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Optimization and Configuration Tips For
DR DOS 6.0

1182-2139-001

DISCLAIMER

DIGITAL RESEARCH INC. PROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION AS
IS WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Further, Digital Research Inc. reserves
the right to revise this publication and to make changes from time
to time to the content hereof without obligation of Digital Research
Inc. to notify any person of such revision or changes. Some states
do not allow disclaimer of express or implied warranties in certain
transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.

This publication could include technical inaccuracies
or typographical errors. Changes are periodically made to the information
herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the
publication. Digital Research Inc. may make improvements and/or changes
in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication
at any time.

NOTICE TO USER

This manual should not be construed as any representation
or warranty with respect to the software named herein. Occasionally
changes or variations exist in the software that are not reflected
in the manual. Generally, if such changes or variations are known
to exist and to affect the product significantly, a release note or
README file accompanies the manual and the distribution disks. In
that event, be sure to read the release note or README file before
using the product.

TRADEMARKS

Digital Research, the Digital Research logo, DR DOS,
MemoryMAX, TaskMAX, ViewMAX, and DOSBOOK are trademarks or registered
trademarks of Digital Research Inc.

Hercules is a trademark of Hercules Computer Technology
Inc. IBM, IBM PC, and IBM PC/XT are registered trademarks and PS/2
and AT are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. Intel,
AboveBoard, 8086, 8087, 80286, 386, 386SX, 486 and i486 are registered
trademarks or trademarks of Intel Corporation. SCAT, CHIPSet, LeAPSet,
LeAPSetsx, NeAT and NeATsx are trademarks of Chips and Technologies
Inc.

Lotus 1-2-3 is a registered trademark of Lotus Development
Corporation. WordStar is a trademark of MicroPro International Corporation.
Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks and MS-Windows is a trademark
of Microsoft Corporation. Novell, IPX, NetWare, and NET3 are trademarks
or registered trademarks of Novell Incorporated.

COMPAQ is a registered trademark of Compaq Computer
Corporation. PC-Kwik is a registered trademark and Super PC-Kwik
is a trademark of Multisoft Corporation. SuperStor and AddStor are
trademarks of AddStor, Inc. Ventura Publisher is a registered trademark
of Ventura Software, Inc. Plus and Hardcard are registered trademarks
of Plus Development Corporation.

Qualitas and 386MAX are registered trademarks of Qualitas,
Inc. GeoWorks is a trademark of GeoWorks. Bernoulli is a registered
trademark of Iomega Corporation. Disk Manager is a registered trademark
of Ontrack Computer Systems. Banyan is a registered trademark of Banyan
Systems Incorporated. DESQview is a trademark of Quarterdeck Office
Systems.

All other trademarks are the property of their respective
holders and are hereby acknowledged.

COPYRIGHT

Copyright <189> 1976, 1982, 1988, 1990, 1991 Digital
Research Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may
be reproduced, translated into any language or computer language,
or distributed without the prior written permission of Digital Research
Inc., 70 Garden Court,
P. O. Box DRI, Monterey, California 93942.

Descriptions of the Super PC-Kwik Disk Accelerator are
based on text provided by Multisoft Corporation. Super PC-Kwik documentation
Copyright 1991. All rights reserved in all countries.




First edition: September 1991



Contents

1. Introduction 1

Memory Management Overview 2

The DR DOS MemoryMAX System 2

MemoryMAX System Commands and Drivers 4

EMM386.SYS 4

HIDOS.SYS 4

EMMXMA.SYS 5

HIBUFFERS 5

HIDEVICE 6

HIDOS 6

HIINSTALL 6

HILOAD 6

MEMMAX 7

Example 8

Conclusion 8

2. System Memory Optimization 9

Changing Order of Memory Allocation 9

Expanding Files 10

Example 11

LIM Page Frame 11

3. Troubleshooting 13

Isolating the Problem 13

Possible Problems 14

Insufficient Conventional Memory 15

HILOAD, HIINSTALL, HIDEVICE Considerations 15

Computer will not boot or locks up 16

Upper Memory Conflicts: Using /EXCLUDE 17

The /EXCLUDE Option 18

Video Problems 20

Network Hardware Interfacing 20

Floppy Drive Does Not Work 21

SCSI Disk Drive Problems 21

Expanded (EMS) Memory Problems 21

Error message: Packed file is corrupt. 22

Using EMM386.SYS with Windows 22

Using Windows in Real mode 22

Using Windows in Standard Mode 22

The /WINSTD Switch 22

Using Windows in Enhanced Mode 23

Using Super PC-Kwik and Windows 3.0 23

Using SuperStor with Windows 3.0 24

Using TaskMAX with Windows 25

Using DISKOPT with Windows 25

Using Super PC-Kwik 25

Size of Cache 25

Using Super PC-Kwik with Networks 26

Troubleshooting Super PC-Kwik 27

Using TaskMAX 27

Using SuperStor Disk Compression 28

Installation Tips 28

Troubleshooting SuperStor 29

Using Network Software 30

The Novell NetWare Program 31

Installation/Compatibility Considerations 32

Server Installation 32

Workstation Installation 32

Using TaskMAX with NetWare 33

Using MemoryMAX with NetWare 33

Memory Usage 34

Using HILOAD 35

Troubleshooting 35

Using Third-party Memory Managers 38

Relocating the Kernel 38

Quarterdeck DESQview 39

The DR DOS 6.0 Version Numbers 40

Using Large-capacity Hard Drives 42

Using the DR DOS MEM Command 42

Memory Management for Advanced Users 45

The /LOMEMM Option 45

The /XBDA Option 45

The /VIDEO Option 46

The /AUTOSCAN and /INCLUDE Options 46

The /Use Option 46

Final Notes 47

4. Command Comparison 49





1. Introduction

THIS guide is provided by Digital Research as a supplement
to the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide. It is designed
to provide you with information, techniques, and extensive discussions
regarding optimizing your configuration when using the DR DOS 6.0
operating system.

If you have questions after installing the DR DOS 6.0 operating system,
we recommend that you take the following steps:

1. Review the appropriate sections of the DR DOS 6.0
User Guide, the ViewMAX User Guide, and the
DOSBOOK online guide. These Guides should be the primary
source for information about the DR DOS 6.0 operating system and for
resolving most problems.

2. Read the readme file, which is included on one of
the DR DOS diskettes, or the Release Notes, if included. They contain
technical information that became available after the DR DOS 6.0
User Guide was printed.
With the distribution diskette in your drive A:, you
can read the file on your computer screen by entering the command:

A:> TYPE README /P

To send a copy of the file to your printer, use the
command:

A:> TYPE README >PRN

(The ">" symbol is on the same key as the period
on U.S. keyboards.)

3. Before calling your dealer or support center for assistance,
review this guide. Most problems that you will encounter can be quickly
resolved using the information found in this guide.

Memory Management Overview

The purpose of a memory management system is to effectively manage
the Random Access Memory (RAM) available on your computer and to maximize
memory in which to load your applications. When personal computers
were first introduced, they operated with as little as 64 kilobytes
(Kbytes) of RAM. However, as PCs became more sophisticated and powerful,
so did the application programs that ran on them.

Today, modern applications frequently require 540 Kbytes of memory,
or more, to load. Ten years ago, that amount of required RAM would
have seemed vastly excessive. Many common configurations do not have
sufficient memory for proper fractioning of large applications.

And, although today's computers typically have over 1 Mbyte of RAM
available, only a portion of the first 640 Kbytes are available for
DOS applications. Device drivers and TSRs are also typically loaded
into this area, reducing the memory available for an application.

Memory management software is designed to overcome the problem of
insufficient conventional memory. The DR DOS memory management system
is called MemoryMAX.

The DR DOS MemoryMAX System

The term MemoryMAX describes the collection of device drivers and
commands that are used for memory management under the DR DOS 6.0
operating system to take advantage of all RAM memory available
on your computer.

The MemoryMAX system is designed to free-up as much conventional memory
as possible. It achieves this goal by utilizing certain previously
unused areas of high and lower memory and by remapping and moving
other memory areas.

The MemoryMAX system extends the amount of memory available to applications,
so that even with network drivers and TSRs loaded, there can still
be 620 Kbytes, or more, conventional memory available. However, the
exact amount of additional memory that MemoryMAX provides is dependent
on your particular system's configuration.

The MemoryMAX system consists of three device drivers and six commands.
The MemoryMAX device drivers and commands are detailed in Chapter
11 of the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide, "Customizing your System". This
table lists MemoryMAX drivers and features by various hardware configurations.

MemoryMAX Features Available with Hardware/Device Driver Combinations
________________________________________________________________________
Applicable | Driver | LIM | DR DOS Kernel | XMS | DR DOS
Hardware | | | Kernel Relocation | | Upper Memory
------------------------------|-------------------|------|--------------
386sx, 386 |EMM386.SYS | YES | YES | YES | YES
or 486 | | | | |
------------|-----------|-----|-------------------|------|--------------
386sx,386, |HIDOS.SYS | | | |
or 486, |with Third-| ? | YES | YES | N/S
|Party XMS | | | |
|Memory Mgr | | | |
------------|-----------|-----|-------------------|------|--------------
IBM PS/2 |EMMXMA.SYS | YES | N/S | N/S | N/S
80286 with | | | | |
IBM XMA card| | | | |
------------|-----------|-----|-------------------|------|--------------
80286 with | HIDOS.SYS | N/S | YES | YES | N/S
Extended Mem| | | | |
------------|-----------|-----|-------------------|------|--------------
80286 with | HIDOS.SYS | N/S | YES | YES | YES
Mappable | | | | |
Shadow Ram | | | | |
with Ext | | | | |
Memory | | | | |
------------|-----------|-----|-------------------|------|--------------
80286 with | HIDOS.SYS | N/S | YES | YES | YES
Mappable | | | | |
Shadow Ram | | | | |
No Extended | | | | |
Memory | | | | |
------------|-----------|-----|-------------------|------|--------------
80286 with | HIDOS.SYS | N/S | YES | YES | YES
NeAT, LeAP, | | | | |
or SCAT | | | | |
------------|-----------|-----|-------------------|------|--------------
80286 with | HIDOS.SYS | YES | YES | YES | YES
LIM 4.0 | with third| | | |
driver and | party | | | |
extended | driver | | | |
memory | | | | |
------------|-----------|-----|-------------------|------|--------------
8088/8086/ | HIDOS.SYS | YES | YES | YES | YES
80286 with | with third| | | |
LIM 4.0 EMS | party | | | |
card and no | LIM 4.0 | | | |
extended | driver | | | |
------------|-----------|-----|-------------------|------|--------------
Supported feature = YES
Unsupported feature = N/S
? = This entry depends on the features offered by third-party memory manager

If upper memory is not supported, HIDEVICE, HIBUFFERS,
HIINSTALL, and HILOAD commands have no effect. HIDOS=ON|OFF might
be supported if the third-party memory manager allocates XMS upper
memory blocks (UMBs).

