Dec 182017
Text file that gives explanations for some computer abbreviations.
File BABEL95A.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Tutorials + Patches
Text file that gives explanations for some computer abbreviations.
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Contents of the BABEL95A.TXT file


Copyright (C) 1989-1995 Irving Kind All Rights Reserved

First compiled when I became frustrated while reading magazine
articles, help wanted ads and equipment for sale brochures....all
pertaining to computers....where the following Abbreviations and
Acronyms were used and their meanings were either not known to me
or were not immediately available. I have actually seen these
combinations of letters used at one time or another in magazines,
newspapers, handbooks, etc. They apply to personal computers,
mainframes, communications, programming, networking,
name it. This glossary can never be considered complete. That is
why I am now requesting your help. Look over the definitions and
let me have your feedback. If you have ever seen letter combinations
that you also did not understand, please drop me a note at the
address below. Also, if you find any errors, obsolete information
or can suggest any additions or deletions, they will be most welcome.
If you can help, my thanks in advance.

In the meantime, print out a copy of this version and keep it
on your desk. It makes a very handy reference. Updates to this
glossary will be issued three times a year; in January, May and
September. You may download the latest version of BABEL from your
favorite BBS or from the Internet. If any Bulletin Board SYSOP,
Club Librarian, Organization or Teacher sends me a formatted disk
with a disk mailer, stamped with return postage, I will return the
disk with the latest updated version of BABEL at no charge. See
APPENDIX A for information regarding updates. See APPENDIX B for
information about obtaining BABEL from the Internet.

Letter groups followed with " * " were used before 1965. At
some of these, I have noted historical information. For a brief
interpretation of "smiley faces" and other informal expressions
used in electronic mail messages, see APPENDIX C.

BABEL is not public domain. Permission is hereby granted to
any individual or institution to redistribute BABEL in its entirety,
provided it is distributed unmodified, including the copyright
notices and version information. It may not be sold for profit or
incorporated in any other document without my written permission.
Some Bulletin Boards allow only six characters for a file name. If
you have downloaded as BAB94C.TXT, please rename to BABEL94C.TXT
before using.

And please remember to ECAL.

Irving Kind Internet: [email protected]
c/o K & D
One Church Lane
Baltimore, MD 21208

Jan 1995 version = BABEL95A Jan 1996 version = BABEL96A
May 1995 version = BABEL95B May 1996 version = BABEL96B
Sep 1995 version = BABEL95C Sep 1996 version = BABEL96C


