Dec 062017
 
Excellent on-line hardware/programming help reference. Includes help on ASM, C, interrupts, as well as various hardware and DOS goodies.
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Excellent on-line hardware/programming help reference. Includes help on ASM, C, interrupts, as well as various hardware and DOS goodies.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
ASM.TXT 101753 22128 deflated
BUILD.BAT 83 76 deflated
C.TXT 162042 43144 deflated
HARDWARE.TXT 131397 36132 deflated
HELPPC.COM 10603 7373 deflated
HELPPC.DOC 26669 9562 deflated
HELPPC.NDX 22724 12497 deflated
HELPTSR.COM 16914 8931 deflated
INDEXHLP.COM 12322 8017 deflated
INTERRUP.TXT 249939 60451 deflated
MISC.TXT 32308 12602 deflated
REGISTER.FRM 1857 601 deflated
TABLES.TXT 90990 27660 deflated

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Contents of the ASM.TXT file


@Assembler Programming Topics
:8086 architecture
^Intel 8086 Family Architecture

%General Purpose RegistersSegment Registers

AH/AL AX (EAX) Accumulator CSCode Segment
BH/BL BX (EBX) Base DSData Segment
CH/CL CX (ECX) Counter SSStack Segment
DH/DL DX (EDX) Data ESExtra Segment
(FS)386 and newer
(Exx) indicates 386+ 32 bit register (GS)386 and newer


%Pointer RegistersStack Registers

SI (ESI) Source IndexSP (ESP) Stack Pointer
DI (EDI) Destination IndexBP (EBP) Base Pointer
IP Instruction Pointer

%Status Registers

FLAGS Status Flags (see ~FLAGS~)

%Special Registers (386+ only)

CR0Control Register 0 DR0 Debug Register 0
CR2Control Register 2 DR1 Debug Register 1
CR3Control Register 3 DR2 Debug Register 2
DR3 Debug Register 3
TR4Test Register 4 DR6 Debug Register 6
TR5Test Register 5 DR7 Debug Register 7
TR6Test Register 6
TR7Test Register 7

%Register Default Segment Valid Overrides

BPSSDS, ES, CS
SI or DIDSES, SS, CS
DI stringsESNone
SI stringsDSES, SS, CS


- see ~CPU~ ~DETECTING~ ~Instruction Timing~

:Instruction Timing
^Instruction Clock Cycle Calculation


Some instructions require additional clock cycles due to a "Next
Instruction Component" identified by a "+m" in the instruction
clock cycle listings. This is due to the prefetch queue being
purge on a control transfers.Below is the general rule for
calculating "m":


88/86 not applicable
286 "m" is the number of bytes in the next instruction
386 "m" is the number of components in the next instruction
(the instruction coding (each byte), plus the data and
the displacement are all considered components)


^8088/8086 Effective Address (EA) Calculation

% Description Clock Cycles

Displacement6
Base or Index (BX,BP,SI,DI)5
Displacement+(Base or Index)9
Base+Index (BP+DI,BX+SI)7
Base+Index (BP+SI,BX+DI)8
Base+Index+Displacement (BP+DI,BX+SI) 11
Base+Index+Displacement (BP+SI+disp,BX+DI+disp) 12


- add 4 cycles for word operands at odd addresses
- add 2 cycles for segment override
- 80188/80186 timings differ from those of the 8088/8086/80286


%Task State Calculation

"TS" is defined as switching from VM/486 or 80286 TSS to one of
the following:


New Task

486 TSS486 TSS386 TSS386 TSS286 TSS
Old Task (VM=0) (VM=1) (VM=0) (VM=1)

386 TSS (VM=0) 309 226 282

386 TSS (VM=1) 314 231 287

386 CPU/286 TSS 307 224 280

486 CPU/286 TSS 199 177 180



%Miscellaneous

- all timings are for best case and do not take into account wait
states, instruction alignment, the state of the prefetch queue,
DMA refresh cycles, cache hits/misses or exception processing.
- to convert clocks to nanoseconds divide one microsecond by the
processor speed in MegaHertz:

^(1000MHz/(n MHz)) = X nanoseconds


- see~8086 Architecture~

:directives:asm directives
^Macro Assembler Directives

^Processor Code Generation Directives

.186enables assembly of 80186 instructions
.286enables assembly of non privileged 80286 instructions
.286Csame as .286
.286Penables assembly of all 80286 instructions
.287enabled assembly of 80287 instructions
.386enabled assembly of non privileged 80386 instructions
If used before .MODEL segments are defined as 32bits.
Causes all segments to default to DWORD alignment.
.386Penabled assembly of all 80386 instructions (see .386)
.387enabled assembly of 80387 instructions
.8086default, enables assembly of 8088/8086 instruction
.8087default, enables assembly of 8087 instructions


These directives must precede the segment they are to effect.
they cannot occur within a segment.


^Memory Model Directives

.CODE [name]starts code segment; must follow .MODEL directive
.CONSTstarts a constant data segment with name CONST;
must follow .MODEL directive; placed in DGROUP
.DATAstarts a near data segment for initialized data
with name _DATA; must follow .MODEL directive;
placed in DGROUP
.DATA?starts a near data segment for uninitialized
data with name _BSS; must follow .MODEL
directive; placed in DGROUP
.FARDATA [name]not placed in any group
.FARDATA? [name] not placed in any group
.MODEL modeldefines memory model to be one of the following:
SMALL, COMPACT, MEDIUM, LARGE or HUGE;must be
used prior to any other segment directive
.STACK [size]indicates start of stack segment named 'STACK'
with size indicating number of bytes to reserve,
default is 1k; placed in DGROUP


^Segment Definition, Segment Ordering and Linkage Directives

.ALPHAorders segments alphabetically
.SEQorders segments sequentially (default)
ASSUME sreg:name [,sreg:name...] selects default segment
register to be used by the assembler, not the CPU,
for addressing all symbols in the segment or group.
Name must be associated with a SEGMENT or GROUP
or set to "NOTHING" to indicate no segment register
is to be associated.
COMM def [,def...] defines variables that are both public and
external (communal). Can be used in and include
file to identify it to each source file without
declaring it in each model as extern. Actually
defines data once. Communal variables cannot be
initialized, and are not guaranteed to be allocated
contiguously since these are allocated by the linker.
DOSSEGorders segments the same as DOS. This is Microsoft
languages default order; causes paragph alignment
END [name]marks end of source module and sets program
start address (CS:IP) if 'name' is present
name ENDPends procedure 'name'
name ENDSends a segment or structure
EXTRN name:type [,name:type...] defines one or more external symbols
name GROUP seg[,seg]
name LABEL [NEAR|FAR|PROC] defines an entry point;If PROC is specified,
it's value depends on the current MODEL
NAME pgmNameignored since MASM 5.0; used to set module name
name PROC [NEAR|FAR]defines procedure; NEAR/FAR has .MODEL default
PUBLIC name[,name...] makes symbol 'name' available to other modules
name SEGMENT [align][combine][use]['class']
align= BYTEalign on byte address (no alignment)
= WORDalign on even address
= DWORDalign on DWORD address
= PARAalign on next 16 byte paragraph
= PAGEalign on next 256 byte boundary
combine = PUBLIC similar named segments are concatenated (CS)
= STACK similar named segments are concatenated (SS)
= COMMON similar named segment are overlapped
= MEMORY similar names segments are concatenated
= AT addr segment relative to absolute address
= nothing segment is private and loaded independent
use= USE16 segments will be 16 bits (if .386)
= USE32 segments will be 32 bits (if .386)


^Data Allocation Directives

ALIGN naligns next variable or instruction on a boundary
that is a multiple of "n". This can speed memory
fetches on 16 and 32 bit CPU'S if aligned. New to
~MASM~ 5.0, previous versions used EVEN. Can result
in NOP's added to code.
[name]DB init[,init...] define byte
[name]DD init[,init...] define double word (DWORD, 4 bytes)
[name]DF init[,init...] define far word (FWORD, 386, 6 bytes)
[name]DQ init[,init...] define quad word (QWORD, 8 bytes)
[name]DT init[,init...] define temp word (TBYTE, 10 bytes)
[name]DW init[,init...] define word (WORD, 2 bytes)
countDUP (init[,init...]) duplicate 'init' 'count' times; DUP can be
nested to 17 levels; DUP'ed initial values
of (?) don't result in data in the object file
but instead increment the next data addr
nameENDSend of structure or segment
EVENsame as align 2; Aligns data on even boundary
ORG exprsets location counter to 'expr'; If 'expr'
is '$' the code is ORG'ed at the current loc.
nameRECORD fld[,fld...] defines a byte or word variable
consisting of bit fields; fields have the format:
fieldname:width[=expr]; the sum of all widths
must be <= 0
[name]STRUC <[init[,init]]> defines beginning of a structure; Values
between <> are initializers; The '<>' symbols
are required.