MemoryMAX System Commands and Drivers

The following is a listing and brief description of the components
of the MemoryMAX memory management system. Refer to the DR DOS
6.0 User Guide for a complete description of each of these features
and commands.

EMM386.SYS

EMM386.SYS is a device driver that allows the DR DOS 6.0 operating
system to make better use of the memory available on Intel
i386, i386SX, and i486-based computers. Using EMM386.SYS,
you can use LIM 4.0 expanded memory without the need for special add-on
cards; relocate the DR DOS operating system kernel to upper or high
memory, and enable upper memory to be used for TSRs, device drivers
and operating system data structures by using the /AUTOSCAN, /INCLUDE,
/EXCLUDE, and /USE options. You can also add up to 96 Kbytes to conventional
memory using the /VIDEO option.

HIDOS.SYS

If you have an Intel 80286-based computer with extended memory, you
can use the HIDOS.SYS driver to relocate the DR DOS operating system
kernel to high memory (see the /BDOS option). On computers that support
Shadow RAM, HIDOS.SYS relocates the kernel to upper memory, and enables
you to load TSRs, drivers and operating system data structures into
upper memory. Using the /VIDEO option, you can also add up to 96 Kbytes
to conventional memory.

Example config.sys entry:

DEVICE=C:\DRDOS\HIDOS.SYS /BDOS=AUTO

HIDOS.SYS can also work in conjunction with LIM 4.0 expanded memory
(EMS) device drivers to provide upper memory support on 8088/8086/80286
computers. This feature is detailed in the readme file or Release
Notes.

Note:
The HIDOS.SYS driver should not be confused with the
similarly-named DR DOS MemoryMAX "HIDOS = ON/OFF" command
(see below).

EMMXMA.SYS

Use this driver on PS/2 80286 computers with IBM XMA and 100% compatible
memory cards, to convert memory from extended to LIM expanded memory.
Example config.sys entry:

DEVICE=C:\DRDOS\EMMXMA.SYS /FRAME=D000

Note:
The EMMXMA.SYS driver can be used only on PS/2 computers,
and you cannot use the EMMXMA.SYS driver with any third-party memory
managers (e.g., the Qualitas 386/MAX, or the Quarterdeck Expanded
Memory Manager 386). You can use HIDOS.SYS following EMMXMA.SYS
to obtain upper memory support.

The MemoryMAX commands listed below can be used when upper memory
is supported by loading the EMM386.SYS or HIDOS.SYS drivers in the
config.sys file.

HIBUFFERS

Use HIBUFFERS to specify the number of memory buffers that the DR
DOS 6.0 operating system uses. HIBUFFERS performs the same function
as BUFFERS, except that HIBUFFERS allocates as many buffers as possible
into high memory rather than conventional memory.
The following entry in your config.sys file sets the number of buffers
to 20 and forces the DR DOS 6.0 operating system to allocate as many
as possible from high memory.

Example config.sys entry:

HIBUFFERS = 20

HIDEVICE

The HIDEVICE command loads specified device drivers into upper memory.
If the device is unable to load into upper memory using HIDEVICE,
it will be loaded into conventional memory. The following command
loads the ANSI.SYS device driver into upper memory:

HIDEVICE=C:\DRDOS\ANSI.SYS

HIDOS

The HIDOS command relocates as much of the DR DOS operating system
data structures as possible into upper memory. The default is OFF.

Example config.sys entry:

HIDOS=ON

HIINSTALL

The HIINSTALL command loads specified TSRs into upper memory. If there
is insufficient upper memory for the specified TSR, it is loaded into
conventional memory.
Although similar to the HILOAD command (see below), HIINSTALL must
be loaded via the config.sys file. Use HIINSTALL when you want
a TSR permanently loaded at boot time because of best memory allocation
(see the example in Chapter 2). The following command installs the
CURSOR program into upper memory:

HIINSTALL=C:\DRDOS\CURSOR.EXE

Notice that you must give the full path name to the program and its
extension (.com or .exe).

HILOAD

HILOAD loads specified TSRs and network drivers into upper memory.
HILOAD is similar to the HIINSTALL command (which must be loaded using
the config.sys file), but can be executed from the command line
or from the autoexec.bat or other batch file.
Before using HILOAD, you must be sure that upper memory has been enabled
with the MEMMAX +U command.

For example,

C:> HILOAD C:\LAN\NET3

MEMMAX

The MEMMAX command selectively enables and disables those enhanced
memory areas provided by the DR DOS 6.0 operating system that might
conflict with some applications. By using the MEMMAX +V switch, MEMMAX
also enables extra memory if it has been reserved in the video adapter
area by EMM386.SYS or HIDOS.SYS. You can execute the MEMMAX command
from the command line or a batch file (see Chapter 10 of the DR
DOS 6.0 User Guide).

Note:
If you enabled the video adapter area by using MEMMAX
+V, you must use the MEMMAX -V command to release this memory before
loading graphics applications.

The HIDOS.SYS and EMM386.SYS device drivers can increase the conventional
memory available to applications by using upper memory. However, some
programs fail because they do not expect to find memory in this region.
MEMMAX allows you to selectively enable and disable upper and lower
memory from the command line or from batch files. MEMMAX +U and
-U will respectively enable and disable upper memory. The DR DOS
6.0 installation will place the command "MEMMAX -U > nul"
into the autoexec.bat file. The "> nul" disables the display
of the MEMMAX status message on the screen.

MEMMAX -L and +L will respectively disable and enable the first 64
Kbytes of conventional memory. This region is termed "low memory". Usually
the operating system resides in low memory; however, by using the
DR DOS 6.0 MemoryMAX features, most of this area can be made available
for running applications. Some applications were written using packing
utilities that become confused when run in this low memory. If this
happens, the following message appears:

"Packed file is corrupt".

To correct this situation, use the MEMMAX -L command to disable low
memory before running the application. After exiting the application,
use MEMMAX +L to enable the low memory area once again.

Example:
The following example shows how you can use the MEMMAX command in
a batch file that loads network drivers into upper memory. The example
assumes that you have already loaded a DR DOS 6.0 device driver that
supports upper memory.

REM * * * MEMMMAX to open upper memory * * *
MEMMAX +U
HILOAD C:\LAN\IPX
HILOAD C:\LAN\NET3
REM * * * * Disable lower memory * * *
MEMMAX -L
I:
CD LOGIN
REM * * * * Reopen lower memory * * * *
MEMMAX +L

Conclusion

While the MemoryMAX memory system works well with most application
programs, you might still encounter occasional difficulty. The following
chapters present the steps recommended for resolving such memory conflicts.



2. System Memory Optimization

Because the DR DOS 6.0 operating system has been designed to work
with all IBM-compatible personal computers and software applications,
there is no single perfect memory setup that will optimize
memory use for all situations. Memory optimization will depend both
on your particular hardware setup and the software applications you
will be using. However, with a bit of trial-and-error system fine
tuning, you can optimize DR DOS memory management to meet your particular
needs. Below are techniques and suggestions that will help you optimize
your computer/software setup.

Changing Order of Memory Allocation

The first step in optimizing your system memory can be as simple as
rearranging the order in which memory blocks are assigned by the config.sys
and autoexec.bat files. The general rule here is to use upper memory
and high memory as much as possible to free conventional memory for
your applications. With this in mind, you should typically use HIBUFFERS
and relocate the DR DOS kernel code to high memory by using the /BDOS=FFFF
option of the DR DOS memory management drivers, HIDOS.SYS and EMM386.SYS.
Also, if you have any add-on cards that use RAM, make sure that they are
configured so that their RAM is allocated from the beginning or end
of upper memory. For example, place a network card immediately above
the video RAM area instead of in the middle of upper memory.

Following this, device drivers and TSRs can be loaded into upper memory.
For best memory allocation, those drivers and TSRs that occupy the
largest blocks of memory should be loaded first and contiguously.
For example, if you need to load three device drivers and two TSR
programs, order them in descending order in your config.sys file,
beginning with the driver that will occupy the most RAM, to the driver
or TSR that will occupy the least RAM. The documentation for the drivers
and TSRs should indicate the amount of RAM they require; however,
if they do not, you can determine this yourself by using the following
procedure:
1. Load the driver or TSR.
2. Use the MEM /U or /B command to see a report of your
memory usage (see Chapter 10 of the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide for
a full description of the MEM command and Chapter 12 regarding loading
device drivers and TSRs).

Expanding Files

If, after determining the size of your drivers and TSRs and loading
them into high memory, a driver or program fails to run properly or
produces an out of memory error message, the problem might
be that the driver or program is expanding itself in RAM.

Some device drivers and TSR programs occupy a minimal amount of RAM
after they are loaded into memory, but, while initializing, might
actually expand and take up considerably more RAM than they will ultimately
need.
Another method of verifying the program's true RAM size is to load
it into conventional memory (i.e., by deactivating the HIDEVICE, HIINSTALL,
or HILOAD commands), activate the program, and then run the MEM /B
command to see the actual amount of RAM the program occupies. If the
program or driver is expanding itself in RAM, and you want
to load it into upper memory, you will have to allow sufficient upper
memory RAM to accommodate the initialization size of the program.
It might be necessary to use trial-and-error to determine this size. See
also "Using MemoryMAX with NetWare" on page 33 for an example.