Copyright (C) 1989-1995 Irving Kind All Rights Reserved

AA Auto Answer
AAB All-to-All Broadcast
AAL Asynchronous Transfer Mode Adaption Layer
AAP Applications Access Point [DEC]
AAS All-to-All Scatter
AASP ASCII Asynchronous Support Package
AAT Average Access Time
ABC * Atanasoff-Berry Computer (First digital calculating
machine that used vacuum tubes)
ABEND Abnormal End
ABI Application Binary Interface
ABS Absolute
ABT Abort
AC Automatic Computer + Alternating Current
ACC Accumulator
ACD Automated Call Distribution +
Automatic Call Distributor
ACDI Asynchronous Communications Device Interface
ACE Advanced Computing Environment [SCO] +
Adverse Channel Enhancements [Microcom] +
* Automatic Computing Engine
ACF Access Control Field + Advanced Communications Function
ACH Automated Clearing House
ACIAS Automated Calibration Internal Analysis System
ACIS American Committee for Interoperable Systems
ACK Acknowledgment
ACL Access Control List
ACM Association for Computing Machinery
ACMS Application Control Management System
ACP Ancillary Control Program + Auxillary Control Process
ACROSS Automated Cargo Release and Operations Service System
ACS Access + Access Control Set + Access Control System +
Asynchronous Communication Server
ACTS Automated Computer Time Service
ACTT Advanced Communication and Timekeeping Technology [Seiko]
ACU Automatic Calling Unit
A/D Analog to Digital
ADA Automatic Data Acquisitions +
(Programming Language named after Augusta Ada Lovelace)
ADC Adaptive Data Compression (protocol) [Hayes] +
Add with Carry + Analog to Digital Converter
ADCCP Advanced Data Communication Control Procedures
ADD Automatic Document Detection [WordPerfect]
ADF Automatic Document Feed
.ADF Adapter Description File (file name extension) [IBM]
ADI AutoCad Device Interface (driver)
ADL Address Data Latch
ADLAT Adaptive Lattice Filter
ADMD Administrative Management Domain [X.400]
.ADN Add In Utility (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
ADP Automatic Data Processing
ADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
ADR Address
ADS Application Development Solutions [AT&T] +
Application Development System +
Automatic Distribution System
ADSC Address Status Changed
ADSL Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
ADSR Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release
ADT Application Data Types
ADU Automatic Dialing Unit
AE Above or Equal
AEB Analog Expansion Bus [Dialogic]
AF Auxiliary carry Flag
AFC Automatic Font Change
AFD Automatic File Distribution
AFII Association for Font Information Interchange
.AFM Adobe Font Metrics (file name extension) [Adobe Systems]
AFP Appletalk Filing Protocol [Macintosh]
AGC Automatic Gain Control
AI Analog Input + Artificial Intelligence
AIA Applications Integration Architecture [DEC]
AIF Audio Interchange Format
AIIM Association for Information and Image Management
AIN Advanced Intelligent Network [Bell Atlantic]
AISB Association of Imaging Service Bureaus
AISP Association of Information Systems Professionals
AIX Advanced Interactive Executive [IBM]
ALC Arithmetic and Logic Circuits + Automatic Level Control
ALE Address Latch Enable
ALGOL Algorithmic Oriented Language (see IAL)
ALR Advanced Logic Research, Inc.
ALT Alternate (mode)
ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit
AMANDDA Automated Messaging and Directory Assistance
AMD Active Matrix Display + Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
AMMA Advanced Memory Management Architecture [Everex Systems]
AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Service
ANCOVA Analysis of Covariance
ANI Automatic Number Identification
.ANN Annotations (file name extension) [IBM]
ANOVA Analysis Of Variance
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AO Analog Output
AOCE Apple Open Collaboration Environment
AOE Application Operating Environment [AT&T]
AOL America Online
AOS Add Or Subtract
AP Adjunct Processor + Application Processor
A/P Accounts Payable
APA Adaptive Packet Assembly +
All Points Addressable +
Arithmetic Processing Accelerator
APAR Authorized Program Analysis Report [IBM]
APAREN Address Parity Enable [IBM]
APCUG Association of PC User Groups
API Application Program Interface +
Application Programming Interface
APIC Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller [Intel]
APL A Programming Language (Mathematics)
APM Advanced Power Management [IBM OS2]
.APP Application (file name extension) [R:Base]
APPC Advanced Program-to-Program Communications [IBM]
APPI Advanced Peer-to-Peer Internetworking
APPN Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking [IBM]
APS Asynchronous Protocol Specification
APSE ADA Programming Support Environment
APT Address Pass Through +
Automatically Programmed Tools
A/R Accounts Receivable
ARA Apple Remote Access
.ARC Archive (file name extension)
ARCA Advanced RISC Computing Architecture
ARCnet Attached Resource Computer Network
.ARJ Compressed File (file name extension) [Jung]
ARL Adjusted Ring Length
ARLL Advanced Run Length Limited
ARM Advanced RISC Machine (processor) +
Annotated Reference Manual +
Asynchronous Response Mode
ARMA Association of Records Managers and Administrators
ARP Address Resolution Protocol [Novell]
ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency
ARPL Adjust Requested Privilege Level
ARTIC A Real-Time Interface Copressor [IBM]
ARTS Asynchronous Remote Takeover Server
ARTT Asynchronous Remote Takeover Terminal
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
ARU Audio Response Unit
AS Autonomous System [Internet]
ASAP As Soon As Possible +
Automatic Switching And Processing
AS3AP ANSI SQL Standard Scalable and Portable
.ASC ASCII text (file name extension)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuit
ASIT Advanced Security and Identification Technology
ASL Adaptive Speed Levelling
.ASM Assembler Source Language (file name extension)
ASP Association of Shareware Professionals
ASPI Advanced SCSI Programming Interface [Adaptec]
ASPS Advanced Signal Processing System
ASR Automatic Send-Receive + Automatic Speech Recognition
AST AST Research, Inc. (named from first initials of the
founders: Albert Wong, Safi Qureshey, Thomas Yuen)
ASYNC Asynchronous
AT Advanced Technology + Attention
ATA Advanced Technology Attachment
ATDP Attention Dial Pulse
ATDT Attention Dial Tone
ATE Automated Test Equipment
ATG Advanced Technology Group
ATH Attention Hang-Up
ATM Adobe Typeface Manager + Asynchronous Transfer Mode +
Automated Teller Machine
ATR Automatic Terminal Recognition
ATS Administrative Terminal System +
Apple Terminal Services
AT&T American Telephone and Telegraph
ATTN Attention
ATTRIB Attribute (also ATR)
AUDIT Automated Data Input Terminal
AUI Attachment Unit Interface
AUP Acceptable Use Policy [Internet]
AUTO Automatic
AUTOEXEC Automatic Execution
AUX Auxiliary + (First Serial Port)
AVA Audio Visual Authoring [IBM]
AVC Audio Visual Connection [IBM]
AVG Average
AVI Audio Visual Interleaved [Microsoft]
AVR Automatic Voice Recognition
AWG American Wire Gage
AWK (Unix language named after its authors...
Al Aho, Peter Weinberger and Brian Kernighan)
AWS Advanced Workstations and Systems (group) [IBM]
AX Architecture Extended + Automatic Transmission
BAK Binary Adaption Kit [Microsoft]
.BAK Backup (file name extension)
BAL Basic Assembly Language
BAM Boyan Action Module
BARTS Bell Atlantic Regional Timesharing
.BAS Basic Language (file name extension)
BASIC Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BASM Built-In Assembler
.BAT Batch Processing (file name extension)
BBS Bulletin Board System
BCC Blind Carbon Copy + Block Check Character
BCD Binary Coded Decimal
BCL Batch Command Language
BCP Bulk Copy Program
BCPL Basic Computer Programming Language
BCR Byte Count Register
BDOS Basic Disk Operating System
BE Below or Equal
BEL Bell
BELLCORE Bell Communications Research
BERT Bit Error Rate Test/Tester
BF Bad Flag
B/F Background/Foreground
BFT Binary File Transfer
BGE Branch if Greater or Equal
.BGI Borland Graphic Interface (file name extension)
BGP Border Gateway Protocol
BGT Branch if Greater Than
BHI Branch if Higher
BHIS Branch if Higher or Same
BI Binary Input
.BIB Bibliography (file name extension)
BiDi Bidirectional
BIM Beginning of Information Marker
.BIN Binary (file name extension)
BINAC * Binary Automatic Computer
BIOS Basic Input/Output System
BIS Business Information System
BISDN Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network
BIT Binary Digit
BITNET Because It's Time Network
BITNIC Bitnet Network Information Center
BIU Bus Interface Unit
BIX Byte Information Exchange (BBS)
.BK! Backup (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
BKSP Backspace
BL Backlit
BLAST Blocked Asynchronous Transmission (protocol)
[Communications Research Group]
.BLD BASIC Bload Graphics (file name extension)
BLE Branch if Less or Equal
BLK Block
BLMC Buried Logic Macrocell
BLOB Binary Large Object
BLOS Branch if Lower Or Same
BMI Branch if Minus
BMIC BusMaster Interface Controller [Intel]
BMP Batch Message Processing Program
.BMP Bitmap Picture (file name extension)
BNE Branch if Not Equal
BO Binary Output
BoB Break-out Box
BOM Beginning Of Message
BOOTP Bootstrap Protocol [Internet]
BORPQU Borland Pro Quattro
BORQU Borland Quattro
BOS Basic Operating System
BOT Beginning Of Table + Beginning of Tape
BP Base Pointer
BPB BIOS Parameter Block
BPI Bits Per Inch
BPL Branch if Plus
BPS Bits Per Second + Bytes Per Second
BR Bad Register
BRGC Binary Reflected Gray Code
BRI Basic Rate Interface + Brain Response Interface
BSAM Basic Sequential Access Method
BSC Binary Synchronous Communication
.BSC Boyan Script (file name extension) [Boyan Communications]
BSCS Bachelor of Science (Degree) in Computer Science
BSD Berkely Software/Standard Distribution
BSF Bit Scan Forward
BSI British Standards Institute
BSR Bit Scan Reverse
BSS Block Started by Symbol
BSV BASIC Bsave Graphics (file name extension)
BSY Busy
BSYNC Binary Synchronous Communications (protocol)
BT Bit Test
BTAM Basic Telecommunications Access Method [IBM]
BTB Branch Target Buffer
BTC Bit Test and Complement
BTP Batch Transfer Program
BTR Bit Test and Reset
BTS Bit Test and Set
BU Branch Unit
BUF Buffer
BWM Block-Write Mode
B2X Binary To Hexadecimal [REXX]
BYTE Binary Element String
C C Programming Language
.C C source code (file name extension) [C]
CA Collision Avoidance
CAD Computer Aided Design
CADD Computer Aided Design and Drafting
CAE Common Applications Environment +
Computer Aided Engineering
CAG Column Address Generator
CAI Computer Aided Instruction
CAL Calendar + Computer Aided Learning
CAM Common Access Method + Computer Aided Manufacturing +
Contents Addressable Memory
CAN Cancel
CAP Central Arbitration Point +
Communication Application Platform +
Computer Aided Publishing
.CAP Capture (file name extension)
CAPD Computing To Assist Persons With Disabilities [Johns
Hopkins University]
CAPS Capitals (Upper Case Letters) +
Cassette Programming System
CARL Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries [Internet]
CAS Column Address Select +
Communications Application Specification +
Computer Aided Styling
CASE Computer Aided Software Engineering
CASL Crosstalk Application Scripting Language [DCA]
CASS Computer Assisted Search Service
CASSIS Classified and Search Support Information System
CAT Computer Aided Testing + Computer Aided Tomography +
Computer Aided Transcription + Concatenate
.CAT Catalog (file name extension)
CATS Computer Assisted Training System
CAT SCAN Computerized Axial Tomography Scan
CATV Community Antenna Television
CAU Controlled Access Unit
CAV Constant Angular Velocity
CBC Cipher Block Chaining
CBCR Channel Byte Count Register
CBEMA Computer and Business Equipment
Manufacturers Association
CBI Computer Based Instruction
CBL Computer Based Learning
.CBL COBOL source code (file name extension)
CBMS Computer-Based Mail System
CBR Constant Bit Rate
CBT Computer Based Training
CBW Convert Byte to Word
CBX Computer-Controlled Branch Exchange
CC Cluster Controller
CCD Charged-Coupled Device
CCFT Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube
CCITT Consultative Committee for International
Telegraph and Telephone
CCP Console Command Processor
CCS Common Communications Support +
Continuous Composite Servo
CD Carrier Detect + Change Directory +
Collision Detection + Color Display + Compact Disk
C/D Control Data
C2D Character To Decimal [REXX]
CDA Compound Document Architecture [DEC]
CDC Control Data Corporation
CD_CHRDY Card Channel Ready [IBM]
CDDI Copper Distributed Data Interface
CDE Common Desktop Environment + Complex Data Entry
.CDF Comma Delimited Format (file name extension)
CD-I Compact Disk - Interactive
CD-MO Compact Disk - Magneto Optical
CDOS Concurrent Disk Operating System
CDL Computer Design Language
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data
CD-RDx Compact Disk - Read Only Memory Data Exchange Standard
CD-ROM Compact Disk - Read Only Memory
CDR Call Detail Record + Call Detail Recording
CD-R Compact Disk - Recordable
CDRL Contract Data Requirements List
CD-RTOS Compact Disk - Real Time Operating System
CDS Current Directory Structure
CD-V Compact Disk - Video
CD-WO Compact Disk - Write Once
.CDX Compound Index (file name extension) [Fox Pro]
CD-XA Compact Disk - Extended Architecture
CE Cache Enable + Chip Enable + Collision Elimination +
Convert Enable
CEG Continuous Edge Graphics
CEI Conducted Electromagnetic Interference
CERT Computer Emergency Response Team
CFB Cipher Feedback
.CFG Configuration (file name extension)
CFV Call For Votes [Bitnet]
CGA Color Graphics Adapter
CGI Computer Generated Images +
Computer Graphics Interface
.CGM Computer Graphics Metafile (file name extension) +
Graph (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
CHAP Challenge Authentication Protocol (protocol)
CHAR Character
CHAT Conversational Hypertext Access Technology [Internet]
CHCK Channel Check
CHCP Change Code Page
CHDIR Change Directory
CHGRP Change Group
.CHK CHKDSK (file name extension)
CHKDSK Check Disk
CHMOD Change Mode
CHOWN Change Owner
CHP Chapter
CHR Character
CICS/VS Customer Information Control System/
Virtual Storage [IBM]
CID Configuration/Installation/Distribution
CIM CompuServe Information Manager +
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
CIO Chief Information Offier
CIOCS Communication Input/Output Control System
CIP Command Interface Port
CIRC Circular Reference
CIS Card Information Structure +
CompuServe Information Service +
Computer Information Systems
CISC Complex Instruction Set Computing
CIX Commercial Internet Exchange +
Compulink Information Exchange
CJLI Command Job Language Interpreter
CKD Count Key Data (device)
CLAR Channel Local Address Register
CLASS Client Access to Systems and Services +
Cooperative Library Agency for Systems and Services
CLC Clear Carry Flag
CLD Clear Direction Flag
CLI Call-Level Interface + Clear Interrupt Flag +
Command Line Interface
CLIST Command List
CLK Clock
CLNP Connectionless Network Protocol
.CLP Clipboard (file name extension) [Windows]
CLS Clear Screen
CLTS Clear Task Switch Flag
CLUI Command Line User Interface
CLUT Color Look-Up Table [Macintosh]
CLV Constant Linear Velocity
CM Centimeter + Control Mark + Corrective Maintenance
CMA Concert Multi-thread Architecture
CMC Common Mail Calls + Common Messaging Calls +
Communication Mangement Configuration +
Complement Carry Flag +
Computer-Mediated Communication [Internet]
.CMD Command (file name extension)
CNIDR Clearinghouse for Network Information and
Discovery and Retrieval [Internet]
CMIP Common Management Information Protocol
CMIS Common Management Information System
CML Computer Mananged Learning + Current Mode Logic
CMMS Computerized Maintenance Management Software
CMMU Cache/Memory Management Unit [Motorola]
CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
CMP Compare + Computer
CMPS Compare word String
CMS Code Management System + Compiler Monitor System +
Conversation Monitor System
CMY Cyan-Magenta-Yellow (color model)
CMYK Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black (color model)
CNA Certified NetWare Administrator [Novell]
CNC Computerized Numerical Control
CNE Certified NetWare Engineer
.CNF Configuration (file name extension)
CNG Calling (tone)
CNIDR Clearinghouse for Networked Information and Retrieval
CNSS Core Nodal Switching Subsystem [Internet]
CNV Conventional (pertaining to Memory)
CNVT Convert
CNX Certified Network Expert
CO Central Office + Command Output + Convert Out
.COB COBAL source code (file name extension)
COBOL Common Business-oriented Language (See HLL)
.COD Code List (file name extension)
CODASYL * Conference on Data System Languages (Group that
designed COBOL)
CODEC Coder/Decoder + Compression/Decompression
COEM Commercial Original Equipment Manufacturer
COFF Common Object File Format [Unix]
COGO Coordinate Geometry (Programming Language)
COL Collision + Computer Oriented Language
COLD Computer Output to Laser Disk
COM Commercial (organization Domain name) [Internet] +
Common Object Model [Microsoft]
.COM Command (file name extension)
COM1 First serial Port (asynchronous port)
COM2 Second serial Port
COM3 Third serial Port
COM4 Fourth serial Port
COMDEX Computer Dealers Exposition
COMET Cornell Macintosh Terminal Emulator
COMP Compare + Communications
COMSAT Communications Satellite Corporation
CON Console (includes Keyboard and Screen)
CONFIG Configuration
CONTONE Continuous Tone
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CoREN Corporation for Research and Enterprise Network
COS Compatible Operating System
COSE Combined Office Standard Environment +
Common Open Software Environment
COSMIC Computer Software Management and Information
Center [NASA]
COSMOS Computer System for Mainframe Operations
COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf
CP Copy Protected
CPA Certified Public Accountant
CPCS Check Processing Control System [IBM]
CPE Central Processing Element +
Customer Premise Equipment +
Customer Provided Equipment
CPG Clock Pulse Generator
CPI Characters Per Inch + Clock Per Instruction +
Common Programming Interface [IBM]
.CPI Code Page Information (file name extension) [MS-DOS]
CPI-C Common Programming Interface for Communications [IBM]
CPL Current Privilege Level
CP/M Control Program for Microcomputers
CPS Characters Per Second + Cycles Per Second
CPT Command Pass Through
CPU Central Processing Unit
CR Carriage Return
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
.CRD Cardfile (file name extension)
CREN Computer Research Education Network +
Corporation for Research and Education Networking
CRF Cable Retransmission Facility + Cross Reference File
CR/LF Carriage Return/Line Feed
CROM Control Read Only Memory
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
CRTC CRT Controller
CS Chip Select + Clear to Send + Code Segment
C/S Client/Server