^Logical and Bit Oriented Directives

expr1AND expr2returns nonzero if any set bit matches
expr1EQ expr2returns (-1) for true or (0) for false
expr1GE expr2returns (-1) for true or (0) for false
expr1LE expr2returns (-1) for true or (0) for false
expr1LT expr2returns (-1) for true or (0) for false
MASK {fldname|record} returns bit mask for bits in record
expr1OR expr2returns bitwise OR on expr1 and expr2
NOT exprreturns 'expr' with all bits reversed
exprSHL countreturns expr shifted left count times
exprSHR countreturns expr shifted right count times
WIDTH {fldname|record}returns width of field in bit record
expr1 XOR expr2returns bitwise XOR on expr1 and expr2


^Other Operators and Directives

[]index operator, same as addition
.MSFLOATencode floats in Microsoft Real Format
.TYPEexprreturns byte defining mode and scope of expr
nameEQU exprassigns expression to name. surround text with <>
HIGHexprreturns high byte of 'expr'
INCLUDE filespec inserts code from 'filespec' into file
INCLUDELIB filespec stores link library info in .OBJ file
LENGTHvarreturns number of data objects in DUPed 'var'
LOWexprreturns low byte of 'expr'
expr1MODexpr2return remainder of expr1/expr2
OFFSETexprreturns offset of expr; When .MODEL is used
the offset of a group relative segment refers
to the end of the segment
typePTRexprforces 'expr' to 'type'
SEGexprreturns segment of expression
SHORTsets type of label to short, less than 128
bytes from start of next instruction
SIZEvarreturns # of bytes allocated by DUP directive
THIStypereturns an operand of specified type whose
offset and segment values are equal to the
current location
TYPEexprreturns type of expression


%Program Listing and Documentation Directives

.CREFrestores listing of cross reference symbols
.LALLinclude macro expansion in listings
.LFCONDinclude false conditional blocks in listings
.LISTstarts listing of statements
.SALLsuppress listing of all macro expansions
.SFCONDsuppress false conditional blocks in listings
.XALLstart listing of macro expansion
.XCREF [name[,name...]] suppress symbols in cross reference
.XLISTsuppress program listing
COMMENT delimiter [text]
PAGE [[len],wid]sets page length&width or ejects if no parms
SUBTTLtextdefines program listing subtitle
TITLEtextdefines program listing title


%Condition Assembly Directives

ELSEelse clause for conditional assembly block
ENDIFterminates a conditional assembly block
IFDEFnameconditional assembly if name is defined


%Macro Definition Directives

ENDMterminates a macro block
EXITMexit macro expansion immediately
IRP parm, parm in the statements enclosed by the
IRP and ENDM will be repeated and replaced with the
values of "arg" for each "arg" in the <>.
IRPC parm, parm in the statements enclosed by the IRPC
and ENDM will be repeated and replaced with the values
of each char in the "string" for each character
position in the string. "string" should be enclosed
in <> if it contains spaces or other separators.
LOCAL name[,name...] defines scope symbol as local to a macro
nameMACRO [parm[,parm...]]defines a macro and it's parameters
PURGE name[,name] purges macros from memory
REPTexprrepeats all statements through ENDM statement for
'expr' times


%User Message Directives

.ERRgenerates and error
.ERR1generates an error on PASS 1
.ERR2generates an error on PASS 2
.ERRBgenerates an error if 'arg' is blank
.ERRDEF namegenerates an error if 'name' is previously defined
.ERRDIF[I] ,
.ERREexprgenerates and error is 'expr' is false
%OUTtextdisplays 'text' to console


%Predefined Equates (available only if simplified segments are used)

@cursegcontains the current segment
@filenamecurrent file name without extension
@codecontains the current code segment
@codesize0 for small & compact, 1 for large, medium & huge
@datasize0 for small & medium, 1 for compact & large, 2=huge
@constcontains segment of define by .CONST
@datacontains segment of define by .DATA
@data?contains segment of define by .DATA?
@fardatacontains segment of define by .FARDATA
@fardata?contains segment of define by .FARDATA?
@stackcontains segment of define by .STACK

Most of these are only available if the simplified segment system
is used. @curseg and @filename are available regardless.


%Radix Specifiers

.RADIX exprsets radix [2..16] for numbers (dec. default)
Bbinary data specifier
Qoctal data specifier
Ooctal data specifier
Ddecimal data specifier
Hhexadecimal data specifier


:masm options:assembler options
^Microsoft Assembler Command Line Options

^MASM [options] srcfile[,[objfile][,[lstfile][,[xreffile]]]][;]

%Options Definition
/Agenerate segments in alphabetical order
/B[size] sets I/O buffer size in K bytes (1..63, default 32)
/Cgenerate cross reference file with .CRF extension
/Dgenerate PASS 1 listing
/Dsym[=val]define symbol for use during assembly
/Eemulate floating point instructions (for use with HLL)
/Hlist options and command syntax
/Ipathinclude-file search path
/Lgenerate listing file with .LST extension
/MLcase sensitive for all symbols
/MUupper case all symbols (default)
/MXcase sensitive in external and public symbols
/Nsuppress symbol tables in listings
/Pcheck for impure code in 286 and 386 protected
mode (invalid CS overrides)
/Sgenerate segments in the order they are found (default)
/Tterse message display; display errors only
/Vverbose message display; includes # lines and symbols
/W{0|1|2}assembly warning level
0 = no warnings
1 = severe warnings only
2 = all warnings enabled
/Xdisplay complete conditional assembly blocks in
listing including false conditionals
/Zdisplay errors including line numbers to screen
/ZDgenerate line numbers in .OBJ files
/ZIgenerate both symbolic and line number information in
.OBJ files

%Environment Variables

INCLUDEsearch path for include files
MASMdefault command line options
:flags register:8086 flags
^FLAGS - Intel 8086 Family Flags Register

1110FEDCBA9876543210
CF Carry Flag
1
PF Parity Flag
0
AF Auxiliary Flag
0
ZF Zero Flag
SF Sign Flag
TF Trap Flag (Single Step)
IF Interrupt Flag
DF Direction Flag
OF Overflow flag
IOPL I/O Privilege Level (286+ only)
NT Nested Task Flag (286+ only)
0
RF Resume Flag (386+ only)
VM Virtual Mode Flag (386+ only)

- see~PUSHF~ ~POPF~ ~STI~ ~CLI~ ~STD~ ~CLD~
:models:segment names
^Memory Model Programming & Segment Information

%Model
TINYData and code fit in one 64K segment. All code and
data are accessed via near pointers.
SMALL64k data segment max and 64k code segment max.All
code and data are accessed via near pointers.
COMPACT1Mb data segment max and 64K code segment max.Code
is accessed via near pointers, data is accessed via
far pointers. No array can be greater than 64K
MEDIUM64K data segment max and 1Mb code segment max.Code is
accessed via far pointers, data is accessed vianear pointers.
LARGE1Mb data segment max and 1Mb code segment max.All
code and data are accessed via far pointers. No
single element can be greater than 64K.
HUGE1Mb data segment max and 1Mb code segment max.All
code and data are accessed via far pointers. This is
the only model where arrays can be larger than 64K.
In this mode is C will normalize all data pointers
to avoid segment wrapping.

^Small Memory Model

%Directive Segment Alignment CombineClass
.CODE _TEXTWORD PUBLIC'CODE'
.DATA _DATAWORD PUBLIC'DATA'
.CONST CONSTWORD PUBLIC'CONST'
.DATA? _BSSWORD PUBLIC'BSS'
.STACK STACKPARA STACK'STACK'


^Compact Memory Model

%Directive Segment Alignment CombineClass
.CODE _TEXTWORD PUBLIC'CODE'
.FARDATA FAR_DATAPARA private'FAR_DATA'
.FARDATA? FAR_BSSPARA private'FAR_BSS'
.DATA _DATAWORD PUBLIC'DATA'
.CONST CONSTWORD PUBLIC'CONST'
.DATA? _BSSWORD PUBLIC'BSS'
.STACK STACKPARA STACK'STACK'


^Medium Memory Model

%Directive Segment Alignment CombineClass
.CODE name_TEXTWORD PUBLIC'CODE'
.DATA _DATAWORD PUBLIC'DATA'
.CONST CONSTWORD PUBLIC'CONST'
.DATA? _BSSWORD PUBLIC'BSS'
.STACK STACKPARA STACK'STACK'


^Large or Huge Memory Models

%Directive Segment Alignment CombineClass
.CODE name_TEXTWORD PUBLIC'CODE'
.FARDATA FAR_DATAPARA private'FAR_DATA'
.FARDATA? FAR_BSSPARA private'FAR_BSS'
.DATA _DATAWORD PUBLIC'DATA'
.CONST CONSTWORD PUBLIC'CONST'
.DATA? _BSSWORD PUBLIC'BSS'
.STACK STACKPARA STACK'STACK'


- all segments fall into DGROUP except for ???_TEXT, FAR_DATA
and FAR_BSS
- see ~MASM DIRECTIVES~
:msw:machine status word
^MSW - Machine Status Word (286+ only)


3130-543210 Machine Status Word
Protection Enable (PE)
Math Present (MP)
Emulation (EM)
Task Switched (TS)
Extension Type (ET)
Reserved
Paging (PG)


Bit 0PEProtection Enable, switches processor between
protected and real mode
Bit 1MPMath Present, controls function of the ~WAIT~
instruction
Bit 2EMEmulation, indicates whether coprocessor functions
are to be emulated
Bit 3TSTask Switched, set and interrogated by coprocessor
on task switches and when interpretting coprocessor
instructions
Bit 4ETExtension Type, indicates type of coprocessor in
system
Bits 5-30Reserved
bit 31PGPaging, indicates whether the processor uses page
tables to translate linear addresses to physical
addresses

- see~SMSW~ ~LMSW~
:aaa
^AAA - Ascii Adjust for Addition


Usage:AAA
Modifies flags: AF CF (OF,PF,SF,ZF undefined)


Changes contents of AL to valid unpacked decimal. The high order
nibble is zeroed.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 83 4 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:aad
^AAD - Ascii Adjust for Division


Usage:AAD
Modifies flags: SF ZF PF (AF,CF,OF undefined)


Used before dividing unpacked decimal numbers. Multiplies AH by
10 and the adds result into AL. Sets AH to zero. This instruction
is also known to have an undocumented behavior.



% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 6014 19 14 2

- see ~Instruction Timing~

:aam
^AAM - Ascii Adjust for Multiplication


Usage:AAM
Modifies flags: PF SF ZF (AF,CF,OF undefined)


Used after multiplication of two unpacked decimal numbers, this
instruction adjusts an unpacked decimal number. The high order
nibble of each byte must be zeroed before using this instruction.
This instruction is also known to have an undocumented behavior.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 8316 17 15 2


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:aas
^AAS - Ascii Adjust for Subtraction


Usage:AAS
Modifies flags: AF CF (OF,PF,SF,ZF undefined)


Corrects result of a previous unpacked decimal subtraction in AL.
High order nibble is zeroed.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 83 4 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:adc
^ADC - Add With Carry

Usage:ADCdest,src
Modifies flags: AF CF OF SF PF ZF


Sums two binary operands placing the result in the destination.
If CF is set, a 1 is added to the destination.


%ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg 32 2 1 2
mem,reg 16+EA7 7 3 2-4 (W88=24+EA)
reg,mem 9+EA7 6 2 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg,immed 43 2 1 3-4
mem,immed17+EA7 7 3 3-6 (W88=23+EA)
accum,immed 43 2 1 2-3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:add
^ADD - Arithmetic Addition

Usage:ADDdest,src
Modifies flags: AF CF OF PF SF ZF


Adds "src" to "dest" and replacing the original contents of "dest".
Both operands are binary.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg 32 2 1 2
mem,reg 16+EA7 7 3 2-4 (W88=24+EA)
reg,mem 9+EA7 6 2 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg,immed 43 2 1 3-4
mem,immed17+EA7 7 3 3-6 (W88=23+EA)
accum,immed 43 2 1 2-3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:and
^AND - Logical And

Usage:ANDdest,src
Modifies flags: CF OF PF SF ZF (AF undefined)


Performs a logical AND of the two operands replacing the destination
with the result.


%ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg 32 2 1 2
mem,reg 16+EA7 7 3 2-4 (W88=24+EA)
reg,mem 9+EA7 6 1 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg,immed 43 2 1 3-4
mem,immed17+EA7 7 3 3-6 (W88=23+EA)
accum,immed 43 2 1 2-3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:arpl
^ARPL - Adjusted Requested Privilege Level of Selector
^(286+ protected mode)


Usage:ARPLdest,src
Modifies flags: ZF


Compares the RPL bits of "dest" against "src".If the RPL bits
of "dest" are less than "src", the destination RPL bits are set
equal to the source RPL bits and the Zero Flag is set.Otherwise
the Zero Flag is cleared.


%ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg -10 20 9 2
mem,reg -11 21 9 4


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:bound
^BOUND - Array Index Bound Check (80188+)


Usage:BOUNDsrc,limit
Modifies flags: None


Array index in source register is checked against upper and lower
bounds in memory source. The first word located at "limit" is
the lower boundary and the word at "limit+2" is the upper array bound.
Interrupt 5 occurs if the source value is less than or higher than
the source.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16,mem32 - nj=13 nj=10 7 2
reg32,mem64 - nj=13 nj=10 7 2

- nj = no jump taken
- see ~Instruction Timing~

:bsf
^BSF - Bit Scan Forward (386+ only)


Usage:BSFdest,src
Modifies flags: ZF


Scans source operand for first bit set. Sets ZF if a bit is found
set and loads the destination with an index to first set bit. Clears
ZF is no bits are found set. BSF scans forward across bit pattern
(0-n) while BSR scans in reverse (n-0).


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg -- 10+3n 6-42 3
reg,mem -- 10+3n 7-43 3-7
reg32,reg32 -- 10+3n 6-42 3-7
reg32,mem32 -- 10+3n 7-43 3-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:bsr
^BSR - Bit Scan Reverse (386+ only)


Usage:BSRdest,src
Modifies flags: ZF


Scans source operand for first bit set. Sets ZF if a bit is found
set and loads the destination with an index to first set bit. Clears
ZF is no bits are found set. BSF scans forward across bit pattern
(0-n) while BSR scans in reverse (n-0).


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg -- 10+3n 6-103 3
reg,mem -- 10+3n 7-104 3-7
reg32,reg32 -- 10+3n 6-103 3-7
reg32,mem32 -- 10+3n 7-104 3-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:bswap
^BSWAP - Byte Swap (486+ only)


Usage:BSWAPreg32
Modifies flags: none


Changes the byte order of a 32 bit register from big endian to
little endian or vice versa. Result left in destination register
is undefined if the operand is a 16 bit register.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg32 -- - 1 2


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:bt
^BT - Bit Test(386+ only)


Usage:BTdest,src
Modifies flags: CF


The destination bit indexed by the source value is copied into the
Carry Flag.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16,immed8 -- 3 3 4-8
mem16,immed8 -- 6 6 4-8
reg16,reg16 -- 3 3 3-7
mem16,reg16 -- 12 12 3-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:btc
^BTC - Bit Test with Compliment (386+ only)


Usage:BTCdest,src
Modifies flags: CF


The destination bit indexed by the source value is copied into the
Carry Flag after being complimented (inverted).


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16,immed8 -- 6 6 4-8
mem16,immed8 -- 8 8 4-8
reg16,reg16 -- 6 6 3-7
mem16,reg16 -- 13 13 3-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:btr
^BTR - Bit Test with Reset (386+ only)


Usage:BTRdest,src
Modifies flags: CF


The destination bit indexed by the source value is copied into the
Carry Flag and then cleared in the destination.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16,immed8 -- 6 6 4-8
mem16,immed8 -- 8 8 4-8
reg16,reg16 -- 6 6 3-7
mem16,reg16 -- 13 13 3-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:bts
^BTS - Bit Test and Set (386+ only)


Usage:BTSdest,src
Modifies flags: CF


The destination bit indexed by the source value is copied into the
Carry Flag and then set in the destination.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16,immed8 -- 6 6 4-8
mem16,immed8 -- 8 8 4-8
reg16,reg16 -- 6 6 3-7
mem16,reg16 -- 13 13 3-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:call
^CALL - Procedure Call


Usage:CALLdestination
Modifies flags: None

Pushes Instruction Pointer (and Code Segment for far calls) onto
stack and loads Instruction Pointer with the address of proc-name.
Code continues with execution at CS:IP.

% Clocks
% Operands808x 286 386 486

rel16 (near, IP relative) 19 7 7+m 3
rel32 (near, IP relative) -- 7+m 3

reg16 (near, register indirect) 16 7 7+m 5
reg32 (near, register indirect) -- 7+m 5

mem16 (near, memory indirect) - 21+EA 11 10+m 5
mem32 (near, memory indirect) - - 10+m 5

ptr16:16 (far, full ptr supplied) 28 13 17+m 18
ptr16:32 (far, full ptr supplied) -- 17+m 18
ptr16:16 (far, ptr supplied, prot. mode) -26 34+m 20
ptr16:32 (far, ptr supplied, prot. mode) -- 34+m 20
m16:16 (far, indirect) 37+EA 16 22+m 17
m16:32 (far, indirect) -- 22+m 17
m16:16 (far, indirect, prot. mode) - 29 38+m 20
m16:32 (far, indirect, prot. mode) -- 38+m 20

ptr16:16 (task, via TSS or task gate) - 177 TS 37+TS
m16:16 (task, via TSS or task gate) - 180/185 5+TS 37+TS
m16:32 (task) -- TS 37+TS
m16:32 (task) -- 5+TS 37+TS

ptr16:16 (gate, same privilege) - 41 52+m 35
ptr16:32 (gate, same privilege) -- 52+m 35
m16:16 (gate, same privilege) -44 56+m 35
m16:32 (gate, same privilege) -- 56+m 35

ptr16:16 (gate, more priv, no parm) - 82 86+m 69
ptr16:32 (gate, more priv, no parm) -- 86+m 69
m16:16 (gate, more priv, no parm) - 83 90+m 69
m16:32 (gate, more priv, no parm) -- 90+m 69

ptr16:16 (gate, more priv, x parms) - 86+4x 94+4x+m 77+4x
ptr16:32 (gate, more priv, x parms) -- 94+4x+m 77+4x
m16:16 (gate, more priv, x parms) - 90+4x 98+4x+m 77+4x
m16:32 (gate, more priv, x parms) -- 98+4x+m 77+4x


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:cbw
^CBW - Convert Byte to Word


Usage:CBW
Modifies flags: None


Converts byte in AL to word Value in AX by extending sign of AL
throughout register AH.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 3 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:cdq
^CDQ - Convert Double to Quad(386+ only)


Usage:CDQ
Modifies flags: None


Converts signed DWORD in EAX to a signed quad word in EDX:EAX by
extending the high order bit of EAX throughout EDX


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none -- 2 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:clc
^CLC - Clear Carry


Usage:CLC
Modifies flags: CF


Clears the Carry Flag.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 2 2 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:cld
^CLD - Clear Direction Flag


Usage:CLD
Modifies flags: DF


Clears the Direction Flag causing string instructions to increment
the SI and DI index registers.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 2 2 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:cli
^CLI - Clear Interrupt Flag (disable)


Usage:CLI
Modifies flags: IF


Disables the maskable hardware interrupts by clearing the Interrupt
flag. NMI's and software interrupts are not inhibited.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 3 5 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:clts
^CLTS - Clear Task Switched Flag (286+ privileged)


Usage:CLTS
Modifies flags: None


Clears the Task Switched Flag in the Machine Status Register. This
is a privileged operation and is generally used only by operating
system code.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none -2 5 7 2


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:cmc
^CMC - Complement Carry Flag


Usage:CMC
Modifies flags: CF


Toggles (inverts) the Carry Flag


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 2 2 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:cmp
^CMP - Compare

Usage:CMPdest,src
Modifies flags: AF CF OF PF SF ZF


Subtracts source from destination and updates the flags but does
not save result. Flags can subsequently be checked for conditions.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg 32 2 1 2
mem,reg 9+EA7 5 2 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg,mem 9+EA6 6 2 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg,immed 43 2 1 3-4
mem,immed10+EA6 5 2 3-6 (W88=14+EA)
accum,immed 43 2 1 2-3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:cmps:cmpsb:cmpsw:cmpsd
^CMPS - Compare String (Byte, Word or Doubleword)

Usage:CMPSdest,src
CMPSB
CMPSW
CMPSD(386+ only)
Modifies flags: AF CF OF PF SF ZF

Subtracts destination value from source without saving results.
Updates flags based on the subtraction and the index registers
(E)SI and (E)DI are incremented or decremented depending on the
state of the Direction Flag. CMPSB inc/decrements the index
registers by 1, CMPSW inc/decrements by 2, while CMPSD increments
or decrements by 4. The REP prefixes can be used to process
entire data items.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

dest,src 228 10 8 1 (W88=30)


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:cmpxchg
^CMPXCHG - Compare and Exchange

Usage:CMPXCHGdest,src (486+)
Modifies flags: AF CF OF PF SF ZF


Compares the accumulator (8-32 bits) with "dest". If equal the
"dest" is loaded with "src", otherwise the accumulator is loaded
with "dest".


