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Running both Extended and Expanded Memory - Tech Notes from the Microsoft BBS.
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Running both Extended and Expanded Memory – Tech Notes from the Microsoft BBS.
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======================================================================
Microsoft(R) Product Support Services Application Note (Text File)
PD0460: RUNNING BOTH EXTENDED AND EXPANDED MEMORY ON YOUR COMPUTER
======================================================================
Revision Date: 4/93
No Disk Included

The following information applies to Microsoft MS-DOS(R) versions 5.0
Upgrade and 6.0 Upgrade.

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INTRODUCTION
============

This application note explains how to allocate memory and set up your
system to run both expanded and extended memory. Some applications
require expanded memory and others need extended memory. As a result,
you may decide to customize your system. For example, you may want to
run MS-DOS in the high memory area (which is part of extended memory)
while also running applications in expanded memory. As a result, you
may want to allocate your memory so your system runs more efficiently.

The method you use to allocate memory differs depending on the type of
computer you have. See the section that applies to your computer.

80386 AND 80486 SYSTEMS
=======================

If your computer has an 80386 or 80486 processor, it supports both
expanded and extended memory. Most 80386 and 80486 computers come with
1 megabyte (MB) or more of extended memory. The EMM386.EXE device
driver, which comes with MS-DOS, can use a portion of your computer's
extended memory to emulate expanded memory. Applications that need
expanded memory can get it from EMM386.EXE, while other applications
can still use the remaining extended memory.

If you have MS-DOS 6.0 Upgrade, you can run MemMaker to configure your
80386 or 80486 system to provide both extended and expanded memory. To
do so, type the following at the MS-DOS command prompt:

memmaker

When MemMaker asks you if you want expanded memory, choose Yes. You
can then accept the default settings and let MemMaker configure your
computer's memory.

If you have MS-DOS 5.0 Upgrade, do the following:

1. If your memory board can be configured as expanded or extended
memory, configure the board so that it provides only extended
memory. (To reconfigure your memory board, see the documentation
that came with your board or contact your hardware vendor.)

2. Create an MS-DOS startup disk by inserting a formatted floppy disk
in drive A and typing the following at the MS-DOS command prompt
and pressing ENTER

sys : a:

where is the drive where your CONFIG.SYS file resides. For
example, if your CONFIG.SYS file is located on drive C, type the
following command:

sys c: a:

3. Copy your CONFIG.SYS file to the startup disk by typing the
following at the MS-DOS command prompt and pressing ENTER

copy :\config.sys a:\

where is the drive where the CONFIG.SYS file currently
resides.

For example, if your CONFIG.SYS file is located on drive C, type
the following command:

copy c:\config.sys a:\

If, after you complete these steps, your computer fails to start
normally or you have any other problems, you can use the startup
disk to start your system and restore your original configuration.
To get your system running again, insert the startup floppy disk
into drive A and restart your system. Then, copy your backup
CONFIG.SYS file to the drive on your system where the original
CONFIG.SYS file resided by typing the following command

copy a:\config.sys

where is the drive on your system where the original
CONFIG.SYS file resided (usually drive C). For example, if your
original CONFIG.SYS file was on drive C, type the following
command:

copy a:\config.sys c:\

4. Edit your original CONFIG.SYS file. To edit the file using MS-DOS
Editor, type the following at the MS-DOS command prompt and press
ENTER

edit :\config.sys

where is the drive where your CONFIG.SYS file currently
resides. For example, if CONFIG.SYS is located on drive C, type
the following command:

edit c:\config.sys

5. Make sure your CONFIG.SYS file contains a DEVICE command for
HIMEM.SYS. The command should appear before any other DEVICE
commands and should look like the following

device=\himem.sys

where is the drive and directory where your HIMEM.SYS file
currently resides. For example, if your HIMEM.SYS file is located
in your DOS directory on drive C, type the following command:

device=c:\dos\himem.sys

6. Add a DEVICE command for EMM386.EXE that has the location of
EMM386.EXE, that specifies you want EMM386.EXE to emulate expanded
memory, and that indicates the amount of extended memory to
allocate to EMM386.EXE. The following DEVICE command specifies
that EMM386.EXE should use 640 kilobytes (K) of extended memory to
emulate expanded memory

