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Copyright (c) Azimuth Group, Ltd. 1991

This Glossary defines the terms used in OPTIMA, and discusses the
contents of various displays and reports. You should refer to it often
as you learn how to plan and manage your work, using OPTIMA. It is
arranged in alphabetical order.

You will note that some of the items listed are marked with a special
symbol. These indicate some special function or use.

R Indicates one of OPTIMA's reports.

E Marks some of the analytical tools available while you are entering or
modifying activity data.

M Denotes some special tools. These may be used during planning to re-
structure your project, if you find that an activity or activities were
overlooked. They are also used when something un-foreseen occurs during
the course of the project, and you make major revisions to it.

ACTIVITIES WHICH ARE LATE AS OF TODAY -- R

These are scheduled to have finished but have not been reported as
finished. Your primary exception report.

ACTIVITIES WHICH HAVE CRITICAL FINISH DATES -- R

This is used to report on the scheduled finish date of activities whose
on-time completion is critical to the project. By running this report
whenever the project schedule is re-calculated, the manager can see
which, if any, of the 'targeted' critical activities will be late if no
further action is taken. These late dates may be months in the future.

ACTIVITIES WHICH HAVE FINISHED -- R

These have been entered as finished, with date and reported cost in
dollars and cents.

ACTIVITIES WITH CHANGED FINISH DATES -- R

The difference between the initially calculated finish date for an
activity, and the currently calculated finish date provides an early
warning of potential delays.

ACTIVITIES WITH DELAYED STARTS -- R

For discussion, see DELAYED START DATE.

ACTIVITY

The activity is the basic element of OPTIMA.

The activity name defines a specific piece of work. Except for notes,
which have no duration, an activity has a clear start; it is continuous;
it uses the same resources throughout; it has a clear result. The
result must be something deliverable. An activity is either complete
or it is not. OPTIMA does not accept percentage completions.

Each activity must include an active verb and a concrete noun. It must
be stated concisely.

Examples are:

PREPARE PROJECT REQUEST
APPROVE THIS PROJECT REQUEST
PREPARE CONTRACTOR LIST

ACTIVITY, CURRENT STATUS

See STATUS, CURRENT and STATUS ANALYSES.

ACTIVITY DATA ENTRY

Only some of these are required for any given level of detail. The
specific requirements are discussed where appropriate. If not otherwise
stated, the default value, if any, is used.

Activity number --

OPTIMA assigns from 1 to 200. These may change when you delete an
activity or change an activity's priority.

Activity name --

You enter at least one (non-space) character, and as many as thirty.

Work Group --

You enter up to ten alpha-numeric characters, if desired.

Start point --

You enter a number from 1 to 98. Defaults to 1.

Completion point --

You enter a number between 2 and 99. Defaults to 2.

Duration --

Work-days to perform the activity. Defaults to 0, which is used for
notes. The maximum is 750, which is 250 work days per year. It is also
far longer than any activity should last.

Resources --

As many as five different classes may be assigned by entering the proper
two-digit resource code from your resource list.

Resource quantity --

Quantity of each required by the activity each WORK-DAY. You may enter
two digits equal to or less than the maximum quantity available as
defined in your resource list.

Narrative --


Space available for various uses.

Delayed start date --

When you enter for an activity, you force a desired start. If the start
date calculated by OPTIMA will be later, your delayed start date will be
ignored.

Critical finish date --

Targets a 'must-finish-by' date. Entirely optional.

Reported finish --

The date on which the activity finished. Dependent activities may start
the next work day.

Fixed cost --

A lump-sum overhead cost.

Work-day cost --

An overhead cost which accrues only on days when the activity is
working. Entered as a daily rate.

Constant cost --

An overhead cost which accrues every day. Entered as a daily rate.

Reported cost --

Used to record all costs attributable to an activity.


ACTIVITY DATA ON LABELS -- Print only -- R

Minimum activity information is printed on labels, which may be
separated and moved around on a table or board to confirm the logical
dependencies in a project. See also, OPTIMA POCKET PLANNER.

ACTIVITY LEADER

The person assigned primary responsibility for completing and delivering
the result of an activity. Usually entered as the first resource.

ACTIVITY NARRATIVE REPORT -- R

There are two choices here. One is a formal report, with a cover page
showing the project name and the report date. This automatically prints
data for each activity which has a narrative entry. The second choice
allows the user to select an activity by activity number, and preview it
on screen. Any selected activity can be printed after being shown on
screen.

See NARRATIVE for details about entering and editing. See also, PROJECT
HISTORY.

ACTIVITY NUMBER

OPTIMA assigns an activity number from 1 to 200, to each activity.
These are a convenient way to refer to or locate an activity. Also, the
activity number sets the priority for resource allocation when two or
more activities need the same resource concurrently. Activity numbers
may be changed in order to change the priority of resource allocation.

ACTIVITY NUMBER -- PRIORITY -- LISTING -- R

This shows all of the activities in your project in numerical order.
See also, PRIORITY.

ACTIVITY STATUS REPORT FORMS -- Print only -- R

See DISPLAYS and REPORTS for a typical report. Its use is discussed in
detail in Managing Your Project. Before you have calculated your
project work schedule, a page will be printed for each activity.
Afterwards, it becomes an exception report -- pages are printed only for
those activities which are scheduled to have started, and have not been
reported as finished.

ADD A NEW ACTIVITY -- M

The data entry screen is presented with the next available activity
number. The user provides all other data, including the proper start
and completion points. There may be no 'dangling' activities. All must
lie on some path which proceeds un-broken from point 1 to the highest
numbered point in the project.

You may also use the F6 key to add the essential elements of new
activities. This feature is useful when you are first creating a new
activity list.