Example

In the following example, let's assume you want to load Device Drivers
1, 2, and 3, and TSR programs 1 and 2, each requiring the following
amounts of memory:

Driver #1= 13Kbyte of RAM
Driver # 2= 10Kbyte of RAM
Driver # 3= 16Kbyte of RAM
TSR # 1= 4Kbyte of RAM
TSR # 2= 6Kbyte of RAM

Using the MemoryMAX HIDEVICE and/or HIINSTALL commands, enter these
lines into your config.sys file:

HIDEVICE = C:\DRIVER#3.SYS; which uses 16kb RAM
HIDEVICE = C:\DRIVER#1.SYS; which uses 13kb RAM
HIDEVICE = C:\DRIVER#2.SYS; which uses 10kb RAM
HIINSTALL = TSR#2; which uses 6kb RAM
HIINSTALL = TSR#1; which uses 4kb RAM

Note:
There can be exceptions to loading TSRs and drivers in
the "largest first" system described previously. Some device
drivers must be loaded in a specific order. Read the manufacturer's
documentation carefully before installing any driver.

Note that in the above example, you can load the two TSRs with the
HILOAD command placed in the autoexec.bat file. For a discussion
of the MemoryMAX HIINSTALL, HIDEVICE, and HILOAD commands, see "MemoryMAX
System Commands and Drivers" on page 4 in the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide.

LIM Page Frame

Some applications run better with the availability of LIM memory (sometimes
called EMS, or expanded memory). The documentation for each of your
applications will indicate if LIM memory is required.

If the application does not require LIM memory, be sure that no LIM
page frame is defined. This will save 64 Kbytes of upper memory. In
the EMM386.SYS line of your config.sys file, disable the page frame
with the switch /F=NONE. If using HIDOS.SYS on a machine with a LIM
4.0 memory card, you can disable the page frame by specifying /CHIPSET=EMSALL.

3. Troubleshooting

Isolating the Problem

If you encounter memory conflicts after you have arranged your device
drivers and TSRs in the manner described in the previous chapter,
your next step should be to isolate and identify the offending conflict.
The best way to do this is to methodically load each of your drivers,
TSRs, and application programs one at a time until you encounter the
problem driver or program.

Note:
To complete the following steps, you should be familiar
with editing your config.sys and autoexec.bat files with a wordprocessor
or text editor such as the DR DOS EDITOR, and with the REM command.
Refer to Chapters 7 and 11 of the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide.

Whenever you experiment with and change your config.sys and autoexec.bat
files, you should always have a separate bootable floppy disk
available containing the unedited, original versions of your config.sys
and autoexec.bat files in case you need to reboot your computer
from the A: drive. Then, if you need to go back to your original
configuration, you can copy the original config.sys and autoexec.bat files
from your backup diskettes onto your boot disk. (See Chapter 10 in the
DR DOS 6.0 User Guide for information on how to create a bootable
floppy disk.)

To isolate the source of your memory conflict, turn off those lines
in your config.sys or autoexec.bat file that might be causing
the problem. Do this by editing the config.sys or autoexec.bat
file and placing a REM comment at the beginning of each line you want
to turn off. For example, to turn off the following config.sys line:

DEVICE = C:\DRDOS\EMM386.SYS /F=AUTO /K=2024

add the REM comment to the beginning of the line:

REM DEVICE = C:\DRDOS\EMM386.SYS /F=AUTO /K=2024

If you find a particular line is not causing a problem, you can reactivate
it by simply removing the REM statement.

Note:
You can also use the DR DOS conditional "?" statement
to activate/deactivate config.sys line commands. See Chapter 11
of the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide for details. If you use this option,
make careful note of whether you said "yes" or "no" to loading each line.

After turning off the suspect lines with a REM statement, reboot your
computer to retest the driver/application with which you first encountered
your memory problem. If the system runs correctly, reenter your config.sys
or autoexec.bat file and remove the REM command from one line and
then reboot and reload the application. Continue this process until
you again encounter the memory problem. When it recurs, you will have
isolated the line in the config.sys or autoexec.bat file that
is causing the memory conflict. You can now take action to resolve
the conflict, as described in the following sections.

Possible Problems

After you have isolated the problem driver or program, you can use
the techniques described below to make the appropriate corrections
to your computer's configuration.

Some problems that you might encounter after installing the MemoryMAX
drivers include:

Insufficient conventional memory to load a particular driver
or program

HILOAD, HIINSTALL, or HIDEVICE features do not seem to operate
correctly

Computer locks up

Upper memory conflicts

Video problems

Error message: "Packed file is corrupt."

Each of these problems, and the techniques to correct them, are described
below.

Insufficient Conventional Memory

After using the DR DOS 6.0 memory management system to increase conventional
memory, there should not be a problem due to insufficient memory. However,
if a large number of device drivers or TSRs are in use, this problem
might still occur. Review Chapter 1 of this guide to ensure you have
taken the proper steps to optimize system memory.

Try the MEMMAX +L command in case an earlier command or batch file
disabled available low memory. Finally, if the application does not
use the graphics display area, try the /V switch of the DR DOS 6.0
memory manager, followed by MEMMAX +V before loading your application.

HILOAD, HIINSTALL, or HIDEVICE Considerations

Each of these commands requires the availability of upper memory blocks
(UMBs). You can verify that the UMBs are available by using the DR
DOS MEM /B or /U commands to see a report of your memory usage (see
Chapter 10 of the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide for a full description
of the MEM command). Available UMB blocks will be marked as FREE
under the Type column in the MEM listing.

The HILOAD, HIINSTALL, and HIDEVICE commands require prior installation
of the EMM386.SYS or HIDOS.SYS driver. If the MEM report shows that
upper memory is not being utilized, check your config.sys to make
sure the driver has been properly installed and that the option switches
have been entered correctly. If they are set, pay particular attention
to the /FRAME, /AUTOSCAN, /INCLUDE, /BDOS, and /EXCLUDE switches to
ensure that any upper memory address specified by these switches have
been correctly set (a common error is using an "oh" instead
of a zero).

If you use Microsoft Windows 3.0, the /WINSTD switch might
have been set. The /WINSTD switch automatically blocks access to the
UMBs, making them unavailable to HILOAD, HIINSTALL, and HIDEVICE.
Windows 3.0 will not run properly in standard mode if UMBs have been
used by something else. (See the "Using EMM386.SYS with Windows"
on page 22.)

If you do not require the use of expanded memory, set the /FRAME switch
to /FRAME=NONE.

The HILOAD command must be invoked before using the MEMMAX
-U command to disable upper memory. Use the MEMMAX +U command to re-enable
upper memory, if necessary. (Note that the DR DOS installation program
automatically inserts the MEMMAX -U command in the autoexec.bat
file; therefore, you must either put HILOAD above it, or use MEMMAX
+U to enable upper memory).

If there appears to be sufficient upper memory available, but HILOAD,
HIINSTALL, or HIDEVICE fail to put a particular TSR or driver into
upper memory, some device drivers and TSR programs when initializing
might actually expand and take up considerably more RAM than they
will ultimately need. See "System Memory Optimization" on
page 9 for a complete description of this problem.

Computer will not boot or locks up

Reboot your machine with a bootable floppy disk in drive A:. Follow
the instructions in "Isolating the Problem" above and edit
the C: drive config.sys and/or autoexec.bat files to turn off
and isolate, with the REM command, those lines in the files that might
be causing the problem.

The most probable cause is that the DR DOS 6.0 memory manager has
moved something into a region of upper memory required by a hardware
device driver attempting to use the same areas of memory. Use the
/EXCLUDE option (see page 18) switches to remedy the
problem.

If a hardware device is not causing a conflict, and the lockup occurs
with a particular program, this program might become confused when
upper or low memory is available. Try using the command MEMMAX -U
and/or MEMMAX -L before loading the program.

Upper Memory Conflicts: Using /EXCLUDE

Your machine or the accessories in your machine might be using upper
memory addresses that are also being accessed by the DR DOS 6.0 memory
manager. To prevent this, exclude EMM386.SYS or HIDOS.SYS access to
the upper memory address range that is causing the conflict. The following
recommendations apply to the EMM386.SYS driver for 386 and 486 computers,
or the HIDOS.SYS driver on 286 computers with shadow RAM.

Some typical symptoms of upper memory conflict include:

* inability to log onto networks

*inability to access hard or floppy disk drives

*inability to format low-density floppy disks in high density
drives

*error messages such as "card not found."

A good starting place to check for upper memory usage is the documentation
for any accessory boards or drivers you have installed; if they require
upper memory, it will usually be indicated in the documentation.

If you encounter such problems and suspect that upper memory
conflicts can be the cause, first REM out the memory manager line
of the config.sys file completely. If the problem disappears, you
know that the memory driver is part of the conflict and you can begin
to look at changing switches to correct the problem. Use the DR DOS
EDITOR and change the following settings in your config.sys file:

1.If the EMM386.SYS /BDOS option is set to /BDOS=AUTO,
switch it to /BDOS=FFFF,

2.Save config.sys.

3.Reboot.

4.Retest.

*If the problem recurs, change the /R=AUTO setting to /R=NONE,
and then save the config.sys file, and reboot the computer to retest.

*You can also use the /EXCLUDE switch to exclude an area
of upper memory that the /AUTOSCAN feature detects as being available
but, in fact, might be used by another device, such as a network card.

The /EXCLUDE Option

If the hardware documentation does not specify a memory range to be
excluded, you can use the /EXCLUDE option to discover if there is
an upper memory conflict. This option is used to systematically exclude
sections of upper memory from being used by EMM386.SYS by excluding
upper memory "half-at-a-time." For example, use this "halving"
method to exclude the top half of the upper memory range first, reboot
the computer and test the problem. Then, if the problem recurs, change
the /EXCLUDE setting to exclude the lower half of upper memory, reboot,
and retest.

After discovering in which half of upper memory the conflict resides,
repeat the process by dividing that memory range in half. You
can use this technique to break down the entire upper memory range,
half-by-half, until you pinpoint the area of conflict.

You must use the hexadecimal notation of the memory address with the
/EXCLUDE switch. The following brief explanation is provided for those
unfamiliar with using the hexadecimal system.

Hexadecimal Addresses

The 384 Kbyte range of upper memory resides between the hexadecimal
memory addresses of A000 and FFFF. The upper half of this range lies
between the addresses D000 and FFFF; the lower half lies between A000
and CFFF. Because A000 to BFFF is typically reserved for video display,
you will normally work only with addresses C000 to FFFF.