device=\emm386.exe 640

where is the drive and directory where your EMM386.EXE file
currently resides. For example, if your EMM386.EXE file is located
in your DOS directory on drive C, type the following command:

device=c:\dos\emm386.exe 640

If you also want to run programs in the upper memory area to
increase your available conventional memory, add the RAM switch to
the DEVICE command. The following command specifies that
EMM386.EXE should provide 640K of emulated expanded memory, and
should also provide access to upper memory blocks (UMBs)

device=\emm386.exe 640 ram

where is the drive and directory where your EMM386.EXE file
currently resides. For example, if your EMM386.EXE file is located
in your DOS directory on drive C, type the following command:

device=c:\dos\emm386.exe 640 ram

NOTE: Do not use the NOEMS switch; the NOEMS switch disables all
support for expanded memory.

7. If you want MS-DOS to reside in the high memory area, make sure
your CONFIG.SYS file contains a DOS=HIGH command (or a
DOS=HIGH,UMB command if you used the RAM switch with EMM386.EXE).
If the file doesn't contain one of these commands, insert the
following line after the DEVICE=\HIMEM.SYS command:

dos=high,umb

8. Close MS-DOS Editor by choosing Exit from the File menu, and save
the new CONFIG.SYS file by choosing Yes or pressing ENTER when
MS-DOS Editor displays a dialog box prompting you to save your file.

9. Restart your computer by pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL.

10. Use the MEM command to check that both expanded and extended
memory are available. (For information about interpreting output
from the MEM command, see pages 519-522 of the "Microsoft MS-DOS
User's Guide and Reference" for version 5.0.)

EXAMPLE
=======

Suppose your HIMEM.SYS, EMM386.EXE, and SMARTDRV.SYS files are in the
DOS directory on drive C and you have an 80386 computer with 2 MB of
extended memory that you want to configure as follows:

- 512K of expanded memory for your word processing application

- 1024K of extended memory for SMARTDrive

- Maximize conventional memory

Your CONFIG.SYS file would contain the following commands:

device=c:\dos\himem.sys
device=c:\dos\emm386.exe 512 ram
dos=high,umb
devicehigh=c:\dos\smartdrv.sys 1024

The first DEVICE command loads HIMEM.SYS, which provides access to
extended memory. The next DEVICE command loads EMM386.EXE, which
provides 512K of expanded memory for your word processor. The RAM
switch instructs EMM386.EXE to also provide access to the upper memory
area. The DOS command loads MS-DOS into the high memory area and
specifies that you want to be able to load programs into the UMBs. The
DEVICEHIGH command loads SMARTDrive into the upper memory area and
creates a 1024K cache in extended memory. With this CONFIG.SYS file,
there should be about 512K of extended memory left over.

80286 SYSTEMS
=============

If your computer has an 80286 processor, it supports both expanded and
extended memory. Many 80286 computers have 384K of built-in extended
memory. Others have an add-in memory board. Add-in memory boards can
contain expanded or extended memory.

If your 80286 computer has an add-in memory board, you might be able
to configure the memory board so that it provides both expanded and
extended memory. For information about configuring your memory board,
see the documentation that came with the board or contact your
hardware vendor.

If your computer's memory board can provide both expanded and extended
memory, follow these steps:

1. Configure your memory board so that it provides as much expanded
memory as your application requires. (See your application's
documentation for information about its memory requirements.)
Leave any remaining memory as extended.

2. Create an MS-DOS startup disk by inserting a formatted floppy disk
in drive A and typing the following at the MS-DOS command prompt

sys : a:

where is the drive where your CONFIG.SYS file currently
resides. For example, if your CONFIG.SYS file is located on drive
C, type the following command:

sys c: a:

