Contents of the EP.DOC file
EASY WORKING PLANNER for the IBM PC and Compatibles
TABLE OF CONTENTS
What you need to know 3
Backing Up the Program 3
Copying onto a hard disk 4
Loading the Program 4
Setting Up the Program 5
WHAT IS A SPREADSHEET? 7
Getting Help 8
Entering Text 9
Entering Filenames 10
EASY WORKING PLANNER BASICS
The Opening Screen 10
Moving the Cursor 10
Entering Information 11
Entering Text 12
Entering Numbers 12
Entering Formulas 12
Using Functions in Formulas 13
Function List 14
Marking a Block 14
Moving Cells 15
The Edit Menu 15
Cut Block 15
Memorize Block 15
Paste Block 15
Blank Block 16
Format Block 16
Read from File 17
Write to File 17
Insert Row/Column 17
Delete Row/Column 17
Auto Calc (Off/On) 19
Column Widths 19
Entry Format 19
FUNCTION KEYS 19
Load Worksheet 20
Save Worksheet 20
New Worksheet 21
Import File 21
Export File 21
Remove File 22
Format Disk 22
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
EasyWorking Planner is designed for the first-time computer user.
In this manual, we have tried to provide all the information that you
will need. However, we do assume that you know how to turn on your
computer and to bring up the MS-DOS or PC-DOS operating system. If you
do not know how to do this, consult the guide that came with your
Also, we will refer to DOS commands. You should look at the DOS reference
manual that came with your computer for more information on commands.
BACKING UP THE PROGRAM
The first step when using any computer software is to make a back-up
copy of the program disks. That way, if something should happen to
your original disks, you will have back-up copies to use. Follow these
steps for making back-up copies.
First, start your computer with DOS. If you have a hard disk, the DOS
prompt should appear as C>. If you use a floppy DOS disk, the DOS
prompt should appear as A>. The letter preceding the ">" identifies
the drive you used to boot your computer.
Leave your DOS disk in drive A.
If you have two floppy drives, type: DISKCOPY A: B: and press Enter.
You will then be instructed to put the "source disk" in drive A:, and
the "target disk" in drive B:. (If you aren't sure which drive is A:
or B:, consult your computer user's manual.)
If you have one drive, type: DISKCOPY A: and press Enter.
You will be prompted first to insert the source disk and later to
insert the target disk into drive A:.
"Source disk" refers to the disk that is to be copied. In this case,
the source disk is the Easy Working Planner program disk.
"Target disk" refers to the disk that will be copied to. Use a blank
disk (a disk with no other files on it) for your target disk. The
target disk does not have to be formatted before using DISKCOPY.
After you have inserted the source and target disks into your computer,
press Enter to begin the DISKCOPY procedure.
When the message "Diskcopy complete. Copy another? Y/N" appears,
type N. The DOS prompt will come back to the screen, and you are
ready to use the program. Just to be safe, use the copy that you made,
not the original disk. Be sure to place the original Planner program
disk in a safe place, and label the back-up copy.
COPYING THE PROGRAM ONTO A HARD DISK
If you have a hard disk, you may want to install the program on the
hard disk for convenience.
Place the Planner program disk into drive A:. With the C> prompt on
the screen, type: A: and press Enter.
This changes the current drive from C: to A: and you should see the A>
prompt on your screen.
Now type: INSTALL and press Enter.
This command will copy the program files from the A: drive to the C:
drive, into a subdirectory called "Easy."
When the install operation is complete, type: C: and press Enter.
This will change your current drive back to the C: drive and will put
you into the C:\Easy> directory path. To make certain that the files
were copied correctly, type: DIR and press Enter.
You should see all of the program files, including these:
File Name Description
EP.EXE The main EasyWorking Planner program file.
INSTALL.BAT Program which installs the Planner onto a hard disk.
PID A file used by EP.EXE file.
PRINTER.LST Used for selecting a printer.
PRINTERS.LST Additional file used for printer selection.
ULTIMATE.LST List of printers supported by the program.
There may be other files as well besides these program files.
LOADING THE PROGRAM
Now that you have made a back-up of the program disk, you are ready to
load the program.
If you are using a back-up program disk, insert the disk into drive A:
and make sure the A> prompt appears on your screen.
If you are using a hard drive, type C: to be sure you are in drive C:.
Then type CD EASY and press Enter. This will put you in the C:\Easy
The C:\Easy> prompt should appear on your screen. If you still only
see the C> prompt, type PROMPT $P$G and press Enter. This should show
you your complete directory path.
