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(DOS) BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO LINUX v0.95a
--------------------------------------
Edited by Chuck Boyer
([email protected])
4/6/92

FOR LINUX v0.95
by Linus Torvalds
=======================
The structure of this GUIDE is basically;

INTRODUCTION
GENERAL SETTING UP
GENERAL USAGE OF LINUX
LISTING DIRECTORIES/FILES
CREATING FILES/REMOVING
DIRECTORIES
COMMANDS AND THEIR USAGE
(EXTENSIVE LISTING)
APPENDIX A: ERROR CODES AND THEIR MEANINGS
APPENDIX B: COMMANDS SUMMARY (QUICK LISTING)
APPENDIX C: BACKUP
APPENDIX D: MTOOLS
APPENDIX F: EXTRA HINTS
APPENDIX G: COMPLETE LINUX FILES LISTINGS
=======================
(The inclusion of 'APPENDIX G:' may be questionable by some netters
as to why it has been included into this guide. DOS users' going
over to Linux/unix 'will' print out all of this guide, and they
will use it as a 'reference'. It is to this purpose that I have
included it here. So that they can 'see' what another persons setup
looks like, so when they make gross errors -erasing their entire
drive-for instance, they can see what is where, what is what. Also
it might address the issue, insofar as it is
unstructured/unaddressed in any other format, 'what do I need to
get Linux up and running?' type questions.)
========================

I, too, am a 'beginner' unix system user, so much of the
explanations found here have been 'donated' in time and effort by
programmers/concerned users of Linux from the 'alt.os.linux'
newsfeed. (I have listed their names at the end of this
documentation.)

Anyway, back to installation of Linux on your machine. Basically,
you can run Linux one of two ways; either from your floppy drives
only, or from your hard disk/drive. If you just want to play around
with Linux and get the 'look and feel' of using a Unix Operating
System (as opposed to a DOS operating system) then you might want
to choose to just run it from the floppy drive. Basically, the
logic here would be that, you don't want to screw up anything on

your hard drive (which is loaded with Windows, word processors,
graphics programs, data-base programs, etc.), and you have either
spent long and hard learning hours to have it set up that way, or
you had someone else set it up for you and you wouldn't have a clue
on how to re-set it up yourself. Running Linux from your floppy
disk drive will not screw up your hard drive, basically. There
'are' programs on the Linux disks that you will have access to
that 'can' ruin your hard drive though. (typing 'mkfs /dev/hda' for
instance may render your hard drive unreadable by DOS, but then you
wouldn't know how to do that yet...). Or, you could run Linux from
booting from the floppy drive and thereafter having it run from the
hard disk drive. The differences between these two methods are that
Linux will run a lot (10 times?) slower if you choose to run it
solely from the floppy disk drive, and you will be limited to the
commands and utilities that you can run using the floppy drive only
situation. On the other hand, running from the hard disk drive will
run Linux much faster/quicker as well as give you space to have
many more programs and utilities to run/use, but it also entails
you having to learn to 1) create a Linux partition on your hard
disk drive, and 2) learning how to maintain this partition with a
handfull of sub-directories.
---------------------------------------------------------
FTP'ing the Linux files.
========================

I will use the ftp archive machine site location 'tsx-11.mit.edu'
as the example for getting the Linux files.

When you log onto tsx-11 you will move down the sub-directory tree
to pub first; 'cd pub(ENTER)', then move down one more tree node;
'cd linux(ENTER)', and finally into the INSTALL directory;
'cd INSTALL(ENTER)'. In mails you will see the location listed like
this;

% /pub/linux/INSTALL
total 28
1 [email protected] 1 [email protected] 3 rawrite.doc
1 [email protected] 1 partition-programs/ 13 rawrite.exe
1 VERSION_IS_0.95 6 rawrite.c 1 [email protected]

You can grab INSTALL-0.11 for instructions on how to set up your
hard drive for Linux. You want to get 'bootimage-0.95.Z',
'rootimage-0.95.Z', 'rawrite.exe', 'rawrite.doc'.

Once you 'get bootimage-0.95.Z' (and the others) you will have them
on your host computer which is probably also a unix machine (or a
unix variable). Uncompress the bootimage and rootimage files.
Then transfer the three files to your DOS box. Here you will use
'rawrite.exe' to transfer (directly copy) the 'rootimage' and
'bootimage' file from your hard drive (DOS) to floppy disks.

rawrite(ENTER)
'rawrite' will ask you for the filename you want to transfer,
give it the name you have called the file, our example assumes;
'bootimage'. 'rawrite' will ask for the destination drive. Give
it 'a:(ENTER)' and the writing/transfer of the bootimage file will
process to drive a: (this will for most cases be a 1.2Mb
high-density
disk in drive a:).
Then follow the same process for 'rootimage'.
'rawrite(ENTER)'
'file to be transfered: rootimage(ENTER)'
'destination drive: a:(ENTER)'

You now have two separate disks; one for bootimage and one for
rootimage.

You now put the 'bootimage' disk in drive a:, lock the drive
on and reboot your computer. It will churn away for a few moments,
giving you the message; 'Loading...........................'
and then it will ask you to insert the 'rootimage' disk into drive.
Take out the bootimage disk and insert and lock in the 'rootimage'
disk and hit enter (ENTER). Linux will now boot up.

You can now run Linux 0.95a Operating System. You now have a unix
operating system with all of the basic utilities for reading a
file,
setting up the hard disk to receive Linux files, and other things.

You can also set up the 'bootimage' disk, by editing it, to read
your hard-drive partition which is a Linux partition instead of the
floppy drive at boot time. I suggest using the shareware editor
under dos named 'pmk.exe' (Professional Master Keys) which is
available from most ftp sites. Instructions for doing this are
found in the 'INSTALLATION.0.11' document found on Linux ftp sites,
plus the excellent guide 'Beginner's Guide' produced by Iian also
available at most Linux ftp sites.


Okay, you've gotten Linux up and operating. Here I will describe
the tools and their usage that you will need for getting around,
looking at things, creating a few useful/helpful things. You will
first want to know how to turn on the lights, as it's pretty dark
in here with only a blank screen and a prompt symbol '#' with a
blinking cursor. I'd like to say now that this is an entirely
different world for you than you are used to in DOS, with it's
fancy programs for menuing, fancy batch files, interfaces... though
you can implement all of that in Linux/unix too, to begin with it
will be a cold, blank screen with a prompt and blinking cursor.


Once you've been around for awhile you will notice a change in your
attitude about this blank prompt and cursor (the command line) in
that you will realize that armed with the knowledge of lots of
commands and utilities to perform them that you have an extreme
sense of power. Power to do things right and power to do things
wrong. Your blank command prompt is where you do it all, perform
all of the functions that do everything that is possible to be
done.

I wanted to mention that because as you go further and further
along you will at some point know so many commands that you will
once at least do a command wrong and will have erase everything on
your Linux partition, so everything is gone, all of the whizzing,
speeding power is gone. It happens to all of us, it is part of the
learning process in the learning curve. So, learn now, to make
backups of everything as you go along.

Back up everything to floppy diskettes. If all that you have is the
rootimage and bootimage then just 'rawrite' another bootimage and
another rootimage and you have your backups there. Once you start
collecting/adding things, though (compiler stuff, pcomm12b
telecommunications program, extra utilities, kermit, etc...) then
back those up to floppies. Copy your utilities to a disk, with
'compress' and 'uncompress' and 'tar' on it. Then tar and compress
directories full of utilities and copy those over to the floppy
disks. This process is covered in 'Appendix D: Backup'.

======================
GENERAL USAGE OF LINUX
======================

LISTING FILES AND DIRECTORIES:
=============================
command: ls

Being at a blank screen and a prompt symbol ("#") is pretty bleak,
you want to turn on the lights and see where you are. Well, you're
in a directory tree structure with directories and files...
The 'ls' command lists the files and directories. In DOS you would
use the 'dir' command. 'dir' in DOS has some command line switches
to allow you to have different types of lists of the files.
'dir' presents a listing of the files in a straight vertical
listing.


'dir/w' lists the files in horizontal columns, allowing you to see
all of the files on one screen in a large directory filled with
files. 'dir/p' allows the vertical listing, but stops the listing
from scrolling past the screen, by stopping it at each page full.

In Linux/unix systems 'ls' does the same, and more, with different
types of ways of listing the files to screen. 'ls' gives a vertical
listing with the filenames separated by tabs. 'ls -l' gives the
horizontal listing. 'ls -a' would give the standard vertical
listing, plus give you the listing of 'hidden' files, 'dot' files
as they are called, like; '.login', or '.profile', etc. 'ls -R'
gives you a 'recursive' listing where you have it list all of the
files in subsequent directories below the directory that you are
currently in. 'ls -F' puts '/' after directories, so you can tell
them apart from the filenames. You can stack the switches in the
same command line argument also;

'ls -lFR' would give you a long, horizontal listing with
directories listed with the '/' sign, and a recursive listing of
subsequent directories/files. You can also send the output of the
command 'ls' to a file;

'ls -lFR > files' would not print the listing to screen. Instead it
would be quiet for a moment and return you to your prompt with
itself placing the results into a file named 'files' which you can
then read at your leisure. (read the file with 'more files'. 'more
is a file pager, it lists the contents of the file to screen,
stopping at each page/screen full waiting for you to hit the
spacebar before it will continue on to the next page/screen full.)

'root' refers to the beginning of your file system on the physical
hard drive partition you have created and are booting Linux
from/to. Directories are like different file drawers, the dividers
in the file drawer are like sub-directories, and the files are just
like files in the file drawer. Root is the name of the file cabinet
itself. It holds the filesystem.

Another way of thinking of directories and sub-directories/files
is to look at a couple of graphic examples;

/(root)|
| /bin----------------------------|df
| /binary--------------------| |fdisk
| /lib------------------| | |compress
| /mnt------------- | | |mount
| /tmp--------| | |libbin.Z
| /usr-| | |pcomm.tar.Z
| |libc.a
|/bin--|umount
|uncompress

In the examples, the '/' (slash mark) signifies a directory is the
listed node, without the '/' it is a file is the listed node.
So, under 'root' are sub-directories; /bin, /binary, /lib,
/mnt, /tmp, and /usr, and /bin is a subdirectory under /usr.

(In DOS your directory indicator would be the '\' symbol. You
should take careful note of the differences in the two Operating
Systems' usage of these symbols.)

When you use some utilities, like cat, mv, ln ... you will be
able to move a file from where you are, in that directory, to
some other directory down from the '/root' by typing in the
complete pathname. So, for instance, in our example you could
move /bin/compress to /usr/bin (and keep the same filename);

'mv compress /usr/bin' (if you are in the directory that has
compress in it, otherwise the shell just complains about not
finding it, nothing harmful...) or;

'mv /bin/compress /usr/bin' from anywhere else in the directory
structure that you may be in.
Here's another way of illustrating it;
------
/------| root | --------\-------\
/ / ------ \ \ \
----- / -------- ----- ----- \ ----- \ -----
| bin | | binary | | lib | | mnt | | tmp | | usr |
/ ----- -------- ----- ----- ----- -----
/ | | | | | |
df fdisk compress | libbin.Z libc.a -----
pcomm.tar.Z | bin |
/ -----
| \
| uncompress
umount

So, that's an illustration that's like an 'organization structure'
graphic.

To move back up the directory structure you would issue the
command;

'cd ..'
So, if you were in '/binary' subdirectory and issued; 'cd ..'
then you would move up/backwards to '/root'. You can 'cd' from
being in the '/usr/bin' directory to be in the '/bin' directory;

'cd /bin'

'df' gives you a readout of the used and available space on any
mounted drive/partition. So; hard drive 1, 2nd partition;

'df /dev/hda2'

'ls' is the command like 'dir' in DOS, it lists files, directories
to stdout (terminal/screen/monitor). You can do an 'ls' listing
of any directory in the system, you need not be in the directory
that you are wishing a listing of the files/sub-directories of.

'ls -l /usr/bin' <--- prints to screen all files/directories there.

'ls -l /usr/bin > filelist' <--- prints to filename 'filelist',
creating it as a textfile with the output of the 'ls'
command. Read this list with page scrolling on with;

'more filelist'.



While we are at it, now is a good time to explain some terminology
here. Listing the contents of a file to screen/terminal/monitor has
a proper terminology name for this process in Linux/unix. One
would say; 'more lists the contents of the file to stdout (standard
out) and 'stdout' in Linux/unix is the terminal/screen/monitor.
'stdin' is the keyboard. 'From stdin to stdout' means from the
keyboard to the screen.

Here are the different switches that you can use in the 'ls'
listing
command line;

-C multi-column
-F '/' after directory names
-R recursively list subdirectories/files
-a standard plus hidden files ( '.' and '..')
-l long listing, with owner, size, time, mode.
-r reverse order

(may be others I may have missed, but these should suffice for your
beginning learning curve.)

CREATING and VIEWING FILES
============================
Besides using the 'em' (uemacs) text editor which comes with the
Linux distribution you can use the 'cat' command to create files.