3. Copy your CONFIG.SYS file to the startup disk by typing the
following at the MS-DOS command prompt and pressing ENTER

copy :\config.sys a:\

where is the drive where the CONFIG.SYS file currently
resides. For example, if your CONFIG.SYS file is located on drive
C, type the following command:

copy c:\config.sys a:\

If, after you complete these steps, your computer fails to start
normally or you have any other problems, you can use the startup
disk to start your system and restore your original configuration.
To get your system running again, insert the startup floppy disk
into drive A and restart your system. Then, copy your backup
CONFIG.SYS file to the drive on your system where the original
CONFIG.SYS file resided by typing the following command

copy a:\config.sys

where is the drive on your system where the original
CONFIG.SYS file resided (usually drive C). For example, if your
original CONFIG.SYS file was on drive C, type the following
command:

copy a:\config.sys c:\

4. Edit your original CONFIG.SYS file. To edit the file using MS-DOS
Editor, type the following at the MS-DOS command prompt

edit :\config.sys

where is the drive where your CONFIG.SYS file currently
resides. For example, if your CONFIG.SYS file is located on drive
C, type the following command:

edit c:\config.sys

5. Make sure your CONFIG.SYS file contains a DEVICE command for your
memory board's memory manager. The command should appear before
the DEVICE command for HIMEM.SYS. (See your memory board's
documentation for information about installing its memory
manager.)

6. Make sure your CONFIG.SYS file contains a DEVICE command for
HIMEM.SYS. The command should appear after the DEVICE command for
your memory board's device driver, but before any other DEVICE
commands. The DEVICE command for HIMEM.SYS should look like the
following

device=\himem.sys

where is the drive and directory where your HIMEM.SYS file
currently resides. For example, if your HIMEM.SYS file is located
in your DOS directory on drive C, type the following command:

device=c:\dos\himem.sys

7. If you want MS-DOS to load itself into the high memory area, make
sure your CONFIG.SYS file contains a DOS=HIGH command. If the file
doesn't contain this command, insert the following after the
DEVICE=\HIMEM.SYS command:

dos=high

8. Close MS-DOS Editor by choosing Exit from the File menu, and save
your file by choosing Yes or pressing ENTER when MS-DOS Editor
displays a dialog box prompting you to save your file.

9. Restart your computer by pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL.

If your computer fails when you restart it, your expanded memory
manager might be incompatible with HIMEM.SYS. To get your system
running again, insert the startup floppy disk into drive A and
restart your system. Then, copy your backup CONFIG.SYS file to the
drive on your system where the original CONFIG.SYS file resided by
typing the following

copy a:\config.sys

where is the drive on your system here the original
CONFIG.SYS file resided (usually drive C).

For example, if, in step 3, your original CONFIG.SYS file was on
drive C, type the following at the MS-DOS command prompt:

copy a:\config.sys c:\

For help in getting your expanded memory manager to work with
HIMEM.SYS, contact Microsoft Product Support Services or the
manufacturer of your expanded memory board.

10. Use the MEM command to make sure that both expanded and extended
memory are available. (For information about interpreting output
from the MEM command, see pages 519-522 of the "Microsoft MS-DOS
User's Guide and Reference" for version 5.0 or type "help mem"
(without the quotation marks) at any MS-DOS 6.0 command prompt.)

8086 OR 8088 SYSTEMS
====================

If your computer has an 8086 or 8088 processor, you can use expanded
memory only . The 8086 and the 8088 processors do not support extended
memory. To set up your computer so that applications can use the
memory on your expanded memory board, see the documentation that came
with your memory board.

RELATED INFORMATION
===================

VERSION 5.0
-----------

For additional information, see the following pages in the "Microsoft
MS-DOS User's Guide and Reference" for version 5.0:

- An overview of memory concepts, page 274

- Information about installing HIMEM.SYS, page 279

- Information about using EMM386.EXE as an expanded memory emulator,
page 289

- Information about the DEVICE command, page 433

- Information about the MEM command, page 519

- Details about EMM386.EXE startup parameters, page 605

VERSION 6.0
-----------

For more information, see the following sources:

- Information about making more memory available, Chapter 6 in the
"Microsoft MS-DOS User's Guide" for version 6.0

- Information about the DEVICEHIGH, LOADHIGH, or MEMMAKER commands,
Help (type "help" [without the quotation marks] at any MS-DOS
command prompt)

- Information about EMM386.EXE or HIMEM.SYS, Help (type "help"
[without the quotation marks] at any MS-DOS command prompt)





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