Then type: EP and press Enter.
After a few seconds, the Planner screen will appear.
SETTING UP THE PROGRAM
The first time you use the Planner, the program must be configured to
your particular computer and printer. Press the Escape key to see the
To select any option from the Planner menu, type the first letter of
the option. In this case, you want to choose Setup, so type the letter
s. (Alternatively, you can press the Right Arrow key until the cursor
highlights the option "Setup." Then press Enter.)
This produces the Setup Menu which has the following options:
1. Disk Drives
Type d to see the Select Drives box. This box tells the program where
to look for your files. There are two fields, one for Data Files and
one for Program Files.
This tells the program where to save or find any spreadsheets you
create with the program. If you are running the program from a floppy
disk, this field will show "b" as the default data drive. A "default"
is a setting that the program will use unless you define a new setting.
You should insert a formatted disk into drive B: so that you can save
your spreadsheets. If you are using a hard disk, this field will show
"c" as the default data drive. You are free to change this field to
any drive or directory path you want. Type in the new drive and press
Enter. The cursor will then jump to the Program Files field.
This tells the program where to find the program disk. On a floppy
disk system, this field will assume that your program disk is in drive
A:. If you are using a hard disk, this field will show C and \EASY\ as
the program drive and directory path. You are free to change this
field to any drive or directory path you want. Type in the new drive
and press Enter.
When you are satisfied with the drive settings in this box, press F2 to
accept your new settings. Your cursor will return to the Setup menu.
If you have a color monitor, the Planner allows you to choose the
colors on the screen. You can also specify what type of graphics
adapter you have.
Type v to see the Video Menu.
Use the SpaceBar to cycle through the different options. When the name
of your graphics adapter appears, press F2 to accept the screen.
This produces another screen where you select the screen colors that
you want to use. Press the SpaceBar until the color combination that
you like comes to the screen. Then press F2 again, and the colors that
you selected will become the program colors. Your cursor will return
to the Setup menu.
The Planner needs to know what type of printer you have.
Type p to see the Printer List.
Use the cursor keys, including Page Up and Page Down, to move through
the list. When the name of your printer appears, highlight it and then
press Enter to select it. If your exact printer is not on the list,
choose a printer that is similar to yours. When you press Enter, the
Printer Set-Up window will appear.
You probably will not have to change this setting, unless your printer
port is lpt1 or lpt2. If you are unsure, leave the setting as it is
and press F2. Your cursor will return to the Setup Menu.
4. Save Setup
The last step in setting up the Planner is to save the options you have
just entered. If you do not save the Setup information, then all of
your selections will be lost when you turn off the computer. After you
save the setup, you can always go back and change any of the options
whenever you need to.
Type s to save your setup. A message will appear confirming that your
setup is saving. If your program disk is not where you said it was in
the Disk Drive box, you will see an error message to that effect.
Press Escape once to remove the error message. Then select the Disk
Drive option again and correct the Program Files field.
Once the Setup information has been saved, you are ready to create
Press the Escape key twice to remove the Planner menu from your screen.
WHAT IS A SPREADSHEET?
Spreadsheets are used to show rows and columns of numbers and
calculations in an organized manner. Accountants use spreadsheets to
show budgets and keep track of accounts payable and receivable. At
home you might use a spreadsheet to balance your checkbook or keep
track of your mortgage payments.
Spreadsheets can be set up on paper or on a computer. A computer
spreadsheet sets up rows and columns on a video screen. They start out
completely blank and you have to design the rows and columns to suit
your needs. That is, you need to label your categories, decide whether
you will enter your numbers in rows or columns, and enter formulas for
Computer spreadsheets are nice because they can do your calculations
automatically and they can be reorganized whenever necessary. Paper
spreadsheets by contrast require you to do calculations by hand and
they are difficult to reorganize.
EW Planner uses "pop-up" menus called so because they work like
restaurant menus: they offer you a set of choices or options while
extending from the Main Menu.
When you first run EW Planner, you will drop directly into the Planner
screen. Press Escape to return to the Main Menu. To see the pop-up
menu choices, press the Shift key or your CAPS LOCK key. As you use
the arrow keys to move through the menu, press Shift to cause the
different pop-up menus to appear.