ADJUST

You adjust your project schedule whenever the reported -- or revised
estimate of the -- duration of an activity is different from the
previously estimated duration. After you have entered the adjusted
duration, you must RESTORE and CALCULATE, as discussed elsewhere.

ALLOCATE

When calculating a work schedule, OPTIMA draws the resources needed by
each activity from a pool of resources on a day-by-day basis. Each
activity is calculated in turn. Whenever there is not enough of a
required resource available on a given work day, that activity will not
be scheduled to work that day. If a lower priority activity is
subsequently calculated in the same time period, and it does not require
more of the resource than is available, it will be scheduled. When all
of a resource has been allocated for a given day, no other activities
which require that resource will be scheduled to work that day. This is
true for all projects which share this resource pool. See also, TRUE
RESOURCE ALLOCATION.

ALPHABETICAL LISTING -- R

This is a quick way to locate some of the data about an activity when
you know the name, but not the activity number.

ANALYZE

OPTIMA provides many tools to analyze projects. These are all listed
under REPORTS and AND DISPLAYS, discussed in detail in this glossary.

ANTICIPATE -- R

OPTIMA allows the project manager to anticipate, and hence avoid,
problems. ACTIVITIES WHICH HAVE CRITICAL FINISH DATES, is most useful
for this. ACTIVITIES WITH CHANGED FINISH DATES is another tool for
anticipation.

APPEND A NEW ACTIVITY -- M

This is used when one or more activities, which immediately follow an
existing activity, all depend upon an activity which was overlooked.

BUDGETING

A project, or projects, which include the general administrative work
which the staff (resources) must perform on a regular basis. This
becomes the base-line for the budget. Also, it ensures that project
schedules will be realistic, because they will not ignore necessary
office routines.

CALCULATE A PROJECT WORK SCHEDULE

This determines the scheduled start and finish dates for each activity
-- the work schedule. It may be performed without resource allocation
for an optimistic estimate, or for a SUPER PROJECT. Accurate project
schedules are calculated with resource allocation.

Remember that you must re-calculate the work schedules for all projects
whenever you have changed the duration, resource, or dependency of even
a single activity in any project.

See also, RESTORE, ADJUST, and MULTIPLE PROJECTS.

CALENDAR

OPTIMA requires a calendar. It specifies your days off and holidays.
Each calendar, which may be shared by many resource lists, and many
projects, is created by filling in an on-screen form. Each calendar
starts at the begining of a year, and spans three years. Special
instructions are displayed when the user attempts to bypass the required
sequence for creating a new CALENDAR or RESOURCE LIST.

CALENDAR SHIFT

You may advance your calendar by one year, once all projects which
started in the previous year have finished. Once you finish a project,
be sure that all pertinent reports have been printed to disk files, then
restore the resources. Here again, all projects must have had their
resources restored before the change can be made.

CASCADE

A form of project planning in which some activities are broken into
shorter parts, so that work may partially overlap. This improves
resource use and reduces the elapsed time to finish the project. It is
a hybrid of SERIAL and PARALLEL ACTIVITIES.


COMPLETION POINT

The logical conclusion of an activity. The result has been delivered.
Dependent activities may start.

CONCURRENT ACTIVITIES

Activities which share a common start point are concurrent. They will
share common logical start date. If they use a common resource, the
lower numbered activities have precedence. Therefore, higher numbered
activities may have delayed starts. Less obviously, activities which
are performed at the same time are also concurrent. Here, the activity
which starts first -- has the lowest start point -- has precedence for
common resources.

CONFLICT

Date conflicts arise when the calculated completion date of an activity
is later than its a critical completion date. The project manager must
resolve these. OPTIMA resolves resource conflicts by project and
activity priority.

CONSTRAINTS

Limits to what you can do, or how you will be able achieve your
objective: Political or financial limits; Time and resource limits.
These must be resolved during project planning.

COST, ESTIMATED

This is the total cost of an activity, including all overhead costs and
resource costs. It is shown as an estimate because the constant, or
all-day, overhead cost is determined by the length of an activity in
calendar days. This is not always its duration in work days, and is not
determined until after the work schedule has been calculated.

COST, REPORTED

This is the actual cost of performing an activity. It is entered from
the data entry screen. You may enter actual amounts to the penny.
Overhead costs, which you may have recorded in the activity narrative,
may be included along with actual resource billings.

COSTS, DAILY, WORK-DAY

These are overhead costs which accrue only on regular working days. The
costs of the project manager and immediate staff might be assigned as
part or all of the project overhead as work-day costs. Full-time
project staff should not also be in the resource list. Another use
might be for an outside consultant on an activity, whose contract called
for payment by the day.

COSTS, DAILY, CONSTANT

These are overhead costs which accrue whether work is being done or not.
An example might be a crane, or other piece of special equipment, which
was rented for a single activity.

COSTS, FIXED

Fixed overhead costs are one-time or lump-sum costs for purchases or
fixed-price rentals. As with all overhead costs, these may be assigned
to the entire project or to individual activities.

COSTS, MATERIALS

Material costs should normally be part of the overhead. If need be, you
may include the detailed breakout in the activity narrative. If there
are many items refer to the bill-of-materials, or other listing, in the
narrative.

COSTS, UNIT (See also, RESOURCE ASSIGNMENTS AND COSTS)

The unit cost is the average cost of each member of a resource class.
It is an estimating value, not one from which a pay check might be cut.
(See COSTS, REPORTED.) It may include whatever overhead items are useful
for planning purposes. Use whole dollar values. Costs assigned in the
Resource List are unit costs.

The unit cost is directly tied to the quantity. If a resource is
assigned to an activity for a full work-day, the unit cost is the cost
for a single member of the resource class for one day. If a resource is
assigned by the hour, then the unit cost is the cost of a single member
of that class for one hour.