'cat > list'
one
two
three
ctrl-d

(type in; cat > list, hit ENTER key, type; one(ENTER), two(ENTER),
three(ENTER), hold down the Ctrl key and tap the d key).
Would be using 'cat' to create the file.

Now issue the 'cat' command to 'read' the file to stdout/screen;

'cat list'
one
two
three

Using cat to list the contents of the file. 'cat' has many helpful
uses.

'cat one >> two'

Would append the filename 'one' onto the end of filename 'two'.
Neat, huh? And this is where 'cat' gets its' name; cancatenate,
which means to append one to another. It must have been neat for
the programmer when he/she created 'cat' to append one file to the
end of another to decide; "Well, if I can use it to write its'
output to another file, why not redirect this output to stdout
(screen) by just calling the command in a different way, without
the 'directory' symbol ( > )!" And so it was created to be a very
diverse utility command.

You can only use 'cat' to list the contents of text files. It won't
work on 'binary' (executable) files.

There are many executable files which can be called 'command files'
in the Linux distribution, and many more that can be ported for
usage there. I will only give examples of the basic needed command
files to save space. One can always buy published books on the
subject of Unix at any good bookstore. My goal here is only to get
you off and started confidently on your way.

So, thus far we have listed the contents of a directory, and
created a file, and listed the contents of a file, and added one
file to the end of another file.

Now lets create directories and delete them. Remember that you are
using this guide to learn the basic things in Linux/unix operating
system environment, so it would make sense for you to actually try
these examples out while reading about them. It is in the actual
doing of them that you will see the sense involved in using them.
It is not theory or philosophy, you must learn to use these tools.

'mkdir one' would create the directory 'one' right where you are in

your directory structure. Do an 'ls -l' and see the directory that
you've just created. Do a 'cd one' to move into the subdirectory
'one' that you've just created.

Do a 'cat > two'
this is a test text file.
ctrl-d

Do an 'ls -l' and see the file 'two' listed. Do a 'cd ..' to
(c)hange (d)irectory to the previous directory. Do a 'ls -l >
files'. Do a 'mv files one' and the file will move into the
subdirectory one that you previously created. 'cd one' to do an 'ls

-l' and you will now see the two files listed (two and files).

'more *' to see the contents of both files. (* is a wildcard
placemarker and it means to include 'all' in the command). (With
more you hit the spacebar to continue onto the next page/file, or
a
carriage return/ENTER to move along line-by-line).

Do a 'rm -i *' and remove the two files. Do a 'cd ..' and do a
'rmdir one' and the directory that you created will be removed.

So, that's creating and removing directories. You cannot remove a
directory by the way until it is empty of files. Simple enough.

Next we will learn about head, tail, ln, mtools, mkdir, mkfs,
mknod, mkswap, more, mv, rm, rmdir, tar, compress/uncompress.

'head' reads to stdout the first 5 lines of a text file. Perhaps
use this when you don't want to waste the time filling the entire
screen with text?

'head filename' (where 'filename' is a variable provided by you
with the actual name of a file).

'tail' reads to stdout the last 10 lines of a text file.

'tail filename'

'ln' is the command to link one file to another. What's that? Well,
in the distribution you were given two command files; compress and
uncompress. If you check out the file sizes with the 'ls -l'
command you will see that they are both exactly the same size in
bytes. They are actually the same file. Just one is copied to the
other with the 'cp' command.

One could have linked (ln) compress to uncompress and saved on file
space because a link doesn't take up as much space as the actual
file does in this case. Linux keeps a two byte space in a file
allocation table that is a place-holder for the computer to see
where a filename or directory actually exists on the physical disk.
When you use 'ln' to link one file to another that actually exists,
then the link filename is actually just a director using the
place-holder address, which tells the system that when this
filename is typed to go to the actual filename to execute the
command. A link only takes a few bytes.

A wild guess is that a 'ln' command for 'uncompress' to 'compress'
would only take up 19 bytes whereas 'compress' takes up 19000
bytes. If you just copied compress to uncompress you would have two
19000 byte files, instead of one 19000 and one 19. (These file
sizes are probably not actually correct, just examples.) If in
compiling a program it looks/asks for 'cc' as the compiler and you
have 'gcc' you can just make a link to 'gcc' for 'cc' and it will
find it, and you have saved space on your disk too.

There are two kinds of links, regular and symbolic. It is left to
the reader to research this topic for more information. In fact,
after reading this guide, one should be ready to go out and
purchase some text books on the subject of unix, on shell
programming, or other related topics as well as read other
newsgroups to find out more information about the subject.

Mtools. Well, you can have your cake and eat it too. With Mtools
commands you can be in your Linux Operating System and from there
call up a listing of a directory in DOS, copy files to/from DOS
from your Linux environment, and do all of your DOS functions
basically right from within Linux. See 'Appendix E: Mtools' for
examples of how to use this powerful tool.
=============================================================

=================
COMMANDS and their USAGE
=================
(I must admit that I too am a beginner, so I have not included
the explanation for all of the commands available in Linux.
You will have fun learning from other books, reading news
discussions on the net, etc. I have given examples of the
utility programs that you will find most helpful and most
useful during your first stages of learning.)

In my examples I will give you a listing of the command to
type and what you will type will be enclosed in single
quote marks; 'type this'. Then always assume to hit the
ENTER key. Also, where command affects a file for you
to use then I will give a generic name to the file
for the examples' sake of 'filename' where you supply
the actual name of the file.
=================
basename
strips path off of filename

bawk
bigram
bison
part of GNU
parser generator (yacc replacement). A 'beginner' user
won't usually have dealings with this.
pattern matching language language with C like syntax.

cat
concatenate files and write them to standard output

This means that using 'cat' you can list the contents
of a file to your screen.

'cat filename'

(you can also use the 'more' command as the standard
file 'browser' utility. 'less' is an enhanced 'more.')

DOS: cat is fairly similar to the DOS command 'type'.

two definitions/uses; 1) lists files to screen that already
exist, and 2) creates a file. In our examples we will use
the example of 'text.doc' to designate our filename, when
talking about what to do with a command line instruction.
In the case of 'cat', for the 1st usage example, as a way
of writing a text file's contents to screen ('stdout' is
the proper name of 'writing to screen', by the way) then
we would type;
cat text.doc(ENTER)

and we would get a displaying of the contents of 'text.doc'
to the screen (stdout). If it is a short text file, say,
shorter than 25 lines of text, then it just gets written
to the screen and you are returned to your prompt. But if
the text file is larger than 25 lines then it will just
continue on scrolling on the screen until it gets to the
end of the document, then return you to your prompt. The
way to scroll it to the screen and stop it it to use the
key sequence; 'ctrl-s' (hold down the 'ctrl' key and tap
the 's' key. This stops it. 'ctrl-q' begins the text
scrolling again. Do this over and over again until it
reaches the end. This method is okay, but someone wrote
a utility for automatically stopping the screen text
scrolling one page full at a time, and this executable
program file is named 'more.' 'more' is included in the
Linux distribution. So, use 'more text.doc' as a better
method of reading a file. (Someone came up with another
text browser program called 'less' and this works fine
also.)

The other usage of 'cat' is as a quick text file editor,
creator.

'cat > text.doc'

would put you at the first blank line of the file you
were about to create called 'text.doc'. Anything you
typed after that would become the text of 'text.doc'
file. Use 'ctrl-d' to return to your prompt, and you
have created a documentation file of text called
'text.doc'.

Actually, a third usage of the file 'cat' utility would
be to 'concatenate' (this is where 'cat' comes from)
two (or more) files together. 'Concatenate' means to
attach two things to each other. It's kind of like hooking
up a train car up to another one, both cars become the
train.

'cat text1.doc text2.doc > text3.doc'

would copy the contents of 'text1.doc' followed by
the contents of 'text2.doc' into a new file called
'text3.doc'.

You must actually play around with these examples,
typing in your own example text, to really learn
how to use these utilities. Otherwise it's just
theory.

cd
change working directory

'cd ..' moves you backup one directory in the directory
tree. (branches, root).

'cd /' moves you to the root/beginning.

'cd /usr/bin' from anywhere that you are moves you to
that subdirectory.


DOS: Note that the slashes are the reverse of what they are in
DOS, UNIX path slashes are "/", not the "\" of DOS. cd must
also be followed by a space before the path name, unlike
in DOS.

chmod
change access modes for files, directories.

DOS: somewhat like the 'attr' command in some DOS extensions
Perhaps "permissions" or "access permissions" would be clearer.

chgrp
change group file read/write ownership flags

chmod
change file/directory read/write/execute flags

chown
CHange OWNer

comm
print lines common to two sorted files

compress
compress a file

'compress filename' creates; filename.Z

'uncompress filename.Z' creates; filename

DOS: the UNIX alternative to DOS's (or PKWARE's) pkzip, but
it only works on one file at a time (unless combined w/
tar). Reduce the actual size of a file.

'compress text.doc'

Try this, create a 'text.doc', and then compress it.
If the file was small in the first place it probably
will be larger after compress. I think that the compress
program places a translation table in the file first,
so that adds bytes to the file. If you used this example
on a larger file, you would see the compress utility
would actually produce a smaller file. This is what
people use to reduce the size of a file before they
send it through mail or news out to the alt.os.linux
newsgroup, so that it doesn't take up so much space
and time transfering it. Then when someone gets the
file they must uncompress it to be able to use it.

When you type;
'compress text.doc'

compress adds a '.Z' title to it. This designates it
as a compressed file. So, in our example you would
end up with;
'text.doc.Z'

you would then uncompress it;

'uncompress text.doc.Z'

and it would strip off the '.Z' filename designator and
you would have 'text.doc' again.


cp
copy a file

'cp filename /usr/bin/filename' copies the file
to the /usr/bin directory.
DOS: similar to the DOS command copy

cut
cut out columns in a file

dd
disk dumper
Low-level copying using specified blocksizes (useful for raw
devices).

Usage: dd if=infile of=outfile ibs=inputblocksize
obs=outputblocksize
count=nblocks skip=nblocks

The order of params doesn't matter; all can be omitted (defaults to
stdin, stdout, 512, 512, until EOF, 0, respectively). If ibs=obs,
you can just use bs (but warning, be sure ibs=obs since no
buffering is done).

df
report free disk space and i-nodes

You can use just 'df' to see a report of how much free
disk space you have.

du
print disk usage
print disk usage of the current and all subdirectories
(recursive)
Prints a tree of directory space usage. du ,
defaults to ".".

egrep
grep but with expanded regular expressions (which is the
basis for other regexp-using programs, like awk, sed,
emacs, less, etc).

em
GNU micro-emacs type of editor
(this isn't GNU. Just MicroEMACS.)

expand
expand tabs to spaces

fdisk
in Linux, report hard drive disk partition sizes, in DOS
and Unix and Minix; and change the partition size, type.

Using fdisk alone;

fdisk(ENTER)

Reports the available hard drive partitons and sizes.
You would use this information it reports to mount
that partition to a directory-mounting-point.

file
guess at file's type by contents.

find
find files meeting a given condition

fiz
fix zoo archives
flex
GNU lex, lexical anylyzer
fold
wrap each input line to fit in a specified width
wrap long lines
fsck
file system check, check the partition status

grep
search a file for lines containing a given pattern

'grep anything filename' will find each occurance
of 'anything' in the file 'filename.'

'grep word text.doc'

Would search for the word 'word' in the document
'text.doc'. If it finds it, it will print the line
that the searched for word (word) onto the screen
(stdout).

group
group identity

head
print the first few lines of a file.

'head filename' prints the first 5 lines of the file.

issue
system identification file

kill
send a signal to a process

ln
(link)
link a file
using 'link' you can save file space in bytes. You issue
a command line command to make a link in this directory,
to a file which resides in another directory. The file
in the other directory stays there. A 'name-marker' in
the inode table is given a number and a filename in the
current directory that you are in. The new 'name-marker
filename' link runs the file in the linked from file/
directory.

So;
'ln /usr/lib/gcc cc'

would give you a link in this current directory called
'cc' to an actual file in /usr/lib named 'gcc'.

The benefit of this is that the link filename is only
the length in bytes as the filename place marker is.
That's usually about 18 bytes. If /usr/lib/gcc was 180
thousand bytes, then this would be a huge savings in
disk spaced used/saved. Thus the benefit of 'link' which
in Linux is 'ln'.

As in the example, 'ln' can also be used to make a second
name for a file that is actually pointing to the first
filename. (In the root floppy image of Linux distribution
in /usr/bin directory 'uncompress' is actually linked to
'compress', in the same directory. They both 'call' the
same program at run time.

ls
list the contents of the directory. (Show all files)
(list contents of directory tree with files to standard
out), (standard out is another name for the terminal,
or monitor screen). (standard out in computerese is
referred to as 'stdout', so one may find that title
referred to in a description.)

'ls(ENTER)' gives;.....

file1 file2 file3 file4 readme file6
file7 file8 file9 file10 file11 file12
file13 file14

output to stdout.

'ls -l(ENTER)' gives;.....
f.....rwxr--r-- 01234 Mar2 10:00 file1
f.....rwx------ 443 Mar3 1:39 file2
f.....rw-rw-rw- 8930 ----6:00 file3

etc. (output on down listed vertically on the screen.
(Scrolls).

