERSION is a file which contains the actual code of the
library, which is accessed at runtime by your executable. The
jump-table library stubs are also shared libs, but they are built in
such a way that you can upgrade the /lib/libc.so.VERSION file without
having to recompile the programs that use it.

So when we say "uses Jump Tables version 4.2" we mean it uses the
actual library itself, /lib/libc.so.4.2. To compile programs that use
jump tables version 4.2 you need the right version of /usr/lib/*.sa
installed, but you don't need them to RUN programs that use jump
tables.

However programs that are compiled to use, for example, jump table
version 4.2 (in the file /lib/libc.so.4.2) won't work if you only have
libc.so.4.1 installed. They're only backwards-compatible. If you get
errors about 'can't find /lib/libc.so.4.1' then the executable you're
using is looking at runtime for a jump table version that you don't
have. Basically you're safe if you have the most recent version of the
/lib/libc.so.VERSION file installed (which is found on
sunsite.unc.edu:/pub/Linux/GCC and comes with the GCC stuff).

You should always have a symbolic link with the major version number
of the library in /lib, because that's what's actually read. For
instance, if you have /lib/libc.so.4.2 installed, then you need the
symbolic link
/lib/libc.so.4 -> /lib/libc.so.4.2
Make this with the command
ln -s /lib/libc.so.4.2 /lib/libc.so.4

QUESTION: How to upgrade jump tables? (Without hanging my system)

ANSWER: Be careful! If you upgrade your /lib/libc.so.VERSION file and
either remove the symlink or delete the old libc.so.VERSION file
before the new one is in place (and the link points to it), then more
than likely all of your binaries like "cp", "mv", "ls" and "ln" use
the library, so they'll all stop working once you kill the link or the
library file. So to upgrade the file, copy the new version to /lib and
switch the link in one step with a command such as
ln -sf /lib/libc.so.NEW_VERSION /lib/libc.so.4
where NEW_VERSION is the new version of the library you're installing.
This will switch the link in one step and everything should work. You
just can't copy over the old file because the old version is in use by
'cp', 'mv', and so on.


QUESTION: How can I be sure I won't be writing over anything important
when installing Linux? I have to use DOS on my machine, and I don't
want to lose any files.

ANSWER: Back up everything. Just in case. As long as your DOS and
Linux partitions don't overlap you should be okay.


QUESTION: I just rebooted my machine, and now Linux dies with a
"panic: trying to free unused inode". What's going on?

ANSWER: You probably forgot to "sync" before rebooting, which stores
on the disk physically the contents of the kernel buffers. You can
either run "fsck" on the partition to TRY to correct the problem (it
might fail), or re-mkfs and re-install the software on that partition.
For the extended filesystem use "efsck" instead.

The best way to shutdown your system is the "shutdown" command. To
shutdown and reboot the system, use
shutdown -r now
or substitute a number of minutes in place of "now". Leave off the
"-r" switch if you just want to shutdown and not reboot.


QUESTION: Can I use both OS/2 and Linux on my machine??

ANSWER: Yes! See the following two Q/A's about getting your OS/2 Boot
Manager to work. But, be warned: IF YOU USE OS/2, DO NOT USE LINUX's
FDISK TO CREATE LINUX PARTITIONS!! The problem is with a bug/feature
in OS/2's fdisk that tries to correct 'errors' in partitions that it
doesn't like... Linux partitions included. The solution: make your
Linux partitions with OS/2's fdisk, then use Linux's fdisk to change
the partition ID's to the right values (this is self-explanatory with
Linux's fdisk).

If you made your Linux partitions with Linux's fdisk, and OS/2 sees
them, it will think they have errors and end up trashing them.


QUESTION: I use OS/2's Boot Manager on my hard drive. How can I get it
to recognize Linux?

ANSWER: To do this, install LILO on your Linux root partition, NOT on
your hard drive's master boot record. The lilo command for this would
be (if /dev/hda3 is your Linux root partition, and your Linux kernel
is in /Image):

/etc/lilo/lilo -c -b /dev/hda3 -v -v /Image

Then use OS/2's fdisk to add it to the Boot Manager.


QUESTION: When I run Linux's fdisk it says "OPUS" for OS/2's Boot
Manager partition. Is this right? What's OPUS?

ANSWER: It's correct. OPUS is BBS software that used partition type
0x0A long before OS/2.


QUESTION: (Denise Tree)
Where is /usr/include/linux and /usr/include/asm?" or "Why
won't my new kernel source compile without errors?", etc.

ANSWER: These directories exist as symbolic links to the online linux
kernel source found (usually) in /usr/src/linux/include/linux/* and
/usr/src/linux/include/asm/*. Do:

ln -fs /usr/src/linux/include/linux /usr/include/linux
ln -fs /usr/src/linux/include/asm /usr/include/asm

to create the symlinks. OR ELSE! It's a good idea to keep kernel
source on your system because the header files are needed for
compilations other than the kernel.



IV. SOME CLASSICAL PROBLEMS
===========================

QUESTION: While running du I get "Kernel panic: free_inode: bit
already cleared". Also, du produces a ENOENT error for all the files
in certain of my directories. What's going on?

ANSWER: These are both consistent with a bad file-system. That's
relatively easy to produce by not syncing before rebooting, as linux
usually has 1.5MB of buffer space held in memory (unless you have <=4M
RAM, in which case the buffers are only about 0.5MB). Also linux
doesn't do anything special about the bit-map blocks, and as they are
used often, those are the thing most likely to be in memory. If you
reboot, and they haven't been written to disk ...

Just do an fsck on the device, the -a flag might repair it otherwise,
the only thing to do is to reinstall the filesystem from the Images.

A sync is done only every 30 seconds normally (standard unix
practice), so do one by hand (some people think you should do 3 syncs
after each other, but that's superstition), or by logging out from the
startup-shell, which automatically syncs the system. Unmounting a
filesystem also syncs it (but of course you can never unmount root).

Another (sad) possibility is that you have bad blocks on your disk.
Not very probable, as they would have to be in the inode-tables, just
a couple of blocks in size. Again there aren't programs available to
read a disk for bad sectors and put them in some kind of
"bad-sector-file". On IDE drives this is no problem (bad sectors are
automatically mapped away).


QUESTION: How can I partition my hard-drive to use Linux?

ANSWER: See section III of the FAQ on installation.

QUESTION: I heard something about repartition a hard disk without
deleting everything on it, any clue?

ANSWER: It's not a program but a partition procedure which requires
a) a partitionning program
b) a sector editor
The procedure itself can be found (at least) in digest#132 Vol2.


QUESTION: What must I do to mkfs a floppy?

ANSWER: blocks are of size 1K so 1.44 floppy is 1440 blocks. The
floppy has to be formatted before this will work (e.g., fdformat can
do this from within Linux).


QUESTION: I have some trouble with tar/untar; any clue ?

ANSWER: The tar provided on .96 and latter is Pax (don't know for .98)
which do not accept the z flag. You can download the GNU tar at tsx-11
in /pub/linux/binaries/usr.bin


QUESTION: I can do this as root but not as non-root, is it a bug?

ANSWER: Except for an early make utility, the problem is caused by an
incorrect permission flag. The most common problems are about /tmp
which should be 1777 and /dev/ttys? which might be 766. So as root do

chmod 1777 /tmp ; chmod 766 /dev/ttys?


QUESTION: "du" reports twice the size showed with "ls -l", is it a
bug?

ANSWER: No it is not, the report is 512 bytes multiple (due to POSIX
requirement), for KB you just add the -k flag. You can add a du
function in your .profile which does this automatically, something
like du(){ /usr/bin/du -k $* }


QUESTION: Sometimes, I get "mount can't open lock file"; what does this
means?

ANSWER: This can happened for two reasons:
A) You try to mount something as non-root. In that case you can either
retry as root, or set the setuid bit to mount as follows:
- be sure that mount belongs to root, if not do 'chown root /bin/mount'
- set the setuid bit with 'chmod u+s /bin/mount'
BTW you have to do the same with umount (in order to be able to unmount)
Remark that it is NOT safe to allow anyone to perform mount/umount.

B) You are root. mount wants to open /etc/mtab and /etc/mtab~ - the
first one for reading, the second as lock file. If there is already a
mtab~ remove it. This can happen if you used once gnuemacs on mtab.

To forbid that case, just add the following entry in your /etc/rc file:
rm -f /etc/mtab~


QUESTION: When I try "mount /dev/hd?? /user", I get error 2.

ANSWER: Be sure, that your mount point /user does exist; if not perform
a "mkdir /user".
BTW the error numbering is explained in /usr/include/errno.h


QUESTION: Since I have upgrade my Linux kernel, ps won't work anymore,
why?

ANSWER: Each time you upgrade (or re-compile the kernel), you should
perform a 'ps -U' (-U is for update the /etc/psdatabase).

Every time you boot a new kernel you have to do a 'ps -U' to update
the psdatabase, after doing this you can remove the system file or
even have to patch the ps-suite.

BTW: sometimes a patch makes recompiling ps necessary. Sometimes you
do a make clean.

NOTE: As of 0.99 there is now a ps package which uses the "/proc
filesystem". This is a meta-filesystem which has an entry for each
process that's running... create the directory /proc and do a
'mount -t proc /proc /proc' to see it, or else add the following
entry in your /etc/fstab:

none /proc proc

You can get the "procps" package from tsx-11.mit.edu in
/pub/linux/BETA/procps. The nice thing about this is: you don't have
to upgrade it for every kernel version (and thus ps -U is meaningless
if you use procps).

MKJ wrote in c.o.l.a:

tsx-11.mit.edu:/pub/linux/BETA/procps/procps.tar.Z is the latest
version of procps. Most of the reported bugs (i.e. all I can remember
at the moment ๐Ÿ˜‰ have been fixed, a man page for ps has been added,
and several new programs have been added and/or fixed. A list of the
stuff provided:
ps
free (a real one, from Linus)
uptime (this needs work to be good, mine is a hack)
tload (a hack, but who cares?)
xload (from drew)
fuser (perl script prototype, hopefully the real thing in a
later release)

QUESTION: Since Linux 0.96b I have a lot of core file all over
my disk. How can I sweep them away ?

ANSWER: Use the following command
find / -name core -exec rm {} \;

BTW: think twice before using this command, there might be a John Core
user on your system; this command will erase his mail ๐Ÿ™‚

If you never want to see another core file, put this line into
your /etc/rc file:
for a bash user
ulimit -c 0
for a csh or tcsh user
limit coredumpsize 0



QUESTION: I can only log-in as "root", is it normal ?

ANSWER: No, add "rm -f /etc/nologin" in your /etc/rc.local file


V. LINUX and DOS
=================
*** This section is co-written by Mark Komarinski, A. V. Le Blanc and
*** MM. Corsini. The official maintainer is Mark, if you have *any*
*** questions, mail him at [email protected]
*** Last Update 02.02.93


QUESTION: Is is possible to access DOS from Linux?

ANSWER: Yes.
(1) The mtools package allows you to access DOS files;
it emulates the DOS commands CD, COPY, DEL, DIR, TYPE, and others.
(2) Since approximately version 0.97 of the kernel, you can mount
DOS file systems as part of your Linux directory tree, providing you
have an appropriate mount command.
(3) A DOS emulator is in alpha test, which will allow some DOS programs
and utilities to run under Linux.


QUESTION: Why use mtools if you can just mount a drive?

ANSWER: Mtools is good if you want to do something quickly. For
example, if you want to get directories on a bunch of floppies. The
mount procedure requires you to mount the drive, get a directory, then
umount it. Mtools lets you get the directory with one command.

(Dirk Hohndel:) Mtools is really fast when copying disks. I mount the
SLS directory of my SUN to my linux box and use mcopy to get the files
on the disks. 3 times faster than using xcopy under DOS


QUESTION: How do I get the mtools package set up correctly?

ANSWER: The mtools package is available in source form on most Linux
ftp sites. The most recent version (As of Sept 1992) is mtools.n2,
and there are linked binaries and library (.a) files available as
well (for example, as part of MCC interim releases of Linux).
In the n2 release of mtools, there is only one executable binary
which works differently depending on its name: you can create hard
or symbolic links to it named mcopy, mdel, mdir, mtype, etc; this
is how the Makefile in version n2 of mtools does it, and it saves
several hundred kilobytes of disk space. Finally, you need the
correct information in the file /etc/mtools, which is described below.
Mtools also comes with the SLS release of linux.


QUESTION: What is the format of the file /etc/mtools?

ANSWER: A complete entry in the file /etc/mtools contains the following
fields: drive, device, fat, cylinders, heads, sectors, offset. Two
examples of entries from /etc/mtools are

A /dev/fd0 12 80 2 15
C /dev/hda1 16 0 0 0

which defines the DOS disk A: as accessible through the device /dev/fd0,
having a 12-bit FAT, 80 cylinders, 2 heads, and 15 sectors per track;
DOS disk C: is accessible through the device /dev/hda1, has a 16-bit
FAT, and its geometry is simply that of the hard disk where it lives.
The last three numbers can be 0 if you wish; this allows mtools to
try to figure out the disk's geometry itself, and perhaps to fail.
A 12-bit FAT is common for floppies, but may occur in small hard
disk partitions. A 16-bit FAT is common for hard disks.
This is an extract of my /etc/mtools file:
A /dev/fd0 12 0 0 0 # 3.5 1.4 Meg (autodetect)
B /dev/fd1 12 0 0 0 # 5.25 1.2 Meg (autodetect)
C /dev/hda1 16 0 0 0 # 1st partition of my Disk


QUESTION: Where can I find out more about mtools?

ANSWER: There are two detailed README files in the mtools.n2 distribu-
tion. These files treat compiling and using mtools. There is a file
README.mtools which treats only using mtools, which is a part of the
MCC interim version of Linux.


QUESTION: How do I use the DOS file system?

ANSWER: The DOS file system is part of the kernel. If you have a
kernel of level 97.1 or above, and an appropriate mount command, type

mount -t msdos [-o conv=text] /dev/hda1 /dos

to mount the partition /dev/hda1 as an MS/DOS file system on the
directory /dos. You'll need a recent mount command, from at least
release 97 or later of the root disk. Recent mount commands also
accept the options conv=binary|text|auto (default is binary) to
specify that text end-of-lines in DOS files are to be converted to
UNIX end-of-lines (by omitting carriage return characters) in no cases
(binary) or in all cases (text) or in cases that don't have 'well-
known binary extensions' (e.g., .EXE or .COM) (auto).


QUESTION: When I mount an MS-DOS disk, I get two lines of what seem to
be error messages and the message: No bmap support. Is my disk bad?

ANSWER: No. Since the dosfs is still in ALPHA mode, the two lines are
used for displaying information about the disk that was mounted, just in
case you have problems. The 'No bmap support' message means that you
cannot run linux programs from that disk. This has been fixed in the
latest release (alpha.9)


QUESTION: I want to use the DOS file system with either conv=binary or
conv=auto, but I want to convert text files from DOS to UNIX format,
or from UNIX to DOS format.

