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E x p r e s s G r a p h

User's Guide




by
David Berdan














E X P R E S S W A R E
CORPORATION
P.O. Box 230
Redmond, WA 98073

(C) Copyright 1986





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---------------------------------------------------------------


PREFACE

This diskette version of the documentation contains the complete
ExpressGraph manual. The text on this diskette is almost identical
to the text in the typeset version of the manual which comes with
registered ExpressGraph. However, because of the limitations of
most users' printers, it is not possible to include the illustrations,
such as examples of graphs.


Most of the illustrations in the ExpressGraph manual are simply
displays of graphs as they would appear on the screen. In this
manual, wherever one of those illustrations would have appeared,
you will instead see something like this:

--------------------------------------------------

ILLUSTRATION


Load TUTORIAL
Select BAR CHART - REGULAR

--------------------------------------------------

By following the instructions in each box, you can create the
illustration on your screen as it appears in the typeset manual. If
you have a graphics printer, and you want to save a copy of the
graph for future reference, press the F9 key to print it out.
















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Changes are periodically made to the information contained herein.
These changes will be incorporated into future editions of this
publication.


A User Response Form is provided at the back of this publication.
If this form has been removed, please address your comments to:


E X P R E S S W A R E
C O R P O R A T I O N
P.O. Box 230
Redmond, WA 98073














Proprietary Notice

ExpressGraph is a proprietary product written by David Berdan, and
is published by Expressware Corporation, Redmond, Washington.


All rights reserved except those expressly granted to the user by
this document.




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Contents


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1 Introduction

3 System Requirements

4 Getting Started

6 A Brief Tutorial

12 General Information

14 Keyboard Conventions

16 The Main Menu

18 Entering Data

23 Drawing Graphs
27 Line Graphs
33 Bar Charts
40 Pie Charts

43 Saving Data To Disk

45 Loading Data From Disk

54 Optional Specifications

62 Pattern Sequences

63 Advanced Features
63 Transpose and Flip
65 Adding Text to Graphs

69 Technical Information
69 System Requirements
69 Capacities
69 Single Drive Users
70 Users With Hard Disks
70 Users With RAM Disks
71 Color Monitors












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Contents








72 Customizing ExpressGraph

74 ExpressGraph File Format

77 The Files On The Disk

78 Some Frequently Asked Questions

79 Distribution Notice

80 User Response Form

83 Order Form

85 Index



































-







INTRODUCTION


---------------------------------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION


ExpressGraph is an easy-to-use business graphics program. Numbers
can be analyzed much more easily and quickly when they are displayed
in graphic form. ExpressGraph allows you to display numbers in a
variety of graphic formats. Then you can choose the display you like
best, and print your graph.

Here are some examples of how people use ExpressGraph:

* Graphing sales dollars and gross profit on a weekly basis, using
line graphs and bar charts.

* Displaying financial data graphically, to see how a company is
changing, or to compare two or more companies' financial status.

* Analyzing budgets and expenses with a pie chart: which expenses
are most significant? Which ones are increasing?

* Spotting trends amid a "sea of numbers". A graph can make a
strong trend easy to identify, while the same data may go
unnoticed when displayed numerically.

* Providing summarized data in graphic form to accompany financial
statements, for quick analysis and trend spotting.


Graphs created with ExpressGraph (GRAPH) can be displayed in one of
ten graphic formats, altered in various ways, and printed out. The
data for the graph can be saved on disk and reloaded later for further
changes or review.

And if you want to add some finishing touches to your graph, just move
the cursor around on the screen and enter additional text in small,
medium and large sizes.




1












-







INTRODUCTION


There is an old saying that a picture is worth a thousand words. To
paraphrase that old saying, a graph is worth a thousand numbers. In
fact, a recent research study compared businessmens' ability to absorb
information from graphs, versus absorbing the same information from
financial statements and other business reports. The study showed that
the businessmen absorbed information 1200 times faster when it was in
graphic form. And they tended to retain the information longer too,
because their mind had a "picture" to remember. So maybe in the
interest of accuracy, our paraphrase should read: "a graph is worth
1200 numbers".

This manual describes all the features of GRAPH in detail. It is
recommended that the manual be read completely before using
GRAPH, but you will find that it is so easy to use, many of its
features can be mastered even without the documentation. For that
reason, this manual has been organized as a reference document rather
than a tutorial. There is a tutorial section at the beginning, titled
"A Brief Tutorial", but the rest of the manual is designed for quickly
finding information about specific commands and functions.























2












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SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS


---------------------------------------------------------------

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS


GRAPH runs on the IBM PC and compatible systems with the following
minimum configuration:

* 256K computer memory.

* An MSDOS or PCDOS operating system version 2.0 or later.

* A graphics monitor, either monochrome or color.

* A graphics adapter board. GRAPH does not work with mono-
chrome boards.

* A double sided diskette drive. GRAPH is also compatible
with hard disks and RAM disks.

* A printer is optional. To print graphs, your printer must
either be an IBM or Epson compatible graphics printer, or
must have a special graphics program for doing screen prints
of graphic displays.


