'ls -lFR(ENTER)' gives.....

/bin
/docs
file1
file2
file3
file4
file6
file7
file8
file9
file10
file11
file12
file13
file14
readme

/bin/docs/old
file1
orchestrate.1
moonbeams.txt

etc.....

You can fit the output of the directory listing command
through the use of a director (greater-than symbol key)
and put it into a file instead of to stdin/stdout
(keyboard, screen). 'ls > filenames'
Would save the output of the 'ls' command to a file
named 'filenames.' Then you can type the contents of
'filenames' to screen (stdout).
DOS: ls is like the 'dir /w' command, while 'ls -l' is more
like 'dir'

make
maintain and updated sets of files for compilation purposes
a program to run a 'Makefile' which is a script file
to run a 'compile' process on a group of files to
compile a program.

man
the "help" function for any given command; display manual
display manual pages
DOS: What the /? command should have been in DOS

mkdir
make a directory.

'mkdir dirname' creates a directory called 'dirname.'
DOS: just like the DOS command 'mkdir'

mkfs
make a file system

You use this on a pre-formatted DOS disk to render
it readable by the Linux Operating System. Or use
it on a hard drive partition. You have to supply the
size for mkfs to setup the drive/disk to. On floppies
it's;

'mkfs /dev/at0 1200' for 5 1/4" 1.2M disks -and-

'mkfs /dev/at1 1400' for 3 1/2" 1.4M disks.

For a hard drive partition you would first issues
the command 'fdisk' to get a readout of the sizes
on your partitions that fdisk reports. Then mkfs
your partition size using that reported information.

'mkfs /dev/hda2 20000' if it were the 2nd partition
on your first/only hard drive and fdisk had reported
the 20000 size.
DOS: analogous, but not actually like the DOS 'format'
command

mknod
make a special file (/dev/***).

more
pager; displays any size document a page at a time on the
screen. More also allows you to skip multiple pages, go
backwards, and search for keywords in the document.

DOS: like DOS's 'more', but infinitely more useful

mount
mount a file system

You mount a file system so that you can access it.

'mount /dev/at0 /mnt' would mount the disk in
the floppy drive to the filesystem name '/mnt'
(which is provided for you on the distribution as
an empty filesystem for this purpose.)
'mount /dev/hda2 /usr' to set up second partition
on first hard drive mounted to the '/usr' file
system.

mtab
mount table

mv
move or rename a file

'mv filename newfilename' would rename 'filename'
to 'newfilename'.
DOS: somewhat like DOS's 'ren(ame)' command

od
octal (and other base) dump. Sort of like DOS debug.

paste
paste a b c d ... Put several files together line-by-line,
separated by a tab, making several columns. paste -d" " to
use space as a separator. cut does the inverse.

printenv
from within BASH command shell, print the
automatically searched directories, prompt style, aliases,
etc. Print all environment variables. (This is a shell
thing.)

patch
patches up a file from the original and a diff

pr
print a file

printenv
from within BASH command shell, print the
automatically searched directories, prompt style, aliases,
rm
remove a file

'rm filename' would erase the file.
DOS: like 'del(ete)' or 'erase'

rmdir
remove a directory

'rm dirname' would erase the directory only if it is
first empty of any files. (You would have to remove
all of the files first).
DOS: like 'rmdir'

sed
Stream editor.

sort
sort lines or records. Fields are separated by whitespace;
field 0 is the first field. Use the n switch for numeric
order rather than ascii string collating; r for reverse; M
for monthnames (I think). So sort +2r +3n +4n +5 +7nr +0
means sort with precedence on fields (2,3,4,5,7,0), some
numeric, some reversed, etc.

sh
shell

When you boot up Linux 0.95a you are in the shell.
The shell in 0.95a is 'ash'. You can get 'bash'.
Bash is larger but has more features.


stty
set terminal parameters
DOS: allows you not to put the information in a CONFIG.SYS
driver

sync
flush the cache to disk
!You must do this every time in LINUX before you turn off
the machine!!

tail
print the last few lines of a file


'tail filename' would print to stdout/screen the last
ten lines of 'filename'.

tar
tape archiver/files w/sub-directories attached into
a compressed 'tar' file.

'tar cvf tarnamefile dirname' would compress and
keep in order all directories and files in the
directories into the tar file 'tarnamefile' from
the directory name you supplied 'dirname'.

('tar xvf tarname.tar' would uncompress it back
to its original form.)

tty
print the device name of this tty

umount
unmount a mounted file system

'umount /dev/at0' unmounts the filesystem and
drive a: (remember the name does 'not' include
an 'n' in it. It's not 'unmount' but 'umount').

updatedb
Update the fast-find database (usually run once a day by
root's crontab). (Should be in /usr/lib/find, right?)

utmp
user accounting data



=====================
APPENDIX A: ERROR CODES and their MEANINGS
=====================
You can find these by looking in /usr/include/errno.h and in
/usr/src/lib/estdio/errlist.h . However this will be a problem if
you can't get you system up and running. (by the way, most programs
report "ENOENT" instead of "error 2", which just depends on how
one compiled the program.

Here comes /usr/src/lib/estdio/errlist.h:

/* EUNKNOWN 0 */ "Unknown error",
/* EPERM 1 */ "Not owner",
/* ENOENT 2 */ "No such file or directory",
/* ESRCH 3 */ "No such process",
/* EINTR 4 */ "Interrupted system call",
/* EIO 5 */ "I/O error",
/* ENXIO 6 */ "No such device or address",
/* E2BIG 7 */ "Arg list too long",
/* ENOEXEC 8 */ "Exec format error",
/* EBADF 9 */ "Bad file number",
/* ECHILD 10 */ "No children",
/* EAGAIN 11 */ "No more processes",
/* ENOMEM 12 */ "Not enough core",
/* EACCES 13 */ "Permission denied",
/* EFAULT 14 */ "Bad address",
/* ENOTBLK 15 */ "Block device required",
/* EBUSY 16 */ "Mount device busy",
/* EEXIST 17 */ "File exists",
/* EXDEV 18 */ "Cross-device link",
/* ENODEV 19 */ "No such device",
/* ENOTDIR 20 */ "Not a directory",
/* EISDIR 21 */ "Is a directory",
/* EINVAL 22 */ "Invalid argument",
/* ENFILE 23 */ "File table overflow",
/* EMFILE 24 */ "Too many open files",
/* ENOTTY 25 */ "Not a typewriter",
/* ETXTBSY 26 */ "Text file busy",
/* EFBIG 27 */ "File too large",
/* ENOSPC 28 */ "No space left on device",
/* ESPIPE 29 */ "Illegal seek",
/* EROFS 30 */ "Read-only file system",
/* EMLINK 31 */ "Too many links",
/* EPIPE 32 */ "Broken pipe",
/* EDOM 33 */ "Math argument",
/* ERANGE 34 */ "Result too large",
/* EDEADLK 35 */ "Resource deadlock avoided",
/* ENAMETOOLONG 36 */ "Filename too long",
/* ENOLCK 37 */ "No locks available",
/* ENOSYS 38 */ "Function not implemented",
/* ENOTEMPTY 39 */ "Directory not empty"
-----------------------------------------

=============================
APPENDIX B: COMMANDS/SUMMARY: (QUICK LISTING)
=============================================
bawk
pattern matching language
cat
concatenate files and write them to standard output
cd
change working directory
chmod
change access permissions for files, directories.
comm
print lines common to two sorted files
compress
compress a file using adaptive Lempel-Ziv coding
cp
copy a file
cut
cut out columns in a file
dd
disk dumper
df
report free disk space and i-nodes
du
print disk usage of the current and all subdirectories
file
guess at file's type by contents
find
find files meeting a given condition
grep
search a file for lines containing a given pattern
head
print the first few lines of a file.
kill
send a signal to a process
ln
creates a link to another file
ls
list the contents of the directory. (Show all files)
make
maintain and updated sets of files for compilation purposes
man
the "help" function for any given command; display manual
pages
DOS: What the /? command should have been in DOS
mkdir
make a directory.
mkfs
make a file system
mknod
make a special file (/dev/***).
more
pager; displays any size document a page at a time on the
screen
mount
mount a file system
mv
move or rename a file
patch
patches up a file from the original and a diff
pr
print a file
rm
remove a file
rmdir
remove a directory
sh
shell
stty
set terminal parameters
sync
flush the cache to disk
tail
print the last few lines of a file
tar
tape archiver/files w/sub-directories attached into
a compressed 'tar' file.
tty
print the device name of this tty
umount
unmount a mounted file system

SPECIAL FILES
-------------
group
group identity
issue
system identification file
motd
message of the day; is displayed on login
mtab
mount table
passwd
holds passwords and user ids
termcap
hold information for properly setting terminal type
utmp
user accounting data
wtmp
more user accounting data


APPENDIX C: BACKUP.
========================

You have all kinds of things on your Linux hard-drive partition.
At some time you are going to want to backup everything that is
important to you. It would be important if you lost it due to
some unforseen accident, and you wouldn't want to download it
again, or some file/program that you have created, or utilities
that you have that have been changed. Also, it is useful to just
backup everything that you have. To backup you would simply copy
the file(s) from the hard-drive partition to a floppy disk.
(I assume, though maybe wrongly, that one would be using 1.2Mb,
5 1/4" HD, high-density, disks. If not, you will just have to
save everything in smaller portions and on more disks.)

Let's use as the example; backing up all utility files in /bin. (I
only am using a single-user system/machine, so I have put almost
all of my utilities that would have been broken up between /bin
and /usr/bin directories into the one /bin directory.)

You would 1st mount a floppy disk.

'mount /dev/at0 /mnt'

Then you would/could;

'cd /bin'
'mkdir /mnt/bin'
'cp cat /mnt/bin'

That would copy the 'cat' utility file from the hard-disk Linux
partition directory '/bin' to the '/bin' directory on '/mnt' which
is the floppy drive/disk mount point.

There are shorter methods of doing this. You have no way of knowing
how many of the files will fit onto the floppy disk. Concerning
this insight one could;

'cp [a-m]* /mnt/bin'

This is a neat trick. What it tells the system to do is to copy
each file that has 'a, b, c, d, .... through m' as the first letter
of the filename ('*' is a wildcard that means 'all/everything' else
from the directory that you are presently in (/bin) to the floppy
disk drive /mnt/bin directory.

Then you would just issue the same type command for letters 'n-z'
in the alphabet, which would cover all of the files. Perhaps you
would use two disks for this.

Another method would be to back up one directory from the
subdirectory /bin ('cd ..') which would be the '/' directory, or
the root directory. Then from there you could pack the entire
directory with its' files into a single file using the 'tar' command;

'cd ..'
'tar cvf bin.tar /bin'

That would create a file named 'bin.tar' which would include every
file in the /bin directory. You can also cut the contents of the
/bin directory to half in the tar file by issuing the same kind of
switch in the command line;

'tar cvf bin1.tar /bin/[a-m]*'
and
'tar cvf bin2.tar /bin/[n-z]*'

would give you two, smaller 'bin#.tar' files..... Next we would
want to shrink the size of each file. This is what 'compress' is
for. So, issue the command 'compress filename' and get these two
files (or one, as you choose to do...) down to half their current
size;

'compress bin1.tar'

creates;

bin1.tar.Z

'compress bin2.tar'

creates;

bin2.tar.Z

Now copy each of these two files to floppy disks. Now you have
your /bin utility files compressed and collected into one or two
files and have put a copy of them onto a floppy disk. This disk is
your backup copies of your files. Put 'tar' and 'uncompress' onto
separate disks by themselves so that you have these utilities in
case of a total system crash. You wouldn't want to have everything
backed up on disks and then not be able to access them because you
don't have the silly utility that unpacks them for you.

To uncompress a file;

'uncompress bin2.tar.Z'

would uncompress the file and leave you with;

bin2.tar

'tar xvf bin2.tar' would unpack the contents of 'bin2.tar' creating
a /bin directory and placing all of the packed files into it.

(keep notes handy, that's 'tar xvf' for unpacking, and 'tar cvf'
for packing into the archive.)

===================
APPENDIX D: MTOOLS:
===================

You have with 'mtools' a program that will let you, from within
your Linux Operating System environment, deal with
files/directories in the DOS Operating System environment. From
within Linux you can get a listing of directories and files, copy
the files to Linux, or to DOS from Linux, make directories, move
directories, move files, erase/delete files and directories...
etc., all kinds of useful things.

All that I find at present very useful with 'mtools' is to copy
files from my DOS hard-drive partition to my Linux hard-drive
partition.

'mdir c:'

would list the directory of C:.

'mcopy c:/docs/one /usr/docs'

would copy the filename 'one' from the docs directory in drive C:
to my docs directory in directory /usr/docs as the filename of
'one.'