ANSWER: Use the utility todos/fromdos which comes as part of the
dosfs package, currently (Sept 92) in released in version 8, or
use the flip utility by Rahul Dhesi.


QUESTION: Where can I find out more about the DOS file system?

ANSWER: There is a README file included in dosfs.XX.tar.Z (the current
value of XX is 9), and an abbreviated version of this in the MCC
interim package.


QUESTION: This sounds me like a chicken and eggs problem, how can I
install the mtools package at the very beginning.

ANSWER: You have to use the rawrite stuff or the mount procedure.


QUESTION: Could someone explain how to use rawrite?

ANSWER: Well, rawrite is a DOS util, which write sequential sector of
a formatted disk/floppy. When a floppy has been rawritten, you can
(under Linux) untar it (use x, v, z and f flags). As an example:
a) under Dos use rawrite
rawrite
source: kermit.z
destination: a
b) boot under Linux, and perform a tar
tar zxvf /dev/fd0
tar zxvp < /dev/fd0

You DO NOT NEED TO MOUNT a rawritten disk


QUESTION: What is as86.tar.Z ?

ANSWER: It's the port of Bruce Evans' minix assembler, you need it to
be able to recompile Linux at your convenience. In fact this is ONLY
used for boot/setup.S and boot/bootsect.S they create 80x86 REAL mode
code.


QUESTION: Turbo (Microsoft) Assembler won't compile the Linux boot
code. In fact, some of the opcodes in these files look completely
unfamiliar. Why?

ANSWER: The Linux boot codes are written in Bruce Evans' minix
assembler, which has the same opcodes as the original minix assembler
ported to linux get as86.tar.Z Anyway there are a few differences
between these and normal DOS assemblers.


QUESTION: What about the dos emulator (dosemu)?

ANSWER: Dosemu is in alpha testing now, so it is very unstable and crashes
easily. Some programs (such as earlier versions of Turbo Pascal; TP
5.5 too) seem to work fine, but other programs such as dir /p will
crash the emulator.
Look in your favorite FTP site for the dosemu kit.


QUESTION: I have a Stacker volume on my hard drive. Can I access that?

ANSWER: Yes, but you will have to do that through the dosemu program.
For more information on it, check out the file /pub/Linux/docs/stacker.doc
at sunsite.unc.edu


QUESTION: How about OS/2 HPFS partitions, or MacIntosh/Amiga floppies?
Can I mount any of them?

ANSWER: There is no support for any of those filesystems yet.


===================8<==========>8================
--
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
# LaBRI | #
# 351 cours de la Liberation | e-mail: [email protected] #
# 33405 Talence Cedex | #
# | #
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--
There will be a sig when our local net is reliable.
For now, I would rather stay anonymous.

Archive-name: linux-faq/part3
Last-Modified: 93/02/18
Version: 1.16.1

*********************************************************
* *
* Answers to Frequently asked questions about Linux *
* *
*********************************************************

This post contains Part 3 of the Linux FAQ (4 parts).
It must be read *after* the 2 first parts.

===================================8<====>8============================
CONTENTS (of this part)

VI. MISCELLANEOUS HINTS (part3)
VII. MORE HINTS (part3)
VIII. FEATURES (part3)

===================================8<====>8============================


VI. MISCELLANEOUS HINTS
=======================
*** This section is maintained by Matt Welsh ([email protected]). Please
*** mail me if you have any changes/updates/questions. Thanks -mdw

Special gcc information are located in section IX. A special section is
devoted to it since it's *the* compiler of Linux. I have subsectionned
this part in 3 subsections: Misc/Device Major-Minor/Serial Information.

VI.A. Misc information
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

QUESTION: It seems that $#@! ported on linux don't run correctly, what
do I do about reporting bugs?

ANSWER: (Matt Welsh) It's possible that either the program itself has a bug
or that Linux has a problem that this program brings out. ๐Ÿ™‚ But first check
that the size of the file(s) corresponds that of the files(s) on the FTP
sites where it's available. If they're different, either you downloaded them
incorrectly (i.e. you forgot to turn on "bin") or whoever put them on the
FTP site uploaded them incorrectly.

If that's not the problem, then post to comp.os.linux asking about the
program, to verify that it is a bug. PLEASE: when posting possible "bug
reports" include all error and output information from running/compiling
the program. Just saying "it doesn't work" isn't very helpful. Also mention
your specific setup, Linux version, GCC version, etc. Some of these things
depend on running under certain versions and you may have missed that
information.

Note that my "[email protected]" bug reporting list has been
phased out. It turns out that Linux has so few bugs, most of which are
resolved on the newsgroup or through Linus before I can accumulate them
and post. ๐Ÿ™‚ In short: if there's a bug in Linux or in Linux-ported
software, it will usually be fixed in the next patchlevel or version.


QUESTION: Has $#@! been ported to Linux?

ANSWER: First check out the FTP sites and read the monthly INFO-SHEET,
as well as the new "Linux News" and the META-FAQ's (all of which are
either available on the FTP sites and/or posted to the newsgroup as they're
written). Also check out the "Linux Project Registry" (posted to the
newsgroup and on the FTP sites) which lists ongoing/current Linux projects.
Also look in the "old" Linux digests and mailing-list archives, kept on
tsx-11.mit.edu and nic.funet.fi. Also, see if there's a GNU(*) version
of the program you're looking for (which are available everywhere).
Since Linux uses GCC as its native compiler, most GNU software ports
directly to Linux without problems. If all else fails, ask on the
mailing list or newsgroup if the program is ported and where it's
available.


(*) GNU stands for GNU's Not Unix, which (besides being a recursive
acronym) is a project started by the Free Software Foundation (the FSF)
to write a freely distributable version of Unix. The GNU kernel is
named HURD, and is based on Mach. It is currently being written, and is
not yet done. Many of the GNU utilities, however, are completed and are
much more functional than the original Unix utilities. Since they are
freely available, Linux is using them as well.



QUESTION: I've ported $#@! to Linux, what should i do to add it in the
standard distribution?

ANSWER: (Matt Welsh) First read the previous Q/A, then talk to the
maintainers of the various releases (MCC interim, SLS, and so on)
about including your program with those releases. The best way to make
programs available to the rest of the world is to upload it to one of
the Linux FTP sites (such as tsx-11.mit.edu:/pub/incoming or
sunsite.unc.edu:/pub/Linux/Incoming).

BTW Whenever you submit binaries, please think that if you link them
with shared libraries, this might cause problems for those who (gasp!)
don't have the shared libraries installed. You can either link them
using -static, and if someone wants to build a shared version on their
own machine they can get the sources (which you should also make
available) and build it themself. Or else provide the shared lib.


QUESTION: I want to port $#@! to Linux, what are the flags?

ANSWER: Recall that Linux implements subset of SYSV and POSIX, so
-DUSG and -DPOSIX work in general.

NOTE1: SIGBUS is not there, and can be safely commented out in general.
NOTE2: see section related to GCC, in the third part of this FAQ, for
more details.

VI.B. Major/Minor device number
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
*** This section is maintained by Rick Miller, any comments,
*** suggestions, remarks should be mailed to him at
*** Last Update: 17 Feb 1993 21:12:24 +0200

QUESTION: What are the device minor/major numbers?

The Linux Device List
maintained by [email protected] (Rick Miller, Linux Device Registrar)
February 17, 1993

Many thanks to [email protected], Jim Winstead Jr., and many others.

Majors:
0. Unnamed . (unknown) .... for proc-fs, NFS clients, etc.
1. Memory .. (character) .. ram, mem, kmem, null, port, zero
2. Floppy .. (block) ...... fd[0-1]<[dhDH]{360,720,1200,1440}>
3. Hard Disk (block) ...... hd[a-b]<[0-8]>
4. Tty ..... (character) .. {p,t}ty<{S,[p-s][0-f]}><#>
5. tty ..... (character) .. tty, cua[0-63]
6. Lp ...... (character) .. lp[0-2] or par[0-2]
7. Tape .... (block) ...... t[0-?] (reserved for Non-SCSI tape drives)
8. Scsi Disk (block) ...... sd[a-h]<[0-8]>
9. Scsi Tape (block) ...... rmt[0-1]
10. Mouse ... (character) .. bm, psaux (mouse)
11. CD-ROM .. (block) ...... scd[0-1]
12. QIC-tape? (character) .. rmt{8,16}, tape<{-d,-reset}>
13. XT-disk . (block) ...... xd[a-b]<[0-8]>
14. Audio ... (character) .. audio, dsp, midi, mixer, sequencer

Breakdown of minors by Majors:
------------------------------
0. Unnamed . (unknown) .... for proc-fs, NFS clients, etc.
Minors?

1. Memory .. (character) .. ram, mem, kmem, null, port, zero
0. /dev/ram
1. (block): RAM-Disk (character): /dev/mem
2. /dev/kmem
3. /dev/null
4. /dev/port
5. /dev/zero

2. Floppy .. (block) ...... fd[0-1]<[dhDH]{360,720,1200,1440}>
Minors are [drive + [4 * type]] where drive 0-3 == A:-D: (floppy)
and type is: 0: Autodetect 4: 720k in 3.5"
1: 360k in 5.25" 1.2M 5: 360k in 5.25" 1.2M
2: 1.2M in 5.25" 1.2M 6. 720k in 5.25" 1.2M
3: 360k in 3.5" 7. 1.44M in 3.5" 1.44

0. /dev/fd0: Autodetected first floppy.
1. /dev/fd1: Autodetected second floppy.
2. /dev/fd2: Autodetected third floppy.
3. /dev/fd3: Autodetected fourth floppy.
4. /dev/fd0d360: 360k in 5.25" 1.2M first drive
5. /dev/fd1d360: 360k in 5.25" 1.2M second drive
(You can work out the rest of the intermediates...)
8. /dev/fd0h1200: 1.2M in 5.25" 1.2M first drive
12. /dev/fd0D360 (/dev/fd0H360): 360k in 3.5" first drive
16. /dev/fd0D720 (/dev/fd0H720): 720k in 3.5" first drive
20. /dev/fd0h360: 360k in 5.25" 1.2M first drive
24. /dev/fd0h720: 720k in 5.25" 1.2M first drive
28. /dev/fd0H1440: 1.44M in 3.5" 1.44M first drive

Naming goes like this:
fd[drive][type][size] where:
[drive]=0-3: Just like DOS's "A:"-"D:".
[type]={d,h,D,H}: Enlighten me. All I can tell you
for certain is that the capital
letters represent 3.5" drives.
[size]={360,720,1200,1440} kilobytes.

3. Hard Disk (block) ...... hd[a-b]<[0-8]>
0. /dev/hda (/dev/hda0): The whole first HD, including its MBR.
1-4. /dev/sda{1-4}: Primary partitions on the first SCSI drive.
5-8. /dev/sda{5-8}: Extended partitions on the first SCSI drive.
64. /dev/hdb (/dev/hdb0): The whole second HD, including its MBR.
65-68. /dev/sdb{1-4}: Primary partitions on the second drive.
69-72. /dev/sdb{5-8}: Extended partitions on the second drive.

Notes: BE *VERY* CAREFUL WITH /dev/hda AND /dev/hdb!! These two
devices signify the *entire* *drive*, not just one partition.
The only things that use /dev/hda or /dev/hdb are things that
need to read/change the partition table (like fdisk).

Linux doesn't order anything. It perceives partitions in the
order in which they appear in the partition table. Thus,
/dev/hd?1 may follow /dev/hd?2 in the cylinder numbering.

The names of the hard drives are not the same as under Minix.

4. Tty ..... (character) .. {p,t}ty<{S,[p-s][0-f]}><#>
0. /dev/tty0: This is the currently active Virtual Console.
1-63. /dev/tty[1-63]: Specific virtual consoles.
64-127. /dev/ttyS[0-63]: Serial ports (dial-in mode).
128-191. /dev/pty[p-s][0-f]: PTY Masters.
192-255. /dev/tty[p-s][0-f]: PTY Slaves. ([0-f]=0123456789abcdef)

Notes: There are several constants set in the kernel sources which
can be changed to compile a more customized kernel. They're
found in [/usr/src]/linux/include/linux/tty.h:

NR_CONSOLES The number of virtual consoles.
NR_SERIALS The number of serial lines.
NR_PTYS The number of pty's.

5. tty ..... (character) .. tty, cua[0-63]
0. /dev/tty: the tty that owns the process calling it.
64-127. /dev/cua[0-63]: Serial ports (dial-out mode).

6. Lp ...... (character) .. lp{0-2} or par{0-2}
Parallel (printer) ports. (Increasable in include/linux/lp.h)
0. /dev/lp0
1. /dev/lp1: Same as MS-DOS's "LPT1:" on my machine...
2. /dev/lp2

Notes: The number of line printers is defined by LP_NO which is
found in [/usr/src]/linux/include/lp.h.

Even if you only have one printer port, Linux may still call
it /dev/lp1 (rather than /dev/lp0). Watch during boot-up to
see how it recognizes your printer port.

7. Tape .... (block) ...... t[0-?] (reserved for Non-SCSI tape drives)
This one's getting old. No minor numbers are yet assigned.
It's not even in the source code. Maybe it never will be...

8. Scsi Disk (block) ...... sd[a-h]<[0-8]>
Minors numbers are ((16 * Drive) + Partition)
where
Drive is the number of the physical drive in order of detection
and
Partition is as follows:
0 is the whole drive
1-4 are the DOS "primary" partitions
5-8 are the DOS "extended" (or "logical") partitions, so...

0. /dev/sda (/dev/sda0): The first (detected) SCSI drive.
1-4. /dev/sda[1-4]: Primary partitions on the first SCSI drive.
5-8. /dev/sda[5-8]: Extended partitions on the first SCSI drive.
16. /dev/sdb (/dev/sdb0): The second (detected) SCSI drive.
17-20. /dev/sdb[1-4]: Primary partitions on the second drive.
21-24. /dev/sdb[5-8]: Extended partitions on the second drive.
32. /dev/sdc (/dev/sdc0): The third (detected) SCSI drive.
...and so on.

9. Scsi Tape (block) ...... rmt[0-1]
0. /dev/rmt0: First (detected) SCSI tape drive, rewind-on-close.
1. /dev/rmt1: Second (detected) SCSI tape drive, rewind-on-close.
128. /dev/nrmt1: First (detected) SCSI tape, *no* rewind-on-close.
129. /dev/nrmt1: Second (detected) SCSI tape, *no* rewind-on-close.

10. Mouse (character) .. bm, psaux (mouse)
(MGR may require that /dev/mouse be linked to one of these...)
NOTE THE CHANGES TO DIFFERENTIATE MOUSE TYPES!
(Please implement these in the distributions.)
0. /dev/logibm: (Logitec?) bus mouse
1. /dev/psaux: PS/2 mouse port
2. /dev/inportbm: MicroSoft "InPort" bus mouse
3. /dev/atibm: ATI XL bus mouse

If you don't feel like re-configuring your applications, you can
just leave the old "/dev/bm" lying around.