Try it now. There are cursor arrow keys on the key pad part of your
keyboard. Depending on your computer, you may have a separate set of
arrow keys. The File option will be highlighted. Press the key
labeled 6 ->. The highlighted bar will move from "File" to "Edit" to
"Print," and so on. If you press Shift when "Setup" is highlighted,
the Setup Menu will pop up. (If the highlighted bar doesn't move when
you press the 6->, press your Num Lock key once and try again.) You can
use the 4 <- and 6 -> keys (the left arrow and right arrow keys) to
move to the left and right on the menus. If the option you move to
has a pop-up menu, press Shift to cause the menu to pop up. Options
such as "Quit," which don't have a pop-up menu, will just highlight the
On a monochrome monitor, highlighting changes the option from green (or
amber or white) letters on a black background to black letters on a
bright background. On a color monitor, highlighting changes the colors
of the letters and background.
When you move past the last option, "Quit," the menu will wrap-around
to the first option. This happens in the other direction, too: when
you move to the left of the first option, "File," the "Quit" option
will change color or highlight.
Selecting an Option
EW Planner gives you two ways to select options. Use whichever one is
most convenient for you. The two ways are:
Graphically. Press the arrow keys until the option you want is
highlighted. Then press Enter or the down arrow. (The Enter key
may be labeled "Return" or "Enter" or have an arrow on it:
"<--|". We call it the Enter key throughout this manual. The
down arrow key is the key pad 2.)
By Letter. Type the first letter of the option's name. You
don't have to press the Enter key--the program will automatically
select the option. If you are in the Main Menu and want to
select an option on a pop-up menu, first select the option that
contains the pop-up menu. For example, to select "Setup Printer,"
you must first select "Setup" from the Main Menu.
When you select an option, EW Planner guides you through it. If the
program needs more information, such as the name of a file or a start
and end page, it displays a screen asking for the information that is
needed. This screen is called a "dialog box" because it is where EW
Planner has a dialog with you, the user.
EW Planner has a built-in help system. Whenever you want help with an
operation, just press F1 and the Help screen pops up. (F1 is the
function key labeled "F1." Most PCs have 10 function keys on the left
side of the keyboard. Some may have the function keys along the top of
the keyboard or they may have more than 10 function keys. Regardless,
the keys will all be labeled F1, F2, F3, F4, and so on.)
There are two parts to the help system. The first screen summarizes
the keys you can use in EW Planner. Press F1 again when this screen is
showing, and see more information about the operation you were
performing when you first asked for Help. Use the PgUp and PgDn keys to
move through this text.
The second part of the help system is a Help Index. For help on a
different topic, choose F2 from the summary screen. You will see a
list of the help that is available within the application. Move your
cursor to the topic you want to read about and press Enter. You will
see detailed text about the topic you chose. Use the PgUp and PgDn keys
to move through this text.
Press Escape when you're done. The Help menu will disappear and you
will return to whatever you were doing. These are the keys you can use
when looking at Help:
F1 Show more help. Press F1 again and additional screens
appear. Use the PgUp and PgDn keys to move through text.
F2 See a list of Help available. Choose any of these
options to see more.
Escape Leave the Help system. You may have to press Escape more
than once, but it will always back you out of the Help
When a dialog box asks for information, simply type it in. They're set
up so you can only enter text in certain places so you don't type
something in the wrong place by mistake. When you're at the end of a
screen, press F2. EW Planner will respond to the information on the
If you notice a mistake, use cursor keys to move to the information.
When the cursor is on the information, type the correction over the
existing information. If there are extra letters left over, press the
Delete key to erase them.
These are the keys you can use when you're entering information in a
Up Arrow Jump one field up.
Tab Jump to the next field.
Down Arrow Jump one field down.
Shift/Tab Jump to the previous field.
Home Jump to the first field in the box.
Note the Tab key, which is usually on the left side of the keyboard,
may be labeled "Tab" or have a "--->|" symbol on it. Also, the Home
key is on the numeric key pad, although your computer may have an extra
set of cursor (or arrow) keys as well.
At times, there are only a few possible choices you can enter. For
example, in Setup Video, there are various colors of text and borders
to choose from. In cases like this, EW Planner will display the first
choice with a message, "Space select."
Press the SpaceBar to see each choice in turn. When you reach the end
of the list, it starts over. When the choice you want is shown, press
Enter. If the list is a long one, press F3 for a pop-up menu of the
available choices. Move your cursor to the choice you want and press
Whenever you're asked to enter a filename, whether it be to load or
save, write to file or read from file, the Filename Screen will appear.