This is useful for copying over 'gcc2.tar.Z' for instance. You have
gotten the file 'gcc2.tar.Z' onto your DOS drive C: in the
directory 'C:\DL\GCC2TAR.Z' for instance. Now you want to copy it
over to the Linux partition into the directory '/usr'. So you would;

'mcopy c:/dl/gcc2tar.z /usr/gcc2.tar.Z'

and you would have it. Don't forget to look closely at the lines to
type in letter-for-letter.... In DOS the directory separator symbol
is '\', but in Linux it is '/'. So, take note.

Read the documentation that comes with 'mtools' for more usage
notes and examples of what other capabilities it has for you to use.

========================
APPENDIX F: EXTRA HINTS:
========================
1)
Reading a compressed tar from a rawrite floppy is quit fast and a
good way to install the abc-banjo Release:
cd /
tar -xZf /dev/floppy0
I also used the -k option, to prevent the abc over-writing the
existing tsx-11 root files, but I'm quite paranoid, it's probably
not necessary (and maybe a bad idea).

2)
*** The whole kernel is on the boot floppy. If you make a new
kernel and you are still booting from floppy, you need to create a
new floppy, e.g.

dd if=/usr/src/linux/Image of=/dev/floppy0

*** To build a new kernel, you should setup the Makefiles in
/dev/src/linux for your system.
*** You can rebuild the kernel with 4MB of memory and NO swap
space.

This takes somthing in the order of 15 to 20 minutes on a 20 MHz
386DX with 4MB of memory and no swap space (I didn't actually time
it, but it seemed about that long).

located in /dev;
PS0 is the device of floppy drive a:, 1.2M in PS/2 systems
PS1 is the device name of floppy drive b:, 1.4M in PS/2 systems.
at0 is the device name of floppy drive a:, 1.2 in at clones.
hd0 is device name of 'all' of 1st hard drive.
hd1 is device name of first partition of 1st hard drive.
hd2 is device name of second partition of 1st hard drive.
hd3 is device name of third partition of 1st hard drive.
hd4 is device name of fourth partition of 1st hard drive.

hd5 is device name of 'all' of 2nd hard drive.
hd6 is device name of 1st partition of 2nd hard drive.
hd7 is device name of 2nd partition of 2nd hard drive.
hd8 is device name of 3rd partition of 2nd hard drive.
hd9 is device name of 4th partition of 2nd hard drive.

this is the usual Unix, Minix, Linux 0.12 operating systems.
Linux 0.95 has differend names;

hda is device name of 'all' of 1st hard drive.
hda1 is device name of 1st partition of 1st hard drive.
hda2
hda3
hda4... etc.

hdb is device name of 'all' of 2nd hard drive.
hdb1 is device name of 1st partition of 2nd hard drive. and etc....

>An explanation of the above files' listing;
>-rwxr-xr-x
>are the 'permissions' settings for the files/directories.
>1 root
>is the owner of the file (root in this case.)

The '1' part of the above field is actually a separate field
standing for the number of links to the file (Or, in the case of a
directory, the number of subdirectories within that directory + 2
(The extra two being "." and ".."))

>sys
> is the kind of file (a system file.)

This is really the "group" to which the file belongs, I believe.
(You mention groups later in the permissions part.) Beware saying
that there are different "kind [types] of files", as a key point of
UNIX is that there are no file types (like com, exe, bat, etc...)!!!

>29700
> is the size of the file in bytes.
>Mar 7
> is the date the file was created (or last modified.)
>23:58
> is the time the file was created (or last modified.)
>chmod
> is the filename.
>====================
>EXPLANATIONS:
>====================
>Given the above example again of a directory listing of the
>file 'chmod' in the directory '/usr/bin':
>====================
>-rwxr-xr-x 1 root sys 29700 Mar 7 23:58 chmod
>
> The 'permissions' settings for the files/directories.
> 'r' means 'read' permission (can read the file).
> 'w' means 'write' permission (can write to the file, i.e.
> edit/change it.)
> 'x' means 'execute' permission (can execute the file,
> if it is an executable/binary file.)
>
>-rwxr-xr-x
>0123456789
> There are nine place holders for settings in 'all'
> cases of permission settings on all files.
> The '0' place is for the type; file, or directory.
> The '1' place is for 'read' for 'sysadm/root'.
> The '2' place is for 'write' for 'sysadm/root'.
> The '3' place is for 'execute' for 'sysadm/root'.

I would phrase this much differently; say "owner" or "user" and
then mention that on Linux, the "owner" is often sysadmin/root if
necessary:
The '1' place is for 'read' for 'owner'. (or 'sysadm/root')

(Hm, "user" might be better, as it will mesh with the term used
later in chmod (eg, chmod "u"+r).) I'd hate to see someone misread
your statement as meaning that the 123 places are used for root's
priveleges to read the file. Since this is geared towards
Linux/UNIX users, I wouldn't advise being too Linux-specific about
always having root priveleges.

> The '4' place is for 'r' for 'group'.
> The '5' place is for 'w' for 'group'.
> The '6' place is for 'x' for 'group'.
> The '7' place is for 'r' for 'all/anybody'.
> The '8' place is for 'w' for 'all/anybody'.
> The '9' place is for 'x' for 'all/anybody'.
>
>The idea here is that a file can be set for security reasons
>to be readable by some, all, nobody, writeable by some, all,
>nobody, executable by ..... etc. It is for system security
>reasons that the system administrator has the ability to set
>file attributes/permissions so that only she/he can run certain
>system routines, as well as other things. Also, any other user
>can open up a directory and its files (or only certain files)
>for others to read, others to write to (group that they all
>belong to, for instance), or others to execute. So everybody
>gets to set/change file attributes in one fashion or another.

You should mention in passing that the sysadmin/root can read any
file on the system. People on normal UNIXes forget how un-private
their stuff really is to the root user (especially unauthorized
root users!) Although it won't matter on LINUX, where most people
are root, it might just be handy to remember if they start on LINUX
and subsequently move to a multi-user non-root environement.



NOT ADDRESSED ISSUES:

1)
... mention how to set up new users (put them in the passwd file,
make and chown their directory, copy in startup files). I know this
is a little premature, but soon won't be, and may not be obvious to
people who haven't been system administrators. Also how to setup to
accept calls from a modem. I don't know these answers.

=============================
APPENDIX G: FILES LISTINGS:
=============================
After grabbing the Linux 0.95a rootimage and bootimage and setting
up my hard drive partitions I then got about everything I felt that
I needed as a beginner (except for Kermit, as I don't have any
experience using that, instead I use 'pcomm12b' which is more like
traditional DOS telecommunications' programs) and here is a
complete listing of all of my directories and files using the 'ls -
laFR > files' command. This is the 'files' file (with comments):

This listing is provided, even though it takes up much space in
this file, for three reasons; 1) to give you a listing so that you
can check file sizes of the basic setup, 2) to show you 'where'
everything is supposed to go, and 3) to explain what they are. This
listing pertains to my system built 3/30/92 with gcc2.1, and Linux
0.95a.

============================
total 33
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ./
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2964 Mar 29 16:26
.bash_history
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 220 Mar 29 13:42 .profile
drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 272 Mar 30 10:14 1/
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 960 Mar 30 10:14 bin/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 1232 Mar 29 14:39 dev/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 288 Mar 29 16:25 etc/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 home/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 432 Mar 29 23:03 lib/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 09:01 mnt/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 64 Mar 28 18:18 source/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 48 Mar 30 10:12 tmp/
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 usr/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5484 Mar 28 18:12 zfiles

(this is the basic 'standard' root directory setup, except for '1/'
which is where I put all other subdirectories that I create,
'source/' which is where presently I am keeping any source code
that I write that I wish to compile, and 'zfiles' which is my
listing of all files on my system that I can 'more' any time to see
what is what and where is where...)

('.bash_history' is a 'dot' file that keeps the 'specified in your
.profile file' listing of previously issued commands by you).

('.profile' this is the 'users' setup file with specifications at
bootup into the system. You can edit this file to change things. It
is covered in 'Appendix F: Bash')

1:
total 9
drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 272 Mar 30 10:14 ./
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ../
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 30 10:06 1/
drwxrwxrwx 7 root root 112 Mar 29 22:46 2/
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 144 Mar 29 22:52 docs/
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 368 Mar 28 10:15 joe/
drwxrwxrwx 4 root root 176 Mar 29 16:14 pcomm/
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 448 Mar 28 11:13 rzsz/

(joe/ is an editor that I'm trying to compile, it's easier than
'vile' (vi), or 'em' (emacs) to use...)

(pcomm is the telecommunications program I choose to use instead of
Kermit, it is more DOS-like).

(rzsz is a transfer protocol/method which is the fastest, trying to
compile it so that pcomm can use it..)
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 128 Mar 29 13:30
selection-1.0/

1/1:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 30 10:06 ./
drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 272 Mar 30 10:14 ../

1/2:
total 7
drwxrwxrwx 7 root root 112 Mar 29 22:46 ./
drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 272 Mar 30 10:14 ../
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 64 Mar 29 22:50 1/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 160 Mar 29 22:51 2/
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 64 Mar 29 22:53 3/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 29 22:46 4/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 29 22:46 5/

(these directories are where I put downloaded stuff and where I
uncompress and un-tar them, so that they don't expand out into the
basic directory structure and become garbage that I've got to
remove, etc. I do it here first, if it needs un-tarring into a
specific directory I move the '.tar' file there and un tar it and
erase all of it here.)
1/2/1:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 64 Mar 29 22:50 ./
drwxrwxrwx 7 root root 112 Mar 29 22:46 ../

1/2/2:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 160 Mar 29 22:51 ./
drwxrwxrwx 7 root root 112 Mar 29 22:46 ../

1/2/3:
total 4
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 64 Mar 29 22:53 ./
drwxrwxrwx 7 root root 112 Mar 29 22:46 ../
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 800 Mar 29 22:53 libcurses/

1/2/3/libcurses:
total 396
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 800 Mar 29 22:53 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 64 Mar 29 22:53 ../
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 971 Dec 17 23:50 Makefile
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 144 Mar 29 22:53 RCS/
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 4192 Apr 20 1991 addbytes.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2085 Apr 20 1991 addch.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2168 Apr 20 1991 addstr.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2524 Apr 20 1991 box.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2067 Apr 20 1991 clear.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2480 Apr 20 1991 clrtobot.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2616 Apr 20 1991 clrtoeol.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 9790 Apr 20 1991 cr_put.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 6982 Dec 17 23:50 cr_tty.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 6001 Apr 20 1991 curses.3
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 3242 Dec 17 23:50 curses.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2251 Dec 20 14:00 curses.ext
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 9093 Dec 20 14:00 curses.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2368 Apr 20 1991 delch.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2677 Dec 20 13:51 deleteln.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2818 Apr 20 1991 delwin.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2159 Dec 17 23:49 endwin.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2515 Apr 20 1991 erase.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2458 Apr 20 1991 fullname.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2630 Dec 17 23:49 getch.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2203 Apr 20 1991 getstr.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2512 Apr 20 1991 id_subwins.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2156 Apr 20 1991 idlok.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2922 Apr 20 1991 initscr.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2527 Apr 20 1991 insch.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2689 Apr 20 1991 insertln.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 38584 Dec 20 13:58 libcurses.a
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2261 Apr 20 1991 longname.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2258 Apr 20 1991 move.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2839 Jun 19 1991 mvprintw.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2833 Apr 20 1991 mvscanw.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2658 Apr 20 1991 mvwin.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 6313 Apr 20 1991 newwin.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2986 Apr 20 1991 overlay.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2905 Dec 20 13:55 overwrite.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 3546 Dec 17 23:49 printw.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2055 Apr 20 1991 putchar.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 7913 Apr 20 1991 refresh.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2992 Apr 20 1991 scanw.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2378 Apr 20 1991 scroll.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2332 Apr 20 1991 standout.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2667 Jul 1 1991 tags
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 3079 Apr 20 1991 toucholap.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2869 Apr 20 1991 touchwin.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2824 Dec 20 14:00 tstp.c
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2738 Apr 20 1991 unctrl.c

1/2/3/libcurses/RCS:
total 69
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 144 Mar 29 22:53 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 800 Mar 29 22:53 ../
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 1328 Dec 17 23:50 Makefile,v
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 7314 Dec 17 23:50 cr_tty.c,v
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 3660 Dec 17 23:50 curses.c,v
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2557 Dec 20 14:00 curses.ext,v
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 10051 Dec 20 14:00 curses.h,v
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 3850 Dec 17 23:49 printw.c,v
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 3282 Dec 20 14:00 tstp.c,v

(I don't know how to implement libcurses or curses yet, but here it
is for when a program calls for it and I can then move it to where
it is supposed to go.)

