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A Comparison of EMS 4.0 with EMS and EEMS 3.2

Report by Stephen T. Satchell

Revision B, September 17, 1987

____________________________________________________________

Copyright 1987 Satchell Evaluations.

Permission is granted to all persons to freely duplicate and
distribute this information with the following restrictions: (1)
This document is transferred unmofigirf, with all notices in
place. (2) No fee may be directly or indirectly charged for this
information EXCEPT by (a) on-line services and bulletin board systems
that charge for access so long as no surcharge applied to this
file, and (b) by professional computer societies (ACM, IEEE
Computer and the like) which regularly publish a journal or
magazine. User groups and for-profit groups are specifically
prohibited from selling media (paper or machine readable)
containing this information.

Permission for other uses may be requested from Satchell
Evaluations, 16 Searing Avenue, Morristown NJ 07960. The author
asks that people using any exerpt from this report contact him to
insure the information is accurate to the author's best knowledge
before publication.

This document is the result of the author's own initiative, and
is not work for hire.

This work is derived from three published documents: (1) _The
Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification_ Version 3.20
September 1985, (2) _Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification
Version 3.20 June 1986, and (3) _Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded
Memory Specification_ Version 4.0 August 1987 (final printed
version) The prior revision of this document was based on a
laser printed manuscript.

Another document mentioned here is the _Generic Accelerator Card
Driver (GACD) Specification_ available from AST Research Inc.

Intel is a trademark of Intel Corporation.
Lotus is a trademark of Lotus Development Corporation.
Microsoft is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

____________________________________________________________

Preface to Revision B:
----------------------

The original version of this document was based on the EMS 4.0
specification handed out to the press at the August 19th
announcement. Since then, Intel informed the author that this
copy of the specification was preliminary and contained several
errors that are corrected in the final printed version of the
specification. Unfortunately, both documents carry the same
version, part number and date. The ONLY difference is that the
correct document is in the 5x8.5 format, while the document
containing errors is 8.5x11.

The original of this document was in two pieces: the comparision
and a separate error/problem sheet. These two pieces are now
combined into the single document as the elimination of the typos
"correct" the problems found. Programmers are urged to consider
that some of the driver implementers are human, and might read
things into the specification that simply are not true. IN SHORT,
WATCH OUT FOR BOUNDARY VIOLATIONS BY ENHANCED MEMORY MANAGERS.

The author understands the difference between physical and
logical pages, but in some parts of the prior version of this
document the author got mixed up and swapped terms. This has been
corrected. A physical page is a 16 KB location in the 1 MB
address space of the 80x86 system, while a logical page is a
block of RAM that can be mapped into a physical page. 'Nuff said.
Sorry.

The section on limits has been expanded considerably, based on
documents from both Intel and AST. Other sections have been
expanded as well, including minor corrections.

Buried in the back of the specification, this statement appears:
``To support generic accelerator cards, the support of Function
34, as defined by AST, is encouraged.'' Unfortunately, all copies
of the AST EEMS specification in my posession do not have any
concrete description of this function, and Intel didn't include
this information. Interested persons should contact AST and ask
for a copy of the _Generic Accelerator Card Driver (GACD)
Specification_. I will attempt to obtain a copy of this and
include the information in a future revision of this document.

____________________________________________________________


INTRODUCTION
------------

On August 19, 1987, the new version of the Expanded Memory
Specification (EMS) was announced by Lotus, Intel and Microsoft.
This new version of the specification includes many features of
the Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification (EEMS) originally
developed by AST Reserach, Quadram and Ashton-Tate, although the
three original sponsoring companies elected not to make the new
specification upward compatible with EEMS. AST Research indicated
in a separate statement that they would endorse EMS 4.0 without
reservation.

An important aside unrelated to this document is that Lotus
Development Corporation has stated that pure software
implementations of EMS 4.0 (those that do not use either
dedicated memory hardware, PS/2 T-RAM or 80386 page mapping) will
not be supported by Lotus products.

This paper attempts to compare EMS 4.0 with both EMS 3.2 and EEMS
3.2 specifications, by looking at each function. This is not
intended to republish the specification -- interested parties are
urged to contact Intel Corporation at (800) 538-3373 and ask for
the "EMS 4.0 Developers Kit".