CSAR Channel System Address Register
CSD Corrective Service Diskette [IBM]
CSDS Packet Switched Data Service
CSE Certified System Engineer
CSG Constructive Solid Geometry +
Consulting Services Group [Lotus]
CSL Computer Sensitive Language
CSLIP Compressed Serial Line Interface Protocol [Internet]
CSM Communications Services Manager
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access/with Collision Detection
CSNET Computer Science Network
CSP Commercial Subroutine Package +
CompuCom Speed Protocol [CompuCom]
CSPDN Circuit Switched Public Data Network
CSS * Continuous System Simulator (Language)
CSTA Computer-Supported Telephony Applications
CSU Channel Service Unit
CSV Comma-Separated Values/Variables +
Common Services Verbs (interface) [Microsoft]
C&T Chips and Technologies
CTB Cipher Type Byte
CTI Computer-Telephone Integration
CTOS Computerized Tomography Operating System
CTPA Coax-to-Twisted-Pair Adapter
CTRL Control
CTS Clear To Send
CTSS * Compatible Time Sharing System
CUA Common User Access [IBM]
CUB Cursor Backward
CUD Cursor Down
CUE Custom Updates and Extras (card) [Egghead Software]
CUF Cursor Forward
CUI Character-Oriented User Interface +
Common User Interface [IBM]
CUP Cursor Position
CUPID Completely Universal Processor I/O Design [AST]
.CUR Cursor (file name extension)
CUTE Clarkston University Terminal Emulator
CUU Cursor Up
CVF Compressed Volume File
CVGA Color Video Gaphics Array
CVIA Computer Virus Industry Association
CVT Convert
CVW CodeView for Windows
CWD Convert Word to Double Word +
Change Working Directory [Internet]
CWIS Campus Wide Information Service/System [Internet]
C2X Character To Hexadecimal [REXX]
CYL Cylinder
CYMK Cyan-Yellow-Magenta-Black (color model)
D/A Digital to Analog
DAA Data Access Arrangement +
Decimal Adjust for Addition
DAC Data Acquisition and Control +
Digital to Analog Converter
DAD Desktop Application Director [Borland]
DAL Data Access Language [Apple Computer] +
Disk Access Lockout
DAM Data Acquisition and Monitoring
DAO Data Access Objects [Microsoft]
DAP Data Access Protocol [DEC] +
Developer Assistance Program
DARI Database Application Remote Interface [IBM]
DAS Decimal Adjust for Subtraction
DASD Direct Access Storage Device
DAT Digital Audio Tape + Disk Array Technology
.DAT Data (file name extension)
DATACOM Data Communications
dB Decibel
DB Data Base + Data Buffer
dBA Adjusted Decibel
DBCS Double-Byte Character Set
.DBF Database (file name extension)
DBM Data Base Manager
DBMS Data Base Management System
DBS Data Base Server
DB2 Database 2
DC Data Collection + Data Communication + Data Control +
Device Control + Direct Current
D2C Decimal To Character [REXX]
DCA Digital Communications Associates +
Document Content Architecture [IBM]
DCAF Distributed Console Access Facility [IBM]
DCB Disk Coprocessor Board [Novell]
DCC Digital Command Control + Digital Compact Cassette +
Display Combination Code
DCD Data Carrier Detect
DCE Data Communications Equipment +
Distributed Computing Environment [OSF] +
Distributed Computing Equipment
DCF Data Communication Facility [IBM] +
Data Compression Facility +
Data Count Field [IBM] +
Driver Configuration File [Lotus]
DCI Display Control Interface
DCL Declaration + DEC Command Language [DEC] +
Device Clear + Digital Control Logic +
Digital Command Language [Digital]
DCS Data Collection System + Data Control System +
Desktop Color Separation
DCT Discrete Cosine Transform
.DCT Dictionary (file name extension)
DD Day + Digital Display + Double Density
DDA Domain-Defined Attribute
DDB Device Dependent Bitmap
DDC Digital Data Channel [VESA]
DDCMP Digital Data Communications Message Protocol [DEC]
DDCS Distributed Database Connection Services [IBM]
DDD Direct Distance Dialing
DDE Direct Data Entry + Dynamic Data Exchange [Microsoft]
DDEML Dynamic Data Exchange Manager Library [Microsoft]
DDF Dynamic Data Formatting [IBM]
DDK Device Driver Kit [Microsoft Windows]
DDL Data Definition Language + Data Description Language
DDM Distributed Data Management
DDN Defense Data Network
DDS Digital Dataphone Service [AT&T] +
Design Data Sheet + Digital Data Storage
DEC Decrement + Device Clear +
Digital Equipment Corporation
DEF Desktop Functional Equivalent [Compaq]
.DEF Definitions + Defaults (file name extensions)
DEFRAG Defragment
DEK Data Encryption Key
DEL Delete
DELSTR Delete String [REXX]
.DEM Demonstration (file name extension)
DES Data Encryption Standard + Data Entry Sheet
.DES Description (file name extension)
DET Device Execute Trigger
DEV Device
DF Data Field + Destination Field + Device Flag +
Double Flag
DFC Data Flow Control
DFS Distributed File System
DFT Diagnostic Funtion Test + Discrete Fourier Transform +
Distributed Function Terminal
DFU Data File Utility
DGIS Direct Graphics Interface Standard
.DHP Dr. Halo PIC (file name extension)
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DI Data In + Destination Index
DIA Document Interchange Architecture [IBM]
DIB Device Independent Bitmap +
Directory Information Base
DIBOL DEC Business Oriented Language
.DIC Dictionary (file name extension)
DID Direct Inward Dialing
DIF Data Interchange Format
DIFFSENS Differential Sense
DIIP Direct Interrupt Identification Port
DIN Deutsche Industrie Norm (German equivalent of EIA)
DIO Data Input-Output
DIP Digital Imaging Processing +
Dual In-line Package + Dual In-line Pin
DIR Directory (file)
DIS Dynamic Impedance Stabilization [CompuCom]
DISP Displacement (offset)
DIT Directory Information Tree
DIV Divide
DIW D-Inside Wire [AT&T]
DL Download (also D/L)
DL/1 Data Manipulation Language 1 [IBM]
DLC Data Link Control (protocol) [IBM]
DLE Data Link Escape
DLL Dynamic Link Library
DLM Dynamic Link Module
DLR DOS LAN Requester
DLT Digital Linear Tape
DM Distributed Memory
DMA Direct Memory Access/Addressing
DMAC DMA Controller
DMD Digital Micromirror Device [Texas Instruments]
DME Distributed Management Environment
DMI Desktop Mangement Interface
DML Data Manipulation Language
DMM Digital Multimeter
DMMS Dynamic Memory Management System
DMOS Double-diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
DMP Dot Matrix Printer
DMPC Distributed Memory Parallel Computer
DMQS Display Mode Query and Set [IBM]
DMS Data Management Software + Data Management System
DMSD Digital Multistandard Decoding
DMTF Desktop Management Task Force
DMY Day Month Year
DN Down
DNC Direct Numerical Control
DNIC Data Network Identification Code
DNIS Dialed Number Identification Service
DNS Domain Naming System
DO Data Out
.DOC Document + Documentation (file name extensions)
DOE Distributed Objects Everywhere
DO-IT Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and Technology
DOMF Distributed Object Management Facility
DOS Disk Operating System
DOSEM DOS Emulation
DOW Day Of Week
DP Data Processing
DPA Demand Protocol Architecture [3Com]
DPAM Demand Priority Access Method
DPAREN Data Parity Enable [IBM]
DPB Drive Parameter Block
DPC Direct Program Control
DPI Dots Per Inch
DPL Descriptor Privilege Level
DPM Digital Panel Meter
DPMA Data Processing Management Association
DPMI DOS Protected Mode Interface [Microsoft]
DPO Data Phase Optimization
DPS Document Processing System
DPSK Differential Phase Shift Keying
DPtoTP Display Coordinates to Tablet Coordinates
DQL DataEase Query Language [DataEase International]
DR Data Received
D/R Direct or Reverse
DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory
DRAW Direct Read After Write
DR.BOND Dial-up Router Bandwith On Demand [NEC]
DRDA Distributed Relational Database Architecture [IBM]
DRDW Direct Read During Write
DRI Digital Research Incorporated
DRO Data Request Output + Destructive Read-Out
.DRS Driver Resource (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
DRV Drive
.DRV Device Driver (file name extension) (Also see .DVR)
.DRW Draw + Drawing (file name extensions)
DS Data Segment + Data Send + Data Server + Double Sided
DSAP Destination Service Access Point
DSDD Double Sided, Double Density (diskette)
DSE Data Storage Equipment
DSEA Display Station Emulation Adapter
DSECT Dummy Control Section
DSHD Double Sided, High Density (diskette)
DSIS Distributed Support Information Standard
DSL Dynamic Simulation Language
DSMA Digital Sense Multiple Access
DSOM Distributed System Object Model
DSP Digital Signal Processing +
Digital Signal Processor
DSQD Double Sided, Quad Density (diskette)
DSR Data Set Ready + Device Status Register +
Device Status Report
DSS Decision Support System
DSTN Double Supertwisted Nematic
DSU Data Service Unit + Digital Service Unit
DSW Data Status Word + Device Status Word
D2T2 Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer (printing)
DTA Disk Transfer Area
.DTA Data (file name extension)
DTD Document Type Definition
DTE Data Terminal Equipment + Dumb Terminal Emulator
DTL Diode-Transistor Logic
DTMF Data Tone Multiple Frequency + Dual Tone Multi Frequency
DTP Desktop Publishing
DTR Data Terminal Ready + Data Transfer Rate
DTV Desktop Video
DTVC Desktop Video Conferencing
DU Disk Usage
DUAT Direct User Access Terminal
.DV DESQview Script (file name extension)
DVI Digital Video Interactive
.DVI Device Independent (file name extension)
DVMRP Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol [Internet]
.DVR Device Driver (file name extension) (Also see .DRV)
DWG Drawing
D2X Decimal To Hexadecimal [REXX]
.DXB Drawing Interchange Binary (file name extension)
DXC Data Exchange Control
DXF Drawing Exchange Format
EA Extended Attribute [OS/2]
EARN European Academic Research Network
EAROM Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory
EARS Electronic Access to Reference Services
EATA Enhanced AT Bus Attachment
EBC EISA Bus Controller
EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code [IBM]
EBI Equivalent Background Input +
Extended Background Investigation
EBT Electronic Benefits Transfer
ECAL Enjoy Computing And Learn
ECB Electronic Codebook
ECC Error Check Code + Error Checking and Correction +
Error Correction Code
ECD Enhanced Color Display
ECHO European Commission Host Organization [Internet]
ECL Emitter Coupled Logic
ECMA European Computer Manufacturers Association
ECNE Enterprise Certified NetWare Engineer [Novell]
ECP Enhanced Capabilities Port [Microsoft]
ECTL Electronic Communal Temporal Lobe
ED Erase Display
EDA Embedded Document Architecture [Go Corporation]
EDC Enhanced Data Correction +
Error Detection and Correction
EDDC Extended Distance Data Cable
EDGAR Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval
EDI Electronic Data Interchange +
Electronic Document Interchange [DEC]
EDIFACT EDI for Administration Commerce and Transport
EDLC Ethernet Data Link Control
EDLIN Editor (Line Text)
EDO Extended Data Out
EDOS Enhanced DOS for Windows
EDP Electronic Data Processing
EDPM Electronic Data Processing Machine
EDRAM Extended Dynamic Random Access Memory
EDSAC * Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer
EDSI Enhanced Small Device Interface
EDU Education (organization Domain name) [Internet]
EDVAC * Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
(First stored-program digital computer)
EEC Extended Error Correction
EEG Electroencephalogram
EEM Extended Memory Management
EEMS Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification
EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EES Escrow Encryption Standard
EFA Extended File Attribute
EFF Electronic Frontier Foundation
EFI Electromechanical Frequency Interference +
Electronics For Imaging
EFL Emitter Follower Logic
EFTS Electronic Funds Transfer System
EGA Enhanced Graphics Adapter
EGP Exterior/External Gateway Protocol
EHLLAPI Emulator High Level Language Application
Programming Interface [IBM]
EIA Electronic Industries Association
EIS Executive Information System
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture
EL Electroluminescent (display) + Erase Line
ELF Extremely Low Frequency
ELS Entry Level System
EM Electronic Mail + Expanded Memory
EMA Electronic Mail Association +
Enterprise Management Architecture
EMACS Editing Macros [Unix]
E-MAIL Electronic Mail
EMB Extended Memory Block [LIM/AST]
EMBARC Electronic Mail Broadcast to a Roaming Computer [Motorola]
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility + E-Mail Connection +
Extended Math Coprocessor
EMI Electromagnetic Interference
.EML Electronic Mail (file name extension)
EMM Expanded Memory Manager
EMR Electro-Magnetic Radiation +
Enhanced Metafile Record
EMS Electronic Mail System + Electronic Message Service +
Expanded Memory Specification [LIM]
.ENC Encoded (file name extension)
ENDS Ends Segment
ENIAC * Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and
Computer (First fully electronic digital computer)
ENQ Enquiry
ENSS Exterior Nodal Switching Subsystem [Internet]
EOA End of Address
EOB End of Block
EOC End of Conversion
EOF End of File
EOI End or Identify
EOJ End of Job
EOL End of Line + End of List
EOM End of Message
EOR Exclusive OR (Also XOR)
EOS Earth Observing System [NASA] + End Of String
EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data and Information System [NASA]
EOT End Of Table + End of Tape (marker) + End of Text +
End of Transmission
EPL Effective Privilege Level
EPLD Electrically Programmable Logic Device
EPM Enhanced Editor for Presentation Manager [IBM] +
Enterprise Process Management [IBM]
EPP Enhanced Parallel Port
EPROM Electrically Programmable Read Only Memory +
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
.EPS Encapsulated PostScript (file name extension)
EPSF Encapsulated PostScript Files
ERAS Electronic Routing and Approval System [Hughes Aircraft]
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center [Internet]
ERLL Enhanced Run Length Limited
EROM Erasable Read Only Memory
ERR Error
ES Extra Segment
ESA Enterprise Systems Architecture [IBM] +
European Space Agency
ESC Escape
ESCM Extended Services Communications Manager [IBM]
ESCON Enterprise System Connection (Architecture) [IBM]
ESC/P Epson Standard Code for Printers
ESD Electronic Software Distribution +
Electrostatic Discharge
ESDI Enhanced Small Device Interface
ESI Enhanced Serial Interface (specification) [Hayes]
ESN Electronic Security Number
ESP Emulation Sensing Processor +
Enhanced Serial Port [Hayes]
ESS Electronic Switching System
ESU Electro-Static Unit
ETANN Electrically Trainable Analog Neural
Network (chip) [Intel]
ETB End of Transmission Block
ETC Enhanced Throughput Cellular (modem protocol) [AT&T]
ETPL Endorsed Tempest Products List
ETS Econometric Time Series
ETX End of Text
EU Execution Unit
EVE Extensible VAX Editor
EVGA Extended Video Graphics Array +
Extended Video Graphics Adapter
EWAN Emulator Without A Good Name [Internet]
EWS Employee Written Software [IBM]
ExCA Exchangeable Card Architecture [Intel]
.EXE Executable (file name extension)
EXE2BIN Program used to convert an (.EXE) file to binary
format (.COM) file
EXP Exponent
EXT External
EXTRN External Reference
FAB Computer-Chip Fabrication Plant
FAC File Access Code
FAMOS Floating Gate Avalanche MOS
FAP File Access Protocol
FAPI Family Application Program Interface
FAQ Frequently Asked Question
FARNET Federation of American Research Networks [Internet]
FAT File Allocation Table
FAX Facsimile
.FAX Fax (file name extension)
FCB File Control Block
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FCCSET Federal Coordinating Council for
Science, Engineering and Technology
FCI Flux Changes per Inch
FCS Frame Check Sequence
FD Floppy Disk + Floppy Drive + Full Duplex
FDC Floppy Disk Controller
FDDI Fiber Digital Device Interface +
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDISK Fixed Disk
FDM Frequency-Division Multiplexing
FDX Full Duplex
FEFO First-Ended, First-Out
FEP Front End Processor
FESDK Far East Software Development Kit [Microsoft]
FET Field Effect Transistor
FF Flip-Flop + Form Feed
FFST First Failure Support Technology [IBM]
FFT Fast Fourier Transform + Final Form Text [IBM]
FIF Fractal Image Format
FIFO First-In, First-Out
FILO First-In, Last-Out
FIP File Processor Buffering
FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard
FIR Finite Impulse Response
FLC Ferro-electric Liquid Crystal
FLD Field
FLL FoxPro Link Library [Microsoft Fox Pro]
FLOPS Floating Point Operations Per Second
FMS Forms Management System
FMT Format
FNT Font
FOCUS Forum of Control Data Users
FOG First Osborne Group
FOIRL Fiber Optic Inter Repeater Link [IEEE]
.FON Font + Phone + Phone Directory (all file name
.FOR FORTRAN source code (file name extension)
FORTH (Programming Language)(See HLL)
FORTRAN Formula Translator (Programming Language)(See HLL)
FOSE Federal Office Systems Exposition
FOSSIL Fido/Opus/Seadog Standard Interface Layer
FPGA Field Programmable Gate-Array
FPLA Field Programmable Logic-Array
FPP Fixed Path Protocol + Floating Point Processor
FPS Favorite Picture Selection + Frames Per Second
FPU Floating Point Unit
FQDN Fully Qualified Domain Name [Internet]
FRAG Fragment + Fragmentation
FRAM Ferroelectric Random-Access Memory
FRED Frame Editor + Front-End to Dish
FRPI Flux Reversals Per Inch
.FRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension)
FS File Separator
FSD File System Driver [OS/2]
FSE Full Screen Editor
FSF Free Software Foundation [Internet]
FSK Frequency Shift Keying
FSN Full Service Network
FSR Free System Resources
F/T Full Time
FTAM File Transfer, Access and Management +
File Transfer and Access Method
FTM Flat Tension Mask [Zenith]
FTP File Transfer Protocol [Internet]
FTPD File Transfer Protocol Daemon
FTS Federal Telecommunication System
FUI File Update Information
FUNC Function
FVT Full Video Translation
FYI For Your Information
GA General Availability
GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
GAL Generic Array Logic
GAPI Gateway Application Programming Interface
Gb Gigabit (1,000 megabits) +
(One Billion Bits of Information)
GB Gigabyte (1,000 megabytes) +
(One Billion Characters of Information)
GCR Group Code Recording
GDA Global Data Area
GDDM Graphics Data Display Manager
GDI Graphics Device Interface
GDP Graphic Draw Primitive
GDT Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing +
Global Descriptor Table
GECOS General Electric Comprehensive Operating System
GEIS General Electric Information Service (company)
GEM Graphics Environment Manager (DRI Program)
GENIE General Electric Network for
Information Exchange
GEOS Graphic Environment Operating System [Geoworks]
GET Get Execute Trigger
GHZ Gigahertz
.GIF Graphics Interchange Format (file name extension)
GIGO Garbage In, Garbage Out
GIS Geographic Information System
GIX Global Internet Exchange [Internet]
GKS Graphical Kernal System
G/L General Ledger
GLIS Global Land Information System [US Geological Survey]
GLM General Linear Models
GLOBE Global Learning by Observations to Benefit
the Environment [Internet]
.GLY Glossary (file name extension) [Microsoft Word]
GMS Global Messaging Service [Novell]