Resources which are not allocated in whole days may be set up in a
variety of ways. They may be assigned by the hour-- not necessarily
hourly workers -- or by 1/4 - hour, 1/2 - hour, 1/2 - day, etc. Simply
adjust the unit cost so that the unit cost multiplied by the unit of
time equals the daily cost of the resource.

Some executives and managers may elect to schedule less than eight hours
per day to specific work. This allows time for normal routines, and
non-scheduled demands on their time. Other unique -- quantity one --
resources, which do not receive overtime, may be assigned more than
eight hours per day. Care must be taken not to abuse this, however.

If you do not wish to use actual unit costs for resources, you may
produce work-hour figures instead by the following means. For hourly
resources -- those which you will allocate in hours rather than in full
days -- enter a unit cost of 1 when creating your RESOURCE LIST. For
other resources, use 8. Note well that these work-hour figures will
show as dollar values whenever they are displayed or printed.

CREATE

When something is needed, and it does not already exist, it must be
created. This includes a calendar and a resource list.

CRITICAL

Something vital to the project schedule, such as the critical path, or a
critical finish date. The critical path is any path through the project
which connects activities which have no possible slack.

CRITICAL FINISH DATE

See ACTIVITIES WHICH HAVE CRITICAL FINISH DATES.

CURRENT RESOURCE LIST -- R

This shows the resource list which is in use by the project on which you
are now working.

DATA ENTRY SCREEN

The full-screen display presented by OPTIMA, when ACTIVITY data are
being entered. For examples and discussion, see BROWSING.

DATES USED IN OPTIMA

Start date -- The begining day of the project. Entered by the project
manager, this is the basis for work schedule calculations.

Early start -- The date upon which an activity could start if it is not
delayed for lack of resources or by the user. Also referred to as
logical start.

Delayed start -- An activity start date which is later than the early
start date.

Critical finish -- A 'must-finish-by' date.

Reported finish -- The date on which the result of an activity is
delivered and accepted.

Scheduled start -- The date on which an activity is calculated to start.

Scheduled finish -- The date on which an activity is calculated to be
finished.

Late finish -- The latest date that an activity could be finished
without delaying any dependent activities. This is an indication of
possible slack.

DELAYED START DATE

This option allows the user to force the start dates of selected
activities to be later than their normally calculated dates. It is
useful when input from outside of the immediatepro ject is required for
the start of an activity in the project. Another use is delaying
expensive commitments until the last possible time. This is desirable
when a decision to stop a project might come from outside of the project
itself, or to smooth cash flow.

A delayed start will be forced by OPTIMA during work schedule cal-
culation when the required quantity of one or more resources needed to
perform an activity is unavailable because of use by another activity in
the current project or a previously calculated project.

DELEGATE

OPTIMA requires that work be broken into manageable pieces. Once this
has been done, it is easy to delegate authority for individual projects
to subordinates who are closer to the details of the work.

DELETE AN EXISTING ACTIVITY -- M

Select the activity by number. It is displayed for confirmation. If
correct, it is removed from the project, and all remaining activity
dependencies are adjusted. Higher activity numbers are reduced by one.

DELIVERY DISK

Any disk which comes with OPTIMA.

DEPENDENCY

There must be a logical sequence in which activities are to be
performed. Some of them can start at the very beginning of the project.
Some depend upon the completion of other activities. Every activity has
a start point and a completion point. In OPTIMA, these points are
numbered. The numbers start with 1, at the beginning of the project,
and go to 99. All activities which can start immediately, are assigned
1 as their starting point. If five activities start at 1, their
completion points could be 2, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

They might look like this:

# Name Start Compl.

1 DO ACTIVITY ABLE 1 2
5 DO ACTIVITY BAKER 1 2
6 DO ACTIVITY CHARLIE 1 3
12 DO ACTIVITY DOG 1 4
45 DO ACTIVITY EASY 1 5

Note that the activity numbers are not consecutive. OPTIMA assigns each
activity a number as you enter it. You may be working from an outline,
or an incomplete list. You control the logical relationship by
assigning the start and completion point numbers.

Note well that two of these both end at point 2. They are totally
separate. They may have different durations. But one or more following
activities depend upon both having been completed.

This process is continued until all activities have been linked
together. When there are no more activities left, the ones upon which
nothing else depends are given a common completion point. This is the
highest numbered point in the project.

Every activity must either be followed by another activity which is
dependent upon it, or it must end at this single common destination.
There may be no dangling activities. In other words, you begin at the
beginning, keep going along many different paths until you reach the
end, and then you stop. See also, PERT-TYPE DIAGRAM.

DISKFILES

Whenever you respond Yes for printed output of an OPTIMA report you have
the option of printing to disk rather than directly to your printer.
OPTIMA now allows you to review some of these files on screen.

DISPLAY

A display will appear only on the CRT screen. See SCREEN DUMP.

DURATION

The unit of time for an activity is the WORK-DAY. Ususally, there are
five eight-hour work-days in a week. You estimate the number of work-
days that will be required to do an activity. (This is relative time.
OPTIMA calculates the actual schedule, with dates.) Note that one
person can complete more than one activity in a single work-day. See
RESOURCES for more on this.

ECONOMIC SENSE

A subjective judgement about the value of using OPTIMA to plan and
manage a group of dependent activities as a project. To make economic
sense, the activities should use resources which also work on other
projects, and either be too complex to schedule on paper, or closely
related to other projects which require OPTIMA for proper management.

EDIT (See MODIFY)

ENTER DATA FOR A NEW PROJECT

The procedures for entering completely new data. Includes project name,
project manager's name, and then whatever data are available or required
for each activity.

ESTIMATE

OPTIMA provides great power to estimate both costs and schedules. This
is true because both cost and duration must be assessed at the activity
level.