11. CD-ROM .. (block) ...... scd[0-1]
0. /dev/scd0: The first (detected) SCSI CD-ROM.
1. /dev/scd1: The second (detected) SCSI CD-ROM.
("There's not much more to it than that" says Eric Youngdale.)

12. QIC-tape? (character) .. rmt{8,16}, tape<{-d,-reset}>
(I really don't have much info on this one... )
6. /dev/rmt8: QIC-120
8. /dev/rmt16 (/dev/tape): QIC-150
136. /dev/tape-d: (It has something to do with being 128+8... ?)
255. /dev/tape-reset: For resetting only.

13. XT-disk . (block) ...... xd[a-b]<[0-8]>
XT (8-bit) hard disk controller devices.
Minor numbers are assigned in the same manner as for the
normal Hard Drive devices ("/dev/hd*").

14. Audio ... (character) .. audio, dsp, midi, mixer, sequencer
0. /dev/mixer: Mixer and Control Device
1. /dev/sequencer: FM-synthesizer and Midi
2. /dev/midi: (for future use)
3. /dev/dsp: Digitized voice (DAC/ADC)
4. /dev/audio: (Reserved for compatibility with Sun)

NOTE: all the numbers given are in decimal form (the one you can see if
you perform ls -l on /dev).


QUESTION: Could some one give me indication about the meaning of the
IRQ's ?


ANSWER: ([email protected]:)
Standard IRQ's :
IRQ 0 - Timer
IRQ 1 - Keyboard
IRQ 2 - Slave 8259 (AT)
IRQ 3 - COM 2 / COM 4
IRQ 4 - COM 1 / COM 3
IRQ 5 - (XT) Hard Disk, (AT) LPT2
IRQ 6 - Floppy Disk
IRQ 7 - LPT1

AT only IRQ 8 - Real Time Clock
IRQ 9 - Re-direct to IRQ 2
IRQ 10 - Not Defined
IRQ 11 - Not Defined
IRQ 12 - Not Defined
IRQ 13 - 80287
IRQ 14 - Hard Disk (AT)
IRQ 15 - Not Defined

QUESTION: (Chuck Boyer) Could some one clear up the devices meaning?

ANSWER: (Jim Winstead Jr)
>port

This allows programs to access the hardware ports directly. Not
something you generally mess around with much.

>ptyp0-3
>ptypa...tty

These are the pseudo-tty 'master' devices. Each pty connection uses
a slave-master set of tty devices.

>tty0...

tty[1-8] are the virtual consoles associated with Alt-F[1-8]. tty0 is
the current virtual console (so writing something to tty0 goes to the
current vc).

>tty64 I've figured out is the modem connection

Yes, that would correspond to COM1 under DOS. However, the tty64 name
is obsolete - ttys[1-4] should be used instead.

>ttyp0...
>ttypa...

These are the pseudo-tty 'slave' devices.

>ttys1...

These are the serial devices. ttys1 corresponds to COM1 under DOS,
ttys2 corresponds to COM2, etc.


VI.C Special Serial
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
*** This section is maintained by Jim Gifford
*** ([email protected],world.std}.com
*** Last update October 1992.

Douglas E. Quale:
This has come up a couple of times already (including the case of
serial mice as well), but for the record stty acts on stdin not
stdout. Old stty's (from V7 through BSD4.3) used stdout, but this is
suboptimal and doesn't conform to POSIX. The GNU stty you are likely
using on Linux uses stdin, as does the stty distributed with BSD
Networking Release 2. (Also, ``stty -a'' is more informative about
possible parameters, although it's pretty hard for me to remember what
90% of that stuff does without refering to the man page.)
Jim Gifford:
However, there are a few older (of mysterious origin) stty's that work
on stdout(I have one myself!)

QUESTION: Is there a list somewhere where I can get help with serial
communications under Linux?

ANSWER: (Jim Gifford -- [email protected])
There is a list for the discussion of serial communications under
Linux. It is for problems, drivers, new developments, etc... with
the Linux serial devices. The list is: [email protected]
To join, send mail to [email protected]
I hope that this list will prove beneficial to the improvement of
Linux. This list is maintained by Michael K. Johnson as
[email protected]

QUESTION: When I run kermit under Linux, I get "Warning, Read access
to lock directory denied". What am I doing wrong?

ANSWER: Nothing, you just need to create /usr/spool/uucp (kermit 4.6?)
or /usr/spool/locks (this is for the kermit5A), which is where kermit
like to lock files.

QUESTION: What are the major, minor numbers for the serial ports under linux?

ANSWER: Major 4, Minor :
64 /dev/ttys0 - com1
65 /dev/ttys1 - com2
66 /dev/ttys2 - com3
67 /dev/ttys3 - com4

QUESTION: can anyone give me a sample /etc/inittab entry for login
from a pc attached to serial line /dev/ttys2?

ANSWER: "Humberto speaking :), updated by Rick Miller"
First set up the modem to turn off echo and enable auto answer, I do
this in kermit by connecting to the modem and typing "ate0s0=1"
followed by enter (w/o quotes). Then setup inittab to spawn getty on
the modem
ttys2:vt100:/etc/getty -m 1200 ttys2
(Replace "vt100" with the name of the /etc/termcap entry for the
terminal type you will use, or use "dumb" if you don't have one.)

Then it should work. Some modems can be permanently set to disable
echo and set auto answer, see your manual.

Jim Weigand says:
disable all messages. This will prevent getty from hanging up
your modem.
Set For:
ATE0 No echo
ATQ1 No messages
ATS0=2 Answer 2nd ring
ATS7=60 1 minute to answer (shorter if 2400 baud)
You can use kermit to set these. Do an AT&W to save for power-up.

Michael K. Johnson says:
If you would rather not save these commands as defaults to come up
on power-up, perhaps because you want to use your current modem
settings under a DOS communications package, you can also shove
these command out ttys? from /etc/rc (or /etc/rc.local) using
the command:
echo "" > /dev/ttys?

QUESTION: How do I set parameters like parity for serial login?

ANSWER: Use stty and redirect input from the serial line.
ex: stty parodd < /dev/ttys2 which gives ttys2 odd parity.
type stty -a to get an idea of possible parameters.
Or 'man stty' as well ๐Ÿ™‚



VII. MORE HINTS
===============

This part try to keep track of the different information
that appeared in comp.os.linux and on the list since beginning of
March. I tried to update it for KERNEL_VERSION, so there might be some
mistakes. Moreover take care to use the correct library and include
stuff, and the ad-hoc gcc you use !!!


QUESTION: How can I backup my Hd under Linux ?

ANSWER: I know at least two ways. One possibility is tar and mtools,
another possibility is the diskbackup/diskrestore of Diamano Bolla
(digest37 vol. #2) which saves big hd to floppies using the
stdin/stdout. These utilities have been uploaded to the major sites in
file disksplit.tar.Z.
An example usage (Roger Binns) is:

tar cvf - bin dev usr etc .. | compress | diskbackup

and to restore:

diskrestore | uncompress | tar xvf -

BTW: if you are on Ethernet you could send your files via tar..|rsh (tar...)
or even via NFS to a host which is regularly backed up !


QUESTION: Where is 'which' ?

ANSWER: It depends on the sh you are running:
in bash 'type -path'
in tcsh it's a builtin

for rc you can try the following (untested by me) script from
Kevin Brown:

#!/bin/sh
for i in `echo $PATH | sed 's/:/ /g'` ; do
for j in ""[email protected]" ; do
if test -x "$i/$j" ; then
echo "$i/$j"
fi
done
done

QUESTION: How to use setterm: for the novice?

ANSWER:The setterm utility provides access to most of Virtual Consoles
(VCs) functionality. You can set your screen up to blank at 10
minutes using:
setterm -blank 10

You can set colors, and clear the screen. For a full list of commands,
just type "setterm" with no arguments.

There are a few tricks with the screen dumper can really make VCs go a
long way. Here are a few of the common ones that I use:

setterm dump

Dumps the contents of the current VC to screen.dump (in the current dir).

setterm dump 4

Dumps the contents of VC 4 to screen.dump

setterm -file mydumpfile -dump 4

Dump the contents of VC 4 to the file mydumpfile

setterm -file /dev/tty0 -dump 4

Dumps the contents of VC 4 to the current VC.

setterm -file /dev/tty4 -dump

Dumps the contents of the current VC to VC 4.

setterm -file /dev/ttys1 -dump

Dumps the contents of the current VC to the serial port.
Handy if you are logged on and want to paste a screen full without
having to resort to doing a file transfer.


setterm -file mydumpfile -append 4

Appends to instead of overwriting the dump file. Useful if you
have several screens you wish to concatenate.


QUESTION: I've tried clear/reset which exist on most of unix but it
doesn't work, have I missed something?

ANSWER: setterm -clear or setterm -reset will solve your missing. For
clear, you can also write a small script (which use the cl: part of
/etc/termcap wrt your TERM), or use bash where ctrl-l will do it for
you.


QUESTION: I know there are VC, but where is the setterm stuff?

ANSWER: It's in the current distribution (i.e. on the images), the
source can be found in virtcons.tar.Z at nic.


QUESTION: I know there are shared libraries; does there exist an easy
way to check an executable for sharing ?

ANSWER: (Josh Yelon & HJ Lu)
(J.Y.) An executable which shares a library is linked with an
(ordinary, non-shared) "stub" version of the library. One of the first
thing this stub does (when the executable is run) is to ask the kernel
to load the (big) "shared version" of the library (which is usually
named /lib/lib.XX.XX) The upshot of this is that in the code for the
stub (part of the executable), is the string "/lib/lib.XX.XX"; which
can be searched by using 'strings' or 'grep'.
(HJ. L.) if you have gcc2.11a or later the shared image is changed to
/lib/libxxxx_vyy_zzz. And you should better use nm to find
"__shared_lib" (nm failed on stripped executable). You can also write
a function for "file", which can even check the version number ....

(Claude Morin:) There exists at tsx-11 ldd.tar.Z If you follow
the instructions, you will be able to type "ldd " to List
the Dynamic Dependencies of the executables. In other words 'ldd'
prints the name of the shared libraries needed by the executable,
nothing appears for static one.

QUESTION: What is the rdev program provided in the images?

ANSWER: It's a program from Werner Almesberger of ETH. With no
argument it prints the first line of /etc/mtab. With one argument, a
boot-image, it prints the device configured as the root device, and
with two arguments, a boot image and a device, it sets the device as
default root in the specified image.


QUESTION: How to start Linux from drive B?

ANSWER: There is a DOS utility called boot_b.exe (look at DOS ftp).
Another simple way is to open the box and invert the cables.


QUESTION: The program boot_b works fine /but/ once the first disk is
read the system go back to the first drive, any hints?

ANSWER: Yes, change the bootimage in just the same way that you change
it to boot on the hard drive, execept that the major/minor pair is
different. All these information are in the file INSTALL-0.10.
Remember that if you use a sun or other endian machine, you will need
to reverse the byte order when you run the filter program (also in the
same file).


QUESTION: How can I get Linux to boot directly from the harddisk?

ANSWER: (Rick) The best option right now is LILO version ALPHA.8. It
has been generally agreed that the days of using "shoelace" are at an
end. See Section III of this FAQ for LILO information.

QUESTION: I use shoelace, but I want to change my root partition, what
is the process to get rid of it?

ANSWER: With Norton utility you can put back a standard boot sector.
Another possibility is to restore the old boot sector (the one you
should have backup *before* installing shoelace).


QUESTION: Sometimes, when I want to remove a directory, I get an error
message, is it a (known) bug?

ANSWER: No, There is no bug at all, you probaly have another shell
on another VC whose working directory is either the one you try to
remove, either a subdirectory of it.


QUESTION: I'm looking for init, getty, login, passwd stuff, where
can I find them?

ANSWER: You should find it in shadow.tar.Z (only sources), at least
at tsx in the usr.bin directory. Many people have reported some troubles
with the *OLD* shadow-passwd (shadow-bin.tar.Z and shadow-src.tar.Z, so
do not use them anymore); an alternative might be the mcc-interim
which contains standard passwd binary. There is also the Peter Orbaek's
admutil-1.?.tar.Z and poeigl-1.?.tar.Z which contains source for
shutdown, su, chsh, passwd and a system V init compatible.


QUESTION: How can I setup a user account other than root ?

ANSWER: You can either use the adduser program, either do it manually.
In the later case, you have to:
a) edit /etc/passwd as root and add a line of the following format:
user:passwd:uid:gid:user name:home directory:login shell

user is the login name; uid is the numeric user id, it should be
unique; gid is the numeric group id, this number should correspond to
an entry in /etc/group. The passwd field should be left blank 'cause
it is stored in an encrypted form [to set this field just use the
passwd program].
example
faq::200:5:Marc-Michel:/home/faq:/bin/sh
b) Still as root, you shoud now create the home directory and set the
correct ownership.
mkdir /home/faq
chown faq /home/faq
chgrp 5 /home/faq


QUESTION: I've been trying to get Linux to run on my [3/4]86 box. It
can't even boot. Any suggestions?

ANSWER: The most common error/problem is writing the bootimage to a
low density disk. It fits, but the bootstrap code will only recognize
high density disk. So try to format explicitely disk as high density:
- for 3.5", 'format a: /n:18 /t:80 '
- for 5.25", 'format a: /n:15 /t:80 '


QUESTION: Does there exist games, languages (other than C), and
anything which make the system more friendly?

ANSWER: Yes, among other things there are rogue and yahtzee; TeX;
Prolog, Perl.. but in general, if you want some extra tool port it to
Linux this is also a good beta-testing exercice.


QUESTION: Whenever I use uemacs 3.1X on a symlink, the symlink does
not exist anymore, why?

ANSWER: (Tristram Mabbs) Since ue3.10, uemacs uses 'safe save' mode,
writing the file to a temporary and moving it OVER the original. In
the process, this deletes the original. To prevent this just add the
following in your emacs '.rc' file: set $ssave FALSE


QUESTION: Uemacs doesn't work anymore with 0.95a, whenever I want to
save a file; what can I do?

ANSWER: ^S and ^Q are used for flow control. One solution is ^X^W
followed by the filename, or M-X save-file, try also ^XS it could work
for some version (not mine). Another possibility,
if you have download the stty.tar.Z file, is to do stty -IXON
before you first use uemacs (this can be included in your .profile).
And the last is to recompile the Peter Orbaek init-1.2 package.


QUESTION: I have an SVGA, but Linux detect an EGAc/EGAm; is it normal?

ANSWER: (Jim Winstead) This is correct actually. You have an EGA+ card
(SVGA) with a Color/Mono monitor. The only four possibilties are EGAc,
EGAm, *MDA and *CGA (according to the code in
kernel/chr_drv/console.c).
The true test, if Linux detects your video card, is if you press
at the "Press to see SVGA- ..." boot-time message.
If you have a SVGA recognized card, it will ask you to choose a
screen size. If not detected, the default is 80x50 mode.
BTW if you have no SVGA, press the and you are in 80x25 mode.