The functions will be listed by hexidemical code, not by abstract
function number. This is of more use to developers since they
tend to think of the functions based on the value loaded into the
registers, not by an index. Where subfunctions are defined (such
as in function 4Eh "Page Map Functions" the function and
subfunction will be separated by a slash. Within the body of the
text, I will indicate whether the EMS 4.0 function is upwardly
compatible with the older specifications.

This document can also serve as a quick reference to those
programmers already familiar with the EMS 4.0 specification and
wanting a synopsis of the calling sequences for EMS operations.
Programmers and interested parties wishing to fully understand
the implications of each function is urged to examine the Base
Document, _Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification_
Version 4.0, available from Intel by calling (800) 538-3373 and
asking for the EMS 4.0 Developers Kit.


MAJOR DIFFERENCES
-----------------

One significant change is that the total amount of memory managed
by an Expanded Memory Manager (EMM) has grown from 8 megabytes to
"full-tilt-boogy" 32 megabytes (to quote a recent _InfoWorld_
article) -- 512 pages to 2048 pages of 16 KB each. In this
author's opinion, there is no reason a programmer should assume
this is the absolute limit. THAT is dictated by the use of 16 bit
signed values for page numbers, capping capacity at 32768 pages
of 16 KB each -- 512 megabytes of RAM. Programs can interrogate
the EMM for the actual amount available and tailor operations
accordingly. Note the developers do not indicate whether the word
values used for pages are signed or unsigned. If the values are
intended to be unsigned, then 65535 (with page value FFFFh
treated as a special value) can exist, or 16 KB short of one
gigabyte of RAM in a single system.


DEFINITION OF LIMITS
--------------------

This is the worst part of the specification, since in no single
place does the spec writers completely list the assumptions about
limits, let alone future directions concerning those limits. Here
is the author's ideas of the limits that drive the specification.
Where possible the author has erred toward the more inclusive.

Maximum RAM: 32 MB today, future 512 MB
Minimum number of logical pages: 4 (64 KB).
Maximum number of logical pages: 2048 today, future 32768.
Minimum number of physical pages: 4 (64 KB).
Maximum number of physical pages: 64 (full 1 MB space).
Minimum number of handles: 64 (includes OS handle 00h).
Maximum number of handles: 255 (includes OS handle 00h).
Minimum # EMS 3.2 page maps: one per handle
Maximum # EMS 3.2 page maps: unbounded
Maximum size of mem reg array: 254 bytes

The "page maps" refer to contexts saved by functions 47h and 48h,
Save Page Map and Restore Page Map.

The number of logical pages in a particular system can be
obtained using function 42h; this also has the useful side effect
of telling you the number of free pages as well.

The number of physical pages in a particular system can be
obtained by using function 58h/01h and the particular mapping by
using function 58h/00h. Should this function fail, you can assume
you have four pages starting at the segment returned by function
41h.

The maximum number of handles that can be defined is 255. For
those implementations that do not do any mapping in conventional
memory, you can have 255 user handles. For those implementations
that map into conventional memory, you can have 254 user handles
and the special operating system handle. Note that handle values
can range from 01h to FFh in the first case, or from 00h to FEh
in the second.

The maximum number of handles in a particular system can be
obtained by using function 54h/02h. Should this function fail,
you can make no assumptions about the number of handles
available.


GOTCHAS
-------

This section is what was left from the errata file in the prior
version. If you prefer to work with possibly incorrect
implementations of the EMS specification, pay particular heed to
the comments here, as they can save you untold grief when you
(and other programs in a system) stretch an expanded memory
manager to the limit and beyond. The author makes NO claim that
he has found all of these; if you discover another, please let
the author know so he can add your new gotcha to the next
revision (and you will receive credit for your contribution).

46h -- Get Version [7]
===

There exists some confusion whether the version returned is the
specification supported or the version number of the driver.
Programmers are united in stating this should be the
specification version supported, while at least one vendor
(Intel) is known to use this function to return the software
version of the particular implementation.