GMT Greenwich Mean Time
GND System Ground
GNN Global Network Navigator [Internet]
GNU Gnu's Not Unix (operating system)
GOSIP Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile
GOV Government (organization Domain name) [Internet]
GP Gas Plasma + General Purpose
GPF General Protection Fault
GPI Graphics Programming Interface
GPIB General Purpose Interface Bus
GPS Global Positioning System
GPSS * General Purpose Systems Simulator (language)
GRE Graphics Engine
GREP Global Regular Expression Print
.GRF Graph (file name extension)
.GRP Group (file name extension)
GS Group Separator
GSM Global System for Mobiles
GUI Graphical User Interface
.gz Compressed file (compressed filename extension -
using GNU gzip compression/decompression program) [Unix]
.H Header (file name extension) [C]
HACMP High Availability Cluster Multi-Processing [IBM]
HAL Hard Array Logic + House Programmed Array Logic
HAL * Heuristically Programmed Algorithmic (computer)
[from 1968 movie "2001: A Space Odyssey"]
HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Priority (System)
HBA Host Bus Adapter
HD Hard Disk + High Density
HDA Head Disk Assembly
HDCD High Definition Compatible Digital
HDF Hierarchical Data Format [NCSA]
HDI Head to Disk Interference
HDLC High-Level Data Link Control
HDR Header
HDSC High Density Signal Carrier [DEC]
HDSL High-rate Digital Subscriber Link
HDTV High Definition Television
HDW Hardware
HDX Half Duplex
HERC Hercules
HEX Hexadecimal
HFS Hierarchical File System [Macintosh]
HGA Hercules Graphics Adapter
HGCP Hercules Graphics Card Plus
HH Hour
HIFD High-Density Floppy Disk
HIL Human Interface Link [HP]
HLCO High Low Close Open
HLL High Level Language
HLLAPI High Level Language Application Programming Interface
.HLP Help (file name extension)
HLQ High Level Qualifier
HLS Hue, Luminance, Saturation (color model)
HLT Halt
HMA High Memory Area [Microsoft] +
Hub Management Architecture
HMOS High Density Metal Oxide Semiconductor +
High Speed Metal Oxide Semiconductor
HOTT Hot Off The Tree (electronic newsletter)
HP Hewlett-Packard (Company)
HPCC High Performance Computing and Communications
HPDJ Hewlett-Packard Desk Jet
HPFS High-Performance File System
HPG Hewlett-Packard Graphics
HPGL Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language
HPIB Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus
HPLJ Hewlett-Packard Laser Jet
HPPA Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture
HPPI High Performance Parallel Interface
HPUX Hewlett-Packard Unix
HPW High Performance Workstation [Sun]
HRIS Human Resource Information System
HRG High Resolution Graphics
HRMS Human Resource Management System
HS High Speed
HSC High Speed Channel
HSI Hue Saturation Intensity
HSM Hierarchical Storage Management
HSP High Speed Printer
HSSI High Speed Serial Interface
HST High Speed Technology [U.S. Robotics]
.HST History + Host (file name extensions)
HSV Hue Saturation Value
HTML HyperText Markup Language
HTTP HyperText Transport Protocol
HUT Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope
H/V Horizontal/Vertical
HVP Horizontal & Vertical Position
H/W Hardware
HWCP Hardware Code Page
HWD Height-Width-Depth
.HYP Hyphenation (file name extension)
HYTELNET Hypertext-browser for Telnet Accessible Sites
Hz Hertz
IAB Internet Architecture Board [Internet]
IAC Interapplication Communication
IAL * International Algebraic Language
(ALGOL was first called IAL)
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority [Internet]
IAP Internet Access Provider [Internet]
IAT Import Address Table
IAUP Internet User Account Provider [Internet]
IBC Instrument Bus Computer
IBM International Business Machines (Corporation)
IBM-GL IBM Graphics Language
IC Input Circuit + Integrated Circuit + Interrupt Controller
ICA Intra-application Communications Area
ICAS Intel Communicating Applications Specifications
ICCP Institute for the Certification of Computer Professionals
ICE In-Circuit Emulator [Intel]
ICI Image Component Information
ICL Interface Clear
ICLID Incomming-Call Line Identification
ICM Image Color Matching [Kodak]
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol [Novell]
.ICO Icon (file name extension)
iCOMP Intel Comparative Microprocessor (index) [Intel]
ICP Integrated Channel Processor
ICR Intelligent Character Recognition
ICS Intuitive Command Structure
ID Identification + Identifier
IDA Integrated Digital Access + Intelligent Disk Array +
Intelligent Drive Array
IDAPI Integrated Database Application Programming Interface
IDE Imbedded Drive Electronics +
Integrated Development Environment [Borlund] +
Integrated Drive Electronics +
Intelligent Drive Electronics +
Interactive Design and Engineering +
Interface Design Enhancement
IDF Intermediate Distribution Frame
IDIV Integer Divide
IDMS Integrated Data Base Management System
IDP Integrated Data Processing
IDT Interrupt Descriptor Table
.IDX Index (file name extension)
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEF Information Engineering Facility
IEMSI Interactive Electronic Mail Standard
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force [Internet]
I/F Interface
IFD Image File Directory
IFF Interchangeable File Format [Amiga]
IFG Incoming Fax Gateway
IFS Installable File System
IFSM Information Systems Management
IGA Integrated Graphics Array
IGC Integrated Graphics Controller
IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Standard
IGS Internet Go Server [Internet]
IIF Immediate IF
IIR Immediate Impulse Response
IITF Information Infrastructure Task Force
IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol [Internet]
IMAX Maximum Image
IMDS Image Data Stream (format) [IBM]
IME Input Method Editor
IMG Image
IMP Information/Interface Message Processor
IMPA Intelligent Multi-Port Adapter [DCA]
IMR Internet Monthly Report [Internet]
IMS Information Management System +
Intermediate Maintenance Standards
IMTV Interactive Multimedia Television
IMUL Integer Multiply
IN Input
INC Increment
.INF Information (file name extension)
.INI Initialize (file name extension)
INIT Initialization + Initialize
INM Integrated Network Management
INS Input String + Integrated Network Server
INT Integer + Internal + Interrupt +
International (organization Domain name) [Internet]
INTA Interrupt Acknowledge
InterNIC Internet Network Information Center [Internet]
INTO Interrupt if Overflow occurs
I/O Input/Output
IOCS Input/Output Control System
IOCTL Input/Output Control
IOPL Input/Output Priviledge Level
IOSGA Input/Output Support Gate Array
IP Instruction Pointer + Internet Protocol
IPC Instructions Per Clock + Interprocess Communication
IPDS IBM Personal Dictation System [IBM] +
Intelligent Printer Data Stream [IBM]
IPF Information Presentation Facility
IPL Initial Program Load/Loader +
Ion Projection Lithography
IPL * Information Programming Language
IPM Interpersonal Message
IPSE Integrated Project Support Environment
IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange [Novell]
IQL Interactive Query Language
IR Infrared
IRC Internet Relay Chat [Internet]
IRD Integrated Receiver/Descrambler
IRDS Information Resource Dictionary System
IRET Interrupt Return
IRF Inheritance Rights Filter [Novell]
IRL Interactive Reader Language + Inter-Repeater Link
IRLED Infrared Light Emitting Diode
IRM Information Resource Management + Inherent Rights Mask
IRQ Interrupt Request
IRTF Internet Research Task Force [Internet]
IRX Information Retrieval Experiment
IS Information System + Interrupt Status
ISA Industry Standard Architecture
ISAM Indexed Sequential-Access Management/Method
ISBN International Standard Book Number
ISC Instruction Set Computer
ISD Image Section Descriptor +
Instructional Systems Design
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISH Information Super Highway
ISI Internally Specified Index
ISIS Integrated Systems and Information Services
ISL Interactive System Language
ISMF Interactive Storage Management Facility
ISO/OSI International Standards Organization/Open Systems
Interconnection (model)
ISP Internet Service Provider [Internet] +
Interrupt Stack Pointer + Interrupt Status Port
ISPF Interactive System Programming Facility
ISR Information Storage and Retrieval +
Interrupt Service Routine
ISSN International Standard Serial Number
ISV Independent Software Vendor
ITB Information Technology Branch + Intermediate Text Block
ITC International Typeface Corporation
ITN Identification Tasking and Networking
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ITUG International Telecommunications User Group
ITV Interactive Television
ITX Intermediate Text Block
IU Integer Unit
IUAP Internet User Account Provider [Internet]
IUS/ITB Interchange Unit Separator/Intermediate Transmission Block
IVIS Interactive Video Information System
IVL Intel Verification Lab
IVR Interactive Voice Response
IVS Interactive Videodisk System
IVT Interrupt Vector Table
IV&V Independent Verification & Validation
I-WAY Information Highway
JA Jump Address + Jump if Above
JAD Joint Application Design
JAE Jump if Above or Equal
JANET Joint Academic Network
JBE Jump if Below or Equal
JC Jump if Carry set
JCL Job Control Language
JE Jump if Equal
JEDEC Joint Electronic Devices Engineering Council
JEIDA Japanese Electronics Industry Development Association
JES Job Entry System
JFET Junction Field Effect Transistor
JFIF JPEG File Interchange Format
JG Jump if Greater
JGE Jump if Greater or Equal
JL Jump if Less
JLE Jump if Less than or Equal to
JMP Jump
JNA Jump if Not Above
JNAE Jump if Not Above or Equal
JNB Jump if Not Below
JNBE Jump if Not Below or Equal
JNG Jump if Not Greater
JNGE Jump if Not Greater or Equal
.JNK Junk (file name extension)
JNLE Jump if Not Less or Equal
JNO Jump if No Overflow
JNP Jump if No Parity
JNS Jump if No Sign
JPE Jump if Parity Even
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JPO Jump if Parity Odd
JS Jump if Sign
JZ Jump if Zero
JNZ Jump if Not Zero
JUGHEAD Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy
Excavation and Display [Internet]
K-12 Kindergarten through 12th Grade [US Education System]
Kb Kilobit
KB Keyboard + Kilobyte (1,024 bytes)
KBD Keyboard (also KEYB)
KBD$ Keyboard [OS/2]
KBPS Kilobytes Per Second
KDT Key Definition Table
KEYBBE Foreign language KEYBoard program - Belgium
KEYBBR Foreign language KEYBoard program - Brazil
KEYBCF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Canadian-French
KEYBCZ Foreign language KEYBoard program - Czechoslovakia
KEYBDF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Denmark
KEYBFR Foreign language KEYBoard program - France
KEYBGR Foreign language KEYBoard program - Germany
KEYBHU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Hungary
KEYBIT Foreign language KEYBoard program - Italy
KEYBLA Foreign language KEYBoard program - Latin America
KEYBNL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Netherlands
KEYBNO Foreign language KEYBoard program - Norway
KEYBPL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Poland
KEYBPO Foreign language KEYBoard program - Portugal
KEYBSF Foreign language KEYBoard program - Swiss-French
KEYBSG Foreign language KEYBoard program - Swiss-German
KEYBSL Foreign language KEYBoard program - Czechoslovakia
KEYBSP Foreign language KEYBoard program - Spain
KEYBSU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Finland
KEYBSV Foreign language KEYBoard program - Sweden
KEYBUK Foreign language KEYBoard program - United Kingdom
KEYBUS Foreign language KEYBoard program - United States
KEYBYU Foreign language KEYBoard program - Yugoslavia
kHz Kilohertz
KIS Knowbot Information Service [Internet]
KPI Kernal Programming Interface
KSPH Keystrokes Per Hour
KSR Keyboard Send Receive
KRS Knowledge Retrieval System
LADDR Layered Device Driver Architecture [Microsoft]
LALL Longest Allowed Lobe Length
LAN Local Area Network
LANACS Local Area Network Asynchronous Connection Server
LAPB Link Access Procedure Balanced (protocol)
LAPD Link Access Procedure Direct (protocol)
LAPM Link Access Procedure for Modems
LAR Load Access Rights
LASTport Local Area Storage Transport (protocol) [DEC]
LAT Local Access Terminal +
Local Area Transport [DEC]
LAVC Local Area VAX Cluster
LAWN Local Area Wireless Network
LB Left Button (of 2 or 3 button Mouse)
LBA Logical Block Addressing
LBL Label
LBR Librarian
.LBR Library (file name extension)
LBT Listen Before Talk
LCC Leadless Chip Carrier
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LCF Low Cost Fiber
LCK Library Construction Kit [Mircrosoft FoxPro]
LCP Link Control Protocol (protocol)
LCU Last Cluster Used
LDA Logical Device Address
LDC Lotus Development Corporation
LDM Long Distance Modem
LDT Local Descriptor Table
LE Less or Equal
LEA Load Effective Address
LEAF Law Enforcement Access Field
LEC Local Exchange Carrier
LED Light Emitting Diode
LEL Link, Embed and Launch-to-edit [Lotus]
LEM Language Extension Module
LEN Low Entry Networking
.LET Letter (file name extension)
LEX Lexicon
LF Line Feed
LFI Last File Indicator
LFU Least Frequently Used
LGDT Load Global Descriptor Table
.LIB Library (file name extension)
LICS Lotus International Character Set [LDC]
LIDT Load Interrupt Descriptor Table
LIEP Large Internet Exchange Packet [Novell]
LIF Low Insertion Force
LIFO Last In, First Out
LILO Last In, Last Out
LIM Lotus/Intel/Microsoft
LIMA Lotus/Intel/Microsoft/AST
LIMS Library Information Management System
LIP Large Internet Packet
LIPS Logical Inferences Per Second
LISP List Processing (Language)(See HLL)
LISTSERV List Server [Internet]
LLC Logical Link Control
LLDT Load Local Descriptor Table
LLF Low Level Format
LMBCS Lotus Multibyte Character Set [Lotus]
LMI Local Management Interface
LMSW Load Machine Status Word
LM/X LAN Manager for Unix
LN Logarithm (Natural)
LNDI Lotus Notes:Document Imaging
LOC Loop On-Line Control
LOCIS Library of Congress Information System
LODSB Load String Byte
LOG Logarithm (Base 10)
LOGO (Programming Language)(See HLL)
LOOPE Loop while Equal
LOOPNE Loop while Not Equal
LOOPNZ Loop while Not Zero
LOOPZ Loop while Zero
LORE Line Oriented Editor
LPC Local Procedure Call
LPD Line Printer Daemon (protocol) [Berkley]
LPI Lines Per Inch
LPL Lotus Programming Language [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
LPM Lines Per Minute
LPN Logical Page Number
LPS Low-Power Schottky
LPT Line Printer
LPT1 First Parallel Printer Port
LPT2 Second Parallel Printer Port
LPT3 Third Parallel Printer Port
LQ Letter Quality
LQM Link Quality Monitoring (protocol)
LRC Local Register Cache +
Longitudinal Redundancy Check
LRL Least Recently Loaded
LRM Language Reference Manual
.LRS Language Resource (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
LRU Least Recently Used
LSA Line Sharing Adapter
LSAPI License Services Application Program Interface
LSB Least Significant Bit
LSC Least Significant Character
LSD Least Significant Digit
LSI Large Scale Integration
LSL Link Support Layer + Load Segment Limit
LST List
.LST List (file name extension)
LTR Left-To-Right + Letter + Load Task Register
LU Logical Unit (Also LUN)
LUA Logical Unit Application (interface)
LUI Local User Input
LUT Lookup Table
LZ Lazy Write
LZW Lempel-Ziv-Walsh (algorithm)
mA Milliampere
Mac Macintosh (Apple Macintosh Computer)
MAC Media/Medium Access Control
.MAC MacPaint (file name extension) +
Macro (file name extension)
MACH Multilayer Actuator Head [Epson]
mAh Milliampere-Hour
.MAI Mail (file name extension)
MAN Manual + Metropolitan Area Network
MANPAGE Manual Page [Unix]
MAP Maintenance Analysis Procedures +
Manufacturing Automation Protocol +
Memory Allocation Map
.MAP Linker Map (file name extension)
MAPI Mail/Messaging Applications Programming
Interface [Microsoft]
MAPICS Manufacturing, Accounting and Production