1/2/4:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 29 22:46 ./
drwxrwxrwx 7 root root 112 Mar 29 22:46 ../

1/2/5:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 29 22:46 ./
drwxrwxrwx 7 root root 112 Mar 29 22:46 ../

1/docs:
total 257
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 144 Mar 29 22:52 ./
drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 272 Mar 30 10:14 ../
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 51036 Mar 29 13:28 095a.faq*
-r-xr-xr-x 1 bin bin 47004 Dec 19 18:54 less.man*
-r-xr-xr-x 1 bin bin 774 Dec 19 19:12 less.txt*
-r-xr-xr-x 1 bin bin 6842 Dec 19 18:54 lesskey.man*
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Mar 29 15:15 pcomm.dump*
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 220 Mar 29 13:42 profile*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 23500 Oct 3 18:02 zip.doc

1/joe:
total 316
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 368 Mar 28 10:15 ./
drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 272 Mar 30 10:14 ../
-rw------- 1 424 101 12488 Aug 27 1991 COPYING
-rw------- 1 424 101 1220 Feb 11 06:54 Makefile
-rw------- 1 424 101 5312 Aug 27 1991 NEWS
-rw------- 1 424 101 648 Aug 27 1991 README
-rw------- 1 424 101 2602 Aug 27 1991 async.h
-rw------- 1 424 101 4438 Aug 27 1991 asyncbsd.c
-rw------- 1 424 101 3758 Aug 27 1991 asynchpux.c
-rw------- 1 424 101 3146 Aug 27 1991 asyncxenix.c
-rw------- 1 424 101 3086 Aug 27 1991 blocks.c
-rw------- 1 424 101 1005 Aug 27 1991 blocks.h
-rw------- 1 424 101 1931 Aug 27 1991 cruddy.c
-rw------- 1 424 101 2671 Aug 27 1991 j.1
-rw------- 1 424 101 58525 Aug 27 1991 j.c
-rw------- 1 424 101 17736 Aug 27 1991 j.h
-rwx------ 1 424 101 1018 Feb 11 05:05
joe.editor.hel*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 424 101 262 Feb 10 17:13
joe.instructio*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 424 101 7738 Feb 11 06:34 joerc*
-rw------- 1 424 101 8899 Feb 11 06:56 keymap.j
-rw------- 1 424 101 8899 Aug 27 1991 keymapbsd
-rw------- 1 424 101 8949 Aug 27 1991 keymapxenix
-rw------- 1 424 101 101 Aug 27 1991 patch0.0.1

(These are the sources for the editor 'joe'. One would look at the
'Makefile' and edit changes if necessary to compile on your system.
Then just type 'make joe' and if it will compile it will. The
'Makefile' takes care of telling the compiler where to find certain
things that 'joe' needs while compiling the program.)


1/pcomm:
total 512
drwxrwxrwx 4 root root 176 Mar 29 16:14 ./
drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 272 Mar 30 10:14 ../
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 112 Mar 28 18:10 Config/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 144 Mar 28 18:10 Doc/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5784 Mar 1 13:38 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2363 Mar 1 12:46 Readme.linux
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 20152 Mar 1 13:10 matches*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 15612 Mar 1 13:10 modem_break*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 149091 Mar 1 13:10 pcomm*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 40010 Mar 1 13:10 pcomm_input*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24924 Mar 1 13:10 waitfor*

1/pcomm/Config:
total 9
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 112 Mar 28 18:10 ./
drwxrwxrwx 4 root root 176 Mar 29 16:14 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 81 Mar 29 14:23
pcomm.dial_dir
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 79 Mar 1 12:15 pcomm.extrnl
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 232 Mar 1 12:18 pcomm.modem
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 513 Mar 29 14:27 pcomm.param
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 994 Feb 8 21:11 sample

1/pcomm/Doc:
total 178
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 144 Mar 28 18:10 ./
drwxrwxrwx 4 root root 176 Mar 29 16:14 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 61175 Feb 8 21:11 Doc
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 635 Feb 8 21:11 Matches.1
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 836 Feb 8 21:11
Modem_break.1
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8649 Feb 8 21:11 Pcomm.1
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7963 Feb 8 21:11 Readme
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8624 Feb 8 21:11
Release.notes
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 871 Feb 8 21:11 Waitfor.1

1/rzsz:
total 362
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 448 Mar 28 11:13 ./
drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 272 Mar 30 10:14 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 2936 May 17 1989 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 2630 May 19 1989 README
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 884 Feb 27 1989 crc.1
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 8566 Apr 26 1988 crc.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 8737 Apr 4 1988 crctab.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 1959 May 25 1989 genie.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 19 Oct 22 1987 gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 167 Apr 22 1988 init.com
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 1241 Jan 7 1988 minirb.1
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 4057 May 25 1987 minirb.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 119 May 25 1987 ptest.sh
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 6924 May 10 1989 rbsb.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 9410 May 25 1989 rz.1
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 32265 May 25 1989 rz.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 12484 Apr 22 1989 sz.1
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 44056 May 18 1989 sz.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 882 Apr 17 1988 vmodem.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 4440 May 8 1988 vrzsz.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 618 May 19 1989 vupl.t
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 274 Apr 30 1988 vuplfile.t
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 6120 Sep 4 1988 vvmodem.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 17939 May 25 1989 zm.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 6137 May 20 1989 zmodem.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 3942 Apr 24 1989 zmr.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 240 25 734 May 5 1989 zupl.t

1/selection-1.0:
total 30
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 128 Mar 29 13:30 ./
drwxr-xr-x 9 root root 272 Mar 30 10:14 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 155 Mar 25 00:30 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2950 Mar 27 11:36 README
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6131 Mar 26 09:27 kernel.cdif
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1939 Mar 25 00:30 mouse.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 287 Mar 25 00:30 mouse.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1948 Mar 25 23:52 stuff.c

(this, if I would choose to use it, is a program that allows you to
mark and cut with the mouse from one terminal window to another
terminal window. To use it calls for patching a change to the
kernel source with 'kernel.cdif' and I'm not prepared to do that
just yet, so here it sits...)

bin:
total 6193
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 960 Mar 30 10:14 ./
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ../
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 78852 Mar 27 21:51 ash*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 300036 Mar 28 09:11 bash*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2105 Mar 28 10:41 bash.help
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 29700 Mar 27 21:50 cat*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 31380 Feb 22 21:56 chgrp*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 30618 Feb 22 21:56 chmod*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 36070 Feb 22 21:56 chown*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 37892 Mar 27 21:50 compress*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 37892 Mar 27 21:50 cp*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 30140 Feb 22 21:56 dd*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 40221 Mar 28 09:11 df*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 54947 Feb 22 21:56 dir*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 30878 Feb 22 21:56 du*
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 144 Mar 28 18:02 emacs/
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 41988 Mar 27 21:50 fdisk*
-rwxr--r-- 1 root root 98216 Mar 28 21:11 find*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 37892 Mar 27 21:50 fsck*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 103428 Mar 30 10:08 gawk
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 29700 Mar 27 21:50 getty*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 36535 Feb 22 21:56 install*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 33796 Mar 27 21:50 ln*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 46084 Mar 27 21:50 login*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 50180 Mar 27 21:50 ls*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mattrib*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mcd*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mcopy*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mdel*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mdir*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mformat*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 29700 Mar 27 21:51 mkdir*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 37892 Mar 27 21:51 mkfs*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 21508 Mar 27 21:51 mknod*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 21508 Mar 27 21:51 mkswap*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mlabel*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mmd*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 21508 Mar 27 21:51 mount*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mrd*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mread*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mren*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mtools*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 116 Mar 28 10:31
mtools.script
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mtype*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 33796 Mar 27 21:51 mv*
-rwxr-xr-x 14 root root 70656 Mar 28 10:30 mwrite*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 50180 Mar 27 21:51 pfdisk*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 29700 Mar 27 21:51 rm*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 25604 Mar 27 21:51 rmdir*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 25604 Mar 27 21:51 rootdev*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 66564 Mar 30 10:08 sed
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 300036 Mar 28 09:13 sh*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 21508 Mar 27 21:51 swapon*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 9220 Mar 27 21:51 sync*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 140292 Mar 27 21:51 tar*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 49062 Feb 22 21:56 touch*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 21508 Mar 27 21:51 umount*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 37892 Mar 27 21:51 uncompress*

('ash' came with 0.95a distribution, 'bash' came with 0.12. I got
used to 'bash' right away and here I have copied 'sh' to 'ash'
which is what it is, and then copied 'bash' to 'sh' so that now
'sh' is really 'bash'.
Also, I am running Linux as a single-user only system, in which
I am the user and the system administrator/root id member. So, I
have put just about every command utility program into '/bin'
directory... this 'IS NOT' the suggested 'standard' to be using,
but as it is, it's what I 'am' using.)

bin/emacs:
total 752
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 144 Mar 28 18:02 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 960 Mar 30 10:14 ../
-rw------- 1 754 root 844 Feb 7 22:18 Readme
-rw------- 1 754 root 11277 Nov 29 11:09 dif311a.zip
-rwx------ 1 754 root 167640 Feb 6 20:56 emacs*
-rw------- 1 754 root 4558 Feb 7 06:56
estruct.cdiff
-rw------- 1 754 root 2449 Feb 7 06:55
makegcc.cdiff
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 194560 Mar 28 17:16 uem.tar
-rw------- 1 754 root 876 Feb 7 06:27 unix.cdiff

(Just wanted to point out a 'usual' directory with files structure
as you might get with each 'ported' package to Linux. Here you have
the first most important file in the group, the 'Readme' file. You,
as a beginner, should 'always' read these files 'FIRST.' Print them
out if you can/care to, otherwise jot down important notes about
the program, 'how to install', 'where to install', and 'notes'
about its' usage... ALWAYS, if you are having trouble with a
program, read this file FIRST before posting news to the netnews
groups because more than likely it has been covered in this
documentation. Nothing is quite as irresponible as posting a news
article to the 'world' when the readers realize that the answer is
in the documentation and that you would have gotten it if you just
would have read it. Perhaps nobody will answer you because of this?

The second file of importance is 'emacs*'. This 'is' the 'emacs'
executable program.)

dev:
total 13
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 1232 Mar 29 14:39 ./
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ../
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 2, 28 Mar 27 21:51 PS0
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 2, 29 Mar 27 21:51 PS1
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 2, 8 Mar 27 21:51 at0
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 2, 9 Mar 27 21:51 at1
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 1 Mar 27 21:51 console
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 0 Mar 27 21:51 hda
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 1 Mar 27 21:51 hda1
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 2 Mar 27 21:51 hda2
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 3 Mar 27 21:51 hda3
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 4 Mar 27 21:51 hda4
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 5 Mar 27 21:51 hda5
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 6 Mar 27 21:51 hda6
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 7 Mar 27 21:51 hda7
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 8 Mar 27 21:51 hda8
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 64 Mar 27 21:51 hdb
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 65 Mar 27 21:51 hdb1
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 66 Mar 27 21:51 hdb2
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 67 Mar 27 21:51 hdb3
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 68 Mar 27 21:51 hdb4
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 69 Mar 27 21:51 hdb5
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 70 Mar 27 21:51 hdb6
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 71 Mar 27 21:51 hdb7
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 3, 72 Mar 27 21:51 hdb8
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 2 Mar 27 21:51 kmem
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 1 Mar 27 21:51 mem
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 3 Mar 27 21:51 null
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 4 Mar 27 21:51 port
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 128 Mar 27 21:51 ptyp0
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 129 Mar 27 21:51 ptyp1
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 130 Mar 27 21:51 ptyp2
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 131 Mar 27 21:51 ptyp3
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 132 Mar 27 21:51 ptyp4
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 133 Mar 27 21:51 ptyp5
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 134 Mar 27 21:51 ptyp6
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 135 Mar 27 21:51 ptyp7
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 136 Mar 27 21:51 ptyp8
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 137 Mar 27 21:51 ptyp9
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 138 Mar 27 21:51 ptypa
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 139 Mar 27 21:51 ptypb
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 140 Mar 27 21:51 ptypc
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 141 Mar 27 21:51 ptypd
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 142 Mar 27 21:51 ptype
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 143 Mar 27 21:51 ptypf
brw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 1 Mar 27 21:51 ram
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 5, 0 Mar 27 21:51 tty
crw--w--w- 1 root other 4, 1 Mar 27 21:51 tty1
crw--w--w- 1 root root 4, 2 Mar 27 21:51 tty2
crw--w--w- 1 root root 4, 3 Mar 27 21:51 tty3
crw--w--w- 1 root root 4, 4 Mar 27 21:51 tty4
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 5 Mar 27 21:51 tty5
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 6 Mar 27 21:51 tty6
crwxrwxrwx 2 root root 4, 64 Mar 29 14:39 tty64
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 7 Mar 27 21:51 tty7
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 8 Mar 27 21:51 tty8
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 192 Mar 27 21:51 ttyp0
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 193 Mar 27 21:51 ttyp1
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 194 Mar 27 21:51 ttyp2
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 195 Mar 27 21:51 ttyp3
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 196 Mar 27 21:51 ttyp4
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 197 Mar 27 21:51 ttyp5
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 198 Mar 27 21:51 ttyp6
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 199 Mar 27 21:51 ttyp7
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 200 Mar 27 21:51 ttyp8
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 201 Mar 27 21:51 ttyp9
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 202 Mar 27 21:51 ttypa
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 203 Mar 27 21:51 ttypb
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 204 Mar 27 21:51 ttypc
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 205 Mar 27 21:51 ttypd
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 206 Mar 27 21:51 ttype
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 207 Mar 27 21:51 ttypf
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 64 Mar 27 21:51 ttys1
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 65 Mar 27 21:51 ttys2
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 66 Mar 27 21:51 ttys3
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4, 67 Mar 27 21:51 ttys4
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4480 Mar 29 14:38 zfiles