The wording of the description indicates that the vendor revision
is intended, and thus is useless to programmers wishing to be
able to adapt to the environment they encounter. The author
considers this a severe weakness in the specification. Either a
different function should be provided for returning vendor
specific version information or other means for obtaining the
current implementation version should be provided and documented
by each vendor.


Function 4Dh, Get All Handles [14]
============

BX is specified to have a maximum value of 255. A non-conforming
implementation could indeed allow 256 handles, assuming that
since handles can range in value from 00h to FFh that the full
range should be implemented.

Consider allowing for 256 entries in the array instead of the 255
entries as indicated in the example for this function.

There is also a problem with identifying the difference between a
raw handle and a standard handle. Currently there is no facility
to make this determination. Obviously the program making the
allocation needs to keep this straight, but another program
happening onto a raw handle (such as a debug program) has no way
of really knowing. Unfortunate oversight, especially since the
specification makes no comment about whether the page count is
EMS pages, raw pages, or a funny number.


Function 54h Subfunction 00h, Get Handle Directory [21/0]
============

Consider allow for 256 names in the handle directory array
instead of 255 should a particular implementation violate the
limit set up in the specification.


Function 56h Subfunctions 00h/01h, Alter Page Map and Call [23]
============

The function description indicates that register and flag
contents (except for AX) are preserved going to the called
function. This means that BX, CX, DI, and ES are available for
passing values to the called function. Although not explicit, the
flags and all registers EXCEPT AX are unmodified when returning
from the remotely called function.

Since many compilers use AX to return integer values from
functions, there needs to be examples showing how to preserve the
value when making EMS calls. This may indeed require direct
compiler support...something that will not happen overnight.

The specification does not indicate whether the EMM handle passed
in DX must describe pages contained by both calling and called
routines, or whether there can be two different handles involved
as well.

MISSING
=======

A function to return the current logical->physical mapping in a
vendor-independent manner. This would be exceedingly useful in
debuggers.


FUNCTIONS DEFINED IN EMS 3.2 SPECIFICATION
------------------------------------------

40h -- Get Status [1]
===

On call: AH = 40h
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h

Upward and downward compatible with both EMS and EEMS 3.2.


41h -- Get Page Frame Segment Address [2]
===

On call: AH = 41h
On return: AH = error status
BX = page frame segment address
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h

Upward and downward compatible with both EMS and EEMS 3.2.


42h -- Get Unallocated Page Count [3]
===

On call: AH = 42h
On return: AH = error status
BX = number of unallocated pages
DX = number of total pages
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h

Upward and downward compatible with both EMS and EEMS 3.2. Note
that EMS and EEMS 3.2 had no mechanism to return the maximum
number of handles that can be allocated by programs. This is
handled by the EMS 4.0 new function 54h/02h.


43h -- Allocate Pages [4]
===

On call: AH = 43h
BX = number of 16 KB pages requested (zero OK)
On return: AH = error status
DX = handle
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 85h, 87h, 88h

Upward compatible with both EMS and EEMS 3.2; EMS and EEMS 3.2 do
not allow the allocation of zero pages (returns error status
89h). EMS 4.0 does allow zero pages to be requested for a handle,
allocating pages later using function 51h, Reallocate Pages.


44h -- Map/Unmap Handle Page [5]
===

On call: AH = 44h
AL = physical page to be mapped
BX = logical page to be mapped (-1 to unmap)
DX = handle
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Ah, 8Bh

Upward compatible with both EMS and EEMS 3.2; EMS and EEMS 3.2 do
not support unmap (logical page FFFFh) capability. Also, E/EMS
3.2 specified there were precisely four physical pages; EMS 4.0
uses the subfunctions of function 58h to return the permitted
number of physical pages.

This incorporates the functionality of function 69h ("function
42") of EEMS.


45h -- Deallocate Pages [6]
===

On call: AH = 45h
DX = handle
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 86h

Upward and downward compatible with both EMS and EEMS 3.2.


46h -- Get Version [7]
===

On call: AH = 46h
On return: AH = error status
AL = version number
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h

Upward and downward compatible with both EMS and EEMS 3.2.