FINISH (See DATES USED IN OPTIMA)

FOOTER, PRINTED REPORTS

This appears at the bottom of printed reports. Here, the lines have
been separated and a brief explanation inserted.

The name of the report, and the project name:

Numeric Sort: Procurement Demonstration

The name of the licensed user:

Licensed User: AZIMUTH GROUP, LTD. SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT

The time and date that you last saved changes:

Project revised: 20:10 05-24-86

When you last calculated the project work schedule, and the
resource list:

Calculated: 08:56 05-23-86, from resource list: General Purpose.

The project manager is: R. Brodie, III

The day, date and time of the report:

Printed on: Tuesday May 27th, 1986, at 1:40 pm

FUNCTION KEYS

These keys have special uses when entering activity data.

F1 - Enter, review, or revise the activity narrative.

F2 - Enter dates: Delayed start, critical finish, reported finish.

F3 - Enter overhead and reported costs, to the penny.

F4 - Save data, and continue data entry. Also to save changes before
leaving Review and Modify.

F5 - Used to calculate elapsed day - work-day relations.

F6 - Toggles between the screen and a 20-activity per page quick editor.

F10 - Context-sensitive help, available from most fields.

GANTT-TYPE CHART -- Print only -- R

The Gantt-Type Chart displays project schedule information in three-
month blocks. Depending on the number of activities, more than one page
may be needed for each block. If no activities are working in a block
the page will be a blank form with a header only. This may be printed
to disk file and then viewed on screen in a window-like display.

OPTIMA produces two different styles of Gantt-type chart. The one
discussed below is produced when the project schedule has been cal-
culated with resource allocation. When a schedule has been calculated
without resources, such as for a SUPER PROJECT, the chart is much
simpler. It has a single bar for each activity, which runs continuously
from the start date to the finish date.

The following example shows on part of a block and page. It discusses
salient features which are typical of the Gantt-Type Chart. The space
available for the activity name in this example is shorter than the full
thirty characters on the printed report. Only one month of one year is
shown. The printed version shows three full months per page.


YEAR
: MON
1 1 2 2 3
1....5....0....5....0....5....0.1
1 FINISHED ACT. FFFFF FF

2 DELAYED START * ++

3 CRITICAL PATH + +++H+ +

4 OUTSIDE WORK : :::H: :

5 POSSIBLE SLACK + ++-H----

6 DELAY & SLACK * +H----

7 NOTE

8 CRITICAL PATH +++

1 1 2 2 3
1....5....0....5....0....5....0.1
STATUS DATE

The Gantt-Type Chart shows the status of each activity on every day of
the project. The two-day gaps indicate scheduled days off. "H" shows a
holiday. Both are established when you build your calendar.

Activity 1 is finished. It started on the 5th, and finished on the
13th. Its duration was seven work-days. The 10th and 11th were days
off. There is neither a delayed start nor possible slack. It is on the
critical path.

The activities numbered 3, and 8 are also on the critical path.
Activity 3 also has a six-day duration. The duration of number 8 is
three days.

Activity 2 has a delayed start. This may be due to non-availability of
a needed resource or because of a user-imposed delayed start date. It
happens that 2 is also on the critical path. If it were not delayed, it
would not be critical.

Activity 4 is something being done by resources over which the project
manager has only indirect control.

There is possible slack in activity 5. Its duration is only three work-
days, but 8 depends upon 3, 4, and 6 all being complete before it can
start. Examine 6, however, before assuming that the slack really is
there.

Both a delayed start and possible slack exist for activity 6. Very
likely, the delay is caused by some resource used in activity 5. Thus
there may be only two days slack for either 5 or 6.

Activity 7 is a note, or reminder. It has neither duration, nor
resources.

GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROJECT

This is the place to enter the periodic routines which your staff is
obliged to perform. This could include such diverse things as
performance evaluations, staffing status reports, budget preparation,
etc. You may also use it to schedule vacation and school periods. This
is much simpler than making changes to the resource list, and it will
clearly show any delays caused to lower precedence projects. See also,
BUDGETING.

HELP

Context-sensitive help is available for selected data entry fields.
Also, on-screen examples for DELETE, ADD, IMPLANT, INSERT, and APPEND.

HOLIDAY RULES

Here are the rules used by the federal government to determine the dates
of legal holidays. You will find them useful when constructing
calendars for your projects:

General Holidays falling on Saturday are
observed on Friday. Those falling
on Sunday are observed on Monday.

New Years January 1

Martin L. King's Birthday Third Monday in January

Washington's Birthday Third Monday in February

Memorial Day Last Monday in May

Independence Day July 4

Labor Day First Monday in September

Columbus Day Second Monday in October

Veteran's Day November 11

Thanksgiving Day Fourth Thursday in November

Christmas Day December 25

IMPLANT A NEW ACTIVITY -- M

This is used when one or more activities complete at a single point and
one or more start from it, and a critical activity has been left out.
You use IMPLANT when the new activity depends on everything coming into
the point, and everything leaving the point depends upon the implanted
activity.

INSERT A NEW ACTIVITY --M

This is used when a single existing activity depends on an activity
which was left out.

LATE FINISH DATE

The latest date upon which an activity can finish without causing a
delay in the project. All immediately dependent activities will slip,
and all following ones which are on the critical path. Such slippage
will shown in ACTIVITIES WHICH HAVE CHANGED FINISH DATES. Major
problems caused by slippage will be reported as a CONFLICT in ACTIVITIES
WITH CRITICAL FINISH DATES.

The difference between scheduled finish and late finish is possible
slack.

LIBRARY FILE

The library is a way to save standard, repetitive work. A standard
project can be easily recalled, modified if needed, and then saved as a
new PROJECT.