If you have dowloaded the kernel, you can automatically skip this
query at boot-time if you set the SVGA_MODE variable in the main
Makefile before compiling a new bootimage.


QUESTION: How can I change the keyboard repeat rate?

ANSWER: (Michael K Johnson) In boot/setup.S there are the lines:
! set the keyboard repeat rate to max
mov ax,#0x0305
mov bx,0x0000
int 0x16

If you don't want to change the repeat rate at all, just comment out
these lines. If you want something in the middle, change the
mov bx,0x000
by mov bx,0x??yy
where ??yy is determined by (Ralf Brown's interrupt list)
bh= delay value (0x00 = 250ms to 0x03= 1000ms (one sec))
this is the delay before the repeat is performed
bl= repeat rate (0x00 =30/sec to 0x1f=2/sec; 0x0c=10/sec [default])


QUESTION: I compiled fdformat.c and ran it on 1.44Mb and 1.2Mb, the
results are unreadable, any clue?

ANSWER: (M. Pereckas) fdformat only low-level formats the disk. to use
the fdformatted disk with DOS filesystem, run mformat on the disk.
Mformat writes DOS filesystem information but is unable to low-format
:). In order to put a Linux filesystem on a (low)formatted disk you
have to mkfs it.

QUESTION: Is it possible to disable the 3-fingers salute
(ctrl-alt-del) ?

ANSWER: Yes, in kernel/sys.c you can read the following:

/*
* this indicates wether you can reboot with ctrl-alt-del: the deault is yes
*/
static int C_A_D = 1;

there is also a small utility written by Linus in digest242 vol#2


QUESTION: Could some one explain the information provided at boot-time?

ANSWER: (Jim Winstead Jr)
> serial port at 0x03f8 is a 16450
> serial port at 0x02f8 is a 16450 (what's that the uart chip?)

Right, the last number should either be 8250, 16450, 16550, or 16550a,
and on the two 16550 models, it will report that FIFO's have been
disable (16550) or enabled (16550a).

> 8 virtual consoles (that's how many alt-F's I can get going?
> but only F1-4 actually work)

You can get sessions running on Alt-F[1-8], but the 'standard'
/etc/inittab only runs getty/login on Alt-F[1-4]. You can start
sessions on the other consoles by using 'doshell' or adding lines to
/etc/inittab.

> 4 pty's (are these the consoles F1-4?)

No, those are 'pseudo' ttys, which programs like MGR use to simulate
tty connections. That's probably a gross over-simplification, but it
gives you the general idea, I think. ๐Ÿ™‚

> p_init: lp1 exists (0) (is that the (l)ine (p)rinter?)

Right.


QUESTION: What is the meaning of files ended by .T.Z (or .taz) ?

ANSWER: The suffix Z is for compressed files (to uncompress them use
the command `uncompress file.Z`).
The suffix T indicates a "tar file" the usual suffix is tar but, the
14 chars filename limit of the Minix filesystem makes it cumbersome to
use .tar.Z (to untar a file ended by .T, use the command
`tar options file.T` (see the man page for more details).

For the .taz file, change them as .T.Z and go-ahead.


QUESTION: I have upgraded the kernel from XX to YY (XX > YY), however the
login screen still says YY.

ANSWER: Just change the message in one of these files: /etc/issue and
/etc/motd. The former contains the message before the login, the later
is the one after you are logged in.

QUESTION: What is doshell good for ?

ANSWER: It's an old program provided in the early Linux version (0.12)
when the getty was not already there, it spawns a shell on any tty's.
(Mattew Gream): I do this quite often ( getty on tty1, 2, 3 and my
rc.local spawns a shell on tty4 as follows
'/usr/bin/doshell /dev/tty4 /bin/tcsh &'


QUESTION: I don't have the kernel sources, how can I change the keyboard
language?

ANSWER: You can use the fixkbd program written by Laurent JULLIARD
([email protected]). Its purpose is to fix the keyboard
map used in your kernel image. It works more or less a la "rootdev"
(or rdev). It can be found on tsx-11.mit.edu in
/pub/linux/binaries/sbin/fixkbd.tar.Z.



VIII. FEATURES
==============

QUESTION: I've read that linux has virtual consoles, what must I do to
get them?

ANSWER: Yes there are, you can access them with the left -key
together with -key. With the Linux Images distribution, 4 consoles
are available, getty runs on them.
Notice that they are NOT accessible when running X (contrary to some
commercial unices).

QUESTION: When Linux boots, I get the following message "8 virtual
consoles"; how can I acess to the 5-8 vc's ?

ANSWER: If you want the getty to run on the 5-8, you should add the
corresponding entries in /etc/inittab. You can also just run sh on
them by using the doshell soft.
And then in either case, the ALT-F[5-8] will access the corresponding
vc.

QUESTION: What kind of shell is /bin/sh ?

ANSWER: It's the Bourne Again Shell, bash-1.12.3 and
compilation was straightforward, just "make"
that's all or nearly.
BTW There does exist different shells for Linux, these are:
bash, rc, zsh, tcsh and pdksh (a korn shell).


QUESTION: Does there exist a man page for **** ?

ANSWER: Download man.tar.Z from your favorite linux ftp site, there is
most of the fileutils man page -- either **** or g****, example there
is nothing on ld, but there is for gld ๐Ÿ™‚ --, check the whatis
database provided. The files in the cat1 dir are pre-formatted man
pages that the man program can use. Quite recently the man pages for
section 2 have been written (thanks Drew) and can be found, at least
at tsx-11 in /pub/linux/docs/man/man2.tar.Z

Also manpages are in the SLS on the b? disks.

BTW there is nroff and groff for Linux. Cawf 2.0 works just
fine for simple man pages, and a partial ms support too.


Moreover Michael Johnson is the coordinator for man pages under Linux,
he is looking for volunteers, so contact the DOC Channel.

QUESTION: Is there a simple man package (groff is too big):

ANSWER: "Cawf -man" also "fm -m" (Al Clark) tsx-11 in
/pub/linux/binaries/usr.bin/fm.tar.Z


QUESTION: What are the editors available in linux?

ANSWER: Right now there are uemacs-3.11, elvis-1.4 (1.5).
Gnu Emacs is there, read the section devoted to it in the 4th part of
this FAQ. Also the port of mg (micro gnu) has been done and can be
found at least at athos.rutgers.edu (128.6.4.4)
in pub/linux, mg is the binary and mg.tar.Z is the sources file. You
can also find a PD ed, and elvis has an ex mode. Finnally there are
joe, vile-3.11, elle (Elle Looks Like Emacs), Xedit and aXe.

QUESTION: Does there exist a printer package for Linux?

ANSWER: (R. Miller) Yes. The "plp" package is currently available
under the directory [/pub/linux]/BETA/plp on tsx-11 and its mirrors.
You may also print things manually like so: cat filename > /dev/lp1
(Note that though "/dev/lp0" exists, most people find that their
printer is on /dev/lp1. Use whatever the kernel says that it detects
in the boot-up messages.)

QUESTION: Are uucp, mail, and/or USENET news available for Linux?

ANSWER: (Vince Skakan)
Yes !!! At this time, the following (at least) have been
ported to Linux:

Package name version
------------ --------
taylor uucp 1.03
elm 2.3-pl11
smail 3.1.28

C-news 12/22/91
tin 1.1pl4
trn 2.2
nn 6.4.18

[...coming soon - Expect an announcement in the near future concerning
the packages above being made available in binary form in the SLS
distribution and in source form from sunsite.unc.edu and other Linux
archive sites...]

If you are interested in the last uucp features, join the UUCP channel
(see part1 of this FAQ for more details about the multi channels list).

QUESTION: How do I make swapping work?

ANSWER: Quite simply, you need the swapon and the mkswap binaries.
Then you can choose between a swap partition or a swap file.
The mkswap is used to write the "swap signature", whilst the swapon
binary is to activate the swapping.

First of all you need a partition :), I assume it's the second of your
first disk namely /dev/hda2, and it's 10MB big
A) swap partition:
you have to indicate it's a swap area, this is done via mkswap
(instead of mkfs) which needs the name of the partition and the size
in blocks (a block is 1Ko big); the optional -c flag is for bad block
checking. So for our example you should perform:
mkswap [-c] /dev/hda2 10000
Then you need to indicate that you want linux to use the swap area,
this is done via swapon. In general it is set in the /etc/rc file,
just put the following entry:
/bin/swapon /dev/hda2
It can also be achieved via the /etc/fstab file
B) swap file:
The process is quite close; you need a partition, and a swap file.
Assume that I prefer a swap area of 4MB (I want to keep some place in
/dev/hda2). I need first to "dd" the file.
dd if=/dev/hda2 of=/swap_file bs=1024 count=4096
bs stands for block size, and count is the number of blocks
then I have to put the "swap signature" on that file:
mkswap /swap_file 4096
At this point, you should 'sync', just to be sure the signature is
effective. And finally add an entry in the rc file:
/bin/swapon /swap_file


QUESTION: When I boot I get one of the following messages:
"Unable to find swap signature" or "Bad swap-space bitmap"

ANSWER: You probably forgot to make your swap-device, use the mkswap
command.


QUESTION: How do I know if it is swapping?

ANSWER: You will notice it :)) First of all, Linux tells you at boot
time, "Adding swap: XXX pages of swap space", and if you start running
out of memory, you will notice that the disk will work overtime, and
things slow down. Generally a 2Meg RAM will make the system swap
constantly while running gcc, 4 Meg will swap occasionnaly when
optimizing big files (and having other things active, such as make).
Also, the command 'free' (from the ps package) reports total enabled
swap space and current swap use.


QUESTION: How is it possible to remove a swap file?

ANSWER: Simply perform a rm on that file, and remove the swapon of
your /etc/rc file.


QUESTION: How is it possible to remove a swap device?

ANSWER: mkfs the device, and remove the swapon of your /etc/rc file.

QUESTION: How much swap space do I need ?

ANSWER: Linux does not perform real swapping, it's rather paging (see
below for a more complete explanation). The swap area is *added* to
the memory and can be viewed as virtual memory, so choose the size you
need, example:

8MB RAM + 6MB swap => 14MB virtual memory

QUESTION: Could someone explain the swap process on Linux?, is it
swapping or paging ?

ANSWER: (Linus) Linux uses swap as /additional/ memory, one page of
the swap-space is used for the good-page bitmap and the swapspace
signature.
In fact Linux does only paging, no swaping in the meaning "write out
one whole process to disk".
The reason it's called swapping is that Linux used paging for memory
management on a low level since the very beginning, but didn't page to
disk at all until 0.12.

QUESTION: Is demand paging different from paging and How ?

ANSWER: (Linus) Demand-paging is really "demand loading of
executables" and is totally independent of the page-swapping
algorithms, although they have similarities. When Linux strts up a
process, no actual code space is loaded: I let the page exceptions
load in the executable as needed. Thus Linux demand-loads the code and
initialized data it needs.
Demand-loading has very good points: (a) it simplifies the exec system
call; (b) it means page sharing between that have excuted the same
file is easy to implement; (c) it cuts down on the amount of memory
required. When Linux runs out of real memory, it starts to lock for
pages it can swap out, but if it notices that the page is clean, it
just forgets about it, and demand-loads it when it's needed again.
Thta means that swap-file isn't needed as much, especially when
running big binaries such as gcc, where the code-pages can be
demand-loaded as you wish.

Point (c) means that even without any swap space, you can usually run
slightly larger programs that your memory setup would actually permit.
I've noticed this while running X and doing a kernel compilation +
something else wshen I've forgotten to turn on swapping: free reports
0 page available but things still work, although performance is
slightly down...

QUESTION: Is there any way to tell how much swap space you are using
or have left?

ANSWER: The free program provided with the ps package handles this.


QUESTION: I have a 2Megs box, but "free" reports only 1Meg why?

ANSWER: (Linus:) "free" doesn't concern with the memory the kernel has
allocated for itself. In other words what you see is the *user* memory
available. The kernel has taken the low 1Meg for it's use (~250Ko for
it and the rest for buffer cache and kernel data structures); for big
memory machine it could be even 2Megs.

QUESTION: What tape drives work with Linux ?

ANSWER: (24 sept. P. Riipinen)
- There is a working QIC-02 device driver for Linux, supporting (at
least) Everex/Wangtek cards.
- There are additional patches for the QIC-02 to support Archive
SC402/499R. You can find them in /pub/linux/alpha/qic-02 at tsx-11
There are some bugs in the driver but you can backup.
- Newer drivers are all SCSI, so check the SCSI section in this FAQ.

QUESTION: Is there only the %$#@ keyboard ?

ANSWER: There are Dannish, Finnish, French, German, Uk, US and DVORAK
keyboards. Set it in the main Makefile of the kernel sources, then
(re)compile the kernel again. Make sure the files in kernel/chr_drv
directory are recompiled.


QUESTION: (special FINNISH/US) I booteed up with the new image and
everything work except that some keyboard keys produce wrong
characters. Does anyone know what is happening?

ANSWER: Since 0.95a images are US product (and so are US-keyboard
oriented), BUT linux sources are FINNISH product, and so the default
keyboard is set to be FINNISH. The solution is in the previous Q/A.


QUESTION: Does there exist shared libs ?

ANSWER: (H.J. Lu, [email protected], 09/01/92)

The shared library under Linux started at 0.12. Peter MacDonald
collaborating with Linus made the first generation of shared library,
which is the base of the current classic shared library.

The kernel support of shared library under Linux is system call

extern int uselib (const char *__filename);

which loads an executable image with fixed entry point into memory,
just like the ordinary executables.

In crt0.s, a function which can find out if and which shared images
are needed and loads them is invoked before `main ()' is called if
necessary. David Engel and I developed a way to tell the loader which
shared images have to be loaded, utilizing the similar technique used
in global constructor in g++ 2.x with the help from GNU binary
utilities.

In the classic Linux shared library, we build a big executable image
for several libraries and make sure no external variables outside of
the participating libraries are referenced. Then we can get the
absolute addresses of all the global variables defined in the
libraries used to build that executable image. After that, we make a
stub library for each participating library which just has the
absolute addresses of all the global variable in it.

For each shared image, there must be one and only one file, usually
called, __shared.o, which defines a global variable containing
version, name and entry point of the shared image, and a dummy global
data. Among those libraries used to build the shared image, there must
be one library which will always be referenced whenever any other
library is referenced. We put `__shared.o' into the stub library for
that library and add a declaration for the dummy global data defined
in `__shared.o' which will make sure `__shared.o' will always be linked
in when any participating libraries are linked.

In gcc 2.2.2d, jump table, developed by David Engel, was introduced in
the shared library. At the beginning of each shared image, there is
a table in which every library function has a fixed entry address and
the instruction at that address is a jump which will lead to the
real library function. So we can change the library function without
changing the corresponding entry address of the jump table. For the
global data we put them at the beginning of data section of the shared
image. We have to separate them from text code and link them in fixed
order. It is very hard to maintain the same addresses for the global
data when library is changed. After the global data are set up properly
and some spaces are left for possible future changes (that is a very
tough procedure.), it isn't too difficult to maintain.