3












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GETTING STARTED


---------------------------------------------------------------


GETTING STARTED

The following information is provided to get you up and running with
GRAPH as quickly as possible. We recognize that most people try
running a program before they read the User's Guide. This section
gives you enough information to make a backup copy of GRAPH and to
get the program started.

1. Turn on your computer and load the DOS operating system. The
GRAPH disk does not have DOS on it, so use a diskette that does.

2. FORMAT a blank diskette using the DOS FORMAT command. (See
your DOS manual if needed.) If you would like the diskette to be
self-booting, use the /S command so the DOS operating system
is included on it.

3. Copy all the program files from the original GRAPH Program
Disk onto this diskette. GRAPH may also be used on a hard disk, by
creating a separate subdirectory and copying the files from the
diskette to it.

4. In order to print graphs on a dot-matrix printer, your DOS needs
to be set up so that pressing the Print Screen key prints
graphic images. If you are using IBM's PCDOS, and you have an IBM
Graphics Printer, Proprinter, Epson printer or compatible, then
simply run the program called GRAPHICS. You may want to
include GRAPHICS in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. It can be
useful for screen prints other than ExpressGraph displays. If your
DOS does not have a program called GRAPHICS, or if your
printer is not Epson graphics compatible, consult your DOS manual
or printer manual for information on graphic screen print.

5. To start ExpressGraph, type: GRAPH and press ENTER. For
monochrome graphic monitors type: GRAPH /M
(For more information on /M and other command line options, such
as turning off sound or specifying a default drive, see the section
titled "Customizing ExpressGraph".)


4












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GETTING STARTED


6. The GRAPH banner screen appears:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Start GRAPH
Press PrtSc





--------------------------------------------------

Enter the letter of the disk drive where GRAPH disk files are
to be saved and loaded. Or press ENTER to default to the
currently logged disk drive.

7. The Main Menu screen displays. GRAPH is ready to use!

----------------------------------------------



ILLUSTRATION


Start GRAPH
Press ENTER, then press PrtSc





----------------------------------------------


5












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A BRIEF TUTORIAL


---------------------------------------------------------------

A BRIEF TUTORIAL


These are the steps required to prepare a typical graph:

1. ENTER the numbers to be graphed.
2. SAVE the numbers on disk, if desired.
3. DISPLAY the various graphs available until
you find the one you want.
4. ADD special text to the graph, if any.
5. PRINT the graph.

This tutorial takes you through these steps using a simple graphic
example. The graph we want to produce analyzes a company's monthly
sales and monthly gross profit for a year. Here are the numbers to be
graphed:


Month Sales Gross Profit
----- ----- ------------
JAN 48,000 21,000
FEB 31,000 16,000
MAR 45,000 20,000
APR 51,000 22,000
MAY 55,000 24,000
JUN 58,000 26,000
JUL 43,000 21,000
AUG 61,000 28,000
SEP 65,000 32,000
OCT 74,000 37,000
NOV 110,000 58,000
DEC 90,000 45,000

To prepare a graph of these numbers, load GRAPH into your computer,
following the instructions in the previous section. When the Main
Menu appears, select 1 - Enter / Edit Data by pressing either
the <1> key or the key.



6












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A BRIEF TUTORIAL


The Edit Mode screen appears. If you have used a spreadsheet program
before, you will find that this screen functions similarly, with rows
and columns of numbers. The cursor is positioned at the Title field.
Enter:

Annual Sales and Gross Profit

then press ENTER. The cursor moves to the group heading above the
first column. Enter:
Sales

and press ENTER. Each time ENTER is pressed, the cursor moves
to the next field or "cell" in the column. Before entering any more
data, let's get a feel for the keyboard and cursor movement.

In a later section we will discuss the keyboard conventions in
depth, so for now let's just learn enough to get our sample graph
data into the computer. Press ENTER a few times. The cursor moves
downward to the next field. Keep pressing ENTER all the way past
the sixteenth line. The screen "scrolls" downward, and the next
sixteen lines are displayed.

To move upward to a higher cell, press the UP ARROW key. To
move sideways, press the TAB key to move right, or SHIFT and
TAB to move left. If you have not entered anything into a field yet,
then the LEFT ARROW key will move into the left column also. Now
you have enough information to move around the screen to every field.

For this tutorial, all the data fits on one screen. For larger
graphs with more data, it is possible to move off the screen to the
right or to the bottom, in which case the screen "scrolls" upward or
sideways to display more columns and lines.

Now let's enter the month abbreviations, which are Value Names on
our graph. Although the full month names fit into the fields provided,
we will only use the first three letters of each month name. Move left
into the Value Name column using the LEFT ARROW key, then upward
to the first line, using the UP ARROW. Enter:

JAN


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A BRIEF TUTORIAL


and press ENTER. Then type in each of the remaining eleven month
abbreviations. They are displayed on the graphs to identify each
month's data.