See the GOTCHA section for a discussion about a problem with this
function. It appears that the intended use for this function is
to return the version of the vendor implementation of the
expanded memory manager instead of the specification version. In
short, this function is useless to the vendor-independant
programmer as defined.


47h -- Save Page Map [8]
===

On call: AH = 47h
DX = caller's EMM handle (NOT current EMM handle)
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Ch, 8Dh

Upward and downward compatible with both EMS and EEMS 3.2.

This only saves the context saved in EMS 3.2 specification; if a
driver, interrupt routine or TSR needs to do more, functions 4Eh
(Page Map functions) or 4Fh (Partial Page Map functions) should
be used.

The specification is silent about the number of save contexts to
provide. AST recommends in their Rampage AT manual one save context
for each handle plus one per possible interrupt (5 + ).
In the LIMITS section of the document the minimum number of save
contexts is the number of handles.


48h -- Restore Page Map [9]
===

On call: AH = 48h
DX = caller's EMM handle (NOT current EMM handle)
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Eh

Upward and downward compatible with both EMS and EEMS 3.2.

This only restores the context saved in EMS 3.2 specification; if
a driver, interrupt routine or TSR needs to do more, functions
4Eh (Page Map functions) or 4Fh (Partial Page Map functions)
should be used.


49h -- (reserved) [10]
===

This function formerly returned the page mapping register I/O
port array. Use of this function is discouraged, and in EMS 4.0
may conflict with the use of the new functions (4Fh through 5Dh).


4Ah -- (reserved) [11]
===

This function formerly returned the page translation array. Use
of this function is discouraged, and in EMS 4.0 may conflict with
the use of the new functions (4Fh through 5Dh).

It is odd that no function presents in a vendor-independent
manner the current mapping of logical pages to physical pages.
This would be exceedingly handy in a debugging environment (such
as Periscope or CodeView) in trying to track down bugs in
programs using expanded memory.


4Bh -- Get Handle Count [12]
===

On call: AH = 4Bh
On return: AH = error status
BX = handle count
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h

Upward and downward compatible with EMS and EEMS 3.2.


4Ch -- Get Handle Pages [13]
===

On call: AH = 4Ch
DX = handle
On return: AH = status
BX = pages allocated to handle
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h

This function is upward compatible with EMS and EEMS 3.2. It is
interesting to note how foolish the spec writers were, in that
the E/EMS 3.2 spec writers state that "[the contents of BX] never
exceeds 512 because the EMM allows, at most, 512 pages of
expanded memory." EMS 4.0 makes a lie of this statement, yet
falls into the same trap by stating that the contents of BX will
never exceed 2048. DON'T BELIEVE IT. This author suspects that
future versions of the spec will make the EMS 4.0 specification
lie, too.

The programmer should make no assumptions about the order handles
appear in the array.

Paranoid programmers (like the author) should compare the number
returned in BX with the maximum number of pages returned by
function 42h register DX, total number of EMM pages. This should
be an UNSIGNED comparison, just in case the spec writers decide
to use 16 bit unsigned numbers (for a maximum space of one
gigabyte) instead of signed numbers (for a maximum space of 512
megabytes). Unsigned comparisons will work properly in either
case, and the author recommends the use of unsigned comparisons.


4Dh -- Get All Handle Pages [14]
===

On call: AH = 4Dh
DI = offset to 1020 byte array
ES = segment selector for 1020 byte array
On return: AH = error status
BX = number of active handles (1-255)
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h

NOT COMPATIBLE with EMS or EEMS 3.2, since the new special OS
handle 0000h is returned as part of the array. Unless benign use
of this information is used (such as displaying the handle and
count of pages associated with the handle) code should be changed
to only work with handles between 01h and FFh and to specifically
ignore handle 00h.

The array consists of an array of 255 elements. The first word of
each element is the handle number, the second word contains the
number of pages allocated.

PROBLEM: There are two types of handles, "standard" and "raw".
The specification does not talk about how this function works
when both raw and standard handles exist in a given system. There
currently is NO way to differentiate between a standard handle
and a raw handle in EMS 4.0 that the author can find. Ooops. This
is particularly painful in debuggers when the hardware and EMM
support raw pages whose size differs from the 16 KB standard page
size.