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg -- - 6 2
mem,reg - - - 7 2


- add 3 clocks if the "mem,reg" comparison fails
- see ~Instruction Timing~

:cwd
^CWD - Convert Word to Doubleword


Usage:CWD
Modifies flags: None


Extends sign of word in register AX throughout register DX forming
a doubleword quantity in DX:AX.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 52 2 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:cwde
^CWDE - Convert Word to Extended Doubleword (386+ only)


Usage:CWDE
Modifies flags: None


Converts a signed word in AX to a signed doubleword in EAX by
extending the sign bit of AX throughout EAX.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none -- 3 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:daa
^DAA - Decimal Adjust for Addition


Usage:DAA
Modifies flags: AF CF PF SF ZF (OF undefined)


Corrects result (in AL) of a previous BCD addition operation.
Contents of AL are changed to a pair of packed decimal digits.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 43 4 2 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:das
^DAS - Decimal Adjust for Subtraction


Usage:DAS
Modifies flags: AF CF PF SF ZF (OF undefined)


Corrects result (in AL) of a previous BCD subtraction operation.
Contents of AL are changed to a pair of packed decimal digits.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 43 4 2 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:dec
^DEC - Decrement


Usage:DECdest
Modifies flags: AF OF PF SF ZF


Unsigned binary subtraction of one from the destination.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 32 2 1 2
mem15+EA7 6 3 2-4
reg16/32 32 2 1 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:div
^DIV - Divide

Usage:DIVsrc
Modifies flags: (AF,CF,OF,PF,SF,ZF undefined)

Unsigned binary division of accumulator by source. If the source
divisor is a byte value then AX is divided by "src" and the quotient
is placed in AL and the remainder in AH. If source operand is a word
value, then DX:AX is divided by "src" and the quotient is stored in AX
and the remainder in DX.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 80-9014 14 16 2
reg16144-162 22 22 24 2
reg32 -- 38 40 2
mem8 (86-96)+EA17 17 16 2-4
mem16 (150-168)+EA25 25 24 2-4 (W88=158-176+EA)
mem32 -- 41 40 2-4


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:enter
^ENTER - Make Stack Frame (80188+)


Usage:ENTERlocals,level
Modifies flags: None


Modifies stack for entry to procedure for high level language.
Operand "locals" specifies the amount of storage to be allocated
on the stack."Level" specifies the nesting level of the routine.
Paired with the ~LEAVE~ instruction, this is an efficient method of
entry and exit to procedures.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

immed16,0 - 11 10 14 4
immed16,1 - 15 12 17 4
immed16,immed8 - 12+4(n-1) 15+4(n-1) 17+3n 4


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:esc
^ESC - Escape


Usage:ESCimmed,src
Modifies flags: None


Provides access to the data bus for other resident processors.
The CPU treats it as a ~NOP~ but places memory operand on bus.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

immed,reg 2 9-20 ? 2
immed,mem 2 9-20 ? 2-4


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:hlt
^HLT - Halt CPU


Usage: HLT
Modifies flags: None


Halts CPU until RESET line is activated, NMI or maskable interrupt
received. The CPU becomes dormant but retains the current CS:IP
for later restart.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 5 4 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:idiv
^IDIV - Signed Integer Division

Usage: IDIVsrc
Modifies flags: (AF,CF,OF,PF,SF,ZF undefined)

Signed binary division of accumulator by source. If source is a
byte value, AX is divided by "src" and the quotient is stored in
AL and the remainder in AH. If source is a word value, DX:AX is
divided by "src", and the quotient is stored in AL and the
remainder in DX.
% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 101-11217 19 19 2
reg16 165-18425 27 27 2
reg32 -- 43 43 2
mem8 (107-118)+EA20 22 20 2-4
mem16 (171-190)+EA38 30 28 2-4 (W88=175-194)
mem32 -- 46 44 2-4


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:imul
^IMUL - Signed Multiply

Usage:IMULsrc
IMULsrc,immed (286+ only)
IMULdest,src,immed8 (286+ only)
IMULdest,src (386+ only)
Modifies flags: CF OF (AF,PF,SF,ZF undefined)


Signed multiplication of accumulator by "src" with result placed
in the accumulator. If the source operand is a byte value, it
is multiplied by AL and the result stored in AX. If the source
operand is a word value it is multiplied by AX and the result is
stored in DX:AX. Other variations of this instruction allow
specification of source and destination registers as well as a
third immediate factor.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x286 386 486Bytes

reg8 80-98 13 9-14 13-18 2
reg16128-154 21 9-22 13-26 2
reg32 - - 9-38 12-42 2
mem8 86-104 16 12-17 13-18 2-4
mem16134-160 24 12-25 13-26 2-4
mem32 - - 12-41 13-42 2-4
reg16,reg16 - - 9-22 13-26 3-5
reg32,reg32 - - 9-38 13-42 3-5
reg16,mem16 - - 12-25 13-26 3-5
reg32,mem32 - - 12-41 13-42 3-5
reg16,immed - 21 9-22 13-26 3
reg32,immed - 21 9-38 13-42 3-6
reg16,reg16,immed - 2 9-22 13-26 3-6
reg32,reg32,immed - 21 9-38 13-42 3-6
reg16,mem16,immed - 24 12-25 13-26 3-6
reg32,mem32,immed - 24 12-41 13-42 3-6


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:in
^IN - Input Byte or Word From Port


Usage:INaccum,port
Modifies flags: None


A byte, word or dword is read from "port" and placed in AL, AX or
EAX respectively. If the port number is in the range of 0-255
it can be specified as an immediate, otherwise the port number
must be specified in DX. Valid port ranges on the PC are 0-1024,
though values through 65535 may be specified and recognized by
third party vendors and PS/2's.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

accum,immed810/145 12 14 2
accum,immed8 (PM) 6/26 8/28/27 2
accum,DX 8/125 13 14 1
accum,DX (PM) 7/27 8/28/27 1


- 386+ protected mode timings depend on privilege levels.

first number is the timing if: CPL IOPL
second number is the timing if: CPL > IOPL or in VM 86 mode (386)
CPL IOPL (486)
third number is the timing when: virtual mode on 486 processor
- 486 virtual mode always requires 27 cycles

- see ~Instruction Timing~

:inc
^INC - Increment


Usage:INCdest
Modifies flags: AF OF PF SF ZF


Adds one to destination unsigned binary operand.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 32 2 1 2
reg16 32 2 1 1
reg32 32 2 1 1
mem15+EA7 6 3 2-4 (W88=23+EA)


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:ins:insb:insw:insd
^INS - Input String from Port (80188+)


Usage:INSdest,port
INSB
INSW
INSD (386+ only)
Modifies flags: None

Loads data from port to the destination ES:(E)DI (even if a
destination operand is supplied). (E)DI is adjusted by the size
of the operand and increased if the Direction Flag is cleared and
decreased if the Direction Flag is set. For INSB, INSW, INSD no
operands are allowed and the size is determined by the mnemonic.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

dest,port -5 15 17 1
dest,port (PM) -5 9/29 10/32/30 1
none -5 15 17 1
none (PM) -5 9/29 10/32/30 1


- 386+ protected mode timings depend on privilege levels.

first number is the timing if: CPL IOPL
second number is the timing if: CPL > IOPL
third number is the timing if: virtual mode on 486 processor

- see ~Instruction Timing~

:int
^INT - Interrupt


Usage:INTnum
Modifies flags: TF IF

Initiates a software interrupt by pushing the flags, clearing the
Trap and Interrupt Flags, pushing CS followed by IP and loading
CS:IP with the value found in the interrupt vector table. Execution
then begins at the location addressed by the new CS:IP


% ClocksSize
% Operands808x 286 386 486Bytes

3 (constant) 52/72 23+m 33 26 2
3 (prot. mode, same priv.) - 40+m 59 44 2
3 (prot. mode, more priv.) - 78+m 99 71 2
3 (from VM86 to PL 0) - - 119 82 2
3 (prot. mode via task gate) - 167+m TS 37+TS 2
immed8 51/71 23+m 37 30 1
immed8 (prot. mode, same priv.) - 40+m 59 44 1
immed8 (prot. mode, more priv.) - 78+m 99 71 1
immed8 (from VM86 to PL 0) - - 119 86 1
immed8 (prot. mode, via task gate) - 167+m TS 37+TS 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:into
^INTO - Interrupt on Overflow


Usage:INTO
Modifies flags: IF TF


If the Overflow Flag is set this instruction generates an INT 4
which causes the code addressed by 0000:0010 to be executed.


% Clocks Size
%Operands808x286 386 486 Bytes

none: jump 53/73 24+m 35 28 1
no jump 4 3 3 3
(prot. mode, same priv.) - - 59 46 1
(prot. mode, more priv.) - - 99 73 1
(from VM86 to PL 0) - - 119 84 1
(prot. mode, via task gate) - TS 39+TS 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:invd
^INVD - Invalidate Cache (486+ only)


Usage:INVD
Modifies flags: none


Flushes CPU internal cache. Issues special function bus cycle
which indicates to flush external caches. Data in write-back
external caches is lost.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x286 386 486Bytes

none - - - 4 2


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:invlpg
^INVLPG - Invalidate Translation Look-Aside Buffer Entry (486+ only)


Usage:INVLPG
Modifies flags: none


Invalidates a single page table entry in the Translation
Look-Aside Buffer. Intel warns that this instruction may be
implemented differently on future processors.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x286 386 486Bytes

none - - - 12 2


- timing is for TLB entry hit only.
- see ~Instruction Timing~

:iret:iretd
^IRET/IRETD - Interrupt Return

Usage:IRET
IRETD (386+ only)
Modifies flags: AF CF DF IF PF SF TF ZF

Returns control to point of interruption by popping IP, CS
and then the Flags from the stack and continues execution at
this location.CPU exception interrupts will return to the
instruction that cause the exception because the CS:IP placed
on the stack during the interrupt is the address of the offending
instruction.