To exclude the lower half of the C000 to FFFF range, enter the following
/EXCLUDE command in your EMM386.SYS or HIDOS.SYS line in the config.sys
file:

/E=C000-DFFF

Then, reboot your computer to test the exclusion. If the problem persists,
edit the /EXCLUDE statement to exclude the other half of the C000
to FFFF range by entering the following in the config.sys file:

/E=E000-FFFF

Continue excluding a smaller and smaller range of memory until you
have found the smallest possible exclusion, which still permits proper
functioning.

Note:
The first address in each range of memory (EXCLUDE, INCLUDE,
etc.) must end in "00" and the second must end in "FF."

Note that you can also exclude multiple memory ranges with the /EXCLUDE
statement by separating the ranges with a comma, e.g., /E=D000-D7FF,DA00-DBFF.

The chart below shows how this process works, and shows the memory
address for the 64 Kbyte range in the "D" segment of upper
memory.

D000-DFFF = 64K = D000-D7FF = 32K + D800-DFFF = 32K = 64K TOTAL
DOOO-D7FF = 32K = D000-D3FF = 16K + D400-D7FF = 16K = 32K TOTAL
D800-DFFF = 32K = D800-DBFF = 16K + DC00-DFFF = 16K = 32K TOTAL
D000-D1FF = 8K + D200-D3FF = 8K = 16K TOTAL
D400-D5FF = 8K + D600-D7FF = 8K = 16K TOTAL
D800-D9FF = 8K + DA00-DBFF = 8K = 16K TOTAL
DC00-DDFF = 8K + DE00-DFFF = 8K = 16K TOTAL

(The first "D" in each hex address above can be replaced with
C, E, or F when working with those segments.)

Once you find the conflicting range of upper memory, permanently exclude
it from being used by EMM386.SYS or HIDOS.SYS by using the /EXCLUDE
statement.

Video Problems

If you experience problems with your video display after installing
MemoryMAX drivers, a possible cause is that your video adapter is
attempting to use some of the same upper memory addresses being allocated
by EMM386.SYS or HIDOS.SYS.

A quick way to determine if your current memory setup is causing a
conflict with a video (or other device) board is to "turn off
the entire memory driver line in your config.sys file by using the
REM command or the "?" technique discussed previously in "Isolating
the Problem." If the problem does not recur with the memory driver
"turned off," the cause of the problem is probably an upper
memory conflict.

See "The DR DOS MemoryMAX System" on page 2 for information about
how to determine if upper memory is being used by drivers and hardware
boards.

Use the EMM386.SYS or HIDOS.SYS /VIDEO option to reserve graphics
memory addresses normally occupied by video display adapters (see
Chapter 11 of the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide).

If the /VIDEO option is set, and the video corruption is occurring
with a graphics program, be sure that the MEMMAX -V switch is operative.
When only text displays are required, the MEMMAX +V switch can borrow
some of the graphics memory areas and add it to conventional memory,
providing more space for text applications. However, if an application
requires graphical displays, you must be sure this memory area is
available to video by issuing the MEMMAX -V command.

If the video display is corrupted only during use with the DR DOS
TaskMAX task switcher, refer to the readme file (in
the DR DOS directory) or the Release Note for instructions on how
to use the TaskMAX /F switch.

Network Hardware Interfacing

It is common for network hardware to utilize areas of upper memory
and thus conflict with MemoryMAX allocations of that memory. If this
occurs, you might be unable to log onto the network or random lockups
might occur. See "Upper Memory Conflicts" on page 17, and "Using Network
Software" on page 30, for a full discussion of how to deal with upper memory
conflicts such as these and how to use the EMM386.SYS /EXCLUDE switch
to exclude the conflicting areas of upper memory.

Another possible cause of network problems is that your network driver
is designed for use with MS-DOS versions other than versions
3.3+. Network drivers designed for use with MS-DOS versions 4.0+ and
5.0 would not be appropriate for the DR DOS 6.0 operating system.
(See "Using Network Software" on page 30)

Floppy Drive Does Not Work

If you have installed Super PC-Kwik and have enabled the /D+
switch, your disk controller must be 100% IBM compatible. Reset
the /D+ switch to /D- (the /D# switch works on some controllers) to
turn off PC-Kwik's advanced caching for the floppy drives (advanced
caching for your hard drive remains in effect).

SCSI Disk Drive Problems

The DR DOS 6.0 operating system supports virtual DMA and bus master
controllers. Any problem with SCSI drives is probably due to a memory
conflict (see "Upper Memory Conflicts" on page 17).

Expanded (EMS) Memory Problems

If a program that requires EMS memory reports that no EMS is available
or locks up when executed, the problem might be that the application
assumes that the LIM page frame starts at a specified address.

Remedy this problem by ensuring that the LIM page frame defined in
the application's SETUP program or documentation matches the settings
in EMM386.SYS or EMMXMA.SYS. The /F= switch defines the start
of the LIM page frame.

Another cause of insufficient LIM memory occurs if you are using TaskMAX
in expanded memory and too many tasks have been loaded. Unload a few
of the tasks and restart the program.

Error message: "Packed file is corrupt."

This error might occur when the first 64 Kbytes of conventional memory
(called low memory) have been made available through the use of MemoryMAX.
Normally, the operating system occupies this entire area. Some applications
were written using packing utilities that become confused when run
in this low memory. If this happens, the following message appears:

Packed file is corrupt.

For an easy workaround, use the MEMMAX -L command to disable low memory
before running the application. Then load and run your application. After
exiting the application, use MEMMAX +L to enable the low memory area
once again.

Because this problem can occur with other memory managers, including
QEMM.386, your application vendor might be able to supply you with
an updated application that does not exhibit this problem.

Using EMM386.SYS with Windows

Using Windows in Real mode

Note that before you load Windows in Real mode, ensure that upper
memory (and additional memory created by the /VIDEO option of EMM386.SYS
or HIDOS.SYS) is disabled. (Use the default MEMMAX -U -V commands
to disable upper memory; see Chapter 10 in the DR DOS 6.0 User
Guide.)

Using Windows in Standard Mode

The /WINSTD Switch

When using Windows 3.0 in Standard mode, Windows attempts to use the
UMB memory addresses; when these addresses have been previously allocated
by EMM386.SYS, Windows is unable to operate in the Standard mode.
To make the UMBs available to Windows, you must use the EMM386.SYS
/WINSTD switch this switch forces compatibility with Windows 3.0
in Standard mode by freeing all upper memory.

Note that using /WINSTD reduces the amount of conventional memory
available to applications because upper memory is reserved for Windows.
Therefore, the /WINSTD command also disables the HIDEVICE, HIINSTALL,
HILOAD, and HIDOS=ON functions.

Using Windows in Enhanced Mode

Microsoft recommends a minimum of 1 Mbyte of extended memory to run
Windows 3.0 in enhanced mode, however, 2 Mbytes or more is recommended.
Although Windows can be forced to run in the enhanced mode with less extended
memory, its operational speed might be extremely degraded.

Note that on a system with only 1 Mbyte of extended memory, using
the High Memory Area (HMA) for HIBUFFERS or /B=FFFF will reduce the
extended memory by 64 Kbytes. If this causes a problem, use the /B=AUTO
option and the BUFFERS= instead of HIBUFFERS= command.

For more information about using Windows with the DR DOS 6.0 operating
system, refer to Appendix E of the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide, "Using
Windows with DR DOS."

Occasionally, you will continue to experience difficulty in loading
Windows 3.0 in enhanced mode even after reviewing the documentation. This
situation can usually be corrected by reconfiguring the DR DOS 6.0
memory manager or adjusting other DR DOS 6.0 utilities, such as Super
PC-Kwik. If you need to call your dealer or support center for additional
assistance, be sure to have the serial number from your DR DOS 6.0
diskettes and a copy of your config.sys and autoexec.bat files
available.

Using Super PC-Kwik and Windows 3.0

Disk caching with Super PC-Kwik is recommended for improved performance
with Windows. Important notes on using PC-Kwik with Windows are in
Chapter 13 of the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide.

Although PC-Kwik attempts by default to use all available extended
memory, it lends back up to half of that to applications as
requested.

Windows is unique in that it allocates all extended memory
as it is loaded. Other applications use varying amounts of extended
memory as they need it.

Because Windows needs 2 Mbytes or more of extended memory to run efficiently
in enhanced mode, you must force PC-Kwik to lend at least 2 Mbytes
of extended memory back to Windows on systems with insufficient extended
memory for both the cache and Windows (i.e., those with less than
4 Mbytes of extended memory).

For example, on a system with a total of 4 Mbytes of memory
(3 Mbytes extended), Super PC-Kwik would lend only 1536 Kbytes by
default (3072 / 2 = 1536). Because Windows prefers 2048 Kbytes or
more, increase the default by using the following command:

SUPERPCK /L:2048

If total system memory is 5 Mbytes, or more, the Super PC-Kwik default
lending of one-half of extended memory is sufficient to have an effective
cache and run Windows in enhanced mode. If you run several applications
through Windows and run out of memory, you can increase the lending
amount with the PC-Kwik /L:xxxx switch.

If total system memory is large, for example 8 Mbytes or more, and
you use Windows extensively, turn off lending completely and set the
allocated amount for the cache buffer. For example, on a system with
a 10 Mbyte total (9 Mbyte extended) use the following PC-Kwik switch:
SUPERPCK /L- /S:3072. This keeps the cache buffer high, while giving
Windows 6,144 Kbytes of extended memory for its own use. Once again,
enable lending if Windows is running out of memory.

Using SuperStor with Windows 3.0

The Windows permanent swap file cannot exist on a compressed volume.
To use SuperStor with Windows, we suggest you first delete the existing
Windows permanent swap file on the target partition before
creating a SuperStor volume. You can then create a permanent swap
file on a non-SuperStor partition. Refer to your Windows documentation
for specific instructions.

Using TaskMAX with Windows

You can load Windows 3.0 from TaskMAX, but you cannot go back to TaskMAX
until you exit Windows. This is because Windows takes over control
and will not co-exist with another task-switcher or multi-tasker. Windows
takes control of the keyboard from DOS.

