Contents of the BAKING.TXT file
This is a copy of the Toll House Kitchens Success Guide to Baking.
SEPARATING EGGS: Tap the side of the egg on theedge of a bowl or cup
to crack the shell. Pass the yold from shell to shell, dropping the white
into a cup before adding it to the other whites called for in the recipe. If
a little yolk gets into the whites, scoop it out with part of the shell. The
presence of any yolk in the whites can ruin them.
BEATING EGG WHITES: Egg whites may be beaten with an electric mixer,
rotary egg beater or ballon style whisk. Bowl and beater must be clean and
dry because even a small amount of grease or oil can prevent the whites from
whipping properly. Beat the whites slowly, gradually increasing the speed as
they begin to foam. Beat only until they hold shape or point. CAUTION: Do
not beat egg whites ahead of time. They should be folded in Immediately after
they are beaten.
WHIPPING CREAM: Cream may be whipped with electric mixer, rotary
eggbeater, or ballon style whisk. Cream, bowl and beaters should be very cold
for best results. To avoid spattering, beat slowly, gradually increasing
speed as cream thickens. CAUTION: Be careful not to overbeat as you will end
up with butter and buttermilk. It is best not to whip cream too far ahead of
time or it will separate slightly, if this happens, mix briefly with a wire
FOLDING INGREDIENTS: Many recipes call for folding beatn egg whites
or whipped cream into another mixture. Both egg whites and whipped cream
contain air in the form of many small bubbles. Folding rather than mixing is
done to retain the air in the mixture. Start with a large bow containing the
heavier mixture. Using a circular motion with a rubber spatula, cut down
through center of mixture across bottom of bowl, lifting up and over. After
each fold, rotate the bowl slightly in order ot imcorporate the ingredients as
evenly as possible. Fold in remaining egg whites or whipped until uniformly
but lightly combined.
MEASURING DRY INGREDIENTS: Use the standard graded sets of four: 1/4
cup, 1/3 cup, 1/2 cup, and 1 cup. Spoon dry ingredients into measure and
level off with a metal spatula.
MEASURING LIQUID INGREDIENTS: Use a glass or plastic measureing cup
with a pour spout. With the cup sitting on a flat surface, read it at eye
level. Fill to exactly to line indicated.
WORDS TO BAKE BY:
BEAT: to thoroughly combine ingredients and incoporate air with a
rapid regular motion. This may be done with a wire shisk, rotary eggbeater or
and electric mixer.
BLEND: To thoroughly combine two or more ingredients.
CHILL: To refrigerate until cold.
CREAM: To combine two or more ingredients by beating until the
mixture is light and well blended.
CUT IN: To combine solid fat with dry ingredients by using a pastry
blender or two knives in a scissor motion until particles are of the desired
DRIZZLE: To sprinkle drops of glaze or icing over food in a random
manner from tines of a fork or the end of a spoon.
FULL ROLLING BOIL: To cook a mixture until it appears to rise in the
pan. The surface billows rather than just bubbles.
GLAZE: To coat with a liquid, a thin icing or a jelly either before
or after food is cooked.
MIXING JUST UNTIL MOISTENED: Combining dry ingredients with liquid
ingredients until dry ingredients are thoroughly moistened but mixture is
PACKED BROWN SUGAR: Brown sugar pressed into measuring cup with a
spoon. Sugar will hold its shape when cup is inverted.
SIMMER: To cook in liquid just below the boiling point. Bubbles form
slowly just below the surface.
SOFT PEAKS: Egg whites or cream beaten to the stage where mixture
forms soft rounded peaks when beaters are removed.
STIFF PEAKS: Egg whites or cream beaten to the stage where mixture
holds stiff pointed peaks when beaters are removed.
CHOCOLATE: ITS CARE & HANDLING
It's no surprise that chocolate is America's favorite flavor.
However, as a natural product made principally from cocoa beans, chocolate
does have certain characteristis that affect the way it should be stored and
used for best results.
STORING CHOCOLATE: The key words are COOL, DRY, AND LOW HUMIDITY!
Storage temperature should be between 60 degrees and 78 degrees F. with
relative humidity at less than 50 %. It is all right to refrigerate
chocolate, but wrap it tightly so that it won't absorb odors. Airtight
wrapping will also prevent moisture from condensing on the chocolate when it
is removed from the refrigerator. Chocolate becomes hard and brittle when
cold, so allow it to come to room temperature before using.