% ClocksSize
% Operands808x 286 386 486Bytes

iret 32/44 17+m 22 15 1
iret (prot. mode) - 31+m 38 15 1
iret (to less privilege) - 55+m 82 36 1
iret (different task, NT=1) - 169+m TS TS+32 1
iretd -- 22/38 15 1
iretd (to less privilege) -- 82 36 1
iretd (to VM86 mode) -- 60 15 1
iretd (different task, NT=1) -- TS TS+32 1


- 386 timings are listed as real-mode/protected-mode
- see ~Instruction Timing~

:j...
^Jump Instructions Table

%Mnemonic Meaning Jump Condition

~JA~ Jump if Above CF=0 and ZF=0
~JAE~ Jump if Above or Equal CF=0
~JB~ Jump if Below CF=1
~JBE~ Jump if Below or Equal CF=1 or ZF=1
~JC~ Jump if Carry CF=1
~JCXZ~ Jump if CX Zero CX=0
~JE~ Jump if Equal ZF=1
~JG~ Jump if Greater (signed) ZF=0 and SF=OF
~JGE~ Jump if Greater or Equal (signed) SF=OF
~JL~ Jump if Less (signed) SF != OF
~JLE~ Jump if Less or Equal (signed) ZF=1 or SF != OF
~JMP~ Unconditional Jump unconditional
~JNA~ Jump if Not Above CF=1 or ZF=1
~JNAE~ Jump if Not Above or Equal CF=1
~JNB~ Jump if Not Below CF=0
~JNBE~ Jump if Not Below or Equal CF=0 and ZF=0
~JNC~ Jump if Not Carry CF=0
~JNE~ Jump if Not Equal ZF=0
~JNG~ Jump if Not Greater (signed) ZF=1 or SF != OF
~JNGE~ Jump if Not Greater or Equal (signed) SF != OF
~JNL~ Jump if Not Less (signed) SF=OF
~JNLE~ Jump if Not Less or Equal (signed) ZF=0 and SF=OF
~JNO~ Jump if Not Overflow (signed) OF=0
~JNP~ Jump if No Parity PF=0
~JNS~ Jump if Not Signed (signed) SF=0
~JNZ~ Jump if Not Zero ZF=0
~JO~ Jump if Overflow (signed) OF=1
~JP~ Jump if Parity PF=1
~JPE~ Jump if Parity Even PF=1
~JPO~ Jump if Parity Odd PF=0
~JS~ Jump if Signed (signed) SF=1
~JZ~ Jump if Zero ZF=1

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

Jx: jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2
no jump 43 3 1
Jx near-label -- 7+m 3 4
no jump -- 3 1


- It's a good programming practice to organize code so the
expected case is executed without a jump since the actual
jump takes longer to execute than falling through the test.
- see~JCXZ~ and ~JMP~ for their respective timings
- see ~Instruction Timing~ ~FLAGS~

:ja:jnbe
^JA/JNBE - Jump Above / Jump Not Below or Equal


Usage:JAlabel
JNBElabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Carry Flag and Zero Flag
are both clear. Unsigned comparision.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jae:jnb
^JAE/JNB - Jump Above or Equal / Jump on Not Below


Usage:JAElabel
JNBlabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Carry Flag is clear.
Functionally similar to ~JNC~. Unsigned comparision.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jb:jnae
^JB/JNAE - Jump Below / Jump Not Above or Equal


Usage:JBlabel
JNAElabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Carry Flag is set.
Functionally similar to ~JC~. Unsigned comparision.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jbe:jna
^JBE/JNA - Jump Below or Equal / Jump Not Above


Usage:JBElabel
JNAlabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Carry Flag or
the Zero Flag is set.Unsigned comparision.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jc
^JC - Jump on Carry


Usage:JClabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Carry Flag is set.
Functionally similar to ~JB~ and ~JNAE~. Unsigned comparision.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jcxz:jecxz
^JCXZ/JECXZ - Jump if Register (E)CX is Zero


Usage:JCXZlabel
JECXZlabel (386+ only)
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if register CX is zero. Uses
unsigned comparision.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 18 8+m 9+m 8 2
no jump 64 5 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:je:jz
^JE/JZ - Jump Equal / Jump Zero


Usage:JElabel
JZlabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Zero Flag is set.Uses
unsigned comparision.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jg:jnle
^JG/JNLE - Jump Greater / Jump Not Less or Equal


Usage:JGlabel
JNLElabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Zero Flag is clear or
the Sign Flag equals the Overflow Flag. Signed comparision.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jge:jnl
^JGE/JNL - Jump Greater or Equal / Jump Not Less


Usage:JGElabel
JNLlabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Sign Flag equals
the Overflow Flag. Signed comparision.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jl:jnge
^JL/JNGE - Jump Less / Jump Not Greater or Equal


Usage:JLlabel
JNGElabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Sign Flag is not equal
to Overflow Flag. Unsigned comparision.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jle:jng
^JLE/JNG - Jump Less or Equal / Jump Not Greater


Usage:JLElabel
JNGlabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Zero Flag is set or the
Sign Flag is not equal to the Overflow Flag. Signed comparision.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jmp
^JMP - Unconditional Jump

Usage:JMPtarget
Modifies flags: None

Unconditionally transfers control to "label". Jumps by default
are within -32768 to 32767 bytes from the instruction following
the jump. NEAR and SHORT jumps cause the IP to be updated while FAR
jumps cause CS and IP to be updated.

%Clocks
% Operands808x 286 386 486

rel8 (relative) 15 7+m 7+m 3
rel16 (relative) 15 7+m 7+m 3
rel32 (relative) - - 7+m 3
reg16 (near, register indirect)11 7+m 7+m 5
reg32 (near, register indirect) - - 7+m 5
mem16 (near, mem indirect) 18+EA 11+m 10+m 5
mem32 (near, mem indirect) 24+EA 15+m 10+m 5
ptr16:16 (far, dword immed) - - 12+m 17
ptr16:16 (far, PM dword immed) - - 27+m 19
ptr16:16 (call gate, same priv.) - 38+m 45+m 32
ptr16:16 (via TSS) - 175+m TS 42+TS
ptr16:16 (via task gate) - 180+m TS 43+TS
mem16:16 (far, indirect) - - 43+m 13
mem16:16 (far, PM indirect) - - 31+m 18
mem16:16 (call gate, same priv.) - 41+m 49+m 31
mem16:16 (via TSS) - 178+m 5+TS 41+TS
mem16:16 (via task gate) - 183+m 5+TS 42+TS
ptr16:32 (far, 6 byte immed) - - 12+m 13
ptr16:32 (far, PM 6 byte immed) - - 27+m 18
ptr16:32 (call gate, same priv.) - - 45+m 31
ptr16:32 (via TSS) - - TS 42+TS
ptr16:32 (via task state) - - TS 43+TS
m16:32 (far, address at dword) - - 43+m 13
m16:32 (far, address at dword) - - 31+m 18
m16:32 (call gate, same priv.) - - 49+m 31
m16:32 (via TSS) - - 5+TS 41+TS
m16:32 (via task state) - - 5+TS 42+TS

- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jnc
^JNC - Jump Not Carry


Usage:JNClabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Carry Flag is clear.
Functionally similar to ~JAE~ or ~JNB~. Unsigned comparision.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jne:jnz
^JNE/JNZ - Jump Not Equal / Jump Not Zero


Usage:JNElabel
JNZlabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Zero Flag is clear.
Unsigned comparision.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jno
^JNO - Jump Not Overflow


Usage:JNOlabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Overflow Flag is clear.
Signed comparision.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jns
^JNS - Jump Not Signed


Usage:JNSlabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Sign Flag is clear.
Signed comparision.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jnp:jpo
^JNP/JPO - Jump Not Parity / Jump Parity Odd


Usage:JNPlabel
JPOlabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Parity Flag is clear.
Unsigned comparision.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jo
^JO - Jump on Overflow


Usage:JO label
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Overflow Flag is set.
Signed comparision.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:jp:jpe
^JP/JPE - Jump on Parity / Jump on Parity Even


Usage:JPlabel
JPElabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Parity Flag is set.
Unsigned comparision.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:js
^JS - Jump Signed


Usage:JSlabel
Modifies flags: None


Causes execution to branch to "label" if the Sign Flag is set.
Signed comparision.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 16 7+m 7+m 3 2-4
no jump 43 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lahf
^LAHF - Load Register AH From Flags


Usage:LAHF
Modifies flags: None

Copies bits 0-7 of the flags register into AH.This includes flags
AF, CF, PF, SF and ZF other bits are undefined.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 42 2 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lar
^LAR - Load Access Rights (286+ protected)


Usage:LARdest,src
Modifies flags: ZF


The high byte of the of the destination register is overwritten by
the value of the access rights byte and the low order byte is zeroed
depending on the selection in the source operand. The Zero Flag is
set if the load operation is successful.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16,reg16 -14 15 11 3
reg32,reg32 -- 15 11 3
reg16,mem16 -16 16 11 3-7
reg32,mem32 -- 16 11 3-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lds
^LDS - Load Pointer Using DS

Usage:LDSdest,src
Modifies flags: None


Loads 32-bit pointer from memory source to destination register
and DS. The offset is placed in the destination register and the
segment is placed in DS. To use this instruction the word at the
lower memory address must contain the offset and the word at the
higher address must contain the segment. This simplifies the loading
of far pointers from the stack and the interrupt vector table.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16,mem3216+EA7 7 6 2-4
reg,mem (PM) -- 22 12 5-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lea
^LEA - Load Effective Address


Usage:LEAdest,src
Modifies flags: None


Transfers offset address of "src" to the destination register.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,mem 2+EA3 2 1 2-4


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:leave
^LEAVE - Restore Stack for Procedure Exit (80188+)


Usage:LEAVE
Modifies flags: None


Releases the local variables created by the previous ~ENTER~
instruction by restoring SP and BP to their condition before
the procedure stack frame was initialized.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none -5 4 5 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:les
^LES - Load Pointer Using ES

Usage:LESdest,src
Modifies flags: None


Loads 32-bit pointer from memory source to destination register
and ES. The offset is placed in the destination register and the
segment is placed in ES. To use this instruction the word at the
lower memory address must contain the offset and the word at the
higher address must contain the segment. This simplifies the loading
of far pointers from the stack and the interrupt vector table.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,mem 16+EA7 7 6 2-4 (W88=24+EA)
reg,mem (PM) -- 22 12 5-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lfs
^LFS - Load Pointer Using FS (386+ only)


Usage:LFSdest,src
Modifies flags: None


Loads 32-bit pointer from memory source to destination register
and FS. The offset is placed in the destination register and the
segment is placed in FS. To use this instruction the word at the
lower memory address must contain the offset and the word at the
higher address must contain the segment. This simplifies the loading
of far pointers from the stack and the interrupt vector table.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,mem -- 7 6 5-7
reg,mem (PM) -- 22 12 5-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lgdt
^LGDT - Load Global Descriptor Table (286+ privileged)


Usage:LGDTsrc
Modifies flags: None


Loads a value from an operand into the Global Descriptor Table
(~GDT~) register.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

mem64 -11 11 11 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lidt
^LIDT - Load Interrupt Descriptor Table (286+ privileged)


Usage:LIDTsrc
Modifies flags: None


Loads a value from an operand into the Interrupt Descriptor Table
(IDT) register.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

mem64 -12 11 11 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lgs
^LGS - Load Pointer Using GS (386+ only)


Usage:LGSdest,src
Modifies flags: None


Loads 32-bit pointer from memory source to destination register
and GS. The offset is placed in the destination register and the
segment is placed in GS. To use this instruction the word at the
lower memory address must contain the offset and the word at the
higher address must contain the segment. This simplifies the loading
of far pointers from the stack and the interrupt vector table.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,mem -- 7 6 5-7
reg,mem (PM) -- 22 12 5-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lldt
^LLDT - Load Local Descriptor Table (286+ privileged)


Usage:LLDTsrc
Modifies flags: None


Loads a value from an operand into the Local Descriptor Table
Register (LDTR).