You can configure TaskMAX to use extended memory for tasks. If the
available extended memory falls below 1 Mbyte of memory because of
use by TaskMAX, Windows cannot run in enhanced mode. To correct this
problem, exit some of the applications loaded in TaskMAX.

TaskMAX can also use disk space as swap space. If you do not have
a permanent swap file in Windows and have too many applications loaded
in TaskMAX, Windows might run out of room on the disk as it tries
to create its temporary files. To correct this problem, exit some
of the applications loaded in TaskMAX.

Using DISKOPT with Windows

DISKOPT will not defragment the Windows permanent swap file. We recommend
that you delete your Windows swap file, run DISKOPT, and then immediately
create a new swap file. This process ensures that the new file will
use contiguous disk space for best performance.

Note that you should not run disk utilities such as CHKDSK
and DISKOPT under Windows.

Using Super PC-Kwik

Size of Cache

Super PC-Kwik moves as much of its code into upper memory as possible;
you do not need to use HILOAD or HIINSTALL on Super PC-Kwik. Super
PC-Kwik will use the least amount of memory for its executable code
if it is configured to cache in expanded (EMS) memory. The Super PC-Kwik
code "footprint" is typically about 17 Kbytes in upper memory.

When Super PC-Kwik is configured to cache extended memory, the code
footprint in the first 1 Mbyte of memory varies in size according
to the amount of extended memory that is cached.

The Super PC-Kwik footprint in upper memory can be controlled by limiting
the amount of extended memory allocated to the cache. If your system
has more than 8 Mbytes of RAM, you might want to use the Super PC-
Kwik /S:xxxx switch to limit the cache buffer size.

The Super PC-Kwik maximum cache buffer size is 16 Mbytes.

For information about running Super PC-Kwik with Windows, see "Running
EMM386.SYS with Windows" on page 22 and Chapter 13 of the DR DOS 6.0 User
Guide.

Using Super PC-Kwik with Networks

You can load Super PC-Kwik on a DOS-based network server (e.g., Lantastic
4.0). However, advanced cache reads and writes should be disabled
(use the Super PC-Kwik /H- and /D- switches.)

If you are using Novell NetWare, load Novell drivers before loading Super
PC-Kwik to permit unloading the cache. You can load the Novell drivers after,
but you must then leave Super PC-Kwik in memory.

Super PC-Kwik will not cache remote network drives (i.e, across the
network). However, local drives can be cached.

When used on a network, the DR DOS 6.0 operating system must reload
COMMAND.COM after Super PC-Kwik loads. You must use the DR DOS SHELL
and SET COMSPEC commands to point to the location of COMMAND.COM. See
Chapter 11 of the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide for a discussion of
how to use the SHELL command, and Chapter 10 on how to use the SET
command.

Do not use the DR DOS VERIFY=ON command when using a network as it
will negate any gain from caching.

Also, when using Super PC-Kwik, the BUFFERS=4 command in the config.sys
file is adequate, and the FASTOPEN command is generally not needed.

Generally, Super PC-Kwik should be loaded early in autoexec.bat. TSRs
loaded after Super PC-Kwik must be unloaded from memory before Super
PC-Kwik can be unloaded with the /U parameter.

If you use Lotus 1-2-3 v3.1, note that it uses the Rational Systems
DOS Extender. Use the DR DOS SET DOS16M=:384 command in the autoexec.bat
file and use the Super PC-Kwik /R:400 switch.

Troubleshooting Super PC-Kwik

If, after eliminating the factors listed above, Super PC-Kwik still
malfunctions, check the parameters used when loading Super PC-Kwik.
Begin with the simplest settings, such as /H-, /T-, and /D-.

If you suspect an upper memory conflict, use the Super PC-Kwik /&U-
switch to prevent parts of Super PC-Kwik from moving into upper memory.

If you are having problems reading a drive, try the Super PC-Kwik
/I+, /X /I+, or /T- switches. Also, see "Upper Memory Conflicts"
on page 17.

Using TaskMAX

If you have loaded a task that abnormally terminates, the TASKMAX.SWP
file size might have increased in size. If this occurs, delete the
file to free the disk space. A new file by the same name will automatically
be created.

When using the /C switch with TaskMAX (either from the autoexec.bat
file or from the command line), be sure to wait approximately 10 seconds
before making any keystrokes. This allows TaskMAX to regain control
after the application has loaded.

You cannot change the MEMMAX settings while TaskMAX is active. Be
sure to make appropriate MEMMAX settings (for example, MEMMAX to +V)
before executing TaskMAX.

You can only copy text when using the COPY (F5) function in
TaskMAX to export data. You will get the following error message if
you attempt to copy from graphics mode: "Warning: Cannot copy
data from Graphics Screen. ESC to cancel."

If you are in the process of importing/exporting data and you switch
tasks before the importing is completed, the importing halts. However,
all the information that was copied is still in memory and if you
press the F6 key, importing will start from the beginning. In fact,
the information that has been copied can be pasted over and over until
you import new text.

You can load the DR DOS Editor more than once while using TaskMAX;
however, you will get the following error message if you attempt to
simultaneously edit the same file in two task sessions: "Disk
error file already open." Most single-user applications will
produce the same type of error message.

If you are working on a laptop computer and have chosen "LCD/Plasma"
and it appears that you do not have a highlight bar, go back through
SETUP and choose the ColorSet0 "Monochrome" option.

If you are using GeoWorks with TaskMAX, you can use only
CTRL/ESC as your hotkeys. GeoWorks intercepts all other hotkey combinations.

Using SuperStor Disk Compression

Installation Tips

The DR DOS 6.0 version of SuperStor recognizes and will operate correctly
on SuperStor partitions created with the AddStor retail SuperStor
version 1.3. The DR DOS 6.0 version of SuperStor was not designed
to be compatible with other operating systems and should not be expected
to work properly except with DR DOS 6.0.

Before using SuperStor, backup the data on the drives to be compressed. If
there is a power failure during the compression, some data could be
lost.

SuperStor requires that a config.sys file be present on the bootable
drive to run properly. If you do not have a config.sys file, you
can create one using the DR DOS 6.0 Editor. Use the DR DOS "DEVICE="
statement to load the SSTORDRV.SYS driver. SSTORDRV.SYS will
automatically move into upper memory (through the use of XMS UMBs)
if space is available. This is true regardless of whether the XMS
UMBs are allocated by the DR DOS 6.0 operating system or by a third
party memory manager.

Determine the maximum amount of uncompressed space you want to leave
on the disk. Note that a Windows 3.0 permanent swap file cannot reside
on a compressed volume. The actual amount left uncompressed will
depend on the data compression ratio and the disk space available
before the compression was done (in other words, SuperStor will use
as much space as necessary to compress all of your files).

If you are using a disk partitioning utility or removable drive that
requires a device driver, you might need to experiment to determine
if that driver should come before or after SSTORDRV.SYS in your config.sys
file. The following list is in the correct loading sequence for some
of the more common of these device drivers:

*DiskManager or SpeedStor partitioning utility drivers should be loaded
before SSTORDRV.SYS.

*The Bernoulli RCD.SYS driver must be loaded before SSTORDRV.SYS; also,
to use SuperStor on a bootable Bernoulli cartridge, the RCD.SYS driver
must be on an uncompressed partition.

*The Plus Hardcard driver must be loaded after SSTORDRV.SYS.

Many customers make a backup bootable floppy diskette in case of unexpected
problems such as a hard disk controller failure. After creating a
SuperStor partition, be sure you update the config.sys file on your
backup bootable floppy to include the SuperStor driver (and DEVSWAP.COM,
if required), and copy these files onto the bootable diskette.

SuperStor should typically not be used on a network server, however
it will work as designed on a workstation drive.

Troubleshooting SuperStor

The largest partition you can create with SuperStor is 512 Mbytes,
using a physical partition of 256 Mbytes. If you have a partition
larger than 256 Mbytes, you will need to back up your data and use
the FDISK utility to create smaller partitions before creating a SuperStor
volume.

Some customers have reported difficulty installing SuperStor onto
a second physical hard drive. This might occur if DOS operating system
files are present. Because system files are hidden, a DIR listing
will not detect them. Use the command XDIR I*.* to determine if the
files IBMBIO.SYS or IBMDOS.COM are present. If they are, use the
ATTRIB command to remove the system and hidden attributes, then remove
or rename the system files.

Note:
Do not remove or rename these files on your first physical
hard drive.

If you accidentally remove the SuperStor partition while the DR DOS
6.0 DELWATCH utility is active, you might be able to undelete the
SuperStor partition file, thus restoring the SuperStor partition.

If you use a third party disk optimizer on a SuperStor partition,
data should not be lost or corrupted. However, because the third
party optimizers might not properly recognize the structure of the
SuperStor partition, they might actually cause worse fragmentation
than that which existed prior to the optimization process. Therefore,
we recommend that you use the DR DOS 6.0 DISKOPT utility, which will
properly handle the SuperStor partition.

Using Network Software

The DR DOS 6.0 operating system is internally compatible to the COMPAQ
DOS 3.31 data structures and should work with network drivers intended
for DOS versions 3.x. If you are upgrading from DOS 3.x to the DR
DOS 6.0 operating system, it should not be necessary to upgrade your
existing driver. However, if you were using DOS 4.01 or 5.0, you might
have to use a network driver intended for MS-DOS 3.x. If you do not
presently have a DOS 3.x driver, your network manufacturer will usually
supply you with one.

The following are examples of some of the many networks that will
run on the DR DOS 6.0 operating system with their existing DOS 3.x
drivers.

3COM3+ OPEN and 3+ SHARE
Lantastic 4.0
Lan Manager 1.2 and 1.3
MS-NET
Novell NetWare 2.15 and higher
Banyan Vines

When configuring your network, keep in mind that the DR DOS 6.0 operating
system reports a DOS 3.31 internal version number when drivers or
applications make an INT 21 DOS version call.
Problems rarely occur when the correct network driver is used. If
you experience error messages such as Error: can't find server,
or your system crashes when you first log on to the network, your
system is probably encountering upper memory conflicts between your
network driver and the DR DOS memory driver settings.

See "Upper Memory Conflicts" on page 17 for instructions on how to resolve
upper memory conflicts by using the EMM386.SYS and the HIDOS.SYS /EXCLUDE
command to reserve areas of upper memory for network drivers.