In the current implementation, only libc.a, libcurses.a, libdbm.a,
libtermcap.a and libm.a are built with jump table. The global data in
X11 libraries are too complicated to make jump table such that their
addresses won't change when there is a change in X11 libraries. It's
not apparent yet that the benefits gained from a jump table version of
the X libraries would offset the effort required to set it up and
maintain it unless we get some cooperation from X Consortium, which
is very unlikely. But they are linked with jump table version of
libc.a and libm.a. That means they don't have to be relinked when
there is a modification in libc.a or libm.a.


QUESTION: Does Linux work for SCSI drives?

ANSWER: Yes since v0.96. At tsx-11.mit.edu in /pub/linux/ALPHA/scsi, you
will find the last SCSI alpha/beta version and also a special SCSI
FAQ, read it, it contains the latter information than the one provided
in the SCSI section. You should, also, contact the linux-scsi list or
directly [email protected]


QUESTION: Linux is supposed to work with ESDI drive. However I have
trouble with my Magtron MT-4115E (Joincom controler), any clue?

ANSWER: (Linus) Some harddisk don't like linux (even though they
should). Maybe not a bug but a deficiency.
(Mika) I had to remove the printk "unexpected hd interrupt" statement
in hd.c because I was getting so many of those messages. Be warned
that if there is any read error the system just hangs, even the
ctrl-alt-del won't work. You should be able to use your ESDI drives if
you could live with those nuisances.

QUESTION: How does one go about applying a patch to Linux ?

ANSWER: (Drew Eckhardt) In the unix world most of distribution are in
source form. This includes the operating system. To apply a patch, you
apply it with the 'patch' program to the affected sources. The patch
program takes as input the differences between the old and the new
version. After patching you need to recompile the sources.

Assume I want to apply a patch enclosed in the file XXX. First of all
I will look at the top of XXX, where the file affected is identified.
This may have aleading path attached to it. Either cd out to the
"root" of the patch, ie if I see
linux/kernel/blk_drv/blk.h

I would cd into /usr/src
(assuming it's the place where I can find linux/kernel...)
and then patch as follows
patch -p0 < whatever_place/XXX

or, you can specify a number of path components to strip from the
path. If I am in the blk_drv directory patching would be
patch -p3 < whatever_place/XXX


QUESTION: There are a lot of patches available (ps patch, NFS patches,
CD-ROM patches ...) can I be fairly confident the subsequent patches will
work?

ANSWER: This is not true yet for the current version; but it will be
so I kept it ๐Ÿ™‚
No you can't, patching is a real beta tester art :)). People are not
working on the same patched release, so you have to check if the
patches you already applied works on the same kernel part, if not,
/great/, just apply them. If yes, check if there is an order, patch
creator knows that, and (should) try to warn patch user (in other
words: beta tester) otherwise you should edit the patch files (and
possibly make a brief note to others on this list/newsgroup or even a
cdiff) before applying them, another solution is to keep cool and wait
for the next version of Linux where, in general, the modifications
have been done but this behavior is /not/ Linux helpful.


QUESTION: I got the patches on some ftp sites, and applied them to the
kernel and tried to compile. It didn't !!. Are the patches buggy?

ANSWER: Before remake, just do a make clean in the directories
involved by the patches. This will force a rebuild of the .o and .a
files.
If you have a RCS running on your source tree, did you checked a
patched version of the files changed before /any/ CO either by you or
make

Finally, make sure the patches succeded. Normally, failed patches on a
file FILE will leave a FILE# file. Moreover you will get a "chunk
failed" message. It is possible to capture the output while patching,
with the following:

patch -p0 < patchfile | 2>&1 patch.result | more


QUESTION: What is VFS?

ANSWER: (Ted) Linux 0.96 already has Virtual FileSystem, which means
that it acts as a filesystem switch. It makes it easy for someone to
design another filesystem format and include it in the Linux kernel
along with the standard minix filesystem format. So it /enables/
someone to design a robust filesystem which would have some nice
properties (no 14 chars file name limitation, nor 64Meg limit), and
could be included in the kernel in such a way that both the Minix and
the new one could be mounted at the same time. This solves the
uncompability problem; since the root disk could still use the Minix
filesystem, while the hardisk could be using the new one.



QUESTION: What's about Bus Mice ?

ANSWER: (Nathan I. Laredo) Since the Linux v0.96c-pl2 the kernel does
support LOGITECH and BUS MICE
If you are unsure that you have a bus mouse or not, check to see if
your mouse card has a selection for a sample rate switchable between
30Hz and 60Hz (or possibly 25/50Hz), if it does not, then it is NOT a
true bus mouse (InPort mice for example will not work with this
driver).
To create a bus mouse device:
mknod /dev/mouse c 10 0


QUESTION: What's about TeX ?

ANSWER: The primary site for Linux TeX is 129.78.66.1, this is
P. Williams' site in Australia. The stuff at tsx-11 was posted by
T. Dunbar who does support/maintain the dvilj stuff.


QUESTION: What's about LILO ?

ANSWER: (Werner Almesberger)
LILO - Generic Boot Loader for Linux ("LInux LOader")

This is an ALPHA test release of a new boot loader. Be sure to have
some means to boot your system from a different media if you install
LILO on your hard disk.

Features
--------

- does not depend on the file system. (Tested with Minix, EXT FS and MS-DOS
FS.)
- can be used to boot from floppies and from hard disks.
- can replace the master boot record.
- can boot non-Linux systems (MS-DOS, DR DOS, OS/2, ...) and unstripped
kernels.
- supports up to 16 different boot images that can be selected at boot
time. Root and swap disk/partition can be set independently for each
image.
- boot sector, file map and boot images can be all on different disks or
partitions.


Restrictions and known problems
-------------------------------

- SCSI disks are not fully supported yet. (Still waiting for some kernel
changes.)
- booting other operating systems doesn't seem to work everywhere. If
everything but booting a non-Linux OS from LILO works on your system,
you should boot LILO by BOOTACTV and select the alternate OS with the
latter as a temporary work-around.
- booting non-Linux systems from the second hard disk ("D:") is not yet
supported.

Please send all bug reports to [email protected]


QUESTION: What's about MGR ?

ANSWER: (General Information grabbed from various sources)
There is a MGR channel available , contact the request adress with
help in the body: [email protected]
The stuff can be found at tsx-11 in pub/linux/packages/MGR
In brief:

MGR provides:
- multiple overlapping windows
- multiple fonts
- text and graphics in each windows
- a simple popup menu package
- a client/server model 'a la' X
- independance from any peculiar networking technology

MGR consist of a server process and some clients. Each client has his
own window, and can create subwindows. Clients communicate with the
server via a bidirectionnal channel. A C library is provided.

When a new window starts, it is as a terminal emulator running the
shell; for more information you can grab the mgr-man.out from
bellcore.com

The information hereafter appeared on the MGR channel on 19th Jan.
> From: [email protected]
> Subject: MGR 0.53
>
>
> MGR, version 0.53 for Linux and SunOS (Coherent unfinished yet).
>
> Unpack the src* stuff under in /src/lbin/mgr and the usr* stuff in
> /usr/mgr. I splitted things that way for making it easier to ftp
> them and carry them home. If you don't like these paths, then use
> others, but remember to edit the Configfile after generating it.
> YOU NEED TO INSTALL ALL FILES FOR COMPILING.
>
> This is a beta release for programmers, there are no binaries. It
> makes my work available for people who either also work on MGR and
> like to get new sources and for adventerous beta testers. WARNING:
> I assume using Linux 0.99.2 and GCC 2.3.3.
>
> There is some new m4 code to generate menus. It is more powerful
> than menu(1), but a little harder to use.
>
> MGR is currently being ported to Coherent 4.0, but this version
> doesn't include everything yet. There is already a beta version
> running on Coherent, although not too stable yet.
>
> For questions, write to the mailing list, channel MGR. Please be
> sure to talk about the latest version of MGR plus having read the
> README files in the directories containing the problem.
>
> You got this stuff from ftp.thp.uni-koeln.de:pub/linux/mgr or from
> tsx-11.mit.edu:~ftp/pub/linux/packages/MGR, which is a mirror of the
> Cologne directory.

QUESTION: I have successfully compiled MGR, but when I try to run the
program I get "can't find mouse" or "already in use", any clue?

ANSWER: try the following "mgr -m /dev/ttys1" if the mouse is on
the serial 1. Another possibility is to link /dev/mouse with
/dev/ttys1 (assuming your mouse is on serial 1). Or if it's a bus
mouse, "mknod /dev/mouse c 10 0" once.

QUESTION: Any tips for MGR?

ANSWER: Well, I have tried it on my 386Sx Ega/Vga; the screen is Ok
but the Logitech mouse I have is not well recognized.

BTW check the major/minor number for pty's; they should be character
device with 4 as major and 128 and bigger as minor:
ptyp0 c 4 128
ptyp1 c 4 129
...
ttyp0 c 4 192
ttyp1 c 4 193

QUESTION: What's about X11 ?

ANSWER: See the section XII. devoted to X11 in this FAQ.


===================8<==========>8================

--
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
# LaBRI | #
# 351 cours de la Liberation | e-mail: [email protected] #
# 33405 Talence Cedex | #
# | #
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--
There will be a sig when our local net is reliable.
For now, I would rather stay anonymous.

Archive-name: linux-faq/part4
Last-Modified: 93/02/18
Version: 1.16.1

*********************************************************
* *
* Answers to Frequently asked questions about Linux *
* *
*********************************************************

This post contains Part 4 of the Linux FAQ (4 parts).
It must be read *after* the 3 first parts.

===================================8<====>8============================
CONTENTS (of this part)

IX. GCC MISC INFORMATION (part4)
X. SCSI SPECIAL (part4)
XI. NETWORKING and LINUX (part4)
XII. X11, THE MAXIMUM and MORE (part4)
XIII. EMACS for LINUX (part4)

===================================8<====>8============================



IX. GCC MISC INFORMATION
========================

**** Last update 93/01/16

IX.A. HLU Information
IX.B. OTHERS

IX.A. HLU Information
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The official release of GCC for Linux is 2.3.3.
This section includes:
README.gccdisk
FAQ of gcc written by HLU



QUESTION: I don't know how to install gcc stuff, is there special
places?

ANSWER: This is the README.gccdisk

Linux GNU C/C++ [HJ release]

Introduction
------------
This is GNU C/C++ 2.3.3. It is linked with jump table 4.2. You should use
it with the Linux C library disks since the C/C++ compiler has no shared
images, which are required by all the binaries in it. It consists of
2 minix disks, which will fit on either 5.25" or 3.5" floppies.

It is on tsx-11.mit.edu under pub/linux/GCC/gccdisk


Distribution File Format
------------------------
There are two files, each of which goes on one disk

A. Disk 1 (gcc233a.Z)

This contains gcc, cpp, cc1 and crt0.o/gcrt0.o. There are also some header
files in /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-linux/2.3.3/include.

B. Disk 2 (gcc233b.Z)

This disk contains cc1plus.


Installing on the Hard Drive
----------------------------------------
1. uncompress base[1|2].Z.
2. rawrite or dd each file to a formatted floppy disk.

Now you have made a copy of gcc 2.3.3 on two floppies. To copy each
floppy to your hd, you should mount the floppy and copy its contents to
your hard drive. You can do this by:

mount /dev/fd[0|1] /mnt
cd /mnt
for d in bin dev etc usr
do
if [ -d $d ]; then
cp -av $d /
fi
done

Note: This may overwrite some files on your hard disk.

Thanks.

H.J.
[email protected]
12/31/92

QUESTION: What compiler should I use for Linux?

ANSWER: You should only use the same version on tsx-11.mit.edu or
fgb1.fgb.mw.tu-muenchen.de under /pub/linux/GCC. If you want to use
the testing release, first join the GCC channel on the Linux mailing
list, and then send a note to [email protected] Don't use gcc older
than the one on tsx-11.mit.edu or fgb1.fgb.mw.tu-muenchen.de.

QUESTION: Where is the latest official gcc 2.xx for Linux?

ANSWER: It's on tsx-11.mit.edu under /pub/Linux/GCC and
fgb1.fgb.mw.tu-muenchen.de under pub/linux/GCC. You may find it on the
other sites.

QUESTION: What are the contents of them?

ANSWER: Please read the current release note and ChangeLog for
details.

QUESTION: How do I install it?

ANSWER: Read README and release notes.

QUESTION: What are the main differences with the old release?

ANSWER: Read README and release notes.

QUESTION: Can I use the old version of gcc?

ANSWER: Please get rid of gcc older than gcc 2.2.2. Starting from
gcc 2.2.2, you can do

gcc -V xxxx

where xxxx is the version number. Please read `release.xxxx' for
detail. There is one catch in gcc 2.2.2d, setjmp/longjmp is changed,
so the old header files is not compatible with gcc 2.2.2. Before you
install gcc 2.2.2d, please do

cp /usr/include/setjmp.h /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-linux/2.2.2/include

where /usr/include/setjmp.h is come with gcc 2.2.2.

QUESTION: Is stdio ANSI compatible?

ANSWER: Yes, please test it.

QUESTION: Is g++ in 2.xx?

ANSWER: Yes.

QUESTION: How do I use gcc?

ANSWER: Read manual page, gcc.ps or gcc.man in /usr/install/gcc2.

QUESTION: What options can I use for gcc?

ANSWER: Read manual page, gcc.ps or gcc.man. Also -static tells gcc
to use the static libraries, -nojump forces gcc to use the classic
shared libraries. The default is the jump table version of shared
libraries. The shared libraries for X are linked with the jump table
version of shared C library.

QUESTION: Where is the source code of the new libc.a?

ANSWER: The same place you find this file. It is called
lib-src-yy.xx.TZ.

QUESTION: Why does g++ complain, even die?

ANSWER: You need "expr", which is in GNU shell utilities 1.6, echo (?)
and sed.

QUESTION: How do I generate code for 486?

ANSWER: Add -m486 to CFLAGS.

QUESTION: I heard malloc (0) wouldn't work with Linux, what should I
do?

ANSWER: include and don't define NO_FIX_MALLOC.

QUESTION: Why does gcc say "xxxxx..h not found"?

ANSWER: see QUESTION: What are the contents of them?

QUESTION: I really followed every step in the documentation, but when
I do "make", why does it say "don't how to make xxxxxx"?

ANSWER: The dependency in Makefile is dated, you need to make a new
one. Please get some guide on make and read Makefile. For the kernel
sources, please do

cd src/linux
make dep

QUESTION: How do I compile programs under Linux?

ANSWER: The Linux C library is trying to be ANSI/POSIX compliant. It
is also very compatible with SYSV and BSD. The C library is loaded
with SYSV and BSD functions. There are three exceptions:

1. signal in Linux is POSIX.
2. tty in Linux is POSIX.
3. time functions are POSIX, plus a few BSD and SYSV extensions.
4. setjmp/longjmp functions are POSIX. But you can use -D__FAVOR_BSD
to make it BSD or use sigsigjmp/siglongjmp.