(/dev directory files, ugh...: These seem to change with every
major release of Linux. For beginners, all that is important is to
realize/know that;

/dev/at0 is a 5 1/4" high density 1.2Mb floppy disk in drive a:
/dev/at1 is a 3 1/2" high density 1.4Mb floppy disk in drive b:

/dev/tty64 is your usual comm port #1 which you call out from
to run your telecommunications program.)

etc:
total 127
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 288 Mar 29 16:25 ./
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 204 Mar 27 21:52 group
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 29700 Mar 27 21:52 init*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 128 Mar 27 21:52 inittab
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 68 Mar 27 21:52 issue
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 365 Mar 27 21:52 motd
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12 Mar 30 10:06 mtab
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 34 Mar 28 17:47 mtools
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 152 Mar 27 21:52 passwd
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 316 Mar 29 16:25 rc
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 654 Mar 27 21:52 rc.orig1
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 51 Mar 27 21:52 securetty
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 14322 Mar 27 21:52 termcap
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 9220 Mar 27 21:52 update*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 224 Mar 30 10:06 utmp
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3304 Mar 30 10:06 wtmp

(For beginner's, the 'rc' is about the only file worth noting
here. It is your initialization file at start up, it is a text
file, and you can change anything in here that you want to reflect
things that you want at setup/startup of your Linux system.)


home:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 ./
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ../

lib:
total 293
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 432 Mar 29 23:03 ./
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 361 Feb 18 18:07 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1328 Mar 13 17:49 Readme
-rw------- 1 424 101 116162 Mar 29 01:19 libc.a
-rw------- 1 424 101 30720 Mar 29 01:19 libm.a

mnt:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 09:01 ./
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ../

source:
total 3
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 64 Mar 28 18:18 ./
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 30 Mar 28 18:20 one.c

tmp:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 48 Mar 30 10:12 ./
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ../

usr:
total 47
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ./
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 320 Mar 30 10:16 ../
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 adm/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 752 Mar 30 10:11 bin/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 etc/
drwxr-xr-x 7 root other 112 Mar 28 21:14 gcc2/
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 656 Mar 29 22:59 include/
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 64 Mar 29 13:46 lib/
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 128 Mar 29 13:35 local/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 1504 Mar 30 10:13 man/
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 48 Mar 29 14:37 spool/
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 176 Mar 29 23:00 src/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 64 Mar 29 13:47 tmp/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 15241 Mar 28 19:53 zfiles

usr/adm:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 ./
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ../

usr/bin:
total 5073
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 752 Mar 30 10:11 ./
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ../
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 27180 Dec 16 23:39 basename*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 29700 Jan 14 19:09 cat*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 33796 Jan 14 19:09 chgrp*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 29700 Jan 14 19:09 chmod*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 33796 Jan 14 19:09 chown*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 29700 Jan 14 19:09 cmp*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 37892 Jan 14 19:09 cp*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 36620 Jan 12 01:08 cut*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 29700 Jan 14 19:09 dd*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 57614 Jan 12 01:08 dir*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 36611 Jan 12 01:08 du*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root uucp 72091 Sep 8 1991 egrep*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 137779 Dec 8 18:13 em*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 36643 Jan 12 01:10 expand*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root uucp 72090 Sep 8 1991 grep*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 30579 Jan 12 01:08 head*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 132100 Nov 19 00:52 kermit*
-r-xr-xr-x 1 bin bin 80505 Dec 19 18:56 less*
-r-xr-xr-x 1 bin bin 35592 Dec 19 18:56 lesskey*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 33796 Jan 14 19:09 ln*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 46084 Jan 14 19:09 ls*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root uucp 138114 Aug 30 1991 make*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 29700 Jan 14 19:09 mkdir*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 35324 Jan 12 01:10 mkfifo*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 41988 Mar 27 21:52 more*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 33796 Jan 14 19:09 mv*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 36412 Jan 12 01:09 paste*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 149091 Mar 29 14:35 pcomm*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 29700 Jan 14 19:09 rm*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 25604 Jan 14 19:09 rmdir*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 75573 Oct 27 19:45 sed*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 33796 Mar 27 21:52 setterm*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 37888 Dec 17 18:45 ship*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 36280 Jan 12 01:09 split*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 65558 Jan 12 01:10 tac*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 36284 Jan 12 01:09 tail*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 149127 Jan 15 15:47 tar*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 46010 Jan 12 01:11 touch*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 36647 Jan 12 01:10 unexpand*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 50180 Dec 15 11:05 unzip*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 57615 Jan 12 01:08 vdir*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 173 10 210335 Mar 18 19:41 vile*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 74752 Dec 17 18:42 zip*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 46080 Dec 17 18:44 zipnote*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 46080 Dec 17 18:45 zipsplit*

usr/etc:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 ./
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ../

usr/gcc2:
total 10
drwxr-xr-x 7 root other 112 Mar 28 21:14 ./
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ../
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 128 Mar 28 21:13 bin/
drwxr-xr-x 4 root other 1136 Mar 28 21:14 g++-include/
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 624 Mar 28 21:14 include/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 96 Mar 28 21:14 install/
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 80 Mar 28 21:15 lib/

usr/gcc2/bin:
total 165
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 128 Mar 28 21:13 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root other 112 Mar 28 21:14 ../
-rwxr-xr-x 2 root other 1371 Feb 23 22:51 c++*
-rwxr-xr-x 2 root other 1371 Feb 23 22:51 g++*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root other 66564 Mar 11 04:59 gcc*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root other 10288 Mar 8 05:39 genclass*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root other 910 Mar 8 01:28 groups*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root other 1344 Mar 8 00:38 nohup*

usr/gcc2/g++-include:
total 606
drwxr-xr-x 4 root other 1136 Mar 28 21:14 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root other 112 Mar 28 21:14 ../
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2178 Jan 17 23:03 ACG.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1679 Jan 17 23:03 AllocRing.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1604 Jan 17 23:03 Binomial.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 9046 Mar 5 06:59 BitSet.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 20236 Jan 17 23:03 BitString.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 2718 Feb 15 23:34 ChangeLog

-rw-r----- 1 root other 6851 Jan 17 23:03 Complex.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 9059 Jan 17 23:03 CursesW.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1918 Jan 17 23:03 DiscUnif.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1950 Jan 17 23:03 Erlang.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 9781 Jan 17 23:03 Fix.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 12806 Jan 17 23:03 Fix16.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 12399 Jan 17 23:03 Fix24.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1476 Jan 17 23:03 Geom.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 4879 Jan 17 23:03 GetOpt.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2028 Jan 17 23:03 HypGeom.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 372 Jan 17 23:03
Incremental.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 26559 Jan 17 23:03 Integer.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2156 Jan 17 23:03 LogNorm.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1897 Jan 17 23:03 MLCG.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1566 Jan 17 23:03 NegExp.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1896 Jan 17 23:04 Normal.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 4450 Jan 17 23:04 Obstack.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 59 Jan 17 23:04 Pix.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 2914 Mar 5 18:54 PlotFile.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1459 Jan 17 23:04 Poisson.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2318 Jan 17 23:04 RNG.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1430 Jan 17 23:04 Random.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 7144 Jan 17 23:04 Rational.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2615 Jan 17 23:04 Regex.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 4549 Jan 17 23:04 RndInt.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 1513 Mar 5 18:54 SFile.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2049 Jan 17 23:04 SmplHist.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2099 Jan 17 23:04 SmplStat.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 36273 Jan 17 23:04 String.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1860 Jan 17 23:04 Uniform.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1872 Jan 17 23:04 Weibull.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 79 Jan 17 23:04 bool.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 4171 Mar 4 07:21 builtin.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2263 Jan 17 23:04 compare.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 121 Jan 17 23:04 complex.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 8511 Jan 17 23:04 curses.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 21 Jan 17 23:03 dir.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 6431 Mar 5 18:54 editbuf.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 2251 Mar 5 18:54 fstream.h
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 1952 Mar 28 21:14 gen/
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1784 Jan 17 23:04 generic.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 471 Jun 28 1991
getpagesize.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 2506 Mar 5 18:54 indstream.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 124 Mar 5 18:54 iomanip.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 8314 Mar 5 18:54 iostream.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 20 Mar 5 18:54 istream.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 20 Jan 17 23:04 libc.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 8450 Jun 28 1991 math-68881.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 5170 Mar 8 05:36 math.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3403 Jan 17 23:04 minmax.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 39 Feb 7 00:44 netdb.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 769 Jan 17 23:04 new.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 130 Jan 17 23:04 osfcn.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 20 Mar 5 18:54 ostream.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 4689 Mar 5 18:54
parsestream.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 96 Jan 17 23:04 strclass.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 679 Mar 5 18:54 stream.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 10235 Mar 5 18:54 streambuf.h
-r--r--r-- 1 root other 2181 Mar 5 18:54 strstream.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 133 Jun 28 1991 swap.h
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 128 Mar 28 21:14 sys/
-rw-r----- 1 root other 268 Jan 17 23:03 typemacros.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 5849 Jan 17 23:05 values.h

usr/gcc2/g++-include/gen:
total 1029
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 1952 Mar 28 21:14 ./
drwxr-xr-x 4 root other 1136 Mar 28 21:14 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 6733 Mar 6 22:40 1
-rw-r----- 1 root other 12921 Jan 14 23:29 AVLMap.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3422 Jan 14 23:29 AVLMap.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 17462 Mar 11 04:00 AVLSet.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3490 Jan 14 23:29 AVLSet.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 8164 Jan 14 23:29 AVec.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3644 Jan 14 23:29 AVec.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 7255 Jan 14 23:29 BSTSet.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3465 Jan 14 23:29 BSTSet.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1678 Jan 14 23:29 Bag.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2410 Jan 14 23:29 Bag.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 4353 Jan 14 23:29 CHBag.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1918 Feb 1 05:24 CHBag.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3744 Jan 14 23:29 CHMap.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2599 Jan 14 23:29 CHMap.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 902 Feb 1 01:01 CHNode.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1414 Feb 1 01:01 CHNode.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 6101 Jan 14 23:29 CHSet.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2176 Feb 1 01:01 CHSet.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 71 Jun 28 1991 DLDeque.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2596 Jan 14 23:29 DLDeque.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 5680 Jan 14 23:29 DLList.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3851 Jan 14 23:29 DLList.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 176 Jun 28 1991 Deque.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1832 Jan 14 23:29 Deque.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 71 Jun 28 1991 FPQueue.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2435 Jan 14 23:29 FPQueue.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 71 Jun 28 1991 FPStack.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2444 Jan 14 23:29 FPStack.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 4207 Jan 14 23:29 FPlex.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 6263 Jan 14 23:29 FPlex.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 17421 Jan 14 23:29 List.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 6080 Jan 14 23:29 List.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 16878 Jan 14 23:29 MPlex.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 10653 Jan 14 23:29 MPlex.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1475 Jan 14 23:29 Map.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2529 Jan 14 23:29 Map.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3535 Jan 14 23:29 OSLBag.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2136 Jan 14 23:29 OSLBag.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 5589 Jan 14 23:30 OSLSet.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2400 Jan 14 23:30 OSLSet.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 4743 Jan 14 23:30 OXPBag.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1324 Jan 14 23:30 OXPBag.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 5662 Jan 14 23:30 OXPSet.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2468 Jan 14 23:30 OXPSet.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 7475 Jan 14 23:30 PHPQ.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2538 Jan 14 23:30 PHPQ.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1478 Jan 14 23:30 PQ.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2438 Jan 14 23:30 PQ.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1110 Jan 14 23:28 PSList.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2573 Jan 14 23:28 PVec.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 4305 Jan 14 23:30 Plex.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 13153 Jan 14 23:30 Plex.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 196 Jun 28 1991 Queue.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1600 Jan 14 23:30 Queue.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 14355 Jan 14 23:30 RAVLMap.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3633 Jan 14 23:30 RAVLMap.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 10411 Jan 14 23:30 RPlex.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 6691 Jan 14 23:30 RPlex.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2165 Jan 14 23:30 SLBag.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2194 Jan 14 23:30 SLBag.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 5162 Jan 14 23:30 SLList.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3400 Jan 14 23:30 SLList.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 71 Jun 28 1991 SLQueue.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2270 Jan 14 23:30 SLQueue.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1685 Jan 14 23:30 SLSet.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2039 Jan 14 23:30 SLSet.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 71 Jun 28 1991 SLStack.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2278 Jan 14 23:30 SLStack.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2463 Jan 14 23:30 Set.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2534 Jan 14 23:30 Set.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 6569 Jan 14 23:29 SkipBag.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3831 Jan 14 23:29 SkipBag.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 6624 Jan 14 23:29 SkipMap.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 4102 Jan 14 23:29 SkipMap.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 7869 Jan 14 23:29 SkipSet.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 4180 Jan 14 23:29 SkipSet.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 8399 Jan 14 23:30 SplayBag.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3722 Feb 1 01:01 SplayBag.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 7968 Jan 14 23:30 SplayMap.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3700 Jan 14 23:30 SplayMap.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 905 Feb 1 01:01
SplayNode.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1467 Feb 1 01:01 SplayNode.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 9946 Jan 14 23:30 SplayPQ.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2730 Feb 1 01:01 SplayPQ.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 9340 Jan 14 23:30 SplaySet.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3036 Feb 1 01:01 SplaySet.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 176 Jun 28 1991 Stack.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1610 Jan 14 23:30 Stack.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 6238 Jan 14 23:30 VHBag.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2052 Jan 14 23:30 VHBag.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 5049 Jan 14 23:30 VHMap.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2160 Jan 14 23:30 VHMap.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 5969 Jan 14 23:30 VHSet.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2314 Jan 14 23:31 VHSet.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 7309 Jan 14 23:31 VOHSet.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2329 Jan 14 23:31 VOHSet.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2152 Jan 14 23:31 VQueue.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2815 Jan 14 23:31 VQueue.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1812 Jan 14 23:31 VStack.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2591 Jan 14 23:31 VStack.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 12277 Jan 14 23:31 Vec.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 3469 Jan 14 23:31 Vec.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1772 Jan 14 23:31 XPBag.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2287 Jan 14 23:31 XPBag.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 71 Jun 28 1991 XPDeque.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2772 Jan 14 23:31 XPDeque.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2962 Jan 14 23:31 XPPQ.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2359 Jan 14 23:31 XPPQ.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 71 Jun 28 1991 XPQueue.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2461 Jan 14 23:31 XPQueue.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1572 Jan 14 23:31 XPSet.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2115 Jan 14 23:31 XPSet.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 71 Jun 28 1991 XPStack.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2459 Jan 14 23:31 XPStack.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 8369 Jan 14 23:31 XPlex.ccP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 6189 Jan 14 23:31 XPlex.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1491 Jan 14 23:31 defs.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 1095 Jan 14 23:29 intSList.hP
-rw-r----- 1 root other 2522 Jan 14 23:29 intVec.hP