You can also isolate the problem by using the techniques described
in "Isolating the Problem" on page 13.

The Novell NetWare Program

The DR DOS 6.0 operating system has been thoroughly tested on the
Novell NetWare program from version 2.15 and above.

The vast majority of questions about the NetWare program deal with:

*Installation/Compatibility considerations of the DR DOS
6.0 operating system on a Novell network.

*Using TaskMAX with NetWare.

*Using MemoryMAX with NetWare, or maximizing the amount of
conventional memory for applications.

*Installation/Compatibility Considerations

The DR DOS 6.0 operating system is internally compatible with DOS
3.31 data structures. As a result, when programs like the Novell
NetWare shell programs ask the DR DOS 6.0 operating system for a version
number, the DR DOS 6.0 operating system reports 3.31. It is important
to understand this when installing the DR DOS 6.0 operating
system onto NetWare workstations and onto NetWare servers. If you
have a mix of different DOS versions, follow the manufacturer's suggestions
in regard to configuring the network for COMPAQ DOS 3.31 workstations.

Server Installation

If you choose to install the DR DOS 6.0 operating system onto a non-dedicated
server, consult the Novell NetWare reference manuals or your network
administrator for information on installing and configuring a non-dedicated
server. The DR DOS 6.0 operating system requires no unique consideration
in this case.

When configuring a network so that all the system utilities are loaded
on the server, the NetWare server should contain copies of all the
required DOS files used at each workstation. If certain workstations
are running DOS 4.x, then a particular directory on the server will
hold a copy of the set of all DOS 4.x system files used by the workstation
when it is running independent of the network. When a DR DOS 6.0
workstation is logged onto the network, at least one of the workstation's
network drives will be mapped to the directory on the server
holding the DR DOS 6.0 system files.

Refer to the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide, Appendix F, for information
on configuring a NetWare server to properly load the DR DOS 6.0 operating
system on remote diskless workstations.

Workstation Installation

When installing the DR DOS 6.0 operating system on a network workstation
that is part of an existing network, you will usually not have to
make any changes to the workstation; simply install the DR DOS 6.0
operating system once the NetWare server has been updated
with the DR DOS 6.0 operating system. If you are upgrading from DOS
3.x to the DR DOS 6.0 operating system, it should not be necessary
to upgrade your existing NetWare shells. However, if you are upgrading
from DOS 4.x or MS-DOS 5, you will have to use NetWare shells intended
for use with DOS 3.x. You can use the proper set of NetWare shell
programs obtained from your network administrator or Novell, or you
can use the set provided in the NETWARE directory on the DR DOS 6.0
ViewMAX installation diskette.

If you have to change shell programs, you might need to generate a
new IPX.COM program to accompany the new shell version. Consult the
Novell NetWare reference manuals or your network administrator for
information on how to accomplish this.

Using TaskMAX with NetWare

Before using TaskMAX on a NetWare workstation, you must update your
NetWare shell programs. The necessary files are provided in the NETWARE
directory on the last DR DOS 6.0 operating system diskette (typically
labelled ViewMAX). This update should be done by your Network System
Administrator.

Under most circumstances, no further adjustments will be necessary
to run TaskMAX on a NetWare workstation.

Load the NetWare shell programs and all drives and printers mapped
before loading TaskMAX. If NetWare utilities like MAP, LOGIN, and
SESSION are run from more than one DR DOS command prompt via TaskMAX,
the resulting drive and printer mappings might not work as expected.

If within one or more tasks under TaskMAX, you choose to run an application
that makes direct calls to the Novell IPX or SPX TSR program (sometimes
called a peer-to-peer application), you might need to load the IPX
data buffering program called TBMI2.COM before loading TaskMAX. This
program will handle the buffering of information from IPX or SPX so
that data is not lost after switching away from one of these peer-to-peer
applications. Further information on TBMI2.COM can be found in a
file called TBMI2.DOC on the DR DOS 6.0 ViewMAX diskette.

Using MemoryMAX with NetWare

When using the DR DOS 6.0 operating system on a NetWare workstation
that supports upper memory, you can move both of the required NetWare
programs outside conventional memory and into upper memory to maximize
the amount of memory available to applications running after the NetWare
programs have been loaded. (See Appendix C in the DR DOS 6.0
User Guide for a description of the various regions of memory within
a computer, and Chapter 12 for information on what regions will be
available on your particular computer.)

When upper memory is available, the NetWare programs IPX.COM and NETX.COM
or NET3.COM (NETX is hereafter used to describe either program), can
be loaded into upper memory using the HILOAD command from the autoexec.bat
file or from the DR DOS command line.

Memory Usage

To determine if IPX and NETX programs will fit into upper memory, do the
following:

1.Determine the memory size requirements of these programs
by examining the output of the MEM /A /P command after the programs
have been loaded into conventional memory or loaded without MemoryMAX. (See
the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide, Chapter 10, for more information on the MEM
command.)

2.Disable any and all upper memory used by device drivers, TSRs, and/or
applications by inserting a REM statement or a "?" command at the beginning
of each line containing HIDEVICE, HIINSTALL, and HILOAD commands in your
config.sys and autoexec.bat files. Use the DR DOS Editor program.

3.Make upper memory available on your machine by inserting
the appropriate MemoryMAX device driver line into your config.sys
file or by running SETUP, and then reboot your computer by typing
Ctrl-Alt-Del.

4.Without having loaded any of the NetWare programs, examine
the size of areas in upper memory that are marked as FREE in the TYPE
column of the MEM /U /P command output.

As a general rule, when the size of one or more of these upper memory
areas marked as FREE exceeds the size of a program that is loaded
into conventional memory, it will be possible to relocate that program
into upper memory. It is important to note that the size of total
FREE upper memory is not as important as the size of the individual
FREE areas of upper memory, because applications require contiguous
free memory to load.

Using HILOAD

When upper memory is available and when FREE areas exist large enough
to contain the NetWare programs, the HILOAD command can be used to
move the NetWare programs into upper memory. Upper memory is made
available by loading the appropriate MemoryMAX driver at boot time
and executing the MEMMAX +U command to "open" upper memory
so that it will accept programs loaded by HILOAD. The following four
lines describe one way you can load the NetWare programs using HILOAD:

MEMMAX +U
HILOAD IPX.COM
HILOAD NETX.COM
MEMMAX -U

These lines can be appended to your autoexec.bat file or they can
be executed from the DR DOS command line. Note that the DR DOS INSTALL
program will automatically insert the command, MEMMAX -U >NUL, into
your autoexec.bat file, so you must insert MEMMAX +U to override
it. (The >NUL portion of the command instructs the DR DOS 6.0 operating
system not to display the output of the MEMMAX command on the screen.)
In addition, please note the following about the HILOAD command:

*HILOAD will work only with the DR DOS MemoryMAX drivers,
and not with third party memory managers such as QEMM386.SYS and 386MAX.SYS.

*HILOAD will not run after NET3.COM has been loaded. This
is because Novell replaces the DOS routines (INT 21 functions) that
handle HILOADs under the DR DOS 6.0 operating system with their own
routines, which cannot place programs into upper memory.

Troubleshooting

*NetWare shell programs won't load into upper memory.*

Make sure that upper memory is available and that the size of one
or more upper memory areas marked as FREE exceeds the size of the
NetWare shell program that is loaded into conventional memory instead
of upper memory. (See the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide, Chapter 10,
for more information on the MEMMAX and MEM commands and how they can
be used to determine if the above conditions are met.) Also, consider
the following.

For EMM386.SYS users:

*You can append the /LOWEMM switch to the EMM386.SYS device
driver line in your config.sys file. The EMM386.SYS device driver
leaves its program code in conventional memory, which should give
you an additional 28K of upper memory.

*If LIM (Expanded memory) is not really necessary, you might
consider disabling it: change the /FRAME switch on the EMM386.SYS
device driver line so that it reads /F=NONE.

*If LIM is necessary, you might consider using another NetWare
shell instead of NETX.COM. (Refer to your Novell reference manuals
for information on how EMSNETX.COM and XMSNETX.COM work.)

*With both EMSNETX.COM and XMSNETX.COM, do not use the
HILOAD command.

*With XMSNETX.COM, the /BDOS switch on the EMM386.SYS
device driver line should be changed so that it reads /B=AUTO or /B=NONE.

*Try changing the line that reads HIDOS=ON in your config.sys
file so that it reads HIDOS=OFF. This prevents the DR DOS 6.0 operating
system from automatically relocating certain portions of the operating
system into upper memory.

*If only text-based applications will be run at this workstation,
use the /VIDEO switch on the EMM386.SYS device driver line along with
the MEMMAX +V command to enable the use of video RAM for extending
conventional memory. This relieves the need to relocate the NetWare
shell programs into upper memory.

For HIDOS.SYS users:

*Make sure that your machine will support upper memory. (See
the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide, Chapter 12, for information on what
regions are available on your particular computer.)

*Consider using XMSNETX.COM instead of NETX.COM. With XMSNETX.COM,
change the /BDOS switch on the HIDOS.SYS device driver line so that
it reads /B=AUTO or /B=NONE.

*If you are using HIDOS.SYS with the /CHIPSET option set
to EMSUMB, consider disabling the LIM (Expanded memory) support provided
by your LIM 4.0 driver by using the /CHIPSET=EMSALL option instead. EMSALL
will disable the LIM 4.0 page frame and make available a larger region
of upper memory for mappable RAM.

*If your machine is equipped with at least 64K of extended
memory above one megabyte, make sure that the /BDOS switch on the
HIDOS.SYS device driver line reads /B=FFFF.

*Try changing the line that reads HIDOS=ON in your config.sys
file so that it reads HIDOS=OFF. This prevents the DR DOS 6.0 operating
system from automatically relocating certain portions of the operating
system into upper memory.

*Use the /VIDEO switch on the HIDOS.SYS device driver line
along with the MEMMAX +V command to enable the use of video RAM for
extending conventional memory. This relieves the need to relocate
the NetWare shell programs into upper memory.