Information Control System [IBM]
MARVEL Machine-Assisted Realization of the Virtual
Electronic Library [Library of Congress]
MASM Macro Assembler [Microsoft]
MASS Maximum Availability and Support
Subsystem [Parallan]
MAU Media Access Unit + Multistation Access Unit
MAVDM Multiple Application VDM
MAX Maximum
MB Megabyte (1,000 kilobytes) +
Middle Button (of 3 button Mouse)
MBASIC Microsoft BASIC [Microsoft]
MBONE Multicast Backbone [Internet]
MBPS Megabytes Per Second
MBR Master Boot Record
MBX Mailbox
MCA Micro Channel Architecture [IBM]
MCAD Mechanical Computer Aided Design
MCB Memory Control Block
MCGA Multicolor Graphics Array
MCI Media Control Interface [Microsoft]
MCI MAIL (name from original company
Microwave Communications, Inc.)
MCL Microsoft Compatibility Labs [Microsoft]
MCM Multi-Chip Module
MCU Multi-Chip Unit [DEC]
MD Make Directory + Monochrome Display
MDA Monochrome Display Adapter
.MDF Menu Definition File (file name extension)
MDI Multiple Document Interface
MDIC Manchester Decoder and Interface Chip [AT&T]
MDK Multimedia Developers Kit [Microsoft]
MDLP Modile Data Link Protocol
MDR Minimum Design Requirement
MDY Month Day Year
.ME Opening Information (file name extension) (As in READ.ME)
MEB Memory Expansion Board
MEG Megabyte
MEM Memory
.MEN Menu (file name extension)
MESI Modified Exclusive Shared and Invalid (protocol)
.MET Metafile (file name extension)
MFC Microsoft Foundataion Class [Microsoft]
MFFS Microsoft Flash File System [Microsoft]
MFLOPS Million Floating Point Operations Per Second
MFM Modified Frequency Modulation
MFP Multifunction Peripheral
MFS Macintosh File System [Macintosh] +
Magnetic Tape Field Search +
Modified Filing System [Revelation Technologies]
MFT Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of Tasks
MGA Monochrome Graphics Adapter
MGE Modular GIS Environment
MGR Manager
MHS Message Handling Service + Message Handling System
MHz Megahertz
MIB Management Information Base
MICRO One-millionth
MICS Macro Interpretive Commands
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIF Management Information Format
MII Microsoft/IBM/Intel
MIL Machine Interface Layer [Go Corporation] +
Military (organization Domain name) [Internet]
MIM Metal-Insulator-Metal (screen)
MIMD Multiple Instruction Multiple Data Stream (processor)
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension [Internet]
MIN Minimum + Mobile Identification Number
MINUET Minnesota Internet Users Essential Tool [Internet]
MIPS Million Instructions Per Second
MIS Management Information System +
Multimedia Information Sources [Internet]
MISC Miscellaneous
MIX Member Information Exchange
MKDIR Make Directory
ML Machine Language
MLAPI Multilingual Application Programming Interface
MLC Multilevel Cell (program) [Internet]
MLID Multi-Link Interface Driver
MM Minutes + Month
MMA Microcomputer Managers Association
MMC Matched Memory Cycle + Microcomputer Marketing Council
MMIS Materials Manager Information System
MMPM Multi Media Presentation Manager
MMU Memory Management Unit
MNOS Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductor
MNP Microcom Networking Protocol [Microcom]
.MNU Menu (fine name extension)
MO Magneto-Optical (disk drive)
MODEM Modulator Demodulator
MOHLL Machine Oriented High Level Language
MOM Microsoft Office Manager [Microsoft]
MOV Metal Oxide Varistor + Move
MOVS Move String
MOD Modem + Modulus
MOP Maintenance Operations Protocol
MOS Metal Oxide Semiconductor
MOSFET Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
MOV Move
MOVS Move String
MP Multiple Processors
MPC Multimedia Personal Computer
MPCS Mission Planning and Control Station (Software)
MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
MPI Multiprecision Integer
MPP Massively Parallel Processing +
Message Processing Program
MPR Multipart Repeater + Multi Protocol Router [Novell]
MPS Multiprocessor Specification
MPU Microprocessor Unit
MR Magnetoresistive + Modem Ready
MRCF Microsoft Realtime Compression Format
MRCI Microsoft Realtime Compression Interface
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRO Multi-Region Operation
MRP Materials Requirement Planning
MRPL Main Ring Path Length
MRS Media Recognition System
MRT Mean Repair Time
MS Memory System + Message Store + Microsecond +
Microsoft Corporation + Millisecond
MSACM Microsoft Audio Compression Manager [Microsoft]
MSAU Multi-Station Access Unit
MSAV Microsoft Anti Virus [Microsoft]
MSB Most Significant Bit
MSCDEX Microsoft Compact Disc Extensions [Microsoft]
MSD Mass Storage Device + Most Significant Digit +
Microsoft System Diagnostics [Microsoft]
MS-DOS Microsoft - Disk Operating System [Microsoft]
MSDR Multiplexed Streaming Data Request
MSDS Microsoft Developer Support [Microsoft]
MSG Message
.MSG Program Message (file name extension)
MSI Medium Scale Integration
MSL Map Specification Library
MSO Multiple-Systems Operator
.MSP Microsoft Paint (file name extension) [Microsoft]
MSW Machine Status Word
MTA Message Transfer Agent + Multiple Terminal Access
MTBB Mean Time Between Breakdowns
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures
MTBJ Mean Time Between Jams
MTF Microsoft Tape Format [Microsoft] +
Modulation Transfer Function
MTS Message Transfer Service/System +
Multichannel Television Sound
MTTF Mean Time To Failure
MTTR Mean Time To Repair
MUD Multi-User Domain [Internet] +
Multi-User Dungeon [Internet]
MUL Multiply
MUMPS Massachusetts General Hospital Utility
Multi-Programming System (Programming Language)
MUSE Multi-User Shared Environment
MUX Multiplexer
mV Millivolt
MVB Multimedia Viewer Book
MVC Multimedia Viewer Compiler
MVDM Multiple Virtual DOS Machines
MVGA Monochrome Video Graphics Array
MVP Multimedia Video Processor
MVS Multiple Virtual Storage
MVT Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks
MX Mail Exchanger [Internet]
NAC Network Adapter Card
NACD National Association of Computer Dealers
NACS National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors
NAE Not Above or Equal
NAK Negative Acknowledgment
NAM Number Assignment Module
NANO One thousand-millionth
NAP Network Access Point
NAPLPS North American Presentation Level Protocol
Syntax (graphics)
NAS Network Application Support [DEC]
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASDAQ National Association of Securities Dealers
Automatic Quotation
NASI NetWare Asynchronous Services Interface [Novell]
NAU Network Addressable Unit
NBE Not Below or Equal
NBI Nothing But Initials
NBS National Bureau of Standards + Numeric Backspace
NC No Carry + Numerical Control
NCA Network Communications Adapter
NCC Network Control Center
.NCF Netware Command File [Novell]
NCGA National Computer Graphics Association
NCIC National Crime Information Center
NCMT * Numerical Control for Machine Tools
NCP NetWare Core Protocol + Not Copy Protected +
Network Control Processor/Program/Protocol
NCR National Cash Register (Company)
NCSA National Center for Supercomputing Applications
NCSI Network Communications Services Interface [Novell]
NDDK Network Device Development Kid [Microsoft]
NDEF Not to be Defined
NDIS Network Device/Driver Interface Specification
NDP Numeric Data Processor
NDRO Non-Destructive Read Out
NDS NetWare Directory Service [Novell]
.NDX Index (file name extension)
NEC Nippon Electric Company
NED NASA Extragalactic Database [NASA]
NEG Negative + Negate
NES National Education Supercomputer
NET Network (organization Domain name) [Internet]
NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System [IBM]
NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface [IBM]
.NEW New Information (file name extension)
NEWS NetWare Early Warning System [Frye Computer]
NEXT Near-End Crosstalk
NFF No Fault Found
NFS Network File System
NG No Good
NGE Not Greater or Equal
NHC National Hurricane Center
N/I Non-Interlaced
NIC Network Information Center [Internet] +
Network Interface Card +
Numeric Intensive Computing
NICAD Nickel Cadmium
NICOLAS Network Information Center OnLine Aid System [NASA]
NID New Interactive Display [NEC] + Next ID
NII National Information Infrastructure
NIMH Nickel-Metal Hydride
NIPS Network I/Os Per Second
NIR Network Information Retrieval
NIS Network Information Service [Unix]
NISO National Information Standards Organization
NISP Networked Information Services Project
NIST National Institute for Standards and Technology
NITC National Information Technology Center
NJE Network Job Entry (protocol) [IBM]
NL New Line
NLE Not Less or Equal
NLM NetWare Loadable Module [Netware]
NLQ Near Letter Quality
NLSFUNC National Language Support Function
NMI Non-Maskable Interrupt
NMM NetWare Management Map [NetWare]
NMOS Negative Channel Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
NMS Network Management System [Novell]
NN No News [Internet]
NNI Network-Network Interface
NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol [Internet]
NOC Network Operations Center
NOP No Operation
NOR Not Or
NOS Network Operating System
NPA Network Printer Alliance
NPI Network Printer Interface
NPL Nonprocedural Language
NPTN National Public Telecomputing Network
NPU Natural Processing Unit
NPX Numeric Processor Extension
NREN National Research and Education Network
NRZ Not Return to Zero
NRZI Non Return to Zero Inverted
NS Nanosecond + Network Supervisor + Non Stop
NSA POLY National Security Agency Polygraph
NSF National Science Foundation
NSFNET National Science Foundation Network
NSI NASA Science Internet
NSP Network Service Provider
NSSC NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer
NSTC National Science and Technology Council
NSTL National Software Testing Labs
NT New Technology [Microsoft]
NTAS NT Advamced Server [Microsoft]
NTF No Trouble Found
NTFS NT File System [Microsoft]
NTIA National Telecommunications and
Information Administration
NTIS National Technical Information Service
NTRAS NT Remote Access Services [Microsoft]
NTSA NetWare Telephony Services Architecture [Novell]
NTSC National Television Standards Committee
NUI Network User Identification +
Network User Interface +
Notebook User Interface [Go Corporation]
NUL Null + (dummy device) + (no device)
NV No Overflow
NVM Non-Volatile Memory
NVP Nominal Velocity of Propagation
NVRAM Non-Volatile Random Access Memory
NVT Novell Virtual Terminal [Novell]
OAB One-to-All Broadcast
OAG Official Airline Guide + Online Air Guide
OAI Open Applications Interface
OAS One-to-All Scatter
OBEX Object Exchange [Borland]
OBJ Object
OC Optical Carrier
OCE Open Collaborative Environment [Apple]
OCL Operation Control Language + Operator Control Language
OCR Optical Character Recognition
ODA Office Document Architecture
ODAPI Open Database Application Programming
Interface [Borlund]
ODBC Open Data Base Connectivity [Microsoft]
ODBMS Object-Oriented Database Management System (also
see OODMS)
ODI Open Datalink Interface [Novell] +
Open Device Interconnect [NetWare]
ODS Open Data Services [Microsoft]
ODT Open Desktop
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
OF Overflow Flag
OFMT Output Format for Numbers
OFS Output Field Separator
OH Off Hook
OIDL Object Interface Definition Language
OIS Office Information Systems
OLAP On-Line Analytical Processing (software)
.OLD Old version (file name extension)
OLE Object Linking and Embedding [Microsoft]
OLI Optical Line Interface [AT&T]
OLMC Output Logic Macrocell
OLTP On-Line Transaction Processing
OM Object Manager
OME Open Messaging Environment (protocol0
OMF Object Module Format [Microsoft] +
Open Message Format
OMG Object Management Group
OMI Open Messaging Interface [Lotus]
OMNS Open Network Management System
OMR Optical Mark Recognition
ONC Open Network Computing [Sun]
OODB Object-Oriented Database
OODMS Object-Oriented Database Management System (also
see ODBMS)
OOL Object-Oriented Language
OOPL Object-Oriented Programming Language
OOPS Object Oriented Programming and Systems
OOS Object-Oriented Systems +
Off-line Operating Simulator
OOUI Object Oriented User Interface
OP Operation + Optical + Output
OPAC Online Public Access Catlog [Internet]
OPC Optical Photoconductor
OPCODE Operational Code
OPD Operand
OPI Open Prepress Interface
OPM Operations Per Minute
OPS Operations
OPT Open Protocol Technology
.OPT Options (file name extension)
OPUS Octal Program Updating System
ORACLE On-Line Inquiry and Report Generator (UNIX DB program)
ORG Organization (organization Domain name) [Internet]
.ORI Original (file name extension)
ORS Output Record Separator
OS Operating System
OS/2 Operating System/2 [IBM]
OSA Open System Architecture
OS/E Operating System/Environment
OSF Open Software Foundation
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OSM Off-Screen Model
OSP Optical Storage Processor
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
OSQL Object Structured Query Language
OT Object Technology
OTF Open Token Foundation
OTP One-Time Programmable
OURS Open Users Recommended Solutions
.OUT Outlines (file name extension)
OUTS Output String
OV Overflow
.OVL Program Overlay (file name extension)
.OVR Program Overlay (file name extension)
OWL Object Windows Library [Borlund] +
Open Windows Library [Borlund]
PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange
PACS-L Public Access Computer Systems List [Internet]
PAD Packet Assembler/Disassembler
PADS Pen Application Development System [Slate Corporation]
PAIH Public-Access Internet Host [Internet]
PAIS Public-Access Internet Site [Internet]
.PAK Packed (compressed file name extension) [NoGate Consulting]
PAL Paradox Applications Language [Borlund] +
Phase Alternate Line + Programmed Array Logic +
Programming Assembly Language
PALC Plasma-Addressed Liquid Crystal (display)
PALS Principles of the Alphabet Literacy System
PAP Passwork Authentication Protocol (protocol)
PAR Parallel
PARA Paragraph
PARC Palo Alto Research Center [XEROX]
.PAS PASCAL source code (file name extension)
PASCAL (Programming Language named for Blaise Pascal)
.PAT Patch (file name extension)
PAX Portable Archive Exchange [Unix]
PBE Prompt By Example
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PC Personal Computer + Printed Circuit + Program Counter
PCB Printed Circuit Board + Program Control Block
PCD Photo Compact Disk
PC-DOS Personal Computer - Disk Operating System [IBM]
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect [Intel]
PC-I/O Program Controlled I/O
PCL Printer Command Language [HP] + Process Control Language
PCM Personal Computer Manufacturer + Pulse Code Modulation
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PCMIM Personal Computer Media Interface Module
PCN Personal Computer Network
PCNFS Personal Computer Network File System
PCS Patchable Control Store +
Personal Communication Services/System +
Planning Control Sheet + Print Contrast Signal +
Process Control Systems + Program Counter Store +
Programmable Drive Table + Project Control System
.PCT Picture (file name extension)
.PCX Picture Image (file name extension)
PD Public Domain
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PDD Physical Device Driver
PDF Portable Document Format + Portable Document File +
Processor Defined Function +
Program Development Facility
.PDF Printer Description (file name extension)[Borlund,Lotus]
PDIAL Public Dialup Internet Access List [Internet]
PDL Page Description Language + Program Description Language
+ Program Design Language
PDN Public Data Network
PDP Programmable Data Processor +
(DEC Computer System Designation, i.e. PDP-8, PDP-11)
PDS Packet Driver Specification + Partitioned Data Set +
Planetary Data System + Processor Direct Slot [Macintosh]
PDSS Post Development and Software Support
PDT Programmable Drive Table
PDU Plug Distribution Unit
.PDX Paradox files (file name extension) [Borlund]