Enter the filename if you know the exact name. The path will default
to what you setup in Setup Disk Drives. Enter the path if you want to
override the default.
If you're saving file for the first time, choose a name to help
remember what the file is about. Type the name, press Enter, and it
will be saved. If the filename already exists on the disk, the program
will ask if you want to overwrite it. Answer yes and the program will
replace the old file with the new information you just entered. To
keep an old file and while saving a new one, enter a new filename for
the current file.
If you forget the exact name of a file, press F3 to access a directory
without leaving the screen. Or type "wildcard" characters in the
filename box to narrow down the directory you get (i.e. 'word' would
show all files which begin with 'word').
After typing a name or path to narrow down the directory search, press
F3. A directory will appear containing only those files relevant to
the application you're in and the wild card characters entered. Move
the cursor to the filename you want and press Enter.
EASY WORKING PLANNER BASICS
**The Opening Screen
The Planner labels the columns with letters and the rows with numbers.
The blocks where the columns and rows intersect are called "CELLS" and
are referred to by their columns and row number: A1, B1, A2, B2, and
The cursor (shown as a highlighted cell) is in cell A1, and the top
line of the screen will display the information:
A1 Calc On Memory Free:___K general ESC for Menu F1 HELP
"A1" is the current cell where your cursor is located.
"Calc On" shows that automatic calculation is turned on.
"Memory Free:" shows how much computer memory you can use currently.
"general" indicates how numbers are displayed in the current cell.
"ESC for Menu" is a reminder to press Escape to see the Planner Menu.
"F1 HELP" is a reminder to press F1 to see help screens.
** Moving the Cursor
The screen show rows 1 to 19 and columns A to F, which is only a small
part of the worksheet (a worksheet is the blank working area that the
program gives you). The worksheet is actually 254 rows by 254 columns
in size (cells A1 through IP250).
You work with large spreadsheets by moving the cursor around to
different sections. The cursor will move from cell to cell as you
press the direction keys.
Arrow Down Move down one row.
Arrow Up Move up one row.
Arrow Left Move one cell to the left.
Arrow Right Move one cell to the right.
PgDn Move down one screen.
PgUp Move up one screen.
Tab Move right 1/2 screen.
Shift-Tab Move left 1/2 screen.
F7 Jump to any cell. To move to cell DD56, for
example, press then type "DD56". The
screen will move, placing the cursor at DD56.
Home Move to the top left cell on the screen.
End Move to the bottom right cell on the screen.
Ctrl-Home Move to cell A1.
Ctrl-End Move to the last cell in your worksheet.
** Entering Information
You can put three kinds of information into spreadsheet cells: TEXT,
NUMBERS, and FORMULAS.
Look at the following spreadsheet:
A B C
1 Gas 10.75
2 Oil 2.95
4 TOTAL 13.70
The word "Gas" (in cell A1) is text and 10.75 (in cell B1) is a number.
The word "Oil" is also text and 2.95 is a number.
The word "TOTAL" is text but 13.70 is the result of a formula: B1+B2.
You enter this formula by typing =B1+B2 and the spreadsheet will show
the result. Later if you go back and change the number in cell B2 from
2.95 to 3.95, the formula in cell B4 recalculates and displays the new
result as 14.70.
As you enter text, numbers, and formulas, they will appear in an input
box underneath the information line.
The input box will indicate whether you are entering text, a value, or
a formula. If you want to enter a formula but the input box shows
"TEXT," press Escape once and be sure to type = before entering your
formula. Standard editing keys such as insert and delete can be used
as you enter information.
** Entering Text
To enter text, move the cursor to a cell and begin typing letters. If
your text begins with a number, enter a quote (") first. The input box
should say "TEXT." Enter as many characters as you need and press
Enter. If the cell is not wide enough to show all the text, the extra
text will be shown in the next column to the right, as long as that
cell is empty. If the cell to the right has information in it, you may
want to make your current columns wider. (See "Change, Column Widths")
The backslash character (\) produces some special effects with text.
To right-justify your text, enter \> and then the text.
To left-justify your text, enter \< and then the text.
To center your text, enter \^ and then the text.
Any other character following the backslash will repeat itself. For
example, entering \= will produce a cell that looks like
===============. This can be useful for putting lines underneath the
** Entering Numbers
To enter a number, move the cursor to a cell and begin typing. If the
number has a decimal point, enter the period. If the number is negative,
enter a minus sign (-) before the number. Press Enter to put the value
into the current cell. Numbers will always be right-justified and there
is no way to change their justification.