*Machine locks up when trying to load NetWare shell programs.*

Some network cards maintain ROM addresses in the upper memory region.
It is possible that the MemoryMAX driver (EMM386.SYS or HIDOS.SYS)
is not able to recognize such areas as being already in use by the
network card. If the DR DOS 6.0 operating system has written some
portion of the operating system to a region of upper memory, which
later gets used by the network card's ROM, the system might hang
unpredictably. To correct this problem, you can append an /EXCLUDE switch
to the MemoryMAX device driver line in your config.sys file to prevent the
MemoryMAX driver from attempting to use an area known to be used by the
network card. Refer to your documentation on the network card for information
on areas used in upper memory and follow the instructions for using
the /EXCLUDE switch on those areas as shown in the HIDOS.SYS and EMM386.SYS
sections of Chapter 11 in the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide.

If you installed Novell NetWare, or you installed additional hardware
in your computer after you installed the DR DOS 6.0 operating system,
it is possible that the IRQ or DMA settings on the new hardware might
be conflicting with existing hardware. In this case, it is best to
resolve hardware conflicts by changing the configuration of one or
more installed boards before changing the configuration of the DR
DOS 6.0 operating system.

*Machine locks or generates "Packed file corrupt" error message
when executing Novell NetWare utility programs.*

This situation might occur in older versions of the NetWare utilities. The
error message does not reflect the true cause of the problem. Use
the MEMMAX -L command before executing the problematic NetWare utility,
and then use the MEMMAX +L command after. The following is an example
of how this might look in your autoexec.bat or login file:

MEMMAX -L
LOGIN
MEMMAX +L

Using Third-party Memory Managers

Relocating the Kernel

When you use a memory manager from another vendor, you can gain additional
conventional memory space by relocating the DR DOS kernel to upper
or high memory. The third-party memory manager must support the XMS
specification, and upper or high memory must be available.
To relocate the kernel, insert the statement:

DEVICE=C:\DRDOS\HIDOS.SYS

after the statement that loads the third-party memory manager.

HIDOS.SYS attempts, by default, to relocate the DR DOS kernel to upper
memory. If upper memory is not supported or not available, the kernel
is placed in high memory. You can force the kernel to high memory
by using the following DEVICE statement:

DEVICE=C:\DRDOS\HIDOS.SYS /BDOS=FFFF

The following examples show how and where to add the statement when
loading Qualitas 386MAX or the Quarterdeck QEMM or QRAM
drivers.

Qualitas 386MAX

DEVICE=C:\386MAX\386MAX.SYS [...etc.]
DEVICE=C:\DRDOS\HIDOS.SYS [...etc.]
DEVICE=C:\386MAX\386LOAD.SYS [...etc.]

Quarterdeck QEMM.386

DEVICE=C:\QEMM\QEMM.SYS [...etc.]
DEVICE=C:\DRDOS\HIDOS.SYS [...etc.]
DEVICE=C:\QEMM\LOADHI.SYS [...etc.]

Quarterdeck QRAM (with Intel AboveBoard)
@SCREEN = DEVICE=C:\ABOARD\EMS.SYS AT 208 MC
DEVICE=C:\QRAM\QRAM.SYS.
DEVICE=C:\DRDOS\HIDOS.SYS
DEVICE=C:\QRAM\LOADHI.SYS [...etc.]

Note:
EMM386.SYS cannot be used with other memory managers.

When a third-party memory manager is loaded, the following config.sys
statements have no effect:

HIINSTALL
HIDEVICE
HIDOS= [ON/OFF] will work with third party memory managers that provide
XMS UMB support. However, HILOAD, HIDEVICE, and HIINSTALL commands
have no effect. Most memory managers offer equivalent commands that
you can use.

Quarterdeck DESQview

When running the Quarterdeck DESQview proggram under the DR DOS 6.0
operating system, use the QEMM386.SYS driver as the primary memory
management driver instead of EMM386.SYS provided with the DR DOS 6.0
operating system. When QEMM386.SYS loads from the config.sys file,
it then becomes responsible for controlling both the upper memory
area, between 640 Kytes and l Mbyte, and the high memory area, the
first 64 Kytes above l Mbyte.

Move device drivers and memory resident software to upper memory using
the normal QEMM LOADHI commands. After loading QEMM386.SYS, the operating
system kernel can still be moved to upper memory or high memory by
loading the DR DOS HIDOS.SYS driver in the config.sys file right
after the QEMM386.SYS driver. To move the kernel to upper memory,
use the option /B=AUTO at the end of the HIDOS.SYS line in config.sys.

To specify that the kernel should be placed in high memory, leaving
more upper memory available for device drivers and memory resident
programs, use the option /B=FFFF.

Depending on the configuration of DESQview, a gain in available memory
might not be seen after loading HIDOS.SYS. DESQview uses the high
memory for 63Kbytes of code that normally sit in conventional memory,
while HIDOS.SYS moves approximately 45Kbytes into that area. Because
the high memory area can be used by only one application at a time,
experiment with /B=AUTO, /B=FFFF, or do not load HIDOS.SYS.
These different options can be quickly tested using the DR DOS 6.0
question mark option (?) in config.sys. Placing a ? in front of
any line in config.sys displays that line at boot-up and then you
can select Y(es) or N(o) to execute that instruction.

You might insert the following lines while experimenting:

?"Do you want to avoid moving the KERNEL (Y/N)"GOTO SKIP
?"Kernel in Upper Memory (Y/N)"
DEVICE=C:\DRDOS\HIDOS.SYS /B=AUTO
?"Kernel in High Memory (Y/N)"
DEVICE=C:\DRDOS\HIDOS.SYS /B=FFFF
:SKIP

Refer to Chapter 11 of the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide for a full
discussion of this feature.

If you are running QEMM386.SYS without DESQview, you should always
move the kernel to high memory.

The DR DOS 6.0 Version Numbers

A few applications and device drivers have been encountered which,
when loading under the DR DOS 6.0 operating system, display an error
message that states the current version of operating system is not
supported. This can occur for several reasons, which are outlined
below.

Device drivers for disk drives or networks are sometimes produced
for specific versions of DOS or occasionally will use specific configurations
for different versions of DOS. The DR DOS 6.0 operating system will
appear to be COMPAQ DOS 3.31 to applications and drivers. Usually,
a DOS 3.3 driver works properly. If you have been running previously
with MS/PC DOS 4.x, the driver that you have been using might be designed
specifically for that version. Contact the manufacturer of the driver
to see if they have any specific configuration information or drivers
for DOS 3.3x.

When applications request the DOS version number from the operating
system, the DR DOS 6.0 operating system returns version 3.31. The
application then knows that it should expect support for DOS 3.3-level
calls and support for larger than 32 Mbyte partitions using the COMPAQ
Extended Interrupt 25 and 26 convention. Most applications do follow
these conventions and therefore work without any difficulty.

However, some applications have been designed to go beyond those conventions
and actually attempt to directly manipulate DOS data structures or
replace sections of the operating system code with their own. These
applications depend on having intimate knowledge of each DOS version
they detect and have been written to react differently for each of
those versions. If an application uses this type of technique, the
manufacturer will have to design the application to take the DR DOS
6.0 operating system into account as well. It is possible that the
manufacturer has already produced another version of your application
that runs under the DR DOS 6.0 operating system. Contact the manufacturer
to see if there is any information about upgrades or specific configuration
steps for the DR DOS 6.0 operating system. If the manufacturer is
interested in more information about the DR DOS 6.0 operating system,
they are welcome to contact Digital Research Inc. directly and we
will work with them on the situation.

Using Large-capacity Hard Drives

When assigning drive partition letters, you might use up to 26 drive
letters (A through Z) with the DR DOS 6.0 operating system.

You can use the DR DOS FDISK command to create disk partitions up
to 2 gigabytes (Gbytes) apiece and up to 1,024 cylinders on a physical
hard drive.

The DR DOS 6.0 operating system supports larger drives if the drive
controller handles drive translation (check the drive documentation).

If your hard drive has more than 1,024 cylinders, and the controller
does not support translation, we recommend the use of hard drive partitioning
software such as the Ontrack Disk Manager.

Using the DR DOS MEM Command

When using the EMM386.SYS device driver, you might notice that the
MEM command can display a memory report that seems to show more memory
available than exists on your computer. For example, consider the
following EMM386.SYS device driver line on a computer with 3,072 Kbytes
of Extended memory:

DEVICE=C:\DRDOS\EMM386.SYS /F=AUTO /K=AUTO /B=FFFF /R=AUTO

This line has the effect of converting all Extended memory into Extended
via XMS and EMS (expanded) memory. The resulting MEM report might
show that the computer has 3,072 Kbytes of Extended memory and 3,072
Kbytes of EMS memory under the "Total Bytes" column, with
2,864 Kbytes of Extended via XMS memory and 2,864 Kbytes of EMS memory
under the "Available" column as shown below.

Memory Type Total Bytes (Kbytes) Available
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Conventional 655,360 (640K) 641,216 (626K)
Upper 98,304 (96K) 80,960 (79K)
High 65,520 (64K) 18,800 (18K)
Extended 3,145,728 (3,072K) 0 (0K)
Extended via XMS N/A 2,932,736 (2,864K)
EMS 3,145,728 (3,072 K) 2,932,736 (2,864K)
----------------------------------------------------------------------

To understand this, it might be helpful to view the total Extended
memory available on a computer as comprising a dynamic pool of memory. This
memory can be viewed as dynamic because it is available to be accessed
either as Extended via XMS memory or as EMS (expanded) memory depending
on the :/K" setting on the EMM386.SYS device driver. In the
case shown above, "/K=AUTO" tells EMM386.SYS to allow "all"
of the Extended memory pool to be accessed as Extended via XMS memory
and EMS memory in equal portions. Therefore, the MEM command shows
both amounts of memory as being available because you or your applications
might want to use a portion or all of the memory pool as either Extended
via XMS memory or EMS memory.

Use the "/K" switch to limit the amount of EMS memory to be
created from the total memory pool.

The following EMM386.SYS device driver line on the same computer with
3,072 Kbytes of Extended memory will limit the amount of EMS memory
to be created from the total memory pool by setting the "/K"
option to "/K=1024":

DEVICE=C:\DRDOS\EMM386.SYS /F=AUTO /K=1024 /B=FFFF /R=AUTO

This line instructs EMM386.SYS to convert all the memory pool into
expanded via XMS, but it limits the amount of EMS to 1,024 Kbytes.
The resulting MEM report might show that the computer has 3,072 Kbytes
of Extended memory and 1,024 Kbytes of EMS memory under the "Total
Bytes" column, with 2,864 Kbytes of Extended via XMS memory still
available but only 896 Kbytes of EMS memory under the "Available"
column as shown below.