LOGICAL START DATE

Normally this is the same as scheduled start date, the first work day
after all immediate precursor activities have finished. A difference
occurs when the start is delayed. It shows on the GANTT-TYPE CHART as
an asterisk.

MANAGEMENT-BY-ACTIVITY

Planning, scheduling, and controlling a project which has been organized
into a set of highly dependent activities.

MANAGEMENT-BY-OBJECTIVE

Managing work which is defined by a set of independent or sequential
activities.

MODIFY

Modifying activity data on-screen to enter or change details. When you
wish to modify an activity, you select it by activity number. When
selected, the screen display shows all data which have been entered or
calculated, except the narrative. There are several lines of
instructions at the bottom of the screen. Some of these relate to the
data element which you are entering. You may use the RET(urn) and TAB
keys to move from field to field. You may use some of the FUNCTION KEYS
to see and edit the narrative, to go directly to certain fields, or to
save your data and continue work.

You may use the F6 key to go to a display of twenty activities per
screen. Here you may edit the name, work group, start and completion
points, and duration of existing activities. You may also use this same
display to add just these elements for new activities.

The details for entering data for a new project, and adding new acti-
vities to an existing project, are slightly different. See BROWSING.


MULTI-YEAR PROJECT

OPTIMA provides a three-year calendar span. No manageable project
should extend much more than a year, but this span allows for ones which
start late in the first year, and extend into the third year.

MULTIPLE PROJECTS

These are projects sharing a common resource pool, concurrently. You
calculate each project schedule in order of its PRECEDENCE, so that it
accurately reflects the effects of resource availablity -- TRUE
RESOURCE ALLOCATION. See also, SUPER-PROJECT, it is not the same.

PROJECT SUMMARY will help you keep track of the relative importance of
your projects. Whenever you must re-calculate the work schedule of any
project, you first RESTORE all resources to the RESOURCE POOL, then
CALCULATE each project in order of its importance. See TRUE RESOURCE
ALLOCATION.

Currently active projects, and their precedence, are displayed each time
that you run OPTIMA, and at appropriate times during the run. See
PROJECT SUMMARY.

NARRATIVE

This allows approximately five lines of text per activity to further
describe the work being performed.

The narrative for an activity is entered from the data entry screen.
The F1 key accesses the narrative entry field. If there is a narrative
entry already, it will be displayed. If there is none, the cursor will
wait for you to type some. A mini word-processor allows you to enter or
edit the narrative.

When you enter text, you need not press the RET(urn) key until you have
entered all of your narrative. Just type your text, OPTIMA will break
words near the end of each line. It will quit when you fill up the
fifth line. F1 also saves your narrative to disk. ESC returns to the
data entry screen without saving.

The arrow keys allow you to move the cursor within existing text. The
Home key moves to the beginning of the text. The End key moves to the
end of text.

If you have major changes to the narrative for an activity, re-type the
entire entry.

You may insert small corrections to your text with the Insert key. Move
the cursor to the point where you wish to insert text. Press Insert,
and type your new text. Some old text may seem to be over-written.
When you have made your correction, press Insert again. The narrative
field will re-format.

In like manner, you may use the Delete key to remove text. Again,
position the cursor. Press Delete. Use the space bar to blank out the
unwanted character(s). Press Delete again.

You may leave the narrative field without saving to disk by pressing
ESC(ape). If you press F1, you will save whatever is in the field, even
if it is blank.

See also, ACTIVITY NARRATIVE REPORT.

NOTE

Something using neither significant time nor resources. A reminder.
Always assigned a duration of zero.

NUMERICAL ORDER

This provides a list of the activities in activity number, or priority,
order.

See also, PRIORITY.

OBJECTIVE

The result of work being done over time. Basically an activity which
has a duration, but no resources.

ON-SCREEN PRINTING

OPTIMA allows you to edit reports which have been 'printed' to DISKFILE,
provided you have an appropriate word processor.

OPTIMA POCKET PLANNER

Specially designed file cards which may be used to start project
planning. Each card has a place to enter each of the data elements
required to define an activity. The reverse may be used to enter the
narrative or steps-to-complete. See OPTIMA POCKET PLANNER.

OUTSIDE GROUP

Resources not under the direct control of the project manager, whose
work is required to complete a project. Include any costs attributable
to their work in the proper overhead ca tegory.

OVERHEAD COSTS

See COSTS, DAILY and COSTS, FIXED.

PARALLEL ACTIVITIES

When two or more activities connect the same two points they are in
parallel. Such activities are dependent upon all activities which
complete at their common start point, but they are logically independent
of one another. They may also be CONCURRENT, which see.

PERT-TYPE DIAGRAM -- Print only -- R

Provides the same picture of the logical activity dependencies as con-
ventional PERT. It is produced on a conventional dot matrix or wide-
carriage letter-quality printer. As with the Gantt chart, it may be
viewed on screen.

The next page is devoted to a detailed discussion of the PERT-TYPE
DIAGRAM produced by OPTIMA. It is radically different from anything you
may have seen or used before.

These differences result from requirements to:

Produce it on a conventional printer, instead of a
plotter.

Provide the full thirty-character name

Avoid unecessary jumps from place-to-place while tracing
a path through the project.

This shows activity dependencies only. It is not time-scaled.

Act.
Num. Name Points are mapped into columns

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .....

9. IX (1) - - - - - - - - - - -(6)
10. X (1) - - - - - -(4)
1. I * (1) -(2)
6. VI (1) -(2)
2. II (2) - - - - - -(5)
7. VII * (2) -(3)
8. VIII (3) - - - - - -(6)
3. III * (3) - - - (5)
4. IV (4) -(5)
5. V * (5) -(6)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .....

Note the following about this simple example --

Four activities start at point (1).

For clarity, activities starting at a common point are arranged so that
those with the highest completion point are printed first.