A TIP ABOUT MILK CHOCOLATE CHIPS: Don't use milk chocolate chips in
desserts that do not call for melting the chips before blending them in. The
milk content causes them to become hard when they are baked. You may
substitute milk chocolate chips for semi-sweet chips in recipes such as
frostings or sauces that call for melting the chips.
THERE'S NO LOVE IN "BLOOM," BUT NO HARM EITHER: Chocolate has a high
content of cocoa butter. When stored at temperatures that fluctuate from hot
to cold, chocolate cand evelop "bloom"--a gray film caused by the cocoa butter
rising to the surface. This dulls the rich brown chcolate color but does not
affect the flavor. When the chocolate melts, it regains its attractive color.
Don't hesitate to use it.
MELTING CHOCOLATE PERFECTLY:
IMPORTANT REMINDER: Even the smallest drop of moisture frm a wet
spoon or steam from a double boiler can cause melted chocolate to become
lumpy. If this occurs, all is not lost. Stir in 1 T vegetable shortening
(not butter) for every 3 ounces of chocolate. Butter is not used because it
contains water. Stir continuously until the consistency is smooth and even.
TOP OF STOVE METHOD: All varieties of chips can be melted using this
traditional method. Place the amount of chips you want ot melt in the top of
a clean, dry, double boiler. Place over hot (not boiling) water, stirring
occasionally until smooth. Note: water in botom pan should be 1 inch below
top pan for best results.
MICROWAVE METHOD: All varieties of chips can be melted using a
microwave oven. Simply place the amout of chips you want to melt in a dry
glass measuring cup twice the size (ie to melt 1 cup of chips, use a 2 cup
measuring cup). Microwave on HIGH for 1 minute; stir. Microwave on HIGH for
30 seconds longer; stir. It is necessary to stir the chips because they
retain their original shape even in the melted state. Because microwave ovens
may differ in power levels, consul your "User's Guide" for specific directions
for you particular model.
RECIPE CALLS FOR: YOU MAY USE:
1 OZ (1 SQUARE) 3 OUNCES (1/2 CUP)
UNSWEETENED BAKING CHOCOLATE CHIPS.
CHOCOLATE DECREASE SHORTENING
1 T AND SUGAR 1/4 CUP.
3 OZ (3 SQUARES) 3 OUNCES (1/2 CUP)
SEMI-SWEET BAKING SEMI-SWEET CHOCOLATE
1/4 CUP UNSWEETENED 3 OUNCES (1/2 CUP)
COCOA POWDER SEMI-SWEET CHIPS.
1 T AND SUGAR 1/4 CUP.
BAKING PAN OPTIONS:
If a recipe calls for a size of baking pan you don't have, chances are
you can use what you do have on hand. Use the following list for parctical
substitutions. But remember, changin pan sizes will alter the baking time.
Smaller pans take less time than loaf pans with higher sides. TIP: Keep a
record of pan size changes and baking times for future use.
RECIPE CALLS FOR: YOU MAY USE:
9 x 5 x 3-inch two 7 1/2 x 3 3/4 x 2 1/4
loaf pan inch loaf pans OR three
5 1/2 x 3 1/4 x 2 1/4
inch loaf pans.
8 1/2 x 4 1/2 x 2 1/2 two 5 1/2 x 3 1/4 x 2 1/4
loaf pan inch loaf pans OR one 1-lb
10-inch fluted tube pan one 10 x 4-inch tube pan
OR one 12 cup ring mold OR
two 9 x 5 x 3-inch loaf pans.
13 x 9 x 2-inch baking two 9-inch round pans OR
pan two 8-inch round pans OR
two 8-inch square pans.
One 9-inch round pan one 8-inch square pan
two 9-inch rond pans three 8-inch round pans
How many times has it happened to you? Your're missing one item the
recipe calls for and your stuck. Don't despair; just try one of these easy
RECIPE CALLS FOR: YOU MAY USE:
1 t baking powder 1/4 t baking soda + 1/2
t cream of tartar
1/2 cup firmly packed 1/2 cup sugar mixed with
brown sugar 2 T molasses
1 cup buttermilk 1 T lemon juice or vinegar
and milk to make 1 cup
1/2 cup Corn Syrup 1/2 cup sugar + 2 T liquid
1 T cornstarch 2 T flour OR 4 T quick-cooking
1 cup Light Cream 7/8 c milk + 3 T butter
1 cup Whole Milk 1 c skim milk + 2 T butter Or
1/2 c evaporated milk + 1/2
1 t Grated Orange Or 1/2 t dried peel
Hope that this helps all of the cooks old and new to solve some of
their problems that you have all the time in the kitchen.