PE Parity Even + Processing Element + Protect Enable
PEA Pocket Ethernet Adapter
PEL Picture Element [IBM]
PEM Privacy-Enhanced Mail [Internet]
PEN SDK Pen Computing Software Development Kit
PEP Packetized Ensemble Protocol [Telebit]
PERL Practical Extraction and Report Language [Unix]
PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique
PES Positioning Error Signal + Processor Enhancement Socket
Processor Upgrade Socket
PET Print Enhancement Technology [Compaq]
.PFM Printer Font Metrics (file name extension) [Windows]
PFR Power-Fail Restart
PGA Pin Grid Array + Professional Graphics Adapter [IBM]
PGDN Page Down
.PGL Graphics (file name extension) [Hewlett-Packard]
PGM Program
PGP Pretty Good Privacy (name of encryption program)
.PGP ProGram Parameter (file name extension) [AutoCAD]
PGUP Page Up
PHIGS Programmers' Hierarchial Interactive Graphics
.PHO Phone List (file name extension)
PI Program Interruption
PIA Peripheral Interface Adapter
PIC Personal Intelligent Communicator +
Priority Interrupt Controller +
Program Interrupt Controller
PICT Picture
PID Process Identification Number
PIF Picture Interchange Format File +
Program Information File
PILOT Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching
PilotACE* Pilot Automatic Computing Engine
PIM Personal Information Manager
PIN Personal Identification Number +
Process Identification Number [Unix]
PINE Pine Is Not Elm [Unix]
PING Packet Internet Groper
PIO Parallel Input/Output + Processor Input/Output +
Programmed Input/Output
PIP Picture In Picture + Problem Isolation Procedure +
Programmable Interconnect Point
PIPO Parallel In, Parallel Out
PIT Programmable Interval Timer
PIXEL Picture Element
PL Plus
PLA Programmable Logic-Array
PLATO Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
PLCC Plastic Leadless Chip Carrier
PLD Programmable Logic Device
PLDS Pilot Land Data System [NASA]
PLL Phase Locked Loop
.PLL Prelinked Library (file name extension) [Clipper]
PL/M Programming Language for Micros
PLS Primary Link Station
PLV Production Level Video
PL/1 * Programming Language One
PM Presentation Manager [IBM] +
Preventative Maintenance + Process Manager
PMMU Paged Memory Management Unit
PMOS Positive Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor
PMS Policy Management System
PN Processing Node
PNP Plug And Play
PO Parity Odd
POC Point Of Contact
POL Problem Oriented Language
POP Point Of Presence [MCI] + Pop from Stack +
Post Office Protocol
POPA Pop All Registers
POPF Pop Flags
POS Point Of Sale + Positive + Programmable Object Select
POSIX Portable Operating System Interface
POST Power-On Self Test
POSTNET Postal Numeric Encoding Technique
POWER Performance Optimization with Enhanced RISC [IBM]
PPDS Personal Printer Data Stream [IBM]
PPM Pages Per Minute
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol [Internet]
PPS Packets Per Second + Power Personal Systems [IBM]
PRAM Parallel Random-Access Machine +
Paramater Random Access Memory
.PRD Printer Driver (file name extension) [Word]
PReP Power PC Reference Platform [IBM/Motorola]
PRF Pulse Repetition Frequency
.PRF Preferences (file name extension) [Grammatik IV]
.PRG Program (file name extension)
PRMD Private Mangement Domain [X.400]
.PRO Profile (file name extension)
PROC Procedure
PROFS Professional Office System [IBM]
PROG Program + Programmer
PROLOG Programming In Logic (Programming Language)(See HLL)
PROM Programmable Read Only Memory
PRN Printer
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
PRACSA Public Remote Access Computer Standards Association
PRAM Parameter Random Access Memory +
Programmable Random Access Memory
PREP PowerPC Reference Platform
PRMD Private Management Domain
.PRS Printer (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
PRTSC Print Screen
PS Proportional Spacing
.PS PostScript (file name extension)
PS/2 Programming System 2 [IBM]
PSC Print Server Command + Product Service Center
PSDN Packet-Switched Data Network
PSDS Packet-Switched Data Service
PSERVER Print Server [NetWare]
PSF Permanent Swap File
PSID PostScript Image Data
PSN Packet Switching Network
PSP Personal Software Products (group) [IBM] +
Program Segment Prefix
PSPDN Packet-Switched Public Data Network
P-SRAM Pseudo-Static Random Access Memory
PSTN Public Switch Telephone Network
PSW Program Status Word
.ps.Z Compressed PostScript (file name extension) [Unix]
PT Page Table
P/T Part Time
PTD Parallel Transfer Disk Drive
PUB Public (directory) [Internet] + Publish
.PUB Publication (file name extension) [Ventura]
PUS Processor Upgrade Socket
PUSHA Push All Registers
PUSHF Push Flags
PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit + Polyvinyl Chloride
PVM Parallel Virtual Machine +
Pass-through Virtual Machine (protocol) [IBM]
PW Password
PWB Printed Wire Board +
Programmer's Workbench [Microsoft]
PWD Print Working Directory [Unix]
PWR Power
PWSCS Programmable Worstation Communication
Services [IBM]
.PX Primary Index (file name extension) [Paradox]
QA Quality Assurance
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QBE Query By Example
QBF Query by Form
QC Quality Control
QDOS Quick and Dirty Operating System
.QDI Dictionary (file name extension) [Quicken]
.QDT Data (file name extension) [Quicken]
QEMM Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager [Quarterdeck Corp.]
QFA Quick File Access
QFP Quad Flat Pack
QIC Quality Information Using Cycle Time [Hewlett-Packard] +
Quarter-Inch Cartridge
.QIF Quicken Interchange Format (file name extension)
.QMT Memorized List (file name extension) [Quicken]
.QNX Indexes to Data (file name extension) [Quicken]
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
RA Return Authorization
RACF Resource Access Control Facility
RAD Rapid Application Development
RAG Row Address Generator
RAID Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks +
Redundant Arrays of Independent Drives +
Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
RALU Register Arithmetic Logic Unit
RAM Random Access Memory
RAMDAC Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog
Converter [Sierra]
RAMP Remote Access Maintenance Protocol [Internet]
RAND Random
RAP Rapid Application Prototyping
RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
RAS Random Access Storage +
Reliability, Availability and Serviceability +
Row Address Select
RASAPI Remote Access Service Application Programming
Interface [Microsoft]
RB Right Button (of 2 or 3 button Mouse)
RBBS Remote Bulletin Board System
RCL Rotate Carry Left
RCP Remote Copy [Internet] + Restore Cursor Position
RCR Rotate Carry Right
RCS Records Communications Switching System +
Revision Control System [Unix]
RD Receive Data + Remove Directory
R&D Research and Development
RDA Remote Database Access
RDB Receive Data Buffer + Relational Database
RDBMS Relational Database Mangement System
RDCLK Received Timing Clock
RDSR Receiver Data Service Request
.REC Recorder (file name extension)
.REF Reference (file name extension)
REG Register
REGAL Rigid Epoxy Glass Acrylic Laminate
RELSECT Relative Sector
REM Remark + Remote + Ring Error Monitor
REN Rename
REP Repeat
REPE Repeat while Equal
REPNE Repeat while Not Equal
REPNZ Repeat while Not Zero
REPZ Repeat while Zero
REQ Request
RES Remote Execution Service + Reset + Resolution
.RES Resource (file name extension)
RET Resolution Enhancement Technology [HP] +
REX Relocatable Executable
REXEC Remote Execution
REXX Restructured Extended Executor (language) [IBM]
RF Radio Frequency
RFC Request For Comments [Internet]
RFI Radio Frequency Interference
RFP Request for Proposal
RFQ Request for Quotation
RFS Remote File Sharing + Remote File System
RFT Revisable Form Text + Rich Text Format
RFU Reserved For Future Use
RGB Red-Green-Blue (color model)
RI Referential Integrity
RIFF Resource Interschange File Format [Microsoft]
RIM Remote Installation and Maintenance [Microsoft]
RIME RelayNet International Message Exchange
RIP Raster Image Processor +
Remote Imaging Protocol +
Routing Information Protocol [Novell]
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RJE Remote Job Entry
RLE Run Length Encoded
RLL Run Length Limited
RLN Remote LAN Node [DCA]
RLOGIN Remote Login
RLSD Received Line Signal Detected
RLSI * Ridiculously Large-Scale Integration
RM Reset Mode
RMA Return Material Authorization +
Return to Manufacturer Authorization
RMDIR Remove Directory
RMON Remote Monitor/Monitoring
RMP Remote Maintenance Processor [IBM]
RMS Record Management Services + Root Mean Square
RN Read News [Internet]
RND Random
RNG Random Number Generator
R-O Read Only
ROL Rotate Left
ROM Read Only Memory
ROP Raster Operation
ROR Rotate Right
RPC Real Procedure Call + Remote Procedure Call
RPG Report Program Generator (Programming Language)
RPL Resident Programming Language +
Requested Privilege Level
RPRINTER Remote Printer [NetWare]
RPPROM Reprogrammable PROM
RPT Repeat
RPQ Request for Price Quotation
RQBE Relational Query By Example [Fox Pro]
RR Real Reality
RS Radio Shack +
Recommended Standard (as in RS-232) [EIA] +
Record Separator + Request to Send
RSA129 (129 digit cryptographic security number named after
its inventors: Drs. Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir and
Leonard M. Adelman)
RSCS Remote Spooling Communications System
RSH Remote Shell
RSL Request-and-Status Link
RSP Required Space Character
RST Reset + Restart
RSTS Resource Sharing Time Sharing [Digital]
RSX Real Time Resource Sharing Executive
RT Real Time + RISC Technology + Run Time
R/T Receive/Transmit
RTAM Remote Terminal Access Method
RTC Real-Time Clock
RTDM Real-Time Data Migration
RTEL Reverse Telnet [Internet]
RTF Rich Text Format
RTL Register Transfer Language +
Resistor Transistor Logic + Right-To-Left +
Run Time Library
RTM Response Time Monitor + Runtime Manager [Borland]
RTOS Real-Time Operating System
RTS Remote Takeover System + Request To Send
RTTY Radio Teletypewriter (Communications)
RTV Real Time Video
RVA Relative Virtual Address
RVI Reverse Interrupt
R/W Read/Write
RWM Read-Write Memory
RX Receiver
RXD Received Data
SAA Systems Application Architecture [IBM]
SADL Synchronous Data Link Control [Racal-Vadic]
SAINT * Symbolic Automatic Integrator
SAL Shift Arithmetic Left
SAM Serial Access Memory +
Sequential Access Method
SAP Second Audio Program + Service Access
Point [DEC] + Service Advertising Protocol
SAP * Symbolic Assembly Program
SAR Shift Arithmetic Right +
Successive Approximation Register
SAS Sales Accounting System + Single Attached Station +
Single Audio System
.SAV Saved (file name extension)
SAVDM Single Application VDM
SB Sound Board
SBA Scene Balance Algorithms [Kodak]
SBB Subtract With Borrow
SBC Single-Board Computer
SBCS Single-Byte Character Set
.SC Script (file name extension)
SCAS Scan String
SCB Subsystem Control Block [IBM]
SCC Serial Communications Controllers +
Serial Controller Chip +
Synchronous Channel Check [IBM]
SCCS Source Code Control System
SCD Standard Color Display
SCF System Control Facility
SCM Software Configuration Management +
Station Class Mark
SCO Santa Cruz Operation (Software Company)
SCOPE Simple Communications Programming Enironment
SCP Save Cursor Position + Subsystem Control Port +
System Control Program
SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier
.SCR Script (file name extension)
SCRN Screen (video display)
SCSA Signal Computing System Architecture [Dialogic]
SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface
SD Send Data
SDA Software Disk Array + Source Data Automation +
System Display Architecture [Digital]
SDB Symbolic Debugger [Unix]
SDF Space Delimited File + Space Delimited Format
.SDF Standard Data Format (file name extension)
SDI Selective Dissemination of Information +
Single Document Interface
SDK Software Developer's Kit [Microsoft]
SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control (protocol)
SDN Software Defined Network [AT&T]
SDNS Secure Data Network Service
SDR Streaming Data Request
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SDS Sysops Distribution System
SD_STB Streaming Data Strobe [IBM]
SEA Standard Extended Attribute [OS/2]
.SEA Self Extracting Archive (file name extension) [Macintosh]
SEAC * Name of first computer to use transistors, built
by Standard Eastern Automating Computing
SEAL Segmentation and Reassembly Layer (protocol)
SEC Single Error Correction
SECAM Sequentiel Couleur Avec Memoire
(Sequential Color With Memory)
SED Stream Editor + Stream-Oriented Editor
SEG Segment
SEL Select
SEM Scanning Electron Microscope +
Standard Electronic Module
SER Serial
SET Softwave Engineering Technology
.SET Driver Set (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC] +
Image Settings (file name extension) [Paradox]
SETEXT Structure Enhanced Text [Internet]
SEU Smallest Executable Unit
SF Sign Flag
SFQL Structured Full-text Query Language
SFT System Fault Tolerance
SFX Sound Effect(s)
SGEN Signal Generator + System Generator
SGDT Store Global Descriptor Table
SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language
SGR Set Graphics Rendition
S/H Sample and Hold
SHAR Shell Archive
SHG Segmented Hypergraphics
SHL Shift Logical Left
SHR Shift Logical Right
SI Source Index + System Information
SID Serial Input Data + Station Identification [AT&T] +
Symbolic Interactive Debugger
SIDF System Independent Data Format
SIDT Store Interrupt Descriptor Table
SIG Special Interest Group
SIGCAT Special Interest Group on CD-ROM Applications
and Technology
SIM Simulator
SIMD Single Instruction Multiple Data Stream (processor)
SIMM Single In-line Memory Module
SIMULA Simulation (language)
SIO Serial Input/Output (communications driver)
SIP Single In-line Package
SIPO Serial In, Parallel Out
SIPP Single In-line Pin Package
SIR Serial Infrared [Hewlett-Packard]
SI/SO Serial In/Serial Out + Shift In/Shift Out
SIT Special Information Tones
.SIT Stuff-It (compressed file name extension) [Macintosh]
SLDT Store Local Descriptor Table
SLIP Serial Line Interface Protocol
SLMR Silly Little Modem Reader
SLOSH Sea, Lake and Overland Surge from Hurricane (program)
SLSI Super Large-Scale Integration
SLSS Systems Library Subscription Service [IBM]
SM Set Mode + Shared Memory
SMB Server Message Block (protocol) [MII]
SMD Surface Mounted Device
SMDS Switched Multi-Megabit Data Service
SMF System Manager Facility [Compaq]
SMI System Management Interrupt [Intel]
SMIF Standard Mechanical Interface
SMIT System Management Interface Tool [IBM]
SMK Software Migration Kit [Microsoft]
SMM System Mangement Mode [Intel]
SMP Simple Management Protocol +
Symbolic Manipulation Program +
Symmetrical Multiprocessor
.SMP Sample (file name extension)
SMPC Shared Memory Parallel Computer
SMPS Switching Mode Power Supply
SMRAM System Management Random Access Memory
SMS Storage Management Services [NetWare] +
Storage Management Subsystem
SMSW Store Machine Status Word
SMT Surface-Mount Technology
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SMU System Management Utility
SN Serial Number
S/N Signal-to-Noise (Ratio)
SNA Systems Network Architecture [IBM]
SND Sound
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SNOBOL String Oriented Symbolic Language (Progamming Language)
SNP Serial Number/Password [Omen Technology]
SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SOC System On a Chip
SOCKS Socket Secure (server) [Internet]
SOE Standard Operating Environment
SOH Start of Header
SOL Simulation Oriented Language
SOM Start of Message + System Object Model [IBM]
SONET Synchronous Optical Network
SOP Standard Operating Procedures
SOS Silicon On Sapphire + Sophisticated Operating System +
Standards and Open Systems
SOTA State Of The Art
SOX Sound Exchange
SP Service Pack [IBM] + Stack Pointer + System Product