4Eh -- Page Map Functions [15]
===

This group of four sub-functions are provided for context
switching required by operating environments and systems. These
functions are upward and downward compatible with both EMS and
EEMS 3.2; in addition, these functions now include the
functionality of EEMS function 6Ah ("function 43") involving all
pages.

The size and contents of the mag register (map reg) array will
vary from system to system based on hardware vendor, software
vendor, number of boards and the capacity of each board in the
system. Note the array size can be determined by function
4Eh/03h.


4Eh/00h -- Get Page Map [15/0]

On call: AH = 4Eh
AL = 00h
DI = offset to target array
ES = segment selector for target array
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh


4Eh/01h -- Set Page Map [15/1]

On call: AH = 4Eh
AL = 01h
SI = offset to source array
DS = segment selector for source array
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh, A3h


4Eh/02h -- Get and Set Page Map [15/2]

On call: AH = 4Eh
AL = 02h
SI = offset to source array (new context)
DI = offset to target array (old context)
DS = segment selector for source array
ES = segment selector for target array
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh, A3h


4Eh/03h -- Get Size of Page Map Save Array [15/3]

On call: AH = 4Eh
AL = 03h
On return: AH = error status
AL = size in bytes of array
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh


FUNCTIONS NEW TO EMS 4.0
------------------------

4Fh -- Partial Page Map Functions [16]
===

This group of four sub-functions are provided for context
switching required by interrupt routines, operating environments
and systems. This set of functions provides extended
functionality over the EEMS function 6Ah ("function 43")
involving subsets of pages. In EEMS, a subset of pages could be
specified by starting position and number of pages; in this
function a list of pages is specified, which need not be
contiguous.

Interrupt routines can use this function in place of functions
47h and 48h, especially if the interrupt routine wants to use
more than the standard four physical pages.

The page map is a structure of words. The first word indicate the
number of pages specified. The remaining words contain the
segment selector (NOT the physical page number) for each page.
Translation from physical page number to segment selectors can be
performed using function 58h/00h, Get Mappable Physical Address
Array.

The size and contents of the mag register (map reg) array will
vary from system to system based on hardware vendor, software
vendor, number of boards and the capacity of each board in the
system. Note the array size can be determined by function
4Fh/02h.

NOTE: there is no equivelant to 4Eh/02h, Get And Set, in this
group of functions. From the point of view of system maintenance,
the author would have preferred that subfunction 02h be reserved
and the get-size command be subfunction 03h. Unfortunatly the die
is cast.


4Fh/00h -- Get Partial Page Map [16/0]

On call: AH = 4Fh
AL = 00h
SI = offset of page specification array
DI = offset of target map reg array
DS = segment selector of page spec array
ES = segment selector of target map reg array
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Bh, 8Fh, A3h


4Fh/01h -- Set Partial Page Map

On call: AH = 4Fh
AL = 01h
SI = offset of source map reg array
DS = segment selector of source map reg array
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh, A3h


4Fh/02h -- Get Size of Partial Page Map Save Array

On call: AH = 4Fh
BX = number of pages in page spec array
On return: AH = error status
AL = size in bytes of mag reg array
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Bh, 8Fh


50h -- Map/Unmap Multiple Pages [17/0][17/1]
===

On call: AH = 50h
AL = 00h (by physical page) or 01h (by seg#)
CX = number of mapping word pairs in array
DX = handle
SI = offset of source map array
DS = segment selector of source map array
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Ah, 8Bh, 8F

New function permits multiple logical-to-physical assignments to
be made in a single call.

The source map array is an array of word pairs. The first word of
a pair contains the logical page to map (FFFFh if the physical
page is to be totally unmapped) and the second word of a pair
contains the physical page number (subfunction 00h) or the
segment selector (subfunction 01h) of the physical page in which
the logical page shall be mapped.

A map of available physical pages (by physical page number and
segment selectors) can be obtained using function 58h/00h, Get
Mappable Physical Address Array.


51h -- Reallocate pages [18]
===

On call: AH = 51h
BX = number of pages desired at return
DX = handle
On return: AH = error status
BX = number of pages now associated with handle
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 87h, 88h

New function which permits the number of pages associated with a
handle to be decreased or increased.