When you compile a program under Linux, your best bet is include all
the appropriate header files and use -Wall. All the usable functions
and global variables are declared in the corresponding header files.
YOU SHOULD NOT DEFINE ANY functions or global variables OF THE LINUX C
LIBRARY IN YOUR CODE IF YOU WANT TO USE THE SHARED LIBRARIES.

After saying all those, you now should know you can compile a program
with -D_POSIX_SOURCE or -D_GNU_SOURCE (read for details).
With a few modifications you can even use -DSYSV, -DUSG or -DBSD. Some
codes need to define -DSTDC_HEADERS for ANSI C compiler like gcc here.

To use malloc () and calloc () safely under Linux, please include

and don't define NO_FIX_MALLOC.

BTW, gcc -traditional should work with gcc 2.2.2d or above.

Please also read ChangeLog for the latest enhencement.

Please read the header files for details. Maybe you should get a book
on POSIX. Any suggestion of the book list?

From Steve Robbins -- [email protected]

IX.B. OTHERS
~~~~~~~~~~~~

QUESTION: I seem to be unable to compile anything with gcc. Why?

ANSWER: If you have only 2 MB RAM, gcc will die silently without
compiling anything. You must have at least 4 MB to do compilations

BTW Since swapping is possible, I have heard that compilation works
with only 2Meg and a lot disk traffic ๐Ÿ™‚ Isn't it great?


QUESTION: gcc complains about not finding crt0.o and the system
include files What am I doing wrong ?

ANSWER: The include files normal place is in /usr/include. lib*.a and
*.o should be in /usr/lib or /usr/local/lib


QUESTION: I tried to port a /new/ version of gnu stuff. But in the
linking phase, gcc complains about the missing libg.a.


ANSWER: Yes this is well known for compiler version earlier than
2.2.2, throw away the flag -g that's all, anyway libg.a is /only/ for
debugging purpose.


QUESTION: How to compile programs which may be debugged with gdb?

ANSWER: There are different ways to handle this problem. If
you have the gcc2.2.2 or later it's simple, use the -g flag. Otherwise
there are different possibilities:
1) As there is no libg.a, you should throw away the -g flag in link
phase, this means that the compilation must be done in two steps
example: instead of "gcc -g monprog.c -o monprog", use the following
"gcc -g -c monprog.c" and then "gcc -o monprog monprog.o"
Alas this method is not that good if you are using Makefile.
2) The other way is to create an empty libg.a as follows (Peter
MacDonald trick):
- create libfake.c containing libgfake() {}
- compile it with: gcc -c libfake.c
- create the libg.a with: ar r libg.a libfake.o
2bis) The more tricky Humberto method:
cd /usr/lib
ranlib libg.a

then gcc -g monprog.c -o monprog will produce a debuggable monprog


QUESTION: When compiling some code, cc1 complains about some insn
code, what's that?

ANSWER: An insn is an internal representation that gcc uses when
compiling. The main part of gcc is to take ordinary c (or c++) code,
and compile it, while ding optimizations in insn part, which is
soft/hard independant. Then another part which is hard/Os dependant
takes the insns and translate it in assembly language. The fix is only
to turn off the optimization flag (-O).


QUESTION: When compiling #[email protected]!, I've got some problems with "SIGBUS"
signal that doesn't exist. Any clue ?

ANSWER: (Louis J. LaBash, Jr.) SIGBUS is a common problem, its not
needed, just comment it all out, something like:

#ifdef SIGBUS
.. normal sigbus code ..
#endif

QUESTION: How can I write codes suitable for building shared library ?

ANSWER: (H.J. Lu, [email protected], 09/01/92)
There are some guidelines for writing codes suitable for building the
shared library with jump table.

1. Never, ever allow library users to access global data directly.
Always, always make them go through access functions. That way,
you are free to change the internal implementation, but can
easily provide backward compatibility by simply replacing the
access functions.

2. If you do have to define some global data for library users to
access, put them into a separate file. Never mix them with other
library code. Also make sure the relative locations of the global
data will not change very often. One solution is leave some spaces
for them to grow.


X. SCSI SPECIAL
===============
*** This section is written by Drew Eckhardt, mail him for any
*** information, questions related to this section.
*** Last update December 1992.

QUESTION: What SCSI hosts are supported?

ANSWER: The Adaptec 154x, Adaptec 174x Future Domain 16x0, Seagate ST0x,
Ultrastor 14F, and Western Digital 7000 are supported. Various Adaptec
clones from Bustek and Future Domain are known to work, in both ISA and EISA
flavors.

The TMC 950, and the discrete 8xx implementations will be supported
in the new Seagate driver when debugging is finished. If you want to
use an older kernel, add 0x200 to the status and data register addresses.

Not very many BIOS signatures are included for the Future domain boards, so
they may not auto-detect correctly.

QUESTION: Which disks ?

ANSWER: Anything that works with your host adapter electronically, and
is new enough to support a December 1985 draft of SCSI-I.

Sysquest, and other removeable hard disks are supported.

Extended partitions also work, with 11 Extended partitions per disk
allowed in combination with the four real partitions and whole disk
sub device.

Disks up to two terabytes in size will work, since the sd driver
switches to 10 byte reads when necessary.

QUESTION: What about SCSI tapes ?

ANSWER: Tapes are supported. You may wish to obtain the utility program mt,
which is usually available from tsx-11.mit.edu in pub/linux/ALPHA/scsi.

QUESTION: What about CD ROMS?

ANSWER: Yes, cdroms are supported, and the ISO-9660 file system is in
included with the kernel distribution. Rockridge extensions are
supported. You will have to make sure that you have configured the
kernel to include the isofs filesystem or otherwise you will not be
able to use the cdrom.

QUESTION: What about flopticals, Bernoulis, Sysquests, and other removeable
media devices?

ANSWER: The normal SCSI disk driver supports these. Note that pre-.98pl4
versions of Linux had some bugs handling disk-change.

QUESTION: How do I get SCSI information?

ANSWER: Subscribe to the SCSI channel of the linux-activists mailing list.
mail [email protected]
And put in the header.
X-MN-Admin: join SCSI

QUESTION : I can't make a filesystem on /dev/hd*

ANSWER : /dev/hd* aren't your SCSI disks. /dev/sd* are.
See below for approproate major / minor numbers if they
do not exist on your root diskette.

QUESTION: How do I partition the disk?

ANSWER: Use pfdisk or the DOS parititioning program of your choice

QUESTION: My partitioning program can't figure out the disk geoemetry

The problem with partitioning SCSI disks and Linux is that Linux talks
directly to the SCSI interface. Each disk is viewed as the SCSI host
sees it : N blocks, numbered from 0 to N-1, all error free. There is
no portable way to get disk geometry.

However, DOS doesn't like things like this, it demmands that BIOS
present it with a normal Cylinder / Head / Sector coordinates. So,
BIOS does, and it comes up with some fabrication that fits what DOS
wants to see. You don't want to disagree with what BIOS thinks when
you write the partition table.

The newest SCSI code will return the mapped geometry for some host
adapter / disk combinations. Kernel release 0.99 and later should have
this capability.

QUESTION: The stock {f,pf}disk programs don't work.

ANSWER: At least some older versions of these partitioning programs have
/dev/hd* hardcoded into them, and they don't see /dev/sd*.

If you want, YOU can change the /dev/hd* devices to be links to or
other entries for the SCSI devices.

Also, pfdisk should be callable with a device name.

Hopefully, some one will change the partitioning programs to respect
the SCSI devices.

QUESTION: Where is the latest version maintained?

ANSWER: tsx-11.mit.edu:/pub/linux/ALPHA/scsi

Join the list before you grab anything.

[email protected] (Eric Youngdale) added scatter/gather support
to the SCSI drivers, and changed around the internal structures to get
something that works as "version 2"

QUESTION: What are the major / minor numbers for SCSI drives?

ANSWER: Because of the large number of devices that can be hung off of
a SCSI bus (as many as 56 if you use SCSI fanouts or bridge boards),
and the possibility of 16 partitions on a SCSI disk, we'd run out of
minor numbers if they were statically allocated - so a dynamic
numbering scheme is used.

Block device major 8 is used for SCSI drives, 11 for CD-ROMs.
Character device major 9 is used for SCSI tapes.

Minors are assigned in increments of 16 to SCSI disks as they are
found, scaning from host 0, ID 0 to host n, ID 7, excluding the host
ID. Most hosts use ID 7 for themselves.

A minor where minor mod 16 = 0 is the whole drive, where minor mod 16
is between 1 and 4, that partition, extended partitions dynamically
assigned from 5 to 15 inclusive. Note that the gendisk.c module
prints partition tables on initialization - you should be able to see
them there.

Example : I have four SCSI disks, set up as follows
Seagate ST02, ID=0
Seagate ST02, ID = 5
Ultrastor 14, ID = 0
Adaptec 1542, ID = 0

The first disk on the seagate at ID 0 will become minors 0-15
inclusive, the second at ID5 16-31 inclusive, the disk on the
Ultrastor 32-47, on the Adaptec 48-63.

QUESTION: How do I reduce kernel bloat and eliminate the drivers I
don't want?

ANSWER: For kernel release 0.99 and later, just go to the to directory
in the kernel source tree, and type ``make config'', and answer the
questions. For older kernel distributions, simply #undef
CONFIG_DISTRIBUTION in include/linux/config.h, and define the macros
for the SCSI hosts you want enabled.

QUESTION: I get SCSI timeouts.

ANSWER: Make sure your board has interrupts enabled correctly.

QUESTION: The seagate driver doesn't work.

ANSWER: There are several possibilities
1) Is the board jumpered for IRQ5 ?

The factory settings are
for MSLOSS, and have interrupts disabled. Interrupts are controlled
by the W3 (ST01) or JP3 (ST02) jumper, which should have pins FG
shorted. See your manual.

2) Cached machines will not have problems IF the Seagate's address
space (typically C8000 - CAFFFF) is not marked "non cacheable."
This applies to the i486 internal cache as well as i386/i486
external caches.

This can be set in the XCMOS of most machines. If you can't disable
cache for the Seagate's area (16K in size, starting at the base
address), then you must disable the cache entirely, otherwise
it won't work.


3) The new seagate drivers (not yet released) can operate in a mode where
the 0ws ISA bus line is used to synchronize the ISA and SCSI busses.
This makes things fast, since the alpha Seagate driver can dump SCSI data out
fast enough to swamp the bus. However, this will only work if the 0ws
jumper is enabled. If this isn't the case, the Seagate driver "should" detect
this as an over/under run condition, but it might not. Either enable
the 0ws jumper, or #undef FAST in seagate.h.

QUESTION: The Adaptec driver doesn't work.


ANSWER: Older versions of the SCSI drivers required that the Adaptec BIOS
be enabled because it does some initialization that affects
the driver. If the BIOS was disabled, it may fail on your system.
The new scsi code does not require this.

A common source of difficulty is a conflict between two different
boards forand IRQ level, a DMA channel, or an I/O address. Check the
settings for the boards you have in your system (music boards are
known to use similar IRQ or I/O addresses as the Adaptec. In the new
scsi code the Adaptec can use any of the IRQ levels that it can be
strapped for, it can use I/O address 0x330 or 0x334, and it can use
DMA channels 5, 6 or 7.

Older versions of the SCSI drivers ran the 17 x in 1542 emulation
mode, where some of these cards have a bug that interferes with
reads / writes > 512 bytes.

Older versions of the SCSI drivers ran the 174x in 1542 emulation
mode, where some of these cards have a bug that interferes with
reads / writes > 512 bytes.

The new SCSI drivers support the 174x in 'native' mode, so this isn't
a problem.

QUESTION: What about bugs?

ANSWER: It works on MY hardware. It works on Tommy Thorn's Adaptec
system, Dave Gentzel's Ultrastor, Thomas Wuensche's WD7000, Rick
Faith's Future Domain, and quite a few other systems.

Bugs that are there will mostly be very hardware specific, and nasty
to track down. SCSI should be basically error free - consequently,
the error code has not been heavily tested, and there are known bugs
in it.

If you have found a bug, please mail it to the SCSI channel of the
mailing list with specifics of your hardware. Other people may have the
same problem, a solution, etc.

If you provide a patch, in context diff form, the bug will be fixed
Immediately. If you can provide me with a procedure that reproduces
the bug on *MY* system, the bug will be fixed "soon." Your chances
of getting it fixed increase exponentially with the amount of
information provided. If I can't reproduce it, and your
description gives me no idea as to where in the code to look,
it won't get fixed by me.

QUESTION: What are the known bugs?

ANSWER :

Many of the drivers cannot abort a command that is in progress - if
something goes haywire, all drives off that controller will hang.

QUESTION: I get a message saying READ CAPACITY FAILED. What does this
mean?

ANSWER: UPGRADE.

QUESTION: Why does the system "hang" when SCSI disk access occurs.

ANSWER: Older Linux distributions (pre .97) used earlier versions
of the SCSI drivers, where the drivers were not interrupt driven
(easier debugging, or so we thought). Since the drivers did not return
from the device driver strategy routine, until the SCSI command
completed, no other tasks were scheduled, and ineteractive performance
was abysmall.

UPGRADE.

QUESTION: Why can't I swap to a SCSI disk?, Why can't I mount a SCSI
disk as root?

ANSWER: This was due do a race condition that has since been fixed.

UPGRADE.

QUESTION: What future developments are planned?

ANSWER: The following changes will/have occurred :

- have occurred :

- support for scatter / gather is there. This
means that all read (and readaheads) will be
handled via one command.

- Significant changes have been made to the
Seagate driver. Among other things, it supports the
0ws line, which means we can dump data fast enough
to flood the bus.

- Multiple outstanding commands per LUN are supported.
This should result in vastly improved performance
on multi-device systems.

- SCSI tapes are supported.

- Support for LUN !=0 is there.

- Planned
- SCSI commands are issued as linked commands
wherever possible, eliminating the arbitration /
selection / message out phases needed to start
a command "from scratch".

- I have the mode page specs, and am looking at
doing "appropriate things" w.r.t. cache enable,
buffer control, etc. It seems that some drives
power up, and keep the buffer off until told otherwise
in software.


QUESTION: What drivers does the new code support.

ANSWER: ALL of the existing drivers work fine. However, only the Adaptec,
Western Digital and Future Domain cards use scatter gather. The seagate
scatter/gather driver is fast but not yet stable and still kernel
panics.

QUESTION: WHEN?

ANSWER: Now. You just have to make sure that you are using version 0.98pl6
or later of the kernel, and you will automatically get the new scsi code.


XI. NETWORKING and LINUX
============================
*** This section should be maintained by Philip Copeland
*** ([email protected]).


QUESTION: Where can I find useful information about networking for
Linux ?

ANSWER: Join the NET channel of the mailing list. Also, you need to
read the NET-FAQ by Phil Copeland, it's on sunsite and tsx-11 and
posted to c.o.l and the NET channel every couple of weeks.

Basically, all of the information on networking and TCP/IP for Linux
is in the NET-FAQ, because it's maintained seperately than this
document (and we don't want to waste the space reprinting it all
here--- it's big!).

The NET-FAQ has been completely rewritten as of Feb 1993. Get the new
version.



XII. X11 THE MAXIMUM and MORE
=============================
*** This section is maintained by Krishna Balasubramanian
*** . Mail him if you have corrections,
*** additions, etc.
*** Last update: Tue, 16 Jan 93 19:06:57 -0500

XII.A. X386 GENERAL INFORMATION
XII.B. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: Supported Video cards.
XII.C. LINUX DISTRIBUTION: Files required, Current version.
XII.D. LEARNING/USING X: Pointers to X documentation.
XII.E. DEBUGGING STARTUP PROBLEMS: Checklist, Screen restoration, Hanging.
XII.F. XCONFIG: Video mode settings and common errors in Xconfig.
XII.G. X-APPLICATIONS: Compiling X programs.
XII.H. BUGS
XII.J. MISC: the things that I don't know where to put ๐Ÿ™‚

The X11 directories are (depending on your version of X)
XLIB = /usr/X386/lib/X11/ or /usr/lib/X11/
XBIN = /usr/X386/bin/ or /usr/bin/X11/



XII.A. X386 GENERAL INFORMATION
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

QUESTION: What is the X11 release supported by Linux?

ANSWER: It's the X11R5 (xfree86-1.1).


QUESTION: What is X386/xfree86?

ANSWER: X386 is the port of the X11 server to System V/386 that was
done by Thomas Roell ([email protected]). It supports a
wide variety of VGA boards. X386 1.2 is included in MIT's X11R5
distribution.

The Linux X386 port was based on the stock distribution from X11R5,
from MIT and was done by Orest Zborowski ([email protected]).

It has since moved to becoming part of the standard xfree86 distribution.


QUESTION: Where can I get X386 1.2 (X11R5)?

ANSWER: The X386 1.2 and xfree86 sources are available at any site that
distributes the X11R5 source (too numerous to list here, but includes
export.lcs.mit.edu)


QUESTION: Any tips on compiling X11R5?

ANSWER:
- Dont do it.
- XFree86 is distributed with a link kit so you can optionally
include what you like in the server.
- You will need lots of disk space (around 150Meg for the MIT core).
- Look at mit/server/ddx/x386/README and follow any instructions for
your particular platform.
- Contact the X11 channel at linux-activists



XII.B HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Approx: at least 4 megs of ram + swap ...slooooww. 10 Meg disk for X.
Another 6-10 meg of disk for GCC if you want to compile X11 programs.

QUESTION: What VGA boards are supported?

ANSWER:
et3000, et4000, gvga, pvga1a, wd890c00, tvga8900, ati ver. 5 or 6,
8514/A, generic vga: 800x600 mono (Xmono), 640x480x16 (Xega).

Diamond cards are not supported and will not be supported.
Contact Diamond if you have further questions or (better) buy another card.

Standard x11v1.1 or xfree86 server:
ET3000 (for ex. GENOA 5300/5400)