SPA Software Publishers Association
SPAN Space Physics Analysis Network
SPARC Scalable Processor Architecture
SPC Small Peripheral Controller + Statistical Process Control
SPCL Spectrum Cellular Corporation
SPEC Systems Performance Evaluation Cooperative
SPF Shortest Path First + System Programming Facility
SPI Service Provider Interface
SPIKE Science Planning Intelligent Knowledge-Based
Environment [STScI]
SPL Spooler
.SPL Spell Checker (file name extension)
SPM System Performance Monitor [IBM]
SPOOL Simultaneous Peripheral Operations On Line
SPP Sequenced Packet Protocol
SPS Standby Power System
SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
SPT Sectors Per Track
SPX Sequenced Packet Exchange [Novell]
SQ Squeezed (files)
SQL/DS Structured Query Language/Data System [IBM]
SQRT Square Root
SR Shift Register
SRAM Shadow Random Access Memory +
Static Random Access Memory
SRB Source-Route Bridge
.SRC Source (file name extension)
SRD Screen Reader System
SRM Security Reference Monitor
SRO Sharable and Read Only
SRPI Server-Requester Programming Interface
SRQ Service Request
SRR Serially Reusable Resource
SS Stack Segment + Single Sided + Seconds
SSAP Source Service Access Point
SSEC * Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator [IBM]
SSGA System Suppport Gate Array
SSI Small Scale Integration
SST Spread-Spectrum Technology
STA Spanning Tree Algorithm
STB Strobe
STC Set Carry Flag
STD Set Direction Flag + Standard
STDA StreetTalk Directory Assistance [Banyan]
STDAUX Standard Auxillary
STDERR Standard Error
STDIN Standard Input
STDIO.H Standard Input/Output Header [C]
STDM Statistical Time Division Multiplexer
STDOUT Standard Output
STDPRN Standard Printer
.STF Structured File (file name extension) [Lotus Agenda]
STI Set Interrupt Flag
STN Super-Twist Nematic
STOS Store String
STP Shielded Twisted Pair (cable) + Signal Transfer Point
STR Store Task Register + Synchronous Transmitter Receiver
STRESS Structural Engineering System Solver (Programming
STRUDL Structural Design Language (Programming Language)
STScI Space Telescope Science Institute
STX Start of Text
.STY Style (file name extension) [Ventura, Word, WordPerfect]
SUB Subroutine + Substitute + Subtract
.SUP Supplemental Dictionary (file name extension)
SVC Switched Virtual Circuit
SVGA Super Video Graphics Array
SVM System Virtual Machine [Microsoft]
SVR# System V Release Number [AT&T]
S/W Software
SWAIS Simple Wide Area Information Server [Internet]
.SWP Swap (file name extension)
SYLK Symbolic Link
.SYM Symbols (file name extension)
.SYN Synonym (file name extension)
SYNC Synchronous
SYS System
.SYS System Configuration (file name extension) +
System Device Driver (file name extension)
SYSGEN System Generator
SYSLOG System Log
SYSMOD System Modification
SYSOP System Operator
SYSREQ System Request
TAD Telephone Answering Device
TAPCIS The Access Program for the CompuServe
Information Service
TAPI Telephony Applications Programming Interface
.tar Tape Archive (archived file name extension) [Unix]
.tar.Z Compressed Archived files (file name extension) [Unix]
TAS Telephone Access Server
TASM Turbo Assembler [Borland]
TAXI Transparent Asynchronous Tranceiver/Receiver Interface
TB Terabyte (1,000 gigabytes)
T/B Top and Bottom
TBBS The Bread Board System (BBS)
.TBK Toolbook (file name extension)
TC Test Control + Transmission Control
TCL Tool Command Language
TCM Trellis-Coded Modulation
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TD Transmit Data
TDD Telecommunications Device for the Deaf
TDtoDP Tablet Coordinates to Display Coordinates
TDE Terminal Display Editor
.TDF Trace Definition File (file name extension) [OS/2] +
Typeface Definition File (file name extension)
TDM Time Division Multiplexing
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TDMS Terminal Display Management System
TDSR Transmitter Data Service Request
TDR Time Domain Reflectometry
TE/2 Terminal Emulator/2 [Oberon]
TEB Thread Environment Block
TEC Tokyo Electronics Corporation
TED Tiny Editor
TEML Turbo Editor Macro Language [Borlund]
TEMP Temporary
TER Thermal Eclipse Reading [Sony]
TERMPWR Terminator Power
TFDD Text File Device Driver
TFEL Thin-Film Electroluminescent
.TFM Tagged Font Metric (file name extension)
TFT Thin-Film Transistor (screens)
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol
THD Total Harmonic Distortion
.THD Thread (file name extension)
THOR Tandy High-Performance Optical Recording
THR Transmit Holding Register
.THS Thesaurus (file name extension)
TI Texas Instruments, Inc.
TIA Telecommunications Industry Association
TID Target ID
TIES Time Independent Escape Sequence
.TIF Tagged Image File (filename extension)
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
TIGA Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture
TIGER Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding
and Referencing
TIIAP Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure
Assistance Program [NII]
TIP Terminal Interface Processor
TLA Three-Letter Acronym
TLB Translation Lookaside Buffer
TLI Transport Layer Interface
TLU Table Lookup
.TLX Telex (file name extension)
TM Trademark
TMP Temporary
TN Twisted Nematic
TNC Terminal Node Controller
ToC Table Of Contents
TOP Technical and Office Protocol
TPC Transaction Processing Performance Council
TPI Tracks Per Inch
TPL Table Producing Language
TPM Transactions Per Minute
TPORT Twisted Pair Port Transceiver [AT&T]
TPS Transactions Per Second +
Transaction Processing System
TPW Turbo Pascal for Windows
TQM Total Quality Management
TR Terminal Ready
T/R Transmit/Receive
TRADIC * Transistorized Airborne Digital Computer
(Name of first computer to be entirely
.TRM Terminal (file name extension)
TRN Threaded Read News [Internet]
TRON The Real-Time Operating System Nucleus
TS Top Secret
TSA Technical Support Alliance
TSAPI Telephony Services Application Program
Interface [AT&T + Novell]
TSB Termination Status Block
TSO Time Sharing Option
TSR Terminate and Stay Resident
TSS Task State Segment + Time Sharing System
TS/SI Top Secret/Sensitive Information
.TST Test (file name extension)
TSTN Triple Supertwisted Nematic
TSV Tab Separated Values
.TTF TrueType Font (file name extension)
TTL Transistor-Transistor Logic
TTS Text-To-Speech + Transaction Tracking System
TTY Teletype
TUI Text-Based User Interface [WordPerfect]
.TUT Tutorial (file name extension)
TVF Table of contents Verbosely from File [UNIX]
TVI Television Interference
TWX Teletypewriter Exchange Service
TXD Transmitted Data
TXT Text
TXT2STF Text To Structured File [Lotus Agenda]
UA User Agent + User Area
UAE Unrecoverable Application Error
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
.UC2 Compressed File (file name extension) [UltraCompressor]
UCL Universal Communications Language
UCS Universal Character Set
UDC User Defined Commands
UDE Universal Data Exchange
UDF User Defined Functions
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UFS Unix File System
UG User Group
UI Unix International + User Interface
UID User Identifier
UL Underwriters Laboratories + Upload
ULA Uncommitted Logic Array
ULN Universal Link Negotiation
ULSI Ultra Large Scale Integration
UMB Upper Memory Block [LIM/AST]
UNC Universal Naming Convention +
Uuencoded Netnews Collator [Unix]
UNCOL Universal Computed Oriented Language
UNI User-Network Interface
UNICOM Universal Integrated Communication (System)
UNICOS Universal Compiler FORTRAN compatible
UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer
UNIX (AT&T Bell Laboratories Operating System)
UNMA Unified Network Management Architecture
UPC Universal Product Code
UPL User Program Language
UPM Unix Programmer's Manual +
User Profile Management [IBM]
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply +
Uninterruptible Power System
UREP Unix RSCS Emulation Protocol (protocol)
URL Uniform Resource Locator
URN Uniform Resource Number
US Unit Separator
USART Universal Synchronous-Asynchronous Reciever/Transmitter
USENET User's Network [Internet]
USERID User Identification
USQ Unsqueezed (files)
USR US Robotics (corporation)
USRT Universal Synchronous Receiver/Transmitter
USSA User Supported Software Association (United Kingdom)
UT User Terminal
UTC Coordinated Universal Time
UTI Universal Text Interchange
UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (cable)
UU Uuencode/Uudecode
UUCP Unix-To-Unix Copy Program
UUD UUDecoding [Unix]
UUE UUEncoding [Unix]
UUI User-To-User Information [AT&T]
UV Ultraviolet
VA Virtual Address
VAD Value Added Dealer
VADD Value Added Disk Driver
VAL Value + Voice Application Language
.VAL Validity Checks (file name extension) [Paradox]
VAM Virtual Access Method
VAN Value Added Network
VAP Value Added Process
VAR Value Added Reseller + Value Added Retailer + Variable
VAX/VMS Virtual Address Extension/Virtual Memory System [DEC]
VB Variable Block + Visual Basic [Microsoft]
VBA Visual Basic for Applications [Microsoft]
VBE/AI Vesa Bios Extension/Audio Interface
VBR Variable Bit Rate
VBRUN Visual Basic Runtime
.VBX Visual Basic Extension (file name extension)
VCD Virtual Communications Driver
VCPI Virtual Control Program Interface
VCR Video Cassette Recorder
VDD Virtual Device Driver
VDDM Virtual Device Driver Manager
VDE Video Display Editor
VDISK Virtual Disk
VDM Virtual DOS Machine [IBM]
VDS Virtual DMA Services
VDT Video Dial Tone + Video Display Terminal
VDU Video Display Unit + Visual Display Unit
VEGA Video-7 Enhanced Graphics Adapter [Video-7, Inc.]
VEMM Virtual Expanded Memory Manager
VER Verify + Version
VERONICA Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Network Index to
Computer Archives [Internet]
VERR Verify Read Access
VERW Verify Write Access
VESA Video Electronics Standards Association
VF Virtual Floppy
VFAT Virtual File Allocation Table [Microsoft]
VFD Vacuum Fluorescent Display
VGA Video Graphics Array
VGC Video Graphics Controller
VHDL VHSIC Hardware Description Language
VHS Very High Speed + Video Home System +
Virtual Host Storage
VHSIC Very High Speed Integrated Circuit
VI Visual Interactive (editor) [UNIX]
VIE Virtual Information Environment
VIF Virtual Interface
VIM Vendor Independent Mail +
Vendor Independent Messaging (interface)
VIO Video Input/Output + Virtual Input/Output
VINES Virtual Network Operating System [Banyan]
VIP Variable Information Processing +
Video Information Provider
VIPER Verifiable Integrated Processor for
Enhanced Reliability
VIS Video Information System [Tandy] +
Voice Information System
VL-BUS Vesa Local-Bus [VESA]
VLF Very Low Frequency
VLIW Very Long Instruction Word
VLM Virtual Loadable Module
VLSI Very Large Scale Integration
VLSIPS Very Large Scale Immobilized Polymer Synthesis
VLT Variable List Table
VM Virtual Machine + Virtual Memory
VMA Virtual Memory Address
VMB Virtual Machine Boot
VME Virtual Memory Environment
VMM Virtual Machine/Memory Manager
VMOS Vertical MOS
VMS Virtual Memory System + Voice Message System
VMT Virtual Memory Technique
VNA Virtual Network Architecture
VOD Video On Demand
VOL Volume
VOM Volt Ohm Meter
VOS Verbal Operating System
VPD Virtual Printer Device
VPDS Virtual Private Data Service [MCI]
VR Virtual Reality + Voltage Regulator
VRAM Video Random Access Memory
VRML Virtual Reality Markup Language
VROOMM Virtual Real-time Object Oriented
Memory Manager [Borlund]
.VRS WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension)
VRU Voice Response Unit
VS Virtual Storage
VSAM Virtual Storage Access Method
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal
VSE Virtual Storage Extended
VSF Vertical Scanning Frequency
VSIO Virtual Serial Input Output
VSLI Very Large Scale Integration
VSM Virtual Shared Memory + Virtual Storage Management
VSN Volume Serial Number
VSOS Virtual Storage Operating System
VSYNC Vertical Sync
VTAM Virtual Telecommunications Access Method [IBM]
VUI Video User Interface
VUP VAX Unit of Performance
VMS Virtual Memory System + Voice Message System
VWB Visual WorkBench [Microsoft]
VxD Virtual Extended Driver [Microsoft]
W/ With
W3 (see WWW)
W4 What-Works-With-What
WABI Windows Application Binary Interface [Sun]
WAIS Wide Area Information Server
WAITS Wide Area Information Transfer System
WAN Wide Area Network
WATS Wide Area Telecommunications Service
.WAV Waveform Audio (file name extension)
WC Word Count
WDL Windows Driver Library [Microsoft]
WELL Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (BBS)
WFW Windows For Workgroups [Microsoft]
WGS Work Group System
WHAM Waveform Hold and Modify [Microsoft]
WINE Windows Emulator
WINForum Wireless Information Networks Forum
WINSOCK Windows Open Systems Architecture [Microsoft] +
Windows Sockets
WINWORD Word For Windows [Microsoft]
WISE WordPerfect Information System Environment
.WKB Workbook (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
.WKE Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
.WKQ Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU]
.WKS Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
.WKZ Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU]
.WK1 Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]
.WMF Windows Metafile Format (file name extension) [Microsoft]
WNIC Wide-Area Network Interface Co-Processor
WNIM Wide-Area Network Interface Module
W/O Without
WORM Write Once, Read Many
WOS Workstation Operating System
WOSA Windows Open Services/Systems Architecture [Microsoft]
WP WordPerfect + Word Processing + Write Protected
.WPG Graphics (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
WPHD Write-Protect Hard Disk
.WPK Keyboard (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
WPM Words Per Minute
.WPM Macro (file name extension) [WordPerfect]
WPOS Workplace Operating System
WPS Windows Printing System [Microsoft] +
Workplace Shell [OS2]
.WQ1 Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU]
.WQ! Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU]
.WRI Write (file name extension)
WS WordStar + Workstation
WT Write Through
WWIS World Wide Information System [Internet]
WWW World-Wide Web [Internet]
WYSBYGI What You See Before You Get It
WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get
XA Extended Architecture + Extended Attribute
XAPIA X.400 Application Program Interface Association
X2B Hexadecimal to Binary [REXX]
XBM X Windows Bitmap
X2C Hexadecimal to Character [REXX]
XCHG Exchange
XCMD External Command
XCOPY Extended Copy
X2D Hexadecimal to Decimal [REXX]
XDF Extended Density Format [IBM]
XDR Extended/External Data Representation
XFCN External Function
XGA Extended Graphics Array [IBM]
XID Exchange Identifier
XIOS Extended Input/Output System
XLAT Translate
XLM Excel Macro Language [Microsoft]
XMIT Transmit
XMM Extended Memory Manager [LIM/AST]
XMS Extended Memory Specification [LIM/AST]
XNS Xerox Network System (protocol) [Xerox]
XOFF Transmitter Off
XON Transmitter On
XOR Exclusive OR (Also EOR)
XSMD Extended Storage Module Drive (interface)
XTAL Crystal
XTCLK External Transmit Clock
YAM Yet Another Modem [Omen Technology]
.z Packed file (file name extension - using Pack/Unpack
program)..lower case z..[Unix]
.Z Compressed file (file name extension - using
Compress/Uncompress program)..upper case Z..[Unix]
ZBR Zone Bit Recording
Z-CAV Zoned Constant Angular Velocity
ZDL Zero Delay Lockout
ZDS Zenith Data Systems
ZIF Zero-Insertion Force (socket)
ZIP Zigzag In-Line Package +
Zone Improvement Plan (ZIPcode)
.ZIP Compressed File (file name extension) [PKWare]
.ZOO Compressed File (file name extension) [Dhesi]
ZSL Zero Slot LAN
* Wildcard character (asterisk)
*.* Star-Dot-Star (represents
Any file name.Any file name extension)
.$$$ Temporary File (file name extension)
3COM 3 Com Corporation (The 3 Coms are
Computer, Communications and Compatability)