52h -- Handle Attribute Functions [19]
===

Something new added to the EMS specification is the ability to
mark a handle and pages assoicated with a handle as non-volatile
-- preserved across a warm boot of the system. The specification
indicates that few if any EMS systems will support such a feature
since the EMS hardware must insure the data remains valid
throughout the warm boot sequence.

Currently the only attribute supported is non-volatile handles
and pages, indicate by the least significant bit.


52h/00h -- Get Handle Attribute [19/0]

On call: AH = 52h
AL = 00h
DX = handle
On return: AH = error status
AL = handle attribute
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Fh, 91h


52h/01h -- Set Handle Attribute [19/1]

On call: AH = 52h
AL = 01h
BL = new attribute value
DX = handle
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Fh, 90h, 91h


52h/02h -- Get Handle Attribute Capability [19/2]

On call: AH = 52h
AL = 02h
On return: AH = error status
AL = attribute capability
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Fh


53h -- Handle Name Functions [20]
===

EMS handles may have names associated with them. Each name can be
any eight characters. Functions 53h and 54h provide a way of
setting and interrogating the names associated with a particular
handle. Function 53h manipulates names by number.

A name of eight nulls is special, and indicates a handle has no
name. Note, by the way, that nulls have no special significance,
and they can appear in the middle of the name. In short, the
handle name is 64 bits of binary information so far as the
expanded memory manager is concerned. The author recommends that
when defining a handle name that the selected name be padded on
the right with spaces, ASCII graphic characters be used, and that
control codes and hi-bit-set characters be avoided to make a
debugger's life easier.


53h/00h -- Get Handle Name [20/0]

On call: AH = 53h
AL = 00h
DX = handle
DI = offset to eight byte target
ES = segment selector of eight byte target
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Fh


53h/01h -- Set Handle Name [20/1]

On call: AH = 53h
AL = 01h
DX = handle
SI = offset to eight byte source
DS = segment selector to eight byte source
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Fh, A1h


54h -- Handle Directory Functions [21]
===

Function 54h manipulates handles by name.


54h/00h -- Get Handle Directory [21/0]

On call: AH = 54h
AL = 00h
DI = offset to 2550 byte target array
ES = segment selector to 2550 byte target array
On return: AH = error status
AL = number of active handles
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh

The name array consists of 10 byte entries; each entry has a word
containing the handle number, followed by the eight byte (64 bit)
name.


54h/01h -- Search for Named Handle [21/1]

On call: AH = 54h
AL = 01h
SI = offset to 8 byte array with name
DS = segment selector to 8 byte array
On return: AH = error status
DX = handle [number]
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh, A0h, A1h


54h/02h -- Get Total Handles [21/2]

On call: AH = 54h
AL = 02h
On return: AH = error status
BX = maximum number of handles
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh

This is NOT the current number of handles defined, but the
maximum number of handles that can be supported in the current
environment.


55h -- Alter Page Map and Jump (cross page branch) [22]
===

On call: AH = 55h
AL = 00h (by physical page) or 01h (by seg#)

DX = handle
SI = offset to jump target and mapping table
DS = segment selector for target/map table
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Ah, 8Bh, 8Fh

Flags and all registers except AX are preserved across the jump.

One of the problems plaguing programmers in paged systems is
being able to place code in paged memory. This function allows
for an unstructured branch from code in one bank to code in
potentially another bank without defining a bank manager in
conventional memory. Thus several applications do not have to
duplicate code.

Note that code should follow the call to handle any error
conditions that may arise. The programmer SHOULD NOT ASSUME the
jump will always work. Graceful crashes are always preferable to
sloppy ones...


56h -- Alter Page Map and Call (cross page call) [23/0][23/1]
===

On call: AH = 56h
AL = 00h (by physical page) or 01h (by seg#)
DX = handle
SI = offset to jump target and mapping table
DS = segment selector for target/map table
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Ah, 8Bh, 8Fh

Flags and all registers except AX are preserved to the called
routine. On return, flags and all registers except AX are
preserved; AL is set to zero and AX is undefined.