More than one activity may connect two points, for example I and VI.
When two or more activities connect the same pair of points, they are
printed in order of activity number, from low to high. OPTIMA does not
require dummy activities.

To trace a path through this diagram, select an activity which starts at
point (1) read across to the right to that activity's completion point,
then down, until that same number becomes the start point for another
activity. Repeat this process until the end point is reached. There
are several logical paths through this example. One of them goes from X
to IV to V. (Points (1) to (4) to (5) to (6))

Note that activity V also depends upon III, which is on another path.
Activity V cannot start until both III and IV have been completed.

This diagram shows project logic. It is not time-scaled. If the work
schedule has been calculated, however, an asterisk after an activity
name shows that it is on the critical path.


PLAN

The way in which you intend to execute your project. See PLANNING

PLANNING

The method used to define the project, specify the activities, their re-
source needs and durations, and determine their dependencies. This
topic is discussed in detail in Project Planning, a section of this
manual. OPTIMA helps do project planning with:

ACTIVITY DATA ON LABELS

PERT-TYPE DIAGRAM

OPTIMA POCKET PLANNER

POINT

A place where one or more activities begin and end. A node or junction.
Defines the dependencies of activities. See DEPENDENCY, PARALLEL
ACTIVITIES, SERIAL ACTIVITIES.

POSSIBLE SLACK

The situation where the early finish of an activity is different from
the late finish. There will be true slack only if the resources needed
to perform the activity will be available at the later time. You should
not blindly depend on slack. You may examine the availability of
resources for any activity which has possible slack.

PRECEDENCE

The relative importance of a project, when several projects share the
same RESOURCE POOL. See PROJECT SUMMARY.

PRINT

The associated output may go to the printer which must be connected and
turned on, or to a DISKFILE. Remember that OPTIMA does not need a
graphic printer, or a plotter, but does require a printer which can
print 130 columns -- wide carriage or compressed print -- for some
reports.

PRIORITY

The sequence in which resources are allocated among activities which
will be performed concurrently is determined by the activity number.
Lower-numbered activities receive their resources before higher-numbered
ones. The option which raises an activity's priority, re-assigns
activity numbers. See RAISE THE PRIORITY OF AN EXISTING ACTIVITY.

PROJECT

A complete set of logically dependent activities, leading to a single,
well-defined result.

PROJECT DATA

All of the files which are required to process a project. For activity
data, see ACTIVITY.

PROJECT HISTORY

A project history, which documents the step-by-step progress of your
work, the decisions made, the causes of and solutions to problems, and
exceptional performance of participants, can be invaluable. You may use
the narrative as the basis for this. First, you must print the project
narrative to DISKFILE. Then, you may edit this new history file as you
wish.

The details of how you update this file from the current narrative
DISKFILE, are your responsibility. They depend on your particular word
processor's ability to insert additional data into existing files.

PROJECT MANAGER NAME

Thirty characters which identify the person in charge.

PROJECT NAME

Forty characters which describe the result of the project.

PROJECT REPLICATION

Very often, a new job will be very similar to a previous project. There
is no need to re-plan and re-enter the entire project. The essential
elements -- activities -- of any project may be saved to a LIBRARY, and
recalled as the basis for a new project. Some activities may be deleted
and new ones included. Others may use slightly different resources or
durations.

PROJECT SUMMARY

OPTIMA maintains a record of all projects are presently calculated with
resources. In it you can see the start and finish dates for each
project. You may request it from choice 6 on MENU: Main. You will
also see this display which you see when you attempt change the quantity
of a resource

RAISE THE PRIORITY OF AN EXISTING ACTIVITY

OPTIMA assigns resources to activities on two bases. First it looks at
each start point in order. At each point it assigns resources to the
activities which start at that point in order of activity number.

By lowering the number of an activity so that it is less than any others
which start at a point, you give it first choice of resources within the
specific project.

RATE

Two of the three types of OVERHEAD COSTS are entered as rates, which are
used to calculate costs. See also, COSTS, UNIT.

REPORTS and DISPLAYS

OPTIMA provides numerous reports which are very useful for planning and
managing projects. They are listed here in alphabetical order.

Activities which are late as of today. *
Activities which have critical finish dates. (Targeted) *
Activities which have finished. (With reported costs.) *
Activities with delayed starts. *
Activities with changed finish dates. (With gain or slip) *
Activity data on labels -- Print only. (Planning aid)
Activity Narrative Report.
Activity number -- Priority -- listing. *#
Activity Status Report Forms -- Print only. (Feedback)
Alphabetical listing. (Find an activity by name) *#
Current resource list.
Gantt-type chart -- Print only.
PERT-type diagram -- Print only.
Resource assignments, and daily quantity. *
(The current work schedule for a selected resource)
Resources un-allocated between two dates -- Print only
Resources used and earned value, by day -- Print only
Work Schedule. *#
Work schedule, with resources used, and costs. *
Work schedule, with resources used, no costs. *

In addition to these reports, OPTIMA provides a rich variety of
on-screen displays. Some of these help you while you are entering and
editing your data. Others help you stay in control of your project.

These displays include:

Project Overhead Status
Selected Activity Status
Project Summary Status
Resources which are available to help on a selected activity
Project Resource Requirements between two selected dates

* You may examine a selected activity in detail when any of these
reports is displayed on-screen, and then look at all available resources
for the date span of that activity. From this you can see if help is
available for activities which need it.

# These show you the current status of each activity -- Finished, Late
(days), Due, Targeted, Critical, Slack, A Note or reminder.

All of these reports may be printed on a letter-quality printer. They
may 'printed' to DISK for further editing, also.

All screen displays may be printed, if you have an IBM or fully-
compatible computer.

RESOURCE

Anything which is required to perform an activity -- people and things.
In OPTIMA, resources are assigned to one of twenty classes.