Copyright (C) 1989-1995 Irving Kind All Rights Reserved
c/o K & D, One Church Lane, Baltimore, MD 21208

Jan 1995 version = BABEL95A Jan 1996 version = BABEL96A
May 1995 version = BABEL95B May 1996 version = BABEL96B
Sep 1995 version = BABEL95C Sep 1996 version = BABEL96C



Note 1: (To insure that you will receive the latest version)

On receipt of your disk and disk mailer stamped with return
postage, the following procedure is followed:

If received during Jan, Feb or Mar; the Jan version will
be sent to you promptly. If received during Apr, your
disk will be held until the May version is issued.

If received during May, Jun or Jul; the May version will
be sent to you promptly. If received during Aug, your
disk will be held until the Sep version is issued.

If received during Sep, Oct or Nov; the Sep version will
be sent to you promptly. If received during Dec, your
disk will be held until the Jan version is issued.

Note 2: Any of these disk sizes may be sent for updates:

5-1/4" DD or HD 3-1/2" DD or HD



Obtaining BABEL from the Internet

Method 1
To get the babelxxx.txt file, if you have ftp access via The
Internet, type these commands in lower case text:

At Login : anonymous
At Password: your email address
cd /pub/info/help-net
get babel95a.txt

Method 2
To get the babelxxx.txt file via Listserv if on The Internet:

Send e-mail to: [email protected]

Subject line should be left blank. In body of the message, type:


Method 3
To get the babelxxx.txt file via Listserv for Bitnet users:

Send e-mail to: listserv@templevm

Subject line should be left blank. In body of the message, type:


Method 4
To get the babelxxx.txt file via Gopher:

If you have access to a Gopher client, gopher directly to:

From the Main Menu, select "Computer Resources and Information"
and then "Internet & Bitnet Information (Help-Net)". Then select
"Glossary of Computer Abbreviations and Acronyms (BABEL95A.TXT)".

After Jan 1, 1995 request BABEL95A.
After May 1, 1995 request BABEL95B.
After Sep 1, 1995 request BABEL95C.



In electronic mail, some of the following "smiley faces"
rather than words, are used to express the writer's feelings.
Turn your head to the side to read them.

๐Ÿ™‚ Smile ๐Ÿ˜€ Laughing

๐Ÿ™‚ Smile :-} Grin

:-] Smirk ๐Ÿ™ Frown

๐Ÿ˜‰ Wink :-X Close-mouthed

๐Ÿ˜Ž Wide-eyed :-O Open-mouthed

:-|) I wear a :-Q But I don't inhale
๐Ÿ˜ฎ Oh, no!

Also used: Grin

Wide Grin

Very wide grin


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