ET4000 (Tricom, STB PWR Graph, Sigma Legend, etc.)
GVGA (Genoa 6400)
PVGA1A (Paradise VGA Professional) ... see BUGS.
WD90C00 (Paradise VGA 1024)

supported by xfree86:
TVGA8900 TRIDENT 8900 support is in xfree86

ATI ATI VGA WONDER XL and most ATI VGA WONDER PLUS
cards (chip version 5 or 6).
Courtesy Rik Faith ([email protected])
ATI Notes: An example Xconfig file is available from ftp.cs.unc.edu:
/pub/faith/linux/x386. Please note that:
1) clock.exe does *NOT* work with ATI cards.
2) The ATI Wonder driver in xFree86 is known only to work with
chip version 5 and 6 cards. This is most ATI VGA Wonder PLUS cards
and all ATI VGA Wonder XL cards (although sporadic problems have been
reported even with these very recent cards). The driver will tell
you which ATI chip version you have, as will the ati.test program in
XLIB/etc/


MONO Any vga card should be able to use X386mono server. (At least
640x480 with 800x600 virtual). Use vga2 section of Xconfig.

Also available as ALPHA test versions (join the X11 channel):
(The standard x386/xfree86 server will not handle the following cards)

8514 ATI graphics ULTRA, ATI graphics Vantage
(should work with any VESA standard 8514/A register compatible card?)
tsx-11 pub/linux/packages/X11/X8514/ (X8514new.T.Z x.8514.src.T.Z)
courtesy Kevin Martin ([email protected]).

Xega Generic 640x480x16 compatible server (originally for laptops).
This requires a microsoft mouse at /dev/mouse for now
and it does not use Xconfig so use environment variables
to define the font path etc. in .xinitrc:
export FONT_PATH=/usr/lib/X11/fonts/misc:/usr/lib/X11/fonts75dpi
Works better with courier fonts so add to .Xresources:
*Font: -*-courier-medium-r-*--10* ..or whatever..
A link kit is available at tsx-11 (you need gcc2.2.2).
in pub/linux/ALPHA/Xega/X386.ega.T.Z
courtesy Marc Hoffman ([email protected]).

The Xega server is compiled with the gcc-2.2.2 libs and should be
upgraded soon. It should however work with programs/fonts in new X11
releases as long as you ensure you have the shared images needed by
the server in /lib.


XS3 S3 chipset server (Jon Tombs [email protected])
I've started a FAQ on ftp.robots.ox.ac.uk (pub/linux/S3), but the Xserver
is still very alpha. Unless you know something about X386 and are prepared
to work at it, stick with the mono XFree86 server until you see different
advice. I'd hope to get the server integrated with XFree86 in the next
couple of weeks. This will make most the current problems go away.


WARNING: Do not try to bring up an Xserver that does not support your
hardware. There have been cases where damage has resulted from pushing
the monitor beyond its specs.


QUESTION: What Mouses are supported?

ANSWER: Serial : Logitech, Microsoft, MouseSystems .... compatibles ...
Busmouses : Logitech, microsoft, ATI_XL, PS/2 (aux).


QUESTION: Has anyone gotten the "Mini-DIN" mouse on an HP Vectra 486/33T
to work? The slight info I've been able to find says it's PS/2 compatible.

ANSWER: First you need to create an entry in /dev for it:

mknod /dev/psaux c 10 1

There is no direct PS/2 mouse support in XFree86 yet, so to use the
mouse with X you'll have to use the mconv mouse protocol conversion
utility, which can be found on nic.funet.fi, in
/pub/OS/Linux/utils/tools/mconv.c. This program converts the packets
sent by the PS/2 mouse into the corresponding ones from a Microsoft
mouse, so you can fool X telling it you have a Microsoft serial
mouse instead. Instructions for use are included in the source file.
(Johan Myreen [email protected])



XII.C. LINUX DISTRIBUTION
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

QUESTION: What is the current version?

ANSWER: The newest public Linux release is x11v2.1. It is the linux
release of xfree86-1.1. It was compiled with gcc-2.2.2d and is available
for example at tsx-11 in pub/linux/packages/X11/xfree86-1.1/
The SLS distribution stays at 2.0.

QUESTION: What Files do I need to download?

ANSWER: For x11v2.1: There is a README file in the distribution directory.
Bring this down first and read it. Then get xbin, xman and xfonts.
You need xprog and xlibman only if you plan to compile X applications.
You dont need xkit if you want to relink the server.

**** You need The shared images libc.so.4 (4.1 or later) and libm.so.4 (4.0)
in /lib/. All the X11 binaries use these. To compile programs you should
get gcc-2.2.2d7 or later and the 4.x libraries.

For Other servers see also the notes in the previous section.



QUESTION: Where do the X11 files go? What are they?

ANSWER: x11v2.1 uses the directories /usr/X386/bin/ (XBIN) for programs
and /usr/X386/lib/X11/ (XLIB) for support files.

The support files include default/example Xconfig, xinitrc, twmrc
which you should copy to your HOME directory (as Xconfig, .xinitrc
and .twmrc) and edit them to define your hardware and X11 setup.
The directory XLIB/etc/ contains some documentation which
should explain how to configure your video.




XII.D. LEARNING/USING X
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

QUESTION: Where can I find the basic help for learning/using X ?

ANSWER: Try man X386; man Xserver; man xterm; man twm; man xinit
on any unix machine. The man pages on xterm and twm will reflect
behaviour on Linux systems quite accurately. The others will give you
some bearing though not every option will work. These man pages are
part of the xfree86 distribution.


QUESTION: What docs are available besides man pages?

ANSWER: The FAQ in comp.windows.x11 is extensive and has a bibliography.
There is also the Xt-FAQ. Both are available from export.lcs.mit.edu in
pub/contrib/.


QUESTION: [suggested by Thomas Koenig]
How do I support national keyboards in X11 ?

ANSWER: Put a .Xmodmap file into the user's home directory specifying
which keys to use for what; or else replace the
/usr/lib/X11/xinit/.Xmodmap with the national keyboard keys
customized. Do man xmodmap for more details.
enclosed an excerpt of mine (french keyboard):
keycode 8 =
keycode 9 = Escape
keycode 10 = ampersand 1
keycode 11 = eacute 2 asciitilde
keycode 12 = quotedbl 3 numbersign
keycode 13 = apostrophe 4 braceleft
keycode 14 = parenleft 5 bracketleft
keycode 15 = minus 6 bar
keycode 16 = egrave 7 grave
keycode 17 = underscore 8 backslash
keycode 18 = ccedilla 9 asciicircum
keycode 19 = agrave 0 at
keycode 20 = parenright degree bracketright
keycode 21 = equal plus braceright
keycode 22 = BackSpace
keycode 23 = Tab
keycode 24 = A
........


XII.E. DEBUGGING STARTUP PROBLEMS:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

QUESTION: How do I start up X?

ANSWER: Type 'startx' at the shell prompt.
Before doing this you should:
1) copy the file Xconfig.sample from the XLIB directory to your
HOME directory (/usr/root/Xconfig?) or to XLIB/Xconfig.
2) Edit Xconfig and set the video data for you card and monitor.
Use the clocks appropriate for your card and the modes appropriate
for your monitor for those clock values. To determine what values are
appropriate read files in XLIB/etc and the Xconfig section below.
3) Set the mouse device in Xconfig correctly....Use the busmouse entry
for Logitech only. For other busmouses use microsoft.
4) Ensure that there is a termcap entry for xterm in /etc/termcap
(One is available in the subdir /doc).
5) Ensure that the X11 binaries are in the path example:
add the line PATH=${PATH}:/usr/X386/bin to ~/.profile or
look at bash.ad in /doc.
WARNING: NONE of the modes (in the Modes line in Xconfig) should use a
clock your monitor cannot handle.
Now type startx.


QUESTION: I cannot type in my xterm

ANSWER: /dev/console must have major=4, minor=0
rm -f /dev/console; ln /dev/console /dev/tty0


QUESTION: What are some of the common omissions and errors?

ANSWER: (Peter)
1) Add /usr/bin/X11 (or /usr/X386/bin) to your path.

2) Add the xterm termcap entry to /etc/termcap.

3) ln -s X386 X in the XBIN directory.
ln -s X386mono X (if you want to use the mono server).

4) Run X as root first. This avoids some trivial problems.

5) If you change the font path entry .... X386 is finicky about
the syntax.

6) Make sure your mouse entry in Xconfig points to a legitimate serial
device (or busmouse)... usually something like: microsoft "/dev/ttys1"
serial devices have major # 4 minor 64,65 ... busmouses are major 10.
ls -l in /dev will show you the major and minor entries.

7) Need read/write/exec access to /tmp directory

8) Use startx 2> x.err to log your error messages. If the server sticks
and you have to reboot you'll probably loose this stuff... see notes
on `hanging' below.

9) See Xconfig problems and the device list below.

10) Have you read the X386 man page?


QUESTION: Why is the server unable to find some of the fonts?

ANSWER: First check that the directories listed in the font path exist
and have font files in them. Some of the servers are not set up to use
compressed fonts. In such cases you have to uncompress the fonts in the
directory and run `mkfontdir .`. Read the man page on mkfontdir.


QUESTION: My server "hangs" Why?

ANSWER: (Peter) Quite often it isn't a hang. If the server grabs the
screen(and enters graphics mode) and then dies, it may return you to
bash *without* restoring the screen. In other words, just because you
see no output, don't assume it's running/hanging. The way to test
this is to see if you can use a bash command to spin your disk. eg.:
sync; ls -l /bin.

Also - I *suspect* that (at least for me), you can kill the
server if you include the servernum option in the Xconfig

You can kill the server when you want to by typing ctrl-alt-backspace.
Then a couple of ctrl-C 's in case your stuck in xinit.

The two line message
X386 version .....
(protocol Version ....
is returned from the X386 programme itself, so if you get
this (or if the screen blanks) X must be starting.


QUESTION: When I try to use X11 I got "Cannot connect to
server" or "process does not exist", any clue ?

ANSWER: The cause might be wrong fontpath variable setup in your
Xconfig; uncomment and set the correct fontpath variable.


QUESTION: Why cant I run more than 4 xterms?
How can I have more than 4 pty's ?

ANSWER: set the number in the header include/linux/tty.h and
recompile the kernel. Also make nodes :
mknod /dev/ptypxx 4 minor (where minor = 128 + xx)
mknod /dev/ttypxx 4 minor (minor = 192 + xx)
This is for before linux-0.97pl6.... for later versions
you only need to make the nodes.


QUESTION: I have trouble with my logitech Pilot mouse and X under
Linux, any clue ?

ANSWER: (Thomas Roell?) There are TWO line of Logitech mice out there.
One is the programmable and uses MouseSystems protocol at startup.
X386 reprogramms them to use another protocol. If you specify
'Logitech' in the Xconfig, X386 assumes a mouse like C7 or S9 (notC7-M).
The second line is the MicroSoft compatible. Currently all newer
Logitech mice follows this practice, like the MouseMan. In that case
you have to say 'MicroSoft' or 'MouseMan'.

~From: [email protected] (Jean Liddle)
I just purchased a new logitech mouseman, and yes, the new X-Windows
(XFree86 as opposed to X386) requires that you use the "microsoft" mousetype.
However, if you turn Third Button Emulation off, the middle button WILL work.


QUESTION: How does X11 start up?

ANSWER: The startup involves the server (XBIN/X), and some
programs like startx and xinit.

Typing startx runs the script XBIN/startx. Look through startx.
For explanation of the server arguments try man Xserver.
startx does little other than gather arguments and then call xinit.

xinit **calls** X (X is linked to X386). xinit therefore continues to
run, and quite often you will receive error messages from xinit rather
than X itself. If you get the message "giving up", it means X has died
(quite probably it died immediately) and xinit has been unable to start
x applications. xinit processes the startup script xinitrc.


QUESTION: How can I see what startx passes to xinit, and xinit to X?

ANSWER: Add the line: set -x near the top of startx.

To see what xinit passes to X, try: (Peter)

rm XBIN/X
- yes, if you have set it up correctly, X should only be a link
so it's safe to remove it.

then create a shell script XBIN/X containing:
#/bin/sh
echo $*
and run startx. You should see something like:
X :0
which is all xinit passes to X. If you don't see the :0, you may not
have your DISPLAY=":0" set correctly. THEN RESTORE X!! :
cd XBIN; rm X; ln -s X386 X


QUESTION: What devices does X depend on:

ANSWER: check your device numbers with ls -l /dev. You should have:

5 0 tty
4 0 tty0
4 0 console
4 1 tty1 (etc)
1 1 mem

4 128 ptyp0 pseudo ttys used by xterm/emacs etc
4 129 ptyp1 (etc) to talk to unix programs.
4 192 ttyp0
4 193 ttyp1 (etc)

4 64 ttys1 one of these is the mouse
4 65 ttys2 or you have a busmouse.
10 x mouse busmouse x = 0 => logitech 1 => ps/2 (aux)
2 => microsoft 3 => ATI_XL.
/tmp/.X11-unix/X0 socket used by X apps to talk to the server.
this is created by X386.




XII.F. Xconfig: Xconfig and Video mode settings.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
QUESTION: What do the mode names mean?

ANSWER: The mode names like "640x480" are used to match entries in
the modes line with the modeDB entry which actually defines the mode.
You can toggle between modes in the modes line with ctrl-alt-numericplus.
If you're experimenting with 640x480 you can define
modes "640x480a" "641x480b" "642x480c"
with corresponding entries under ModeDB so you can toggle between
these three modes. Try man X386.

QUESTION: How do I compute the numbers for the video modes?

ANSWER: See if there is an entry that matches your chip/monitor in
XLIB/etc/modeDB.txt. Use the clock entries for your chip
and the mode entry for that clock appropriate for your monitor.
If you cant find a mode entry for a particular clock 'needed_clock'
but can find a mode entry (for your monitor) for a nearby clock value
'found_clock', scale all numbers in the modeDB entry by
(needed_clock/found_clock). man X386 and Read CONFIG and Xconfig.notes.


QUESTION: How can I determine the clocks on the video chip?
Where can I find clock.exe or clock.pas ?

ANSWER: The XFREE Team discourages the use of clocks.exe and wants it
to be removed from all docs, since the new Server is better at
guessing the clocks than clocks.exe.

You can get X to tell you what it finds by commenting the
clocks entry in Xconfig. Use 'startx 2> x.err' to log the output.
If X starts up this file gets the clocks only after you exit.

I strongly advise using the 'modegen' spreadsheets to generate the
appropriate settings. If I remember correctly you can find them in
'pub/linux/packages/SLS/x4' called modegen.taz or something equally
as obvious ... Good luck. (Andy [email protected])

The clocks entry in Xconfig serves as an index. example:
clocks 1 2
ModeDB
1 640x480 .....
2 800x600 .....
means the first clock on the chip will be used for the 640x480 mode
and so on. Usually one uses the MHz value for the clock for convenience
instead of 1 2 you probably have 25 28 ... etc.


QUESTION: What are the settings used with a trident-8900C?

ANSWER: To get X/SLS/Linux working with a trident-8900C, do the following:

1) From Frank Houston [email protected]
vga256
Virtual 1024 768
ViewPort 0 0
Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
Use the VESA monitor timings from the modeDB in the example Xconfig.
You do not need to specify the chipset or clocks.

2) From: Henk Vandecasteele [email protected]
TRIDENT TVGA 8900C card with BIOS C2.11, A cheap color monitor AOC (CM-335)
with a maximum horizontal frequence of 39.5
vga256
Virtual 1024 1024
ViewPort 0 0
Modes "912x684" "800x600" "640x480"
# This mode drives my monitor to the limit (VESA timings for the rest).
"912x684" 45 912 944 1104 1136 684 684 690 712


QUESTION: What are common problems with Xconfig?

ANSWER: If X isn't firing at all, or even if it clears the screen and
crashes (see below) you almost certainly have a fault in Xconfig.

1. Note that the server X interprets Xconfig. (not xinit)

2. If you have a fault in Xconfig it is possible to crash or hang the
server without getting an error message.

3. leave the two paths at the top of Xconfig commented out when testing.

4. test with only one graphics mode included - one you are most sure of.

5. If you make a mistake in the mouse section, you will (I understand)
get an error message, so if you don't get some mouse error, try
elsewhere first. (eg "No such file or directory" indicates you have a
fault in the "/dev/ttyxx" line, or /dev/ttyxx doesn't exist.

6. *NB* X looks in your home directory first to find an Xconfig. make
certain it's using the one you've been working on!

7. you need double quotes (") around your chipset and modes: eg
chipset "et4000"
Modes "640x480" "640x480a" "800x600"
and around the /dev/ttyxx eg.:
microsoft "/dev/ttys1"

8. Check your VGA section and modeDB first.

9. ensure ModeDB clock speeds match the VGA section. Comment out any
unused lines in MODEDB.

eg clocks 25 36 00 00 00 00 00 00

then you *must* have (and only have) lines under modeDB corresponding
to speeds 25 and 36. If you have one with (say) 62 uncommented out in
the modeDB section in place of the 36 line, you will cause the server to
die immediately with no error message.

10. a syntax error (such as an unrecognised word) in Xconfig will cause
a death with no warning.

11. videoram must equal the amount of display ram on your chip.


QUESTION: What do I use in my Xconfig file to use the bus mouse?
Logitech doesn't work with my Logitech busmouse.

ANSWER: (Nathan I. Laredo)
Here are the mouse lines from my Xconfig:

BusMouse "/dev/mouse"

You may add a sample rate if you want, but chances are, unless the model
number on your mouse matches mine: PC-93-9MD it probably will cause your
machine to lock up, as I've gotten several reports saying that.

According to the X386 documentation, non-logitech mice do not support
a sample rate.





XII.G X-APPLICATIONS: Compiling X Programs.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

QUESTION: Does anyone know where I can find the libobz.a library ?

ANSWER: This library contained the socket stuff, when X386 V0.1 was
released. Meanwhile it has found it's way into the kernel, so
remove -lobz from the link step in the Makefile.


QUESTION: I get _setjmp undefined when linking xv from .a files.

ANSWER: You are trying to link a program compiled with gcc-2.2.2
and setjmp has changed sice then. Recompile xv from the source
using the latest gcc.


QUESTION: How do I compile an X application that has an Imakefile?

ANSWER:
Type xmkmf to generate the Makefile.
Type make.


QUESTION: gcc complains the X libraries are not found or links static.

ANSWER: Check out the -nojump -static options of GCC ... read the GCC FAQ.
You can tell gcc what directories to search with -L.




XII.H BUGS:
~~~~~~~~~~~
Restoration of the text screen fails on some hardware.