Each resource has certain characteristics. First, it has a name. This
may be a person, or group of persons with interchangeable skills.
Second, it has a quantity. The use of quantity is a bit tricky, so be
sure that you read this part very carefully. Third, it has a unit cost.

The maximum quantity of a resource is 99. Day laborers, who would be
assigned to an activity for a full day, and are assumed to be plentiful,
could be given the quantity, 99.

A single skilled craftsman, who would always work on a single activity
all day, would have a quantity of 1.

Other skilled persons, and some machinery, may work on more activity
during a single work-day. These may be assigned by the hour. In this
case, the quantity of a single member of the class is 8. You may then
assign from one to eight units of each individual member of the class to
an activity for each work-day.

In some instances, it may be wise to assign a quantity less than 8 to a
resource which will work on an activity for an hour at a time. This is
especially true of managers, and others, whose jobs require that they
interact with other people on a non-scheduled basis. It is simply
unrealistic to commit their undivided time to any one thing.

It is possible to further subdivide the quantity of a resource. If a

person might only devote half an hour to an activity, the quantity of
such an individual would be 16 per work-day.

Some users may wish to set up resource lists which identify their
permanent work crews by individual name, with "pickup" labor categories,
and subcontractors, for the the other work classes. By assigning 99
members to each of these classes, work can be scheduled based on the
availability of key workers. The RESOURCES USED report then becomes the
basis for planning for other resources as needed.

Part-time workers may be included in a resource pool, if they are
available every work-day. For example, someone who worked four hours
every afternoon could be included as an 'hourly resource' with a
quantity of 4.

Resources may be assigned to more than one resource list. The rules for
part-time workers apply.

RESOURCE ALLOCATION (See TRUE RESOURCE ALLOCATION)

RESOURCE ASSIGNMENTS AND DAILY QUANTITY -- R

This, too, shows every activity on which a selected resource is
scheduled to work. Here, units-per-day -- usually hours -- are shown.

RESOURCE CLASS

A resource class may be an individual, a group of persons with
essentially interchangeable skills, or one or more of an essential
machine.

For each activity, resources may be assigned from as many as five
different classes, when all must work as a team to do the work.

RESOURCE CODE

Each RESOURCE CLASS is designated by a code number. Only this number is
entered, when assigning a resource to an activity. See also, RESOURCE.

RESOURCE LIST

The resource list specifies the resources which may work on a project or
projects. It may contain up to twenty resource classes, with as many as
99 members of each. Each class is identifed by name, code, quantity,
and cost. When the resource list is saved, OPTIMA cre ates the resource
pool, from which resources are removed as schedules are calculated.

RESOURCE POOL

This is a three-year long set of pigeon-holes. Each day has twenty
'pigeon-holes'. Each holds the quantity of a single resource which is
available for work that day. Once created, a re source pool will
support as many projects using the same resources as the user can
manage. A project may access only one resource pool. True resource
allocation moves resources from this pool to an identical set of
pigeon-holes for each individual project, on its PROJECT DATA DISK. See
WARNING.

RESOURCE QUANTITY CHANGES

Even a single quantity change in the resource list can cause wide-spread
changes to project schedules. Therefore, before you change the quantity
of any resource, you must RESTORE all projects. Then, after making your
changes, the projects must be re-calculated in descending priority.

RESOURCES REQUIRED BETWEEN TWO DATES

This provides you a manning table for your project if you have
calculated your work sche dule with resources.

RESOURCES UNALLOCATED BETWEEN TWO DATES -- Print only -- R

Lists, day-by-day, the resources which are not assigned to any project.

RESOURCES USED, AND EARNED VALUE, BY DAY -- Print only -- R

A projection / record of the resources used on a project each day. It
shows the cost by day, the cummulative cost (earned value) by day,
weekly sub-totals, and total project cost. Provides a summary of usage
on, and cost to, the project for each resource class. These costs are
estimates.

RESOURCES WHICH ARE AVAILABLE (TO HELP)

This display is invaluable when you must juggle assignments to keep your
work on schedule.

RESTORE

Restoring reverses resource allocation. All resources must be properly
replaced in the resource pool before another calculation may be made.

SAVE

You save data for a project to an individual project file. Partial
data, which may be used as the basis for a similar project in the
future, may be saved to a library file. You may have as many as twenty
project files and twenty library files.

OPTIMA will remind you to SAVE when you have made changes.

SCHEDULE (See WORK SCHEDULE)

SCHEDULED FINISH DATE

The calculated date on which an activity will finish.

SCHEDULED START DATE

The calculated date on which an activity will start if all required re-
sources are available. This is the first work day following the finish
of all activities upon which this activity depends. When there is no
delay, this is also the logical start date.

SCREEN DUMP

There are some screen displays, including the status displays, which do
not have a print option. If you have a fully-compatible computer, you
may print the screen directly. Also, with the proper software, it is
possible to capture screens in memory, and then save them on disk for
later editing and printing.

SELECTED RESOURCE -- E

This lets you find all activities in a project which use the specified
resource. This is available to you while you are entering or modifying
project data.

SELECTED 'WORD' -- E

This allows you to find every occurence of a word, or group of letters
in any activity name in a project. For example, all occurences of
'CONTR', which would find 'CONTRACT', 'CONTRACTOR', and 'CONTRACTING'.
This is available to you while you are entering or modifying project
data.

SERIAL ACTIVITIES

Activities which follow one-after-another, each depending upon its pre-
decessor in a chain, are said to be serially dependent. When planning a
project, look at these closely to see if some are merely steps-to-
complete a single activity. That is, they do not each have a real
deliverable result, or their sequence is unimportant. If they have real
results, but their sequence is not really important and all must be
completed before one or more successor acti vities can start, make them
parallel activities between a single pair of points.