usr/gcc2/g++-include/sys:
total 10
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 128 Mar 28 21:14 ./
drwxr-xr-x 4 root other 1136 Mar 28 21:14 ../
-rw-r----- 1 root other 260 Feb 7 07:26 mman.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 461 Feb 7 07:26 param.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 20 Mar 4 04:29 signal.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 69 Mar 4 09:00 socket.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 305 Feb 15 22:08 types.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 463 Feb 7 07:26 wait.h

usr/gcc2/include:
total 229
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 624 Mar 28 21:14 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root other 112 Mar 28 21:14 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 3001 Feb 27 23:21 ansidecl.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1377 Feb 28 21:04 assert.h
-rw-r----- 1 root other 20 Jan 17 23:04 bstring.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 4594 Feb 29 09:29 ctype.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1069 Mar 2 17:32 dirent.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 106 Mar 7 05:58 endian.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1560 Mar 11 00:59 errno.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1450 Mar 11 01:03 fcntl.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 4324 Feb 29 08:06 features.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 2761 Feb 28 21:05 float.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1577 Mar 5 05:25 fnmatch.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1005 Feb 27 07:25 getopt.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 2787 Feb 29 09:43 glob.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 2728 Feb 27 21:46 gnu-stabs.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 2970 Mar 2 04:42 grp.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 3463 Mar 6 04:00 limits.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 3773 Feb 29 09:33 locale.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 5172 Feb 29 09:57 localeinfo.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 20 Feb 29 09:44 malloc.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1335 Feb 29 09:59 math.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 2624 Mar 2 03:00 pwd.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 17472 Mar 2 17:12 regex.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 434 Mar 5 18:44 setjmp.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 2527 Mar 11 01:07 signal.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1861 Feb 29 09:58 soft.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 271 Mar 5 05:00 std.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1661 Feb 23 22:56 stdarg.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 2295 Feb 28 21:07 stddef.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 6216 Mar 6 18:38 stdio.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 4370 Mar 11 03:52 stdlib.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 2321 Mar 4 06:24 string.h
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 208 Mar 28 21:14 sys/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1434 Mar 11 01:16 time.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 13266 Mar 11 00:06 unistd.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 295 Feb 28 23:20 utime.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1214 Feb 29 18:03 utmp.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 2500 Feb 18 19:03 varargs.h

usr/gcc2/include/sys:
total 28
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 208 Mar 28 21:14 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 624 Mar 28 21:14 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 215 Mar 4 05:31 dir.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 19 Mar 4 04:20 fcntl.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 250 Mar 4 04:21 file.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 270 Feb 26 07:43 param.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1830 Mar 4 04:27 resource.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1664 Mar 4 05:26 stat.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1921 Mar 11 01:20 time.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 272 Feb 27 22:19 times.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1099 Mar 11 07:48 types.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 1960 Feb 29 09:39 uio.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 341 Feb 29 09:55 utsname.h

usr/gcc2/install:
total 537
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 96 Mar 28 21:14 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root other 112 Mar 28 21:14 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 3496 Mar 11 08:12 FAQ
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 123141 Mar 2 22:36 gcc.man
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 145051 Mar 2 22:36 gcc.ps
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root other 1260 Mar 11 01:43 inst2.0*

usr/gcc2/lib:
total 46
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 80 Mar 28 21:15 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root other 112 Mar 28 21:14 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 6477 Mar 8 00:27 bison.hairy
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 15280 Mar 8 00:27 bison.simple
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 48 Mar 28 20:00 gcc/

usr/gcc2/lib/gcc:
total 3
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 48 Mar 28 20:00 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 80 Mar 28 21:15 ../
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 48 Mar 28 20:00 i386-linux/

usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux:
total 3
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 48 Mar 28 20:00 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 48 Mar 28 20:00 ../
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 192 Mar 28 21:15 2.0/

usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0:
total 4849
drwxr-xr-x 2 root other 192 Mar 28 21:15 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root other 48 Mar 28 20:00 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 201 Feb 29 18:18 Crt0.o
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 232186 Mar 11 04:45 Libc.a
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 228470 Mar 11 02:36 Libg++.a
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 52798 Feb 29 18:17 Libgcc.a
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 12482 Mar 11 04:45 Libhard.a
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 18378 Mar 11 04:45 Libsoft.a
-rw-r--r-- 1 root other 5568 Mar 11 04:45 Libtermcap.a
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root other 771076 Mar 11 04:59 cc1*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root other 1053700 Mar 11 05:00 cc1plus*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root other 103428 Mar 11 05:00 cpp*

usr/include:
total 175
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 656 Mar 29 22:59 ./
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 6047 Jan 4 14:47 a.out.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 3001 Nov 19 21:22 ansidecl.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 292 Sep 10 1991 ar.h
drwxr-xr-x 2 bin bin 96 Mar 29 22:58 asm/
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 858 Aug 20 1991 assert.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 132 Aug 20 1991 blocksize.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 321 Jan 4 14:50 const.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1049 Nov 7 17:31 ctype.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 883 Nov 19 22:05 dirent.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1364 Jan 4 14:51 errno.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1374 Jan 4 14:52 fcntl.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 664 Aug 20 1991 float.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 196 Sep 10 1991 getopt.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 2728 Nov 19 22:41 gnu-stabs.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 2868 Jan 10 00:01 grp.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1993 Jan 6 21:09 limits.h
drwxr-xr-x 2 bin bin 208 Mar 29 22:58 linux/
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 5138 Nov 19 22:42 localeinfo.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 727 Aug 20 1991 math.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 20 Aug 30 1991 memory.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12 Mar 30 10:16 one
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 2668 Dec 16 16:13 pwd.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 9584 Aug 20 1991 regex.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 363 Sep 10 1991 setjmp.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1974 Jan 4 14:54 signal.h
-rwxr-xr-x 1 bin bin 780 Aug 20 1991 stdarg.h*
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 285 Jan 4 14:54 stddef.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 7316 Dec 23 18:22 stdio.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1291 Nov 19 22:11 stdlib.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 7881 Aug 27 1991 string.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 20 Aug 30 1991 strings.h
drwxr-xr-x 2 bin bin 272 Mar 29 22:58 sys/
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 328 Aug 25 1991 termcap.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 21 Aug 26 1991 termio.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 5268 Jan 15 14:41 termios.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 874 Jan 4 14:58 time.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 7300 Jan 13 22:48 unistd.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 225 Aug 31 1991 utime.h
-rwxr-xr-x 1 bin bin 539 Aug 25 1991 varargs.h*
usr/include/asm:
total 12
drwxr-xr-x 2 bin bin 96 Mar 29 22:58 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 656 Mar 29 22:59 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 477 Aug 20 1991 io.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 507 Aug 20 1991 memory.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1366 Dec 16 17:24 segment.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1707 Jan 15 14:41 system.h

usr/include/linux:
total 73
drwxr-xr-x 2 bin bin 208 Mar 29 22:58 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 656 Mar 29 22:59 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1545 Jan 11 00:16 config.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 2466 Dec 16 17:24 fdreg.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 5754 Jan 15 14:41 fs.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1968 Dec 16 17:24 hdreg.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 304 Dec 16 17:24 head.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1036 Jan 15 14:41 kernel.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 4924 Jan 4 15:00 math_emu.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1101 Jan 15 14:41 mm.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 7351 Jan 15 14:41 sched.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 3402 Jan 15 14:41 sys.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 2801 Jan 9 00:14 tty.h

usr/include/sys:
total 29
drwxr-xr-x 2 bin bin 272 Mar 29 22:58 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 656 Mar 29 22:59 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 195 Nov 17 17:15 dir.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 175 Aug 28 1991 dirent.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 250 Sep 10 1991 file.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 50 Sep 8 1991 ioctl.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 196 Jan 6 21:16 param.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1809 Jan 3 20:33 resource.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1376 Jan 11 19:00 stat.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 182 Sep 8 1991 sysmacros.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1799 Jan 9 03:51 time.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 192 Sep 10 1991 timeb.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 200 Aug 20 1991 times.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 928 Jan 15 14:41 types.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 272 Jan 4 15:05 utsname.h
-rwxr-xr-x 1 bin bin 539 Aug 20 1991 varargs.h*
-rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 593 Dec 22 16:16 wait.h

usr/lib:
total 4
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 64 Mar 29 13:46 ./
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ../
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 160 Mar 29 13:46 shared/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 160 Mar 29 13:46 static/

usr/lib/shared:
total 10
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 160 Mar 29 13:46 ./
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 64 Mar 29 13:46 ../
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 39 Mar 29 13:46 crt0.o ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Crt0.o
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 39 Mar 29 13:46 libc.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libc.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 41 Mar 29 13:46 libg++.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libg++.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 41 Mar 29 13:46 libgcc.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libgcc.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 42 Mar 29 13:46 libhard.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libhard.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 42 Mar 29 13:46 libm.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libsoft.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 42 Mar 29 13:46 libsoft.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libsoft.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 45 Mar 29 13:46 libtermcap.a
-> /usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libtermcap.a

usr/lib/static:
total 10
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 160 Mar 29 13:46 ./
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 64 Mar 29 13:46 ../
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 39 Mar 29 13:46 crt0.o ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Crt0.o
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 39 Mar 29 13:46 libc.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libc.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 41 Mar 29 13:46 libg++.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libg++.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 41 Mar 29 13:46 libgcc.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libgcc.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 42 Mar 29 13:46 libhard.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libhard.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 42 Mar 29 13:46 libm.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libsoft.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 42 Mar 29 13:46 libsoft.a ->
/usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libsoft.a
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 45 Mar 29 13:46 libtermcap.a
-> /usr/gcc2/lib/gcc/i386-linux/2.0/Libtermcap.a

usr/local:
total 88
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 128 Mar 29 13:35 ./

drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ../
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 64 Mar 29 22:49 bin/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 etc/
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 128 Mar 29 15:13 lib/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 man/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 src/
-r--r--r-- 1 173 10 41236 Mar 17 16:56 vile.hlp

usr/local/bin:
total 13
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 64 Mar 29 22:49 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 128 Mar 29 13:35 ../
-r-xr-xr-x 1 bin bin 4745 Dec 19 18:56 less.hlp*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12 Mar 28 21:11 one

usr/local/etc:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 128 Mar 29 13:35 ../

usr/local/lib:
total 3
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 128 Mar 29 15:13 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 128 Mar 29 13:35 ../
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 112 Mar 29 15:18 pcomm/

usr/local/lib/pcomm:
total 9
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 112 Mar 29 15:18 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 128 Mar 29 15:13 ../
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 79 Mar 29 15:03
pcomm.dial_dir*
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 79 Mar 29 14:35
pcomm.extrnl*
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 208 Mar 29 15:51 pcomm.modem*
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 519 Mar 29 16:41 pcomm.param*
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 994 Mar 29 14:35 sample*

usr/local/man:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 128 Mar 29 13:35 ../

usr/local/src:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 128 Mar 29 13:35 ../