Do not enter a dollar sign or any commas in a number; enter $1,345.67
as 1345.67 and later you can format the display in Currency format.
(See "Editing Cells, Format Block")
** Entering Formulas
TO ENTER A FORMULA, TYPE THE EQUALS SIGN (=) FIRST. The input box
should read "FORMULA=." A formula can be as simple as A1+3. This
formula will add 3 to the value in cell A1. To enter this formula,
move the cursor to any cell except A1 and type: =A1+3 and press
The plus sign (+) in this example is called an "operator." In a
formula, you can use any of the operators listed below:
Operator Used For Examples
+ Addition A1+B1, A1+3
- Subtraction C2-C3, C2-8
* Multiplication A1*C3, A1*6
/ Division A2/B6, A2/3
^ Raise to a power A2^C4, A1^2
Formulas are evaluated using standard operational hierarchy. That is,
the ^ signs are evaluated first, the * and / signs are evaluated
second, and the + and - signs are evaluated third.
To force evaluation in a different order, use parentheses, ( and ).
** Using Functions in Formulas
Simple calculations are easy to enter, using the operators described
above. However, the Planner has some powerful functions that can save
you a lot of time when you use them in your formulas. One such
function is the SUM function.
Suppose you have 10 cells to add together, cells A1 down to A5 and B1
down to B5. Using a regular formula you might enter:
=A1+A2+A3+A4+A5+B1+B2+B3+B4+B5 and press Enter.
This amount of typing is very tedious.
Fortunately, the Planner has the SUM function. The function is shown
in the Function List below as "SUM(list)." Using this function, you
=sum(A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,B1,B2,B3,B4,B5) and press Enter to achieve the
same result, but this doesn't save you very much typing.
Notice however that the cells in your group are connected together in
one block of cells. When your cells are connected in one block, you
=sum(A1:B5) and press Enter.
Note that a function does not replace a formula but merely enhances it.
You may use any combination of functions in your formulas. For
example, you might want to enter:
=sum(A1:B5)+cnt(C4:E36)/int(E64) and press Enter.
The list below describes the functions that you can use.
Wherever the term "x" is used, you may enter one number or cell value.
Wherever the term "list" is used, you may enter a list of cells
separated by commas. You may also be able to use a block. Enter the
top left cell, a colon, and the bottom right cell of the block
In your list or block, if there is a cell with nothing in it or a cell
that contains text, the Planner will treat the value of that cell as
** Function List
Function Definition Examples
ABS(x) Returns the absolute value of x. abs(C4), abs(-22)
AVG(list) Returns the average of the range avg(C2:F4),
or list. avg(2,4,6,8)
CNT(list) Returns the number of cells that have cnt(A1:C20)
have numbers and formulas in them in
INT(x) Returns the integer value of x. int(A6), int(3.14)
MAX(list) Compares values of cells in the range max(A1:C5),
or list and returns the biggest number max(14,12,7)
in the range.
MIN(list) Compares the values in cells in the min(D4:G30),
range or list. Returns the smallest min(14,12,7)
number in the range.
PCT(x) Returns x as a percent. pct(G4), pct(33)
SGN(x) Returns the value 1 if x is positive, sgn(C2), sgn(-14)
0 if x is zero, and -1 if x is negative.
SUM(list) Adds the values in range or list. sum(A1:B5),
If you enter information and would like to change the format of it or
move it around, use the Edit option in the Planner menu. Edit options
work with your current cell or a marked block of cells.
** Marking a Block
Marking a block of cells is useful for editing more than one cell at a
time. Once you have indicated a block of cells, any edit option you
choose will affect all the cells in the block.
To mark a block beginning with your current cell, press F3. A line
that reads "Active Block: will appear above the column letter. This
line tells you the beginning and ending cells of your block. Move the
cursor to the bottom right cell of your block. As you move the
cursor, the entire block will highlight indicating which cells are
included. If you marked off the wrong block and you want to start a
new block, press F3 again. If you decide you don't want to mark a
block at all, press Ctrl-F3. Otherwise press Escape to see the Planner
** Moving Cells
Moving a block is a four part operation:
1. Mark the block of cells you wish to move.
2. Cut out the block temporarily from the worksheet.
3. Mark another block of cells to indicate a new
4. Replace the block of cells into the new location.
See below for instructions on how to Cut Block and Paste Block.