Cant compile Xaw programs without -static in versions x11v1.1 or older.
There is a glitch with the Xaw shared libs ... I haven't seen
this in a while anyway its fixed in newer releases.

Color problems with Xega .... fixed in latest version on tsx-11.

from [email protected] (Chuck Sites)
It is possible to run X386 on a Paradise VGA Plus. The X386.0 doc file
has a small misprint. The Chipset is not pvga. It's pvga1. Anyway,
under the line in /usr/X386/lib/X11/Xconfig VGA256, add, `chipset "pvga1"`.
You will need a 512k board. There seems to be a problem with 800x600 mode
that causes pixels to be misplaced in the center 1/3 of the screen. 640x480
works fine. Anybody out there might have a fix for that? You may want to use
X386mono with 800x600 instead.


Fix for missing numlock control in xfree86-1.1.
use xmodmap to change the mapping:
clear mod1
add mod1 = Alt_L
keysym Alt_R = Mode_switch
add mod5 = Mode_switch
David (Dawes)

XII.J. MISC
~~~~~~~~~~~
QUESTION: When using Makefiles generated by xmkmf why do I get many error
messages?

ANSWER: Currently xmkmf under Linux doesn't like # comments in Imakefiles.
Therefore you must change the #'s to XCOMM. But be careful. Don't change
any pre-compiler directives. ([email protected] Matthew A. Lewis)


QUESTION: Why do I get the error message 'could not open default font'
when I start X?

ANSWER: Some servers only work with compressed (uncompressed) fonts.
So compress (uncompress) the font files in misc and 75dpi directories and
run `mkfontdir .`. Leave the files fonts.alias and fonts.dir uncompressed.


QUESTION: Why is it I cannot get Xfree86 to work with my trident card?

ANSWER: You should get xfree86-1.1 which has improved trident support.
SLS contains 1.0Ya (I believe). If you have SLS already and a slow
connection get xbin2.1.TZa from the xfree86-1.1 distribution on tsx-11.


Sources for X11_FAQ:
Steve Kotsopoulos, Peter Hawkins, John Morris, MM. Corsini,
K. Balasubramanian.
Direct comments, questions, complaints to krishna at:
[email protected]


XIII. EMACS for LINUX
=====================
*** This section is maintained by Rick Sladkey ([email protected])
*** Last Update November 1992.

XIII.A. GENERAL INFORMATION
XIII.B. GNU EMACS for LINUX

XIII.A. GENERAL INFORMATION
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This is a short list of Frequently Asked Questions about GNU Emacs
under Linux. It does not address general questions about Emacs which
are not Linux specific. For general help about Emacs, 1) learn to use
and read the online documentation, 2) read the real Emacs FAQ found in
emacs/etc/FAQ, and 3) read the newsgroup gnu.emacs.help.

Rick Sladkey

XIII.B. GNU EMACS for LINUX
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
QUESTION: Does Linux Emacs use the shared libraries?

ANSWER: Yes. It wasn't easy. If you have any problems with them let
me know. Also contact me if you would like static binaries.

QUESTION: What version of the compiler was used? Which shared libaries?

ANSWER: This describes version of GNU Emacs 18.59 for Linux 0.97 and above
compiled with GCC 2.2.2d7 using the libc.so.4.1 and libX11.so.2.1 shared
libraries.

QUESTION: Which files do I need?

ANSWER:
emacs-18.59a.tar.Z this file, sample default.el and diffs
for this version, the eight-bit patch,
iso-latin-1.el and eight-bit.el
emacs-etc-18.59a.tar.Z emacs support programs and misc info
emacs-bin-18.59a.tar.Z shared emacs binary and its doc file
x11emacs-bin-18.59a.tar.Z shared x11emacs binary and its doc file

QUESTION: How do I install them?

ANSWER: According to Linux convention, cd to /usr and untar the
packages.

QUESTION: Does Linux Emacs support eight-bit input/output?

ANSWER: Yes. It is new with this version. It uses the so-called
"ctl-arrow" patch. See the file README.8bit for more information.

QUESTION: How much disk space is required?

ANSWER: Anywhere from 1 to 15 Meg. Emacs works reasonably well with no
support files at all. With a judicious selection from lisp/*.elc and
etc/*, quite a lot can be done using only 2 Meg. If you want all of
lisp/*.elc, info/*, and etc/* this will require 4 to 6 Meg. If you
unpack the whole source you need 8 Meg. If you collect info files
like rare coins and install a lot of big lisp packages then Emacs may
need its own partition. ๐Ÿ™‚

QUESTION: Why does Emacs crash under Linux 0.98 patchlevel 4 or higher?

ANSWER: It crashes becuase of the a new 256-bit wide fd_set structure.
Sometimes progress requires sacrifice.

QUESTION: Why can't Emacs find its support files anymore?

ANSWER: This is because older versions of Emacs were compiled with
"/usr/local/emacs" based paths. The current version is compiled with
"/usr/emacs" paths. If you have a previous installation, just "mv
/usr/local/emacs /usr" and you're done. If you can't bear to part
with the "/usr/local" pathnames because of inertia then do "ln -s
/usr/local/emacs /usr" and you can have them both.

QUESTION: How do I get Emacs to recognize my cursor keys?

ANSWER: Simple. Don't use them. ๐Ÿ™‚ Seriously, there are as many
ways to do this are there are elisp hackers but the preferred way is
to follow the pattern set by the other terminal definition files in
emacs/lisp/term/*.el. For just arrow keys you can just copy vt220.el
to console.el and that's it. For function keys and the others see
the sample default.el included with this file.

QUESTION: What packages are particularly useful under Linux?

ANSWER: Because info format is the documentation standard of the GNU
project and just about everything except the kernel comes from FSF,
you will find that Dave Gillespie's enhanced info package is very
useful. It allows multiple info directories, space bar paging, and
supports compressed info files. Please learn to use info. Imagine
Unix life without man.

Others that I highly recommend are Sebastian Kremer's enhanced
dired directory editor, Dave Gillespie's calc calculator, Masanobu
UMEDA's gnus for usenet news, and Kyle Jone's vm for mail.

All can be found in the OSU Emacs archive. See the real FAQ for more
details.

QUESTION: Does Linux Emacs use the shared libraries?

ANSWER: Yes. It is very delicate. Emacs uses its own malloc and the
library uses the standard one. Everything works as long as the two
never meet.

QUESTION: Does Linux Emacs support the X Window System?

ANSWER: Yes. However, there are two binaries. One without X support
(about 485k) and one with X support (about 515k).

QUESTION: Do I need both Emacs if I don't always use X?

ANSWER: No. The X11 version works equally well inside or outside of X.
If you get the message "Check your DISPLAY variable" it means that
you have defined DISPLAY in your ~/.profile (or whatever). You can
fix this by starting Emacs with 'emacs -nw' or by removing the DISPLAY
variable from your ~/.profile and putting it in you ~/.xinitrc.

QUESTION: Why doesn't Emacs use the settings in my
.Xdefaults/.Xresources file?

ANSWER: You are probably using the word "emacs" and your X version of
emacs is called x11emacs. Either use the word "Emacs" in your resource
file or rename x11emacs to emacs. See above question on why this
is reasonable.

QUESTION: I read about some menu that is supposed to pop up when I
press some mouse button. Does this work with Linux Emacs?

ANSWER: Yes. This requires XMenu support to be compiled in. Former
versions did not support it because it did not work correctly.

QUESTION: Sometimes Emacs crashes with a SIGALRM message. What's
wrong?

ANSWER: You need to upgrade to a newer version of bash. Some older
versions of bash were compiled with buggy libraries that caused bash
to send a SIGALRM to its parent in some circumstances. Recent
versions do not exhibit this problem.

QUESTION: Why does Emacs always put me in the root directory?

ANSWER: You have an old version of Emacs compiled before GCC 2.11c and
you are using the Linux extended filesystem. Get the new version.

QUESTION: Why doesn't Control-Z doesn't work right with Emacs?

QUESTION: Why doesn't job control work in shell mode?

ANSWER: You have a really old version of Linux Emacs. Get the new one.

===================8<==========>8================


--
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
# LaBRI | #
# 351 cours de la Liberation | e-mail: [email protected] #
# 33405 Talence Cedex | #
# | #
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--
There will be a sig when our local net is reliable.
For now, I would rather stay anonymous.