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16 -17 20 11 3
mem16 -19 24 11 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lmsw
^LMSW - Load Machine Status Word (286+ privileged)


Usage:LMSWsrc
Modifies flags: None


Loads the Machine Status Word (~MSW~) from data found at "src"


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16 -3 10 13 3
mem16 -6 13 13 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lock
^LOCK - Lock Bus


Usage:LOCK
LOCK: (386+ prefix)
Modifies flags: None


This instruction is a prefix that causes the CPU assert bus lock
signal during the execution of the next instruction. Used to
avoid two processors from updating the same data location. The
286 always asserts lock during an XCHG with memory operands. This
should only be used to lock the bus prior to ~XCHG~, ~MOV~, ~IN~ and
~OUT~ instructions.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 20 0 1 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lods:lodsb:lodsw:lodsd
^LODS - Load String (Byte, Word or Double)


Usage:LODSsrc
LODSB
LODSW
LODSD (386+ only)
Modifies flags: None

Transfers string element addressed by DS:SI (even if an operand is
supplied) to the accumulator.SI is incremented based on the size
of the operand or based on the instruction used. If the Direction
Flag is set SI is decremented, if the Direction Flag is clear SI
is incremented. Use with REP prefixes.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

src12/165 5 5 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:loop
^LOOP - Decrement CX and Loop if CX Not Zero


Usage:LOOPlabel
Modifies flags: None


Decrements CX by 1 and transfers control to "label" if CX is not
Zero. The "label" operand must be within -128 or 127 bytes of the
instruction following the loop instruction


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 18 8+m 11+m 6 2
no jump 54 ? 2


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:loope:loopz
^LOOPE/LOOPZ - Loop While Equal / Loop While Zero


Usage:LOOPElabel
LOOPZlabel
Modifies flags: None

Decrements CX by 1 (without modifying the flags) and transfers
control to "label" if CX != 0 and the Zero Flag is set. The
"label" operand must be within -128 or 127 bytes of the instruction
following the loop instruction.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 18 8+m 11+m 9 2
no jump 54 ? 6


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:loopnz:loopne
^LOOPNZ/LOOPNE - Loop While Not Zero / Loop While Not Equal


Usage:LOOPNZlabel
LOOPNElabel
Modifies flags: None

Decrements CX by 1 (without modifying the flags) and transfers
control to "label" if CX != 0 and the Zero Flag is clear. The
"label" operand must be within -128 or 127 bytes of the instruction
following the loop instruction.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

label:jump 19 8+m 11+m 9 2
no jump 54 ? 6


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:lsl
^LSL - Load Segment Limit (286+ protected)


Usage:LSLdest,src
Modifies flags: ZF

Loads the segment limit of a selector into the destination register
if the selector is valid and visible at the current privilege level.
If loading is successful the Zero Flag is set, otherwise it is
cleared.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16,reg16 -14 20/25 10 3
reg32,reg32 -- 20/25 10 3
reg16,mem16 -16 21/26 10 5
reg32,mem32 -- 21/26 10 5


- 386 times are listed "byte granular" / "page granular"
- see ~Instruction Timing~
:lss
^LSS - Load Pointer Using SS (386+ only)


Usage:LSSdest,src
Modifies flags: None


Loads 32-bit pointer from memory source to destination register
and SS. The offset is placed in the destination register and the
segment is placed in SS. To use this instruction the word at the
lower memory address must contain the offset and the word at the
higher address must contain the segment. This simplifies the loading
of far pointers from the stack and the interrupt vector table.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,mem -- 7 6 5-7
reg,mem (PM) -- 22 12 5-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:ltr
^LTR - Load Task Register (286+ privileged)


Usage:LTRsrc
Modifies flags: None


Loads the current task register with the value specified in "src".


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16 -17 23 20 3
mem16 -19 27 20 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:mov
^MOV - Move Byte or Word

Usage:MOVdest,src
Modifies flags: None

Copies byte or word from the source operand to the destination
operand. If the destination is SS interrupts are disabled except
on early buggy 808x CPUs. Some CPUs disable interrupts if the
destination is any of the segment registers

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg 22 2 1 2
mem,reg 9+EA3 2 1 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg,mem 8+EA5 4 1 2-4 (W88=12+EA)
mem,immed10+EA3 2 1 3-6 (W88=14+EA)
reg,immed 42 2 1 2-3
mem,accum 103 2 1 3 (W88=14)
accum,mem 105 4 1 3 (W88=14)
segreg,reg16 22 2 3 2
segreg,mem16 8+EA5 5 9 2-4 (W88=12+EA)
reg16,segreg 22 2 3 2
mem16,segreg 9+EA3 2 3 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg32,CR0/CR2/CR3 -- 6 4
CR0,reg32 -- 10 16
CR2,reg32 -- 4 4 3
CR3,reg32 -- 5 4 3
reg32,DR0/DR1/DR2/DR3- 22 10 3
reg32,DR6/DR7 - - 22 10 3
DR0/DR1/DR2/DR3,reg32 - 22 11 3
DR6/DR7,reg32 -- 16 11 3
reg32,TR6/TR7 -- 12 4 3
TR6/TR7,reg32 -- 12 4 3
reg32,TR3 3
TR3,reg32 6

- when the 386 special registers are used all operands are 32 bits
- see ~Instruction Timing~

:movs:movsb:movsw:movsd
^MOVS - Move String (Byte or Word)

Usage:MOVSdest,src
MOVSB
MOVSW
MOVSD (386+ only)
Modifies flags: None


Copies data from addressed by DS:SI (even if operands are given) to
the location ES:DI destination and updates SI and DI based on the
size of the operand or instruction used. SI and DI are incremented
when the Direction Flag is cleared and decremented when the Direction
Flag is Set. Use with ~REP~ prefixes.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

dest,src 185 7 7 1 (W88=26)


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:movsx
^MOVSX - Move with Sign Extend(386+ only)


Usage:MOVSXdest,src
Modifies flags: None


Copies the value of the source operand to the destination register
with the sign extended.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg -- 3 3 3
reg,mem -- 6 3 3-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:movzx
^MOVZX - Move with Zero Extend(386+ only)


Usage:MOVZXdest,src
Modifies flags: None


Copies the value of the source operand to the destination register
with the zeroes extended.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg -- 3 3 3
reg,mem -- 6 3 3-7


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:mul
^MUL - Unsigned Multiply

Usage:MULsrc
Modifies flags: CF OF (AF,PF,SF,ZF undefined)

Unsigned multiply of the accumulator by the source. If "src" is
a byte value, then AL is used as the other multiplicand and the
result is placed in AX. If "src" is a word value, then AX is
multiplied by "src" and DX:AX receives the result. If "src" is
a double word value, then EAX is multiplied by "src" and EDX:EAX
receives the result. The 386+ uses an early out algorithm which
makes multiplying any size value in EAX as fast as in the 8 or 16
bit registers.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg870-7713 9-14 13-18 2
reg16 118-11321 9-22 13-26 2
reg32 -- 9-38 13-42 2-4
mem8 (76-83)+EA16 12-17 13-18 2-4
mem16 (124-139)+EA24 12-25 13-26 2-4
mem32 -- 12-21 13-42 2-4


- see ~Instruction Timing~ ~IMUL~

:neg
^NEG - Two's Complement Negation


Usage:NEGdest
Modifies flags: AF CF OF PF SF ZF


Subtracts the destination from 0 and saves the 2s complement of
"dest" back into "dest".


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg 32 2 1 2
mem16+EA7 6 3 2-4 (W88=24+EA)


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:nop
^NOP - No Operation (90h)


Usage:NOP
Modifies flags: None


This is a do nothing instruction. It results in occupation of both
space and time and is most useful for patching code segments.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 33 3 1 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:not
^NOT - One's Compliment Negation (Logical NOT)


Usage:NOTdest
Modifies flags: None

Inverts the bits of the "dest" operand forming the 1s complement.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg 32 2 1 2
mem16+EA7 6 3 2-4 (W88=24+EA)


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:or
^OR - Inclusive Logical OR

Usage:ORdest,src
Modifies flags: CF OF PF SF ZF (AF undefined)

Logical inclusive OR of the two operands returning the result in
the destination. Any bit set in either operand will be set in the
destination.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg 32 2 1 2
mem,reg 16+EA7 7 3 2-4 (W88=24+EA)
reg,mem 9+EA7 6 2 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg,immed 43 2 1 3-4
mem8,immed817+EA7 7 3 3-6
mem16,immed1625+EA7 7 3 3-6
accum,immed 43 2 1 2-3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:out
^OUT - Output Data to Port


Usage:OUTport,accum
Modifies flags: None

Transfers byte in AL,word in AX or dword in EAX to the specified
hardware port address. If the port number is in the range of 0-255
it can be specified as an immediate. If greater than 255 then the
port number must be specified in DX. Since the PC only decodes 10
bits of the port address, values over 1023 can only be decoded by
third party vendor equipment and also map to the port range 0-1023.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

immed8,accum10/143 10 16 2
immed8,accum (PM) - - 4/24 11/31/29 2
DX,accum 8/123 11 16 1
DX,accum (PM) - - 5/25 10/30/29 1


- 386+ protected mode timings depend on privilege levels.

first number is the timing when: CPL IOPL
second number is the timing when: CPL > IOPL
third number is the timing when: virtual mode on 486 processor

- see ~Instruction Timing~

:outs:outsb:outsw:outsd
^OUTS - Output String to Port (80188+ only)