One common calling convention is useless with this function:
indicating an error by incrementing the return address before
issuing a RET instruction. Obviously the return address is within
the expanded memory manager, and if you increment the address
"the results are undefined" to quote an ANSI language standards
document. "Sloppy crash" is probably more accurate.

PROBLEM: AX is not preserved on the return leg of the call. This
is a particular pain to C and PASCAL programmers since the most
common way to return integer values is in AX. The amount of stack
space required by the function call cannot be determined at
compile time. It CAN be determined at run time, using function
56h/02h, so at least the parameter frame can be located.
Unfortunately this plays hob with using BP for both parameters
and local storage. The best thing is to define a series of
assembler wrapper routines that (1) copies the parameter stack to
the new function and (2) preserves AX on return. This means
redesigning functions to pass structures and the size of
structures instead of individual parameters, a performance
problem.


56h/02h -- Get Page Map Stack Space Size [23/2]

On call: AH = 56h
AL = 02h
On return: AH = error status
BX = number of bytes of stack used per call
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh

The author assumes the value returned in BX is even, to match the
requirements of the 80x86 architecture. Implementers should check
to be sure they follow this important guideline.


57h -- Memory Manipulation [24]
===

The request block is a structure with the following format:

doubleword: region length in bytes
byte: 0=source in conventional; 1=source in expanded
word: source handle
word: source offset in page or selector
word: source logical page (exp.) or selector (conv.)
byte: 0=target in conventional; 1=target in expanded
word: target handle
word: target offset in page or selector
word: target logical page (exp.) or selector (conv.)

Expanded memory allocated to a handle is considered to be a
linear array, starting from logical page 0 and progressing
through logical page 1, 2, ... n, n+1, ... up to the last logical
page in the handle.


57h/00h -- Move Memory Region [24/0]

On call: AH = 57h
AL = 00h
SI = offset to request block
DS = segment selector to request block
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Ah, 8Fh, 92h, 93h,
94h, 95h, 96h, 98h, A2h

Moves data between two memory areas. Includes moves between paged
and non-pages areas, or between two different paged areas.


57h/01h -- Exchange Memory Region [24/1]

On call: AH = 57h
AL = 01h
SI = offset to request block
DS = segment selector to request block
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 83h, 84h, 8Ah, 8Fh, 93h,
94h, 95h, 96h, 97h, 98h, A2h

Exchanges data between two memory areas. Includes exchanges
between paged and non-pages areas, or between two different paged
areas.


58h -- Mappable Physical Address Array [25]
===

These functions let you obtain a complete map of the way physical
memory is laid out in a vendor independent manner. This is a
functional equivalent of EEMS function 68h ("function 41"). EEMS
function 60h ("function 33") is a subset call of 68h.


58h/00h -- Get Array [25/0]

On call: AH = 58h
AL = 00h
DI = offset to target array

ES = segment selector to target array
On return: AH = error status
CX = entries in target array
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh

The information returned is in an array composed of word pairs.
The first word is the physical page's segment selector, the
second word the physical page number. Note that values are not
necessarily returned in a particular order, either
ascending/decending segment selector values or as
ascending/decending physical page number.

For compatibility with earlier EMS specifications, physical page
zero contains the segment selector value returned by function
41h, and physical pages 1, 2 and 3 return segment selector values
that corrospond to the physical 16 KB blocks immediately
following physical page zero.


58h/01h -- Get Array Entries [25/1]

On call: AH = 58h
AL = 01h
On return: AH = error status
CX = number of entries returned by 58h/00h
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh


Multiply CX by 4 for the byte count.


59h -- Hardware Information [26]
===

These functions return information specific to a given hardware
implementation and to use of raw pages as opposed to standard
pages. The intent is that only operating system code ever need
use these functions.