If you move cells that have formulas in them, you might change the
formulas unintentionally. (See "Addressing" section for more
** The Edit Menu
If you have not marked a block, the Edit options will affect only your
current cell. Press Escape to see the Planner menu. Type E and the
Edit menu will appear with the following options:
Read from File
Write to File
** Cut Block
This option cuts out the marked block (or current cell) from the
worksheet. The spreadsheet remembers what is in the block and it can
then be pasted somewhere else in the worksheet.
** Memorize Block
This option takes a copy of the marked block (or current cell) but does
NOT cut out the original block from the worksheet. The copy can then
be pasted somewhere else in the worksheet.
** Paste Block
This option pastes the cut or memorized block back into your worksheet
starting at the current cell. If you have marked a new block as a
pasting area that is larger than the memorized block, the Planner will
attempt to paste multiple copies of the memorized block into the new
** Blank Block
This option erases the cells in the block you have marked (or the
current cell). When you select this option, the program will ask if you
are sure you want to erase the block. Type Y to erase the block or
current cell. Type N to cancel the option and return to the Main
Once erased, the cells CANNOT be pasted back into the worksheet.
** Format Block
The Format Block option has the following choices:
General format: show up to 12 decimal places. This is the
Currency format: show numbers in dollars and cents, with a
'$' sign and commas separating every
Percent format: show numbers as percents (times 100), with
a percent sign.
Bar Graph format: convert numbers to asterisks.
Integer format: show numbers as integers. The decimals
will not appear, but are still part of the
1 decimal: shows only one decimal place. The
remaining decimal places do not appear, but
are still part of the number.
2 decimals: shows two decimal places. The remaining
decimal places do not appear, but are still
part of the number.
3 decimals: shows three decimal places. The remaining
decimal places do not appear, but are still
part of the number.
4 decimals: shows four decimal places. The remaining
decimal places do not appear, but are still
part of the number.
Scientific format: show the number in scientific format.
Select a format by typing the first letter or number. The numbers in
your current cell or marked block will appear in that format. (See
also "Change, Entry Format")
** Read from File
This option copies another file into your current worksheet starting at
the current cell. When you select this option, the program will ask
you for a filename. The filename must end in .EDT and must have been
created using the Write to File option in your former worksheet. Type
the filename and press Enter.
** Write to File
This option copies the marked block (or current cell) into a file on
your disk. The file can then be read into another worksheet. This
option leaves the original block in your worksheet.
When you select this option, the program will ask you for a filename.
Type a filename and press Enter. The marked block or current cell will
be copied from the worksheet to a file. Files of worksheet blocks have
the extension .EDT.
The advantage of using the Read from File and Write to File commands,
instead of the Cut Block and Paste Block commands, is that you can copy
data permanently with the file commands. Cut or memorized blocks are
kept in temporary memory and will disappear when you exit the program.
** Insert Row/Col
This option lets you insert a blank row or column in your worksheet.
Use it to create space for entering additional information into the
middle of a worksheet.
If the formulas in your worksheet use relative addressing (see
"Addressing" below), they will automatically adjust to use new cell
If a block is marked before selecting this option, the rows or columns
that are marked will be moved forward the number of rows or columns
marked and the new rows or columns will be inserted. If no block is
marked, a row or column will be inserted above or to the left of the
** Delete Row/Col
This option lets you delete a row or column from your worksheet. Use
it to remove rows or columns, whether or not they contain data. If the
formulas use relative addressing (see "Addressing" below), then they
will automatically adjust to use new cell locations.
If a block is marked before selecting this option, the rows or columns
that are marked will be deleted and any existing rows or columns will
be moved to fill the deleted area. If no block is marked, the row or
column where the cursor is located will be deleted.
Addressing gives you control over formulas when you move them.
1. Relative Addressing
Look at our example again:
1 Gas 10.75
2 Oil 2.95
4 TOTAL 13.70
The formula in cell B4 reads: B1+B2.
Suppose you move the range of cells in A1 through B4 one row down:
2 Gas 10.75
3 Oil 2.95
5 TOTAL 13.70
The spreadsheet will automatically change the formula in cell B5 to
remain accurate. It now reads: B2+B3. You can think of the formula as
reading "take the cell 3 rows up and add it to the cell 2 rows up."
The formula uses the relative address of the cells.
2. Fixed Addressing
Suppose you always want your formula to start at B1. You need a way of
telling the spreadsheet to leave a particular address fixed, no matter
where you move the formula. To do this enter a currency symbol $ in
front of the letter and the number that make up the cell address:
SUM($B$1:B50) will always begin at cell B1, regardless of where you
move the formula. The formula uses the fixed address B1 at all times.