SHOW

The result may be displayed or printed.

SHOW ACTIVITIES ENDING AT A POINT AND THEIR DEPENDENCIES -- E

This is one of three ways to analyze activity dependencies while in
Review and Modify. It shows every activity which completes at a
selected point number, and all activities which cannot start until they
have all finished.

SHOW ACTIVITIES STARTING AT A POINT -- E

Another means to analyze dependencies. Here, you will see those
activities which are logic ally parallel at a selected point number, and
the point at which each completes. This can be used to trace any path
through your project. See also, PERT-TYPE DIAGRAM.

SHOW AN ACTIVITY AND ITS DEPENDENCIES. -- E

With this, you select an activity by number and see all of the
activities upon which its start depends, and all which cannot start
until it is finished.

START DATE

The begining date of the project, which you enter. The basis for
schedule calculations.

START POINT

The point, or junction, at which one or more activities begin. The
project starts at point 1.

STATUS ANALYSES

The three types of status analyses displays allow you to compare current
project costs and schedules against your original plan -- the baseline.

STATUS, CURRENT

Activity status information, which appears on many reports, looks
something like this:

Act. Current
# Activity Name Status

1 HAS BEEN REPORTED FINISHED Finished
2 DUE BY CLOSE OF BUSINESS, TODAY Due
3 THIS IS FIVE DAYS LATE Late 5
4 FUTURE ACTIVITY, ON CRITICAL PATH Critical
5 INDICATES POSSIBLE SLACK Slack
6 A ZERO-DURATION REMINDER A Note
7 HAS A CRITICAL FINISH DATE Targeted
8 ONE OR MORE RESOURCES NOT AVAILABLE Delay

These should be self-explanatory, since the names of these activities
describe what the status entry signifies. Remember that you also have a
report, ACTIVITIES WHICH ARE LATE AS OF TODAY. It lists all activi-
ties which are late or which will be late by close of business on the
day of the report. Another report, ACTIVITIES WITH CHANGED FINISH
DATES, will show all activities which have scheduled finish dates
different from the dates calculated originally. This report changes
when you re-calculate a work schedule after making some adjustment to
this, or any project which shares the common resource list.

STEPS-TO-COMPLETE

Parts of an activity which do not represent a significant deliverable
result in themselves. May refer to a check-list, a bill-of-materials,
or other detailed work routines. These may be referred to in the
narrative.

SUB-SELECTIONS

When you are performing schedule analyses you may wish to see only those
activities which meet a second criterion. These are selected from a
second menu. See Report by Sub-Selection. If you choose one of these
options, you may not 'print' it to DISKFILE.

SUPER PROJECT

When two or more projects are closely related, they form a higher-level
super project. The individual projects may be performed by different
groups. Some of these may be contractors. OPTIMA provides a way to in-
tegrate these individual projects into a single schedule. First, the
individual projects must be arranged in a logical sequence; just as
activities are arranged in a project network, except that there will
seldom be as many projects in a super project as there are activities in
a project. When the super project logic has been established, each
separate project is calculated sequentially, so that dependent projects
are started on the first work-day after the last pre-cursor project is
to be completed. When all project schedules have been calculated, the
duration of each in WORK-DAYS is derived from the number of elapsed
days, using OPTIMA to determine date - work-day relationships. These
values are used as the durations of the activities (projects) in the
super project.

TRACE

There are usually several logical paths through a project. The
PERT-TYPE DIAGRAM will show you all of them. When you are reviewing or
modifying data, you frequently wish to trace one specific path,
examining each junction on the way. The selection, Show activities
starting at a point, provides this.

TRUE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

This concept is fundamental to OPTIMA. Resource availablity information
is stored in the RESOURCE POOL. When a project work schedule is
calculated, the program starts with the user-specified start date. It
compares the resource requirements for activity #1 with the availabilty
of those resources on that date. Only if all are available is that a
working day for that activity. Then, required resources are moved from
the RESOURCE POOL to the project. This process is repeated until the
number of working days for that activity equals the specified DURATION.
Then the remaining activities are calculated in the same way, in order
of activity number.

Once the maximum daily quantity of a resource has been allocated to do
work on that day, no other activity in any project can use that resource
on that same day. Those activities will be delayed until all of the
required resources are available.

See also, ALLOCATE, CONCURRENT, AND PARALLEL.

WORK SCHEDULE -- R

The sequence of printing the project schedule is date-oriented. In
order to maintain compatibility with the GANTT charts, the date sequence
is based on LOGICAL start rather than SCHEDULED start. This causes
activities which are delayed to appear to be listed out of normal date
order. This situation may result from a forced delay of the start of an
activity, or a delay caused by non-availability of resources required by
that activity. In either instance, the project schedule will print
'Delayed' in the column preceding the SCHEDULED START.

WORK SCHEDULE, WITH RESOURCES USED, AND COSTS -- R

This report provides more detail than the straight WORK SCHEDULE.

WORK SCHEDULE, WITH RESOURCES USED, NO COSTS -- R

Similar to above, but with duration instead of cost data.

WORK-DAY

The minimum DURATION of an activity, neither a regular day off, nor a
scheduled holiday. The actual work done may be less than a full day,
This depends upon the quantities of assigned resources. See RESOURCES,
above.

WORK-DAY -- ELAPSED-DAY RELATIONS -- E

The difference between these two is the number of days off and holidays
between two dates. OPTIMA allows you to use two date variables to
calculate a third one. For example, if you enter two dates, this will
tell you the number of work-days between them. It will also calculate
the number of elapsed days. You get similar results from a date and the
duration in work-days.


  3 Responses to “Category : Databases and related files
Archive   : OPTIMA.ZIP
Filename : GLOSSARY.OPT

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