Usage:OUTSport,src
OUTSB
OUTSW
OUTSD (386+ only)
Modifies flags: None


Transfers a byte, word or doubleword from "src" to the hardware
port specified in DX. For instructions with no operands the "src"
is located at DS:SI and SI is incremented or decremented by the
size of the operand or the size dictated by the instruction format.
When the Direction Flag is set SI is decremented, when clear, SI is
incremented. If the port number is in the range of 0-255 it can
be specified as an immediate. If greater than 255 then the port
number must be specified in DX. Since the PC only decodes 10 bits
of the port address, values over 1023 can only be decoded by third
party vendor equipment and also map to the port range 0-1023.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

port,src -5 14 17 1
port,src (PM) -- 8/28 10/32/30 1


- 386+ protected mode timings depend on privilege levels.

first number is the timing when: CPL IOPL
second number is the timing when: CPL > IOPL
third number is the timing when: virtual mode on 486 processor

- see ~Instruction Timing~

:pop
^POP - Pop Word off Stack


Usage:POPdest
Modifies flags: None


Transfers word at the current stack top (SS:SP) to the destination
then increments SP by two to point to the new stack top. CS is not
a valid destination.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16 85 4 4 1
reg32 4- - 4 1
segreg 85 7 3 1
mem1617+EA5 5 6 2-4
mem32 5- - 6 2-4


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:popa:popad
^POPA/POPAD - Pop All Registers onto Stack (80188+ only)


Usage:POPA
POPAD (386+ only)
Modifies flags: None


Pops the top 8 words off the stack into the 8 general purpose 16/32
bit registers. Registers are popped in the following order: (E)DI,
(E)SI, (E)BP, (E)SP, (E)DX, (E)CX and (E)AX. The (E)SP value popped
from the stack is actually discarded.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none -19 24 9 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:popf:popfd
^POPF/POPFD - Pop Flags off Stack


Usage:POPF
POPFD (386+ only)
Modifies flags: all flags


Pops word/doubleword from stack into the Flags Register and then
increments SP by 2 (for POPF) or 4 (for POPFD).


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 8/125 5 9 1 (W88=12)
none (PM) -- 5 6 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:push
^PUSH - Push Word onto Stack

Usage:PUSHsrc
PUSHimmed(80188+ only)
Modifies flags: None


Decrements SP by the size of the operand (two or four, byte values
are sign extended) and transfers one word from source to the stack
top (SS:SP).

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16 11/153 2 1 1
reg32 -- 2 1 1
mem1616+EA5 5 4 2-4 (W88=24+EA)
mem32 -- 5 4 2-4
segreg10/143 2 3 1
immed -3 2 1 2-3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:pusha:pushad
^PUSHA/PUSHAD - Push All Registers onto Stack (80188+ only)


Usage:PUSHA
PUSHAD(386+ only)
Modifies flags: None


Pushes all general purpose registers onto the stack in the following
order: (E)AX, (E)CX, (E)DX, (E)BX, (E)SP, (E)BP, (E)SI, (E)DI.The
value of SP is the value before the actual push of SP.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none -19 24 11 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:pushf:pushfd
^PUSHF/PUSHFD - Push Flags onto Stack


Usage:PUSHF
PUSHFD(386+ only)
Modifies flags: None


Transfers the Flags Register onto the stack. PUSHF saves a 16 bit
value while PUSHFD saves a 32 bit value.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none10/143 4 4 1
none (PM) -- 4 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:rcl
^RCL - Rotate Through Carry Left

Usage:RCLdest,count
Modifies flags: CF OF


Rotates the bits in the destination to the left "count" times with
all data pushed out the left side re-entering on the right. The
Carry Flag holds the last bit rotated out.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,1 22 9 3 2
mem,115+EA7 10 42-4 (W88=23+EA)
reg,CL 8+4n 5+n 9 8-30 2
mem,CL 20+EA+4n 8+n 10 9-312-4 (W88=28+EA+4n)
reg,immed8 - 5+n 9 8-30 3
mem,immed8 - 8+n 10 9-313-5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:rcr
^RCR - Rotate Through Carry Right

Usage:RCRdest,count
Modifies flags: CF OF


Rotates the bits in the destination to the right "count" times with
all data pushed out the right side re-entering on the left. The
Carry Flag holds the last bit rotated out.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,1 22 9 3 2
mem,115+EA7 10 42-4 (W88=23+EA)
reg,CL 8+4n 5+n 9 8-30 2
mem,CL 20+EA+4n 8+n 10 9-312-4 (W88=28+EA+4n)
reg,immed8 - 5+n 9 8-30 3
mem,immed8 - 8+n 10 9-313-5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:rep
^REP - Repeat String Operation

Usage:REP
Modifies flags: None

Repeats execution of string instructions while CX != 0. After
each string operation, CX is decremented and the Zero Flag is
tested. The combination of a repeat prefix and a segment override
on CPU's before the 386 may result in errors if an interrupt occurs
before CX=0. The following code shows code that is susceptible to
this and how to avoid it:

again: rep movs byte ptr ES:[DI],ES:[SI] ; vulnerable instr.
jcxz next ; continue if REP successful
loop again ; interrupt goofed count
next:

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 2 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~ ~REPE~ ~REPNE~
:repe:repz
^REPE/REPZ - Repeat Equal / Repeat Zero


Usage:REPE
REPZ
Modifies flags: None


Repeats execution of string instructions while CX != 0 and the Zero
Flag is set. CX is decremented and the Zero Flag tested after
each string operation. The combination of a repeat prefix and a
segment override on processors other than the 386 may result in
errors if an interrupt occurs before CX=0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 2 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:repne:repnz
^REPNE/REPNZ - Repeat Not Equal / Repeat Not Zero


Usage:REPNE
REPNZ
Modifies flags: None


Repeats execution of string instructions while CX != 0 and the Zero
Flag is clear. CX is decremented and the Zero Flag tested after
each string operation. The combination of a repeat prefix and a
segment override on processors other than the 386 may result in
errors if an interrupt occurs before CX=0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 2 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:ret:retf:retn
^RET/RETF - Return From Procedure

Usage:RETnBytes
RETFnBytes
RETNnBytes
Modifies flags: None

Transfers control from a procedure back to the instruction address
saved on the stack. "n bytes" is an optional number of bytes to
release. Far returns pop the IP followed by the CS, while near
returns pop only the IP register.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

retn16/20 11+m 10+m 5 1
retn immed20/24 11+m 10+m 5 3
retf26/34 15+m 18+m 13 1
retf (PM, same priv.)- 32+m 18 1
retf (PM, lesser priv.)- 68 33 1
retf immed25/33 15+m 18+m 14 3
retf immed (PM, same priv.) 32+m 17 1
retf immed (PM, lesser priv.) 68 33 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:rol
^ROL - Rotate Left

Usage:ROLdest,count
Modifies flags: CF OF


Rotates the bits in the destination to the left "count" times with
all data pushed out the left side re-entering on the right. The
Carry Flag will contain the value of the last bit rotated out.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,1 22 3 3 2
mem,115+EA7 7 4 2-4 (W88=23+EA)
reg,CL 8+4n 5+n 3 3 2
mem,CL 20+EA+4n 8+n 7 4 2-4 (W88=28+EA+4n)
reg,immed8 - 5+n 3 2 3
mem,immed8 - 8+n 7 4 3-5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:ror
^ROR - Rotate Right

Usage:RORdest,count
Modifies flags: CF OF


Rotates the bits in the destination to the right "count" times with
all data pushed out the right side re-entering on the left. The
Carry Flag will contain the value of the last bit rotated out.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,1 22 3 3 2
mem,115+EA7 7 4 2-4 (W88=23+EA)
reg,CL 8+4n 5+n 3 3 2
mem,CL 20+EA+4n 8+n 7 4 2-4 (W88=28+EA+4n)
reg,immed8 - 5+n 3 2 3
mem,immed8 - 8+n 7 4 3-5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:sahf
^SAHF - Store AH Register into FLAGS


Usage:SAHF
Modifies flags: AF CF PF SF ZF


Transfers bits 0-7 of AH into the Flags Register. This includes
AF, CF, PF, SF and ZF.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 42 3 2 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:sal:shl
^SAL/SHL - Shift Arithmetic Left / Shift Logical Left

Usage:SALdest,count
SHLdest,count
Modifies flags: CF OF PF SF ZF (AF undefined)


Shifts the destination left by "count" bits with zeroes shifted
in on right. The Carry Flag contains the last bit shifted out.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,1 22 3 3 2
mem,115+EA7 7 42-4 (W88=23+EA)
reg,CL 8+4n 5+n 3 3 2
mem,CL 20+EA+4n 8+n 7 42-4 (W88=28+EA+4n)
reg,immed8 - 5+n 3 2 3
mem,immed8 - 8+n 7 43-5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:sar
^SAR - Shift Arithmetic Right

Usage:SARdest,count
Modifies flags: CF OF PF SF ZF (AF undefined)


Shifts the destination right by "count" bits with the current sign
bit replicated in the leftmost bit. The Carry Flag contains the
last bit shifted out.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,1 22 3 3 2
mem,115+EA7 7 4 2-4 (W88=23+EA)
reg,CL 8+4n 5+n 3 3 2
mem,CL 20+EA+4n 8+n 7 4 2-4 (W88=28+EA+4n)
reg,immed8 - 5+n 3 2 3
mem,immed8 - 8+n 7 4 3-5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:sbb
^SBB - Subtract with Borrow

Usage:SBBdest,src
Modifies flags: AF CF OF PF SF ZF


Subtracts the source from the destination, and subtracts 1 extra if
the Carry Flag is set. Results are returned in "dest".