usr/man:
total 179
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 1504 Mar 30 10:13 ./
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16 Mar 30 10:12 _exit.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 739 Mar 30 10:12 access.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25 Mar 30 10:12 acct.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 624 Mar 30 10:12 alarm.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25 Mar 30 10:12 break.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 702 Mar 30 10:12 brk.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 811 Mar 30 10:12 chdir.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1132 Mar 30 10:12 chmod.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17 Mar 30 10:12 chown.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 736 Mar 30 10:12 chroot.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 649 Mar 30 10:12 close.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16 Mar 30 10:12 creat.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1195 Mar 30 10:12 dup.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 15 Mar 30 10:12 dup2.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1836 Mar 30 10:12 execve.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 809 Mar 30 10:12 exit.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 24 Mar 30 10:12 fcntl.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1253 Mar 30 10:12 fork.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16 Mar 30 10:12 fstat.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25 Mar 30 10:12 ftime.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 getegid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 geteuid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 getgid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1127 Mar 30 10:12 getgroups.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 getpgrp.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2855 Mar 30 10:12 getpid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 getppid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2895 Mar 30 10:12 getrlimit.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 21 Mar 30 10:12 getrusage.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16 Mar 30 10:12
gettimeofday.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 getuid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25 Mar 30 10:12 gtty.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 24 Mar 30 10:12 ioctl.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1502 Mar 30 10:12 kill.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2001 Mar 30 10:12 link.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25 Mar 30 10:12 lock.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1263 Mar 30 10:12 lseek.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Mar 30 10:12 lstat.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 32 Mar 30 10:12 mkdir.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16 Mar 30 10:12 mknod.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1782 Mar 30 10:12 mount.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25 Mar 30 10:12 mpx.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 937 Mar 30 10:12 nice.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3402 Mar 30 10:12 open.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 578 Mar 30 10:12 pause.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25 Mar 30 10:12 phys.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 757 Mar 30 10:12 pipe.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25 Mar 30 10:12 prof.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 24 Mar 30 10:12 ptrace.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1272 Mar 30 10:12 read.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1140 Mar 30 10:12 readlink.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1111 Mar 30 10:12 reboot.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16 Mar 30 10:12 rename.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 rmdir.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 24 Mar 30 10:12 select.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 setgid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 21 Mar 30 10:12 setgroups.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 816 Mar 30 10:12
sethostname.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 setregid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 setreuid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 21 Mar 30 10:12 setrlimit.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 setsid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16 Mar 30 10:12
settimeofday.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 setuid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1156 Mar 30 10:12 setup.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 sgetmask.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 sigaction.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2761 Mar 30 10:12 signal.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 sigpending.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 sigsuspend.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 18 Mar 30 10:12 ssetmask.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2376 Mar 30 10:12 stat.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16 Mar 30 10:12 stime.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25 Mar 30 10:12 stty.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1146 Mar 30 10:12 swapon.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16 Mar 30 10:12 symlink.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 517 Mar 30 10:12 sync.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2887 Mar 30 10:12 time.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 848 Mar 30 10:12 times.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25 Mar 30 10:12 ulimit.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 594 Mar 30 10:12 umask.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17 Mar 30 10:12 umount.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1011 Mar 30 10:12 uname.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 373 Mar 30 10:12
undocumented.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 368 Mar 30 10:13
unimplemented.
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16 Mar 30 10:12 unlink.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 854 Mar 30 10:13 uselib.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25 Mar 30 10:13 ustat.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 813 Mar 30 10:13 utime.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1543 Mar 30 10:13 waitpid.2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2015 Mar 30 10:13 whatis
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16 Mar 30 10:13 write.2

usr/spool:
total 3
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 48 Mar 29 14:37 ./
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ../
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 64 Mar 29 14:56 uucp/

usr/spool/uucp:
total 4
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 64 Mar 29 14:56 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 48 Mar 29 14:37 ../
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 48 Mar 29 14:56 LCK/
-rw-rw-rw- 1 root root 4 Mar 29 16:42 LCK..tty64

usr/spool/uucp/LCK:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 48 Mar 29 14:56 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 64 Mar 29 14:56 ../
crwxrwxrwx 2 root root 4, 64 Mar 29 14:39 tty64

usr/src:
total 30
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 176 Mar 29 23:00 ./
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ../
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 bin/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 lib/
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 176 Mar 28 18:04 linux/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 usr.bin/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 usr.lib/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 11448 Mar 29 13:48 zfiles
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Mar 29 13:49 zfiles.h

usr/src/bin:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 176 Mar 29 23:00 ../

usr/src/lib:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 176 Mar 29 23:00 ../

usr/src/linux:
total 17
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 176 Mar 28 18:04 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 176 Mar 29 23:00 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3197 Mar 16 22:08 Makefile
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 80 Mar 28 18:04 boot/
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 368 Mar 29 23:01 fs/
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 288 Mar 28 18:04 include/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 64 Mar 28 18:04 init/
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 304 Mar 29 23:02 kernel/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 240 Mar 28 18:04 lib/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 96 Mar 28 18:04 mm/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 48 Mar 28 18:04 tools/

usr/src/linux/boot:
total 56
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 80 Mar 28 18:04 ./
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 176 Mar 28 18:04 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7578 Jan 18 17:01 bootsect.S
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6909 Mar 5 21:10 head.s
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12596 Mar 14 21:13 setup.S

usr/src/linux/fs:
total 179
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 368 Mar 29 23:01 ./
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 176 Mar 28 18:04 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6244 Mar 5 21:36 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4007 Jan 11 19:57 bitmap.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1949 Mar 16 23:32 block_dev.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10130 Mar 13 17:06 buffer.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3109 Mar 2 02:16 char_dev.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10116 Mar 4 04:24 exec.c
-rw------- 1 root root 5177 Mar 15 23:01
fasterdisk.pat
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1502 Feb 20 18:04 fcntl.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1852 Dec 1 19:02 file_dev.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 122 Oct 2 14:16 file_table.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4702 Mar 14 17:33 inode.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1131 Feb 20 15:01 ioctl.c
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 144 Mar 29 23:01 minix/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9449 Mar 6 17:04 namei.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3927 Mar 2 21:52 open.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2981 Mar 6 13:04 pipe.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2510 Mar 2 22:16 read_write.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7076 Mar 15 13:10 select.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1681 Mar 6 03:22 stat.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5874 Feb 28 17:01 super.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1692 Jan 11 19:47 truncate.c

usr/src/linux/fs/minix:
total 74
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 144 Mar 29 23:01 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 368 Mar 29 23:01 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2949 Mar 5 21:36 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4175 Mar 5 18:36 bitmap.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2133 Mar 17 01:41 file_dev.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3786 Mar 1 23:15 inode.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 686 Mar 2 22:18 minix_op.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17892 Mar 3 17:39 namei.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3091 Mar 14 17:42 truncate.c

usr/src/linux/include:
total 80
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 288 Mar 28 18:04 ./
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 176 Mar 28 18:04 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6047 Sep 17 1991 a.out.h
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 96 Mar 28 18:04 asm/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 321 Sep 17 1991 const.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1049 Nov 7 17:30 ctype.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1382 Feb 18 20:36 errno.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1358 Feb 27 11:28 fcntl.h
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 240 Mar 29 23:02 linux/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2248 Mar 1 15:26 signal.h
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 780 Sep 17 1991 stdarg.h*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 285 Dec 28 03:19 stddef.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7973 Mar 5 18:24 string.h
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 176 Mar 29 23:02 sys/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5266 Mar 15 00:44 termios.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 873 Jan 31 17:05 time.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7482 Mar 4 10:56 unistd.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 225 Sep 17 1991 utime.h

usr/src/linux/include/asm:
total 14
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 96 Mar 28 18:04 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 288 Mar 28 18:04 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 766 Mar 12 22:44 io.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 507 Mar 8 11:51 memory.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2068 Mar 16 23:40 segment.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1717 Mar 5 02:10 system.h
usr/src/linux/include/linux:
total 83
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 240 Mar 29 23:02 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 288 Mar 28 18:04 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1776 Mar 17 09:39 config.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2466 Nov 2 10:48 fdreg.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6442 Mar 13 16:55 fs.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2076 Feb 1 14:04 hdreg.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 304 Jun 19 1991 head.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 812 Jan 27 15:38 kernel.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4980 Feb 17 20:56 math_emu.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2808 Mar 2 21:52 minix_fs.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1210 Mar 6 00:57 mm.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7749 Mar 14 12:21 sched.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3476 Feb 27 16:24 sys.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 878 Mar 12 20:22 timer.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3171 Mar 15 00:43 tty.h

usr/src/linux/include/sys:
total 22
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 176 Mar 29 23:02 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 288 Mar 28 18:04 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 Jan 6 21:10 param.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 874 Feb 17 19:54 ptrace.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1809 Jan 3 18:52 resource.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1376 Feb 20 14:45 stat.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1838 Feb 20 23:07 time.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 200 Sep 17 1991 times.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 952 Feb 28 21:34 types.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 272 Jan 4 15:05 utsname.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 593 Dec 22 15:08 wait.h

usr/src/linux/init:
total 29
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 64 Mar 28 18:04 ./
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 176 Mar 28 18:04 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5934 Mar 14 13:34 main.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7347 Jan 13 12:45 main.s

usr/src/linux/kernel:
total 163
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 304 Mar 29 23:02 ./
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 176 Mar 28 18:04 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4557 Mar 5 21:36 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2378 Mar 5 16:15 asm.s
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 128 Mar 28 18:04 blk_drv/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 160 Mar 28 18:04 chr_drv/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10984 Mar 17 21:47 exit.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4255 Mar 4 12:11 fork.c
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 192 Mar 28 18:04 math/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1461 Oct 2 14:16 mktime.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 448 Oct 17 14:22 panic.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 537 Jan 10 23:14 printk.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8249 Mar 17 21:38 ptrace.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9798 Mar 14 14:55 sched.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5805 Mar 1 15:27 signal.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12996 Feb 27 16:42 sys.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5941 Mar 5 00:56 sys_call.s
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4806 Mar 5 20:27 traps.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4800 Oct 2 14:16 vsprintf.c

usr/src/linux/kernel/blk_drv:
total 80
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 128 Mar 28 18:04 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 304 Mar 29 23:02 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2783 Mar 5 21:37 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3907 Mar 12 01:42 blk.h
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 13805 Mar 13 17:03 floppy.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9510 Mar 15 18:46 hd.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5694 Mar 6 01:04 ll_rw_blk.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2782 Feb 20 11:15 ramdisk.c

usr/src/linux/kernel/chr_drv:
total 155
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 160 Mar 28 18:04 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 304 Mar 29 23:02 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3742 Mar 5 21:37 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 26930 Mar 12 22:37 console.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 16852 Mar 15 00:43 keyboard.S
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1186 Jan 10 23:56 pty.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3005 Mar 15 00:43 rs_io.s
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3892 Mar 14 18:16 serial.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12734 Mar 17 20:46 tty_io.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8700 Mar 12 21:51 tty_ioctl.c

usr/src/linux/kernel/math:
total 76
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 192 Mar 28 18:04 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 304 Mar 29 23:02 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3967 Mar 4 04:14 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1999 Jan 1 16:42 add.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 904 Jan 1 17:15 compare.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5936 Feb 17 22:07 convert.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2099 Jan 1 01:41 div.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1807 Dec 31 11:57 ea.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 234 Feb 27 14:01 error.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5145 Mar 4 04:35 get_put.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 11789 Mar 5 20:32
math_emulate.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1517 Mar 4 04:37 mul.c

usr/src/linux/lib:
total 36
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 240 Mar 28 18:04 ./
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 176 Mar 28 18:04 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2649 Mar 5 18:23 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 220 Mar 4 12:27 _exit.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 131 Oct 2 14:16 close.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1202 Oct 2 14:16 ctype.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 127 Oct 2 14:16 dup.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 73 Oct 2 14:16 errno.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 170 Oct 2 14:16 execve.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7469 Dec 2 03:15 malloc.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 419 Mar 4 12:27 open.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 128 Oct 2 14:16 setsid.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 177 Oct 2 14:16 string.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 253 Oct 2 14:16 wait.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 160 Oct 2 14:16 write.c

usr/src/linux/mm:
total 49
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 96 Mar 28 18:04 ./
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 176 Mar 28 18:04 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1226 Mar 17 09:57 Makefile
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 15594 Mar 17 20:35 memory.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 508 Oct 2 14:16 page.s
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5913 Mar 16 20:39 swap.c

usr/src/linux/tools:
total 11
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 48 Mar 28 18:04 ./
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 176 Mar 28 18:04 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4522 Mar 6 02:19 build.c

usr/src/usr.bin:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 176 Mar 29 23:00 ../

usr/src/usr.lib:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 32 Mar 28 17:20 ./
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 176 Mar 29 23:00 ../

usr/tmp:
total 2
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 64 Mar 29 13:47 ./
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 240 Mar 28 20:00 ../

===========================================================
So, there you have it, a basic 'beginner's guide' for Linux.
If you have found errors in this guide and would like me to
implement the changes then please send me the 'corrected text'
section from this guide so that it would be easy for me to drop
that section in to replace the incorrect section. Comments,
suggestions should be addressed to;
[email protected]
chuck boyer


 December 13, 2017  Add comments

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