Memory Type Total Bytes (Kbytes) Available
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Conventional 655,360 (640K) 641,200 (626K)
Upper 98,304 (96K) 80,960 (79K)
High 65,520 (64K) 17,997 (17K)
Extended 3,145,728 (3,072K) 0 (0K)
Extended via XMS N/A 2,932,736 (2,864K)
EMS 1,048,576 (1,024K) 917,504 (896K)

Notice in both of the above examples, that there is a difference between
the "Total Bytes" of Extended memory and the "Available"
bytes of Extended via XMS memory and a similar difference between
the "Total Bytes" of EMS memory and the "Available"
bytes of EMS memory. This is due to the amount of "overhead"
memory used by the EMM386.SYS software to convert the memory pool
into both types of available memory.

XMS memory is extended memory created by memory management software
which conforms to the XMS specification developed by Lotus, Intel,
and Microsoft. The DR DOS memory management software device driver
(EMM386.SYS) fully supports this specification and, as a result, initially
converts all of the computer's available extended memory into XMS
extended memory. This is the reason that there is no "Extended"
memory listed in the "Available" column of the DR DOS MEM
report; it has all been converted to XMS memory by the EMM386.SYS
device driver. This is also the reason why Extended via XMS lists
as "N/A" under the "Total Bytes" column; XMS memory
is created by a software device driver and is not present at boot
time.

Note:
EMS memory is listed with a specific value under the
"Total Bytes" column by the MEM report unlike the Extended
via XMS listing. EMS memory can be created by a software device driver
(like EMM386.SYS alone) or can be created by EMS (LIM 4.0) hardware
memory boards and their accompanying device driver. This specific
value is intended to reflect this EMS memory created by the "/K"
option on the EMM386.SYS device driver line or "hardware"
EMS memory created by certain platforms, typically non-386/386sx/486
platforms, which actually contain EMS (LIM 4.0) hardware.

Memory Management for Advanced Users

Because the DR DOS 6.0 operating system has been designed to be compatible
with a wide range of hardware, networks, and application software,
we cannot prescribe a "perfect" or "best" memory optimization
scheme. However, for users interested in fine-tuning their system
to the maximum performance and finding that last Kbyte of usable memory,
we can make the following suggestions regarding the EMM386.SYS memory
manager.

The /LOMEMM Option

You might need to use a very large block of upper memory for a single
driver (for a network adapter, for example). Normally, EMM386.SYS
loads approximately 28 Kbytes of its own code into upper memory; this,
combined with a LIM page frame, for example, might not leave enough
upper memory to load the large network driver into upper memory.

Use the EMM386.SYS /LOMEMM option to load EMM386.SYS code into conventional
memory, freeing approximately 28 Kbytes of upper memory for your driver.

If you are upgrading from the DR DOS 5.0 operating system, also note
that the DR DOS 6.0 EMM386.SYS driver has been rewritten, and uses
approximately 4 Kbytes more than the DR DOS 5.0 version. This extra
4 Kbytes might "bump" a previously loaded driver out of upper
memory and back into conventional.

The /XBDA Option

Some PC-compatibles use a special area at the top of conventional
memory for machine-specific uses. This area is called the XBDA (extended
BIOS data area). Because placement at the top of conventional memory
might interfere with the /VIDEO option, by default, EMM386.SYS relocates
any extended BIOS data area to the bottom of the free area of conventional
memory. However, there are some programs that require the extended
BIOS data area to be kept at the top of conventional memory. Use the
/XBDA option to disable this relocation.

If you use the /XBDA option, the BIOS data area sitting at the top
of conventional memory will interfere with the contiguous placement
of any memory gained by using the /VIDEO option (see below).

The /VIDEO Option

The area of memory immediately above the 640 Kbytes of conventional
memory is normally reserved for use by video adapters. A large amount
of this reserved video memory is set aside to accommodate graphic
displays. If you do not require graphics on your display, you can
use the /VIDEO option to convert part of this memory for use as conventional
memory. Depending on your system, you can gain from 64 Kbytes to 96
Kbytes of additional conventional memory using the /VIDEO option.

Note that if your system uses an EGA or VGA display, you must also
use the MEMMAX +V command to realize any memory gain. (See Chapter
11 of the DR DOS 6.0 User Guide for details.)

Also note that if you want to use the EMM386.SYS /INCLUDE or /USE
options in the range A000-C000 to increase available upper memory,
do not use the MEMMAX +V option.

The /AUTOSCAN and /INCLUDE Options

You can use both of these options to scan 4 Kbyte blocks of upper
memory to test whether they are available for use by EMM386.SYS. The
/AUTOSCAN option is more "cautious" than /INCLUDE and is more
likely to define an area as unavailable.

If, for example, /AUTOSCAN reports an area of upper memory as being
unavailable, and there is no obvious reason why it should be, you
can use /INCLUDE more aggressively to test and define the area for
availability.

The /Use Option

Use the /USE option of EMM386.SYS with caution and only if you are
experienced in the art of upper memory management. The /USE option
overrides all EMM386.SYS memory scans, and can map RAM over any hardware
or ROM present in the specied range. In extreme cases, this might
lock up the machine.

Therefore, we strongly recommend that any time you want to
try the /USE option, you use the "?" comment with your EMM386.SYS
line in the config.sys file (see Chapter 11 of the DR DOS 6.0
User Guide), and have a bootable floppy disk with original copies
of your config.sys and autoexec.bat files handy.

Final Notes

There are software products that are specifically designed to locate
every free byte of upper memory that might be more effective than
the /AUTOSCAN and /INCLUDE features of EMM386.SYS. Check your local
software dealer for details.

Finally, if you are interested in memory issues, we also recommend
that you research your local technical bookstores for information
on books about memory management on the Intel 80xxx-based processors
and IBM PC-compatible computers. A wide array of such books exist
for all levels of technical expertise.


4. Command Comparison

THIS chapter contains a comparison chart of the DR DOS 6.0 operating
system commands and the PC DOS and MS-DOS command sets. Note that
-E indicates an external command and -I indicates an internal command.

--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
Commands|DOS 3.3 PC DOS)|DOS 4.1(MS-DOS)|DR DOS 5.0 |MS-DOS 5|DR DOS 6.0 |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
APPEND-E| X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
ASSIGN-E| X | X | X(Int) | X | X(Enh) |
| | | (Enh) | | |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
ATTRIB-E| X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
BACKUP-E| X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
BREAK-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
CACHE | | | X | | Super |
| | | | | PC-Kwik |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
CHCP-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
CHDIR/ | | | | | |
CD-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
CHKDSK-E| X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
CLS-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
COMMAND | | | | | |
-E | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
COMP-E | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
COPY-I | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
CTTY-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
CURSOR | | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DATE-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DEBUG | X | X | SID | X | SID |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DEL-I | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
| | | DELQ | X | DELQ |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DEL | | | | | |
PURGE-E | | | | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DELQ-I | | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DEL | | | | | X |
WATCH-E | | | | | |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DIR-I | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DISK | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
COMP-E | | | | | |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DISK | | | | | |
COPY-E | X | X | X | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DISKMAP | | | | | X |
-E | | | | | |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DISKOPT | | | | | |
-E | | | | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DOSBOOK | | | | | |
-E | | | | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DOSKEY | | | | X | |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
DOS | | | | | |
SHELL | | | VIEWMAX | X | VIEWMAX |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
EDIT | | | | X | |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
EDLIN-E | X | X | EDITOR | X | EDITOR |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
EMM386 | | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
ERAQ-I | | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
ERASE-I | X | | X(& ERAQ) | X | X(& ERAQ|
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
EXE2BIN | | | | | |
-E | | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
EXIT-I | | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
EXPAND | | | | X | |
| | | |(req.for| |
| | | |MS-DOS 5| |
| | | |comp. | |
| | | |files | |
| | | |only) | |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
FAST | | | | | |
OPEN-I/E| X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
FC-E | | X | | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
FDISK-E | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
FILE | | | | | |
LINK-E | | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
FIND-E | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
FOR-I | | | | X | |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
FORMAT-E| X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
GRAFTABL| | | | | |
-E | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
GRAPHICS| | | | | |
-E | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
HELP-I | | | X(-h opt)| X | X(-h opt|
| | | | | DOSBOOK |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
HILOAD-I| | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
JOIN-E | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
KEYB-E | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
LABEL-E | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
LOADHIGH| | | | X | HILOAD |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
LOCK-E | | | | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
MEM-E | | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
MEMMAX-E| | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
MIRROR | | | | X | DISKMAP |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
MKDIR | | | | | |
/MD-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
MODE-E | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
MORE-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
MOVE-E, | | | | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
NLSFUNC | | | | | |
-E | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
PASSWORD| | | | | |
-E | | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
PATH-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
PRINT-E | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
PROMPT-I| X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
QBASIC | | | | X | |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
RECOVER | | | | | |
-E | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
RENAME-I| X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
RENDIR-E| | | | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
REPLACE | | | | | |
-E | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
RESTORE | | | | | |
-E | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
RMDIR | | | | | |
/RD-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SCRIPT-E| | | | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SELECT-E| X | X | | | |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SET-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SETUP-E | | | X | | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SETVER | | | | X | |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SHARE-E | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SID-E | | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SORT-E | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SSTOR-E | | | | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SUBST-E | X | X | X(Int) | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SUPERPCK| | | | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
SYS-E | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
TASKMAX | | | | | |
-E | | | | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
TIME-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
TOUCH-E | | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
TREE-E | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
TYPE-I | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
UNDELETE| | | | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
UNFORMAT| | | | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
UNINSTAL| | | | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
VER-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
VERIFY-I| X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
VIEWMAX | | | | | |
-E | | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
VOL-I | X | X | X | X | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
XCOPY-E | X | X | X(Enh) | X | X(Enh) |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
XDEL-E | | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|
XDIR-E | | | X | | X |
--------|---------------|---------------|-------------|--------|-----------|


 December 28, 2017  Add comments

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