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg 32 2 1 2
mem,reg 16+EA7 6 3 2-4 (W88=24+EA)
reg,mem 9+EA7 7 2 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg,immed 43 2 1 3-4
mem,immed17+EA7 7 3 3-6 (W88=25+EA)
accum,immed 43 2 1 2-3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:scas:scasb:scasw:scasd
^SCAS - Scan String (Byte, Word or Doubleword)


Usage:SCASstring
SCASB
SCASW
SCASD(386+ only)
Modifies flags: AF CF OF PF SF ZF


Compares value at ES:DI (even if operand is specified) from the
accumulator and sets the flags similar to a subtraction. DI is
incremented/decremented based on the instruction format (or
operand size) and the state of the Direction Flag. Use with REP
prefixes.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

string 157 7 6 1 (W88=19)


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setae:setnb
^SETAE/SETNB - Set if Above or Equal / Set if Not Below
^(unsigned, 386+ only)


Usage:SETAEdest
SETNBdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Carry Flag is clear
otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setb:setnae
^SETB/SETNAE - Set if Below / Set if Not Above or Equal
^(unsigned, 386+ only)


Usage:SETBdest
SETNAEdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Carry Flag is set
otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setbe:setna
^SETBE/SETNA - Set if Below or Equal / Set if Not Above
^(unsigned, 386+ only)


Usage:SETBEdest
SETNAdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Carry Flag or the Zero
Flag is set, otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:sete:setz
^SETE/SETZ - Set if Equal / Set if Zero (386+ only)


Usage:SETEdest
SETZdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Zero Flag is set,
otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setne:setnz
^SETNE/SETNZ - Set if Not Equal / Set if Not Zero (386+ only)


Usage:SETNEdest
SETNZdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Zero Flag is clear,
otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setl:setnge
^SETL/SETNGE - Set if Less / Set if Not Greater or Equal
^(signed, 386+ only)


Usage:SETLdest
SETNGEdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Sign Flag is not equal
to the Overflow Flag, otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setge:setnl
^SETGE/SETNL - Set if Greater or Equal / Set if Not Less
^(signed, 386+ only)


Usage:SETGEdest
SETNLdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Sign Flag equals the
Overflow Flag, otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setle:setng
^SETLE/SETNG - Set if Less or Equal / Set if Not greater or Equal
^(signed, 386+ only)


Usage:SETLEdest
SETNGdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Zero Flag is set or the
Sign Flag is not equal to the Overflow Flag, otherwise sets the
operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setg:setnle
^SETG/SETNLE - Set if Greater / Set if Not Less or Equal
^(signed, 386+ only)


Usage:SETGdest
SETNLEdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Zero Flag is clear or the
Sign Flag equals to the Overflow Flag,otherwise sets the operand
to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:sets
^SETS - Set if Signed (386+ only)


Usage:SETSdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Sign Flag is set, otherwise
sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setns
^SETNS - Set if Not Signed (386+ only)


Usage:SETNSdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Sign Flag is clear,
otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setc
^SETC - Set if Carry (386+ only)


Usage:SETCdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Carry Flag is set,
otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setnc
^SETNC - Set if Not Carry (386+ only)


Usage:SETNCdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Carry Flag is clear,
otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:seto
^SETO - Set if Overflow (386+ only)


Usage:SETOdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Overflow Flag is set,
otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setno
^SETNO - Set if Not Overflow (386+ only)


Usage:SETNOdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Overflow Flag is clear,
otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setp:setpe
^SETP/SETPE - Set if Parity / Set if Parity Even (386+ only)


Usage:SETPdest
SETPEdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Parity Flag is set,
otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:setnp:setpo
^SETNP/SETPO - Set if No Parity / Set if Parity Odd (386+ only)


Usage:SETNPdest
SETPOdest
Modifies flags: none


Sets the byte in the operand to 1 if the Parity Flag is clear,
otherwise sets the operand to 0.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg8 -- 4 3 3
mem8 -- 5 4 3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:sgdt
^SGDT - Store Global Descriptor Table (286+ privileged)


Usage:SGDTdest
Modifies flags: none


Stores the Global Descriptor Table (~GDT~) Register into the
specified operand.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

mem64 -11 9 10 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:sidt
^SIDT - Store Interrupt Descriptor Table (286+ privileged)


Usage:SIDTdest
Modifies flags: none


Stores the Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT) Register into the
specified operand.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

mem64 -12 9 10 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:shr
^SHR - Shift Logical Right

Usage:SHRdest,count
Modifies flags: CF OF PF SF ZF (AF undefined)


Shifts the destination right by "count" bits with zeroes shifted
in on the left. The Carry Flag contains the last bit shifted out.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,1 22 3 2
mem,115+EA7 7 2-4 (W88=23+EA)
reg,CL 8+4n 5+n 3 2
mem,CL 20+EA+4n 8+n 7 2-4 (W88=28+EA+4n)
reg,immed8 - 5+n 3 3
mem,immed8 - 8+n 7 3-5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:shld:shrd
^SHLD/SHRD - Double Precision Shift (386+ only)


Usage:SHLDdest,src,count
SHRDdest,src,count
Modifies flags: CF PF SF ZF (OF,AF undefined)


SHLD shifts "dest" to the left "count" times and the bit positions
opened are filled with the most significant bits of "src". SHRD
shifts "dest" to the right "count" times and the bit positions
opened are filled with the least significant bits of the second
operand. Only the 5 lower bits of "count" are used.


%ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16,reg16,immed8 - - 3 2 4
reg32,reg32,immed8 - - 3 2 4
mem16,reg16,immed8 - - 7 3 6
mem32,reg32,immed8 - - 7 3 6
reg16,reg16,CL - - 3 3 3
reg32,reg32,CL - - 3 3 3
mem16,reg16,CL - - 7 4 5
mem32,reg32,CL - - 7 4 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:sldt
^SLDT - Store Local Descriptor Table (286+ privileged)


Usage:SLDTdest
Modifies flags: none


Stores the Local Descriptor Table (LDT) Register into the
specified operand.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16 -2 2 2 3
mem16 -2 2 3 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:smsw
^SMSW - Store Machine Status Word (286+ privileged)


Usage:SMSWdest
Modifies flags: none


Store Machine Status Word (~MSW~) into "dest".


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16 -2 10 2 3
mem16 -3 3 3 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:stc
^STC - Set Carry


Usage:STC
Modifies flags: CF


Sets the Carry Flag to 1.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 2 2 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:std
^STD - Set Direction Flag


Usage:STD
Modifies flags: DF


Sets the Direction Flag to 1 causing string instructions to
auto-decrement SI and DI instead of auto-increment.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 2 2 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:sti
^STI - Set Interrupt Flag (Enable Interrupts)


Usage:STI
Modifies flags: IF


Sets the Interrupt Flag to 1, enabling recognition of all CPU
hardware interrupts.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 22 2 5 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:stos:stosb:stosw:stosd
^STOS - Store String (Byte, Word or Doubleword)


Usage:STOSdest
STOSB
STOSW
STOSD
Modifies flags: None


Stores value in accumulator to location at ES:(E)DI (even if operand
is given). (E)DI is incremented/decremented based on the size of
the operand (or instruction format) and the state of the Direction
Flag.Use with ~REP~ prefixes.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

dest 113 4 5 1 (W88=15)


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:str
^STR - Store Task Register (286+ privileged)


Usage:STRdest
Modifies flags: None


Stores the current Task Register to the specified operand.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16 -2 2 2 3
mem16 -3 2 3 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:sub
^SUB - Subtract

Usage:SUBdest,src
Modifies flags: AF CF OF PF SF ZF


The source is subtracted from the destination and the result is
stored in the destination.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg 32 2 1 2
mem,reg 16+EA7 6 3 2-4 (W88=24+EA)
reg,mem 9+EA7 7 2 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg,immed 43 2 1 3-4
mem,immed17+EA7 7 3 3-6 (W88=25+EA)
accum,immed 43 2 1 2-3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:test
^TEST - Test For Bit Pattern

Usage:TESTdest,src
Modifies flags: CF OF PF SF ZF (AF undefined)


Performs a logical ~AND~ of the two operands updating the flags
register without saving the result.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg 32 1 1 2
reg,mem 9+EA6 5 1 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
mem,reg 9+EA6 5 2 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg,immed 53 2 1 3-4
mem,immed11+EA6 5 2 3-6
accum,immed 43 2 1 2-3


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:verr
^VERR - Verify Read (286+ protected)


Usage:VERRsrc
Modifies flags: ZF


Verifies the specified segment selector is valid and is readable
at the current privilege level. If the segment is readable,
the Zero Flag is set, otherwise it is cleared.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16 -14 10 11 3
mem16 -16 11 11 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:verw
^VERW - Verify Write (286+ protected)


Usage:VERWsrc
Modifies flags: ZF


Verifies the specified segment selector is valid and is ratable
at the current privilege level. If the segment is writable,
the Zero Flag is set, otherwise it is cleared.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg16 -14 15 11 3
mem16 -16 16 11 5


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:wait:fwait
^WAIT/FWAIT - Event Wait


Usage:WAIT
FWAIT
Modifies flags: None


CPU enters wait state until the coprocessor signals it has finished
it's operation. This instruction is used to prevent the CPU from
accessing memory that may be temporarily in use by the coprocessor.
WAIT and FWAIT are identical.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none 43 6+ 1-3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:wbinvd
^WBINVD - Write-Back and Invalidate Cache


Usage:WBINVD
Modifies flags: None


Flushes internal cache, then signals the external cache to write
back current data followed by a signal to flush the external cache.

% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

none -- - 5 2


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:xchg
^XCHG - Exchange


Usage:XCHGdest,src
Modifies flags: None


Exchanges contents of source and destination.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg 43 3 3 2
mem,reg 17+EA5 5 5 2-4 (W88=25+EA)
reg,mem 17+EA5 5 3 2-4 (W88=25+EA)
accum,reg 33 3 3 1
reg,accum 33 3 3 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:xlat:xlatb
^XLAT/XLATB - Translate


Usage:XLATtranslation-table
XLATB(masm 5.x)
Modifies flags: None


Replaces the byte in AL with byte from a user table addressed by
BX. The original value of AL is the index into the translate table.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

table 115 5 4 1


- see ~Instruction Timing~

:xor
^XOR - Exclusive OR

Usage:XORdest,src
Modifies flags: CF OF PF SF ZF (AF undefined)


Performs a bitwise exclusive OR of the operands and returns
the result in the destination.


% ClocksSize
%Operands 808x 286 386 486Bytes

reg,reg 32 2 1 2
mem,reg 16+EA7 6 3 2-4 (W88=24+EA)
reg,mem 9+EA7 7 2 2-4 (W88=13+EA)
reg,immed 43 2 1 3-4
mem,immed17+EA7 7 3 3-6 (W88=25+EA)
accum,immed 43 2 1 2-3


- see ~Instruction Timing~


 December 6, 2017  Add comments

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