59h/00h -- Get EMS Hardware Info [26/0]

On call: AH = 59h
AL = 00h
DI = offset of target array (10 bytes)
ES = segment selector of target array
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh, A4h

The target array has the following format:

word: raw page size in paragraphs (multiples of 16 bytes)
word: number of alternate register sets
word: size of page maps (function 4Eh [15])
word: number of alternate registers sets for DMA
word: DMA operation -- see full specification


59h/01h -- Get Unallocated Raw Page Count [26/1]

On call: AH = 59h
AL = 01h
On return: AH = error status
BX = unallocated raw pages
DX = total raw pages
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 8Fh


5Ah -- Allocate Raw Pages [27]
===

On call: AH = 5Ah
BX = raw page count
On return: AH = error status
DX = handle
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h, 85h, 87h, 88h

It is intended this call be used only by operating systems.


5Bh -- Alternate Map Register Set [28]
===

Some boards support multiple sets of mapping registers, some for
the specific purpose of performing DMA. These functions access
the special features if they are available.

It is intended these functions be used only by an operating
system.

This set of functions performs the same functions at EEMS
function 6Ah subfunctions 04h and 05h ("function 43").

In the interests of brevity, the calls are not detailed here. For
more information, please refer to the base document.


5Bh/00h -- Get Alternate Map Register Set [28/0]
5Bh/01h -- Set Alternate Map Register Set [28/1]
5Bh/02h -- Get Alternate Map Save Array Size [28/2]
5Bh/03h -- Allocate Alternate Map Register Set [28/3]
5Bh/04h -- Deallocate Alternate Map Register Set [28/4]
5Bh/05h -- Allocate DMA Register Set [28/5]
5Bh/06h -- Enable DMA on Alternate Map Register Set [28/6]
5Bh/07h -- Disable DMA on Alternate Map Register Set [28/7]
5Bh/08h -- Deallocate DMA Register Set [28/8]


5Ch -- Prepare EMS Hardware for Warm Boot [29]
===

On call: AH = 5Ch
On return: AH = error status
Error Status: 00h, 80h, 81h, 84h

Provided for those hardware implementations that must be set up
to preserve contents across a warm boot.


5Dh -- Operating System / Environment function control [30]
===

Security feature for operating systems and operating environment
use. For brevity, the calls are not detailed here.

5Dh/00h -- Enable OS/E Function Set [30/0]
5Dh/01h -- Disable OS/E Function Set [30/1]
5Dh/02h -- Return OS/E Access Key [30/2]


61h -- Generic Accelerator Card Support [34]
===

For more information, contact AST Research for a copy of the
_Generic Accelerator Card Driver (GACD) Specification_.

ERROR RETURNS
-------------

00h -- Successful Completion

80h -- Software Error

81h -- Hardware Error

82h -- EMM busy (dropped in E/EMS 3.2)

83h -- Unknown EMM handle.

84h -- Unknown function code in AH.

85h -- All EMM handles are in use.

86h -- Page save/restore context error.

87h -- More pages requested than exist.

88h -- Not enough free pages to satisfy allocation request.

89h -- Zero page allocate request (dropped in EMS 4.0)

8Ah -- Logical page out of range

8Bh -- Physical page out of range

8Ch -- No room in the map context save area

8Dh -- Page context already saved

8Eh -- No page context to restore

8Fh -- Unknown sub-function

90h -- Attribute type undefined (new)

91h -- Warm boot data save not implemented (new)

92h -- Move overlaps memory (new)

93h -- Move/exchange larger than allocated region (new)

94h -- Conventional/expanded regions overlap (new)

95h -- Logical page offset outside of logical page (new)

96h -- Region larger than 1 MB. (new)

97h -- exchange source/destination overlap (new)

98h -- source/destination undefined or not supported (new)

99h -- (no status assigned)

9Ah -- Alt. Map Reg. Sets supported, specified set is not (new)

9Bh -- All alternate map & DMA registers sets allocated (new)

9Ch -- Alternate Map & DMA register sets not supported (new)

9Dh -- Alt Map Reg or DMA set no defined, allocated or is
currently defined set (new)

9Eh -- Dedicated DMA channels not supported (new)

9Fh -- Dedicated DMA channels supported; specifed channel is not
(new)

A0h -- Named handle could not be found (new)

A1h -- Handle Name already exists (new)

A2h -- Move/exchange wraps around 1 MB boundry (new)

A3h -- Data structure contains corrupted data (new)

A4h -- Access denied (new)


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