You can also fix an address to be absolute for just the row or just the
column: SUM(B$1:B50) tells the formula to always begin on row one and
SUM($B1:B50) tells the formula to always begin on column B. This may
be confusing at first, but if you experiment a little, it will soon
become a useful feature.
The Change menu lets you change the default settings of your worksheet.
The Change menu has the following options:
** Auto Calc (Off/On)
This option works like a toggle switch. A "toggle switch" is a setting
that flips back and forth between two selections such as On/Off,
Yes/No, CGA/EGA. The Auto Calc field at the top of your screen shows
the current setting. If you see Auto Calc On, then the Automatic
Calculation feature is turned on. If you want to turn it off, type A.
Type A again to turn the feature back on.
When the Auto Calc is On, the spreadsheet will recalculate formulas in
your worksheet each time you enter a new number. If you have a lot of
data in your worksheet, this may slow down the process of entering
information. You will probably want to turn Auto Calc Off and only
recalculate the spreadsheet occasionally. When Auto Calc is Off, you
can still force recalculation using the Recalculate option described
** Column Widths
The Column Widths option will work on a marked block or the current
cell, changing the width of the columns you have marked.
When you choose this option a dialog box will appear asking for the
column width you want to set. Type a number between 3 and 72 and
press Enter. The column width(s) will be adjusted to reflect the
number you entered.
** Entry Format
The default display format for all numbers is General format. This
format displays each number just as it is entered. To change the
default entry format, select the Entry Format option. The selections
are similar to Format Block in the Edit menu, but they operate on any
future values that you enter into your worksheet. You can always go
back and change the format of a block as many times as you wish.
This immediately recalculates the numbers in your spreadsheet. This is
useful if you have Auto Calc turned Off and you want to see the correct
numbers in your formula.
You can use the following function keys as a quick way to edit and
change blocks or cells.
F2 Edit the contents of the current cell.
F3 Mark a block.
Ctrl-F3 Clear the mark.
F4 Memorize the marked block.
F5 Cut a block or cell.
F6 Paste a block or cell.
F7 Move to a specific cell.
F8 Delete a block or cell.
F9 Toggle Auto Calc on or off.
F10 Recalculate the spreadsheet (when Auto Calc is turned off).
The File option in the Planner menu lets you load, save and restore
worksheet files. It also lets you clear the current worksheet and
start again, import and export data from the worksheet, see a
directory listing, remove a file, and format a disk. When you select
File, a menu appears with the following options:
** Load Worksheet
This option loads a worksheet that you have previously saved. You
should use this to load a separate worksheet. If you want to merge
another worksheet into the current one, use the Edit option Read from
File (described above).
If you are working on a spreadsheet when you select Load Worksheet, the
program will ask you whether or not to save the current spreadsheet
before loading the new worksheet. Select Yes to save the current
worksheet before erasing it. Enter a filename and press Enter. Select
No to erase the current worksheet without saving it.
The program will ask you for the name of the file to load. Type the
name of the file and press Enter. You can also press F3 to see a list
of files on your directory. Highlight the name of the file and press
Enter to load it.
** Save Worksheet
When you select Save Worksheet, the program will ask you for a name to
save the worksheet under. Type the name of the file and press Enter.
The worksheet will be saved and you will return to the spreadsheet
** New Worksheet
This option erases the current worksheet from the screen. When you
select New Worksheet, the program will ask you whether to save your
current worksheet before erasing it. Select Yes to save the current
worksheet. Select No to erase the current worksheet without saving it.
** Import File
Import File lets you load spreadsheets or databases from other programs
into your worksheet. You can use files created with Easy Working
Filer, or DIF format files created with other programs. Each field in
the file is read into a cell in your worksheet beginning at your cursor
When selected, the Planner asks which format to expect. Your choices
Standard Data Database files created by Easy Working Filer.
Exported files must have an .IED extension.
Data Interchange DIF format files, such as those created by
Select the option you want and you will be asked to enter a filename.
Type the filename and press enter, or press F3 to see a listing of your
directory files ending with the appropriate file extension. Highlight
the file you wish to import and press Enter. The file will be copied
into your worksheet, beginning at your cursor location.
** Export File
This option saves your spreadsheet or a marked block to a file for use
in another program.
When selected, the Planner asks which format to write. Your choices
Standard Data Files to be used with Easy Working Filer or
Easy Working Graph Maker,
Data Interchange DIF format files, such as those used by VisiCalc.
Select the option you want and you will be asked to enter a filename.
Type a filename and press Enter. Your worksheet or marked block will
be saved into the file you named.
The Directory options lets you see a list of the files on your data
disk or directory. A box will appear showing the names, extensions,
size, and time and date of creation of all the files on the disk or
You can load any spreadsheet file (a file with the extension .TPL) by
highlighting the filename and pressing Enter. When you are finished
looking at the directory listing, press Escape and you will return to
the Planner menu.
** Remove File
This option lets you delete a file from your disk. When selected, the
program asks which file to delete. Type in the filename and press Enter
or press F3 to see a listing of the files in your directory. Highlight
the name of the file and press Enter. The program will ask you to
confirm the deletion and then the file will be deleted.
** Format Disk
This option lets you format a blank disk. It will prompt you to insert
the disk into drive A.
This option lets you print your worksheet, a listing of the formulas,
or a listing of all the text, numbers, and formulas in your worksheet.
If you write the worksheet to a file, it can be used in the
Eight-in-One Word Processor.
When you select Print the Print menu appears with the following
The Worksheet option prints the current worksheet on your printer. To
print only part of the worksheet, mark the block you want to print
before selecting this option.
The Listing option will print the cell contents such as formulas,
instead of values and labels which are in your worksheet. To print
only a part of your worksheet, mark a block before you select this
The Setup option lets you customize the way your worksheet is printed.
When you select Setup, the "Print Control Screen" will appear. Make
any changes to the fields described below and press F2 to accept the
The Page Length field shows how many printed lines will appear on your
page. The default setting is 55 lines.
The Paper Length field tells the program the length of your paper. The
default size is 66 lines, equal to 11 inches.
The Auto Page Feed field tells the program whether you have an
automatic paper feeder, such as a tractor feeder. The default setting
is Yes. If you will be feeding single sheets of paper by hand into
your printer, change this setting to No.
The Pause on Page Feed field tells the program whether is should pause
after printing each page. The default setting No. If you are feeding
single sheets of paper, you will probably want to change this setting
to Yes, so that you have time to insert sheets of paper.
The Left Margin and Right Margin settings show the current places of
the margins. The Right margin can be set to a maximum place of 132.
Partial columns are not printed. If the rightmost column of your
spreadsheet starts within the margins, but goes beyond the Right Margin
setting, then the cells in that column will be ignored. Make certain
that your Right Margin will cover at least the width of that last
The Type Style field shows the printing style that will be used for the
printout. The default setting is Normal which is a regular draft
typeface, 10 characters per inch. If you want another type style,
press the Spacebar on this field to cycle through your choices:
Normal, Quality (letter quality), Bold, Condensed, (15 characters per
inch), 12 CPI (12 characters per inch as on an elite typewriter).
This option lets you save the worksheet or a marked block of it in a
format that can be used by the Easy Working Planner. This is useful
when you want to include a part of the worksheet in a report or letter.
When selected, the program asks for a filename to store the worksheet
or marked block in. Type a filename and press Enter. The worksheet or
block will be saved as a text file with the extension .TXT.
This option will exit the Planner and return you to DOS. If the
spreadsheet is new or if you have changed the spreadsheet since the
last time it was saved, you will be asked if you want to save the
spreadsheet before exiting. Enter N to exit the spreadsheet without
saving the changes or Y to save it with the changes. You will be
prompted for a filename to save it under. Enter a filename and press
Enter. Then the program will exit to DOS.
*NOTE* - You do not have the right to make unlimited copies of this
software, as it is protected by computer software copyright laws.
Backup copies are for personal use by the purchaser only, and any
additional copies are UNLAWFUL with out written permission from
Spinnaker Software Corp. It is ILLEGAL to use this product on more
than one machine at a time, and to give a copy to someone else.
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
Easy Working Planner is a registered trade mark of Spinnaker Software
Corp. This product is copyrighted and all rights are reserved by
Spinnaker Software Corporation. The distribution and sale of this
product are intended for the use of the original purchaser only and for
use only on the computer system specified. Lawful users of this
program are hereby licensed only to read the program from its medium
into memory of a computer for the purpose of executing this program.
Copying, duplicating, selling or otherwise distributing this product is
hereby expressly forbidden.
Copyright 1987 Spinnaker Software Corp., One Kendall Square, Cambridge
MA 02139. All rights reserved.