When the month abbreviations have all been entered, move the cursor to
the top of the first column of numbers, by pressing the HOME key.
Now enter the sales and gross profit figures to be graphed. (Note: for
those in a hurry, or those who feel they have mastered the data entry
part of this tutorial, there is a graph already on disk which contains
this data; it is named TUTORIAL. Use the Load command on the main
menu if you don't want to enter these numbers.) Here are the numbers
once again:

Month Sales Gross Profit
----- ----- ------------
JAN 48,000 21,000
FEB 31,000 16,000
MAR 45,000 20,000
APR 51,000 22,000
MAY 55,000 24,000
JUN 58,000 26,000
JUL 43,000 21,000
AUG 61,000 28,000
SEP 65,000 32,000
OCT 74,000 37,000
NOV 110,000 58,000
DEC 90,000 45,000

You may have noticed that all the numbers in this graph have been
rounded to the nearest thousand dollars. Considering the size of the
amounts, this has little or no effect on the graph. As a rule, graphs
are not intended to reveal detail; they show overall trends. So
numbers that are "in the ballpark" usually produce graphs identical to
those with more precise numbers. In fact, if we just left off the
three trailing zeros on all the numbers, the graphs drawn would be
identical. But then the scale along the edge of the graphs would read
10, 20, 30 instead of 10000, 20000, 30000.





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A BRIEF TUTORIAL


When all the numbers have been entered, examine your screen
to make sure it has all the legends, numbers, group names and title.
Now let's save the data on disk, so it can be reloaded later if
necessary. Hold down the ALT key and press S. (This is referred
to in this manual as "pressing ALT-S"). A window appears, prompting
for a file name. Enter MYBAR as the file name, and press ENTER.
There is a brief pause while the graph is written to disk.

Now let's do what we set out to do in the first place -- look at some
graphs. At any time in GRAPH you can go directly to the Graph
Menu by pressing ALT-G.

The Graph Menu is displayed. This menu lets you decide whether your
graph will be a line graph, bar chart or pie chart, and lists some
variations of each. Use the up and down arrow keys or press the space
bar to select the style of graph. A small arrow points at the
currently selected style, and a sample of that style is shown on the
screen. Note that the sample graph is using sample data, not your
data. Use the down arrow key to select:

Bar Chart - Regular

then press ENTER. Your graph is displayed:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load TUTORIAL
Select BAR CHART - REGULAR





--------------------------------------------------


9












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A BRIEF TUTORIAL


The bar chart on the screen is a graphic representation of the twelve
months of sales and gross profit figures. If your graph doesn't look
like the previous one, you may have entered some data incorrectly, or
may have selected a style other than Regular Bar Chart. If it doesn't
look right, press ESC twice to return to the Main Menu, then go back
to the start of the tutorial and review your work.

A unique feature of GRAPH is the TRANSPOSE command. When you are
viewing a graph, or even when entering data, hold down ALT and press
the T key. The data being graphed is "rotated"; i.e. data along the
x-axis (bottom of the graph) moves to the y-axis (side of the graph)
and vice versa. Try pressing ALT-T. Your graph is re-drawn with the
data transposed. Sometimes a transposed graph is more meaningful or
easier to read. When you press ALT-T, the data in the Edit/Enter
(spreadsheet) Screen is transposed also.

Another interesting command is the FLIP command. When viewing a graph
or when entering data, press ALT-F. All the columns of data in your
graph are flipped, as if in a mirror image. Press ALT-F on your
tutorial graph, and the month abbreviations reverse themselves; i.e.
the sequence changes to DEC, NOV, OCT, etc. This is not likely a
useful sequence, so press ALT-F a second time to restore the graph to
its original format.

Now try pressing combinations of ALT-T and ALT-F a few times to
see the various arrangements of the data. There are eight different
ways your data can be configured, using TRANSPOSE, FLIP and
combinations of the two. Experiment until you decide which format you
prefer.

Now notice the large cursor flashing in the upper right-hand corner of
the screen. This cursor allows additional text to be entered on the
screen, so you can add finishing touches to your graph. Press ENTER
several times until the flashing cursor is in the lower left corner,
as low as it will go, then type:

ACME SHOE COMPANY





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A BRIEF TUTORIAL


If you make a mistake while typing, use the backspace key to back up
and erase a character. Now press the F1 key. The cursor becomes
smaller. Press the space bar a couple times, then type:

Seattle, Washington

Now let's print the graph. Make sure your printer is on and that the
paper is set to top of page. press F9 to print. A hard copy of your
graph as it appears on the screen is printed. (Note: If nothing
prints, or if your computer locks up, or your printer makes funny
noises, then the graphics screen print routine is probably not properly
installed. Refer to the Getting Started section for more information.)

So now we have performed each of the five steps required to prepare
a graph. We have:

1. Entered the data to be graphed.
2. Saved the data on disk.
3. Displayed the various graphs available until
we found the one we wanted (regular bar chart).
4. Added special text to the graph.
5. Printed the graph.

Now let's go look at the same data, displayed in other graphic forms.
Maybe there is another format which we prefer instead of the bar
chart format. Press ESC once, and the Graph Menu is displayed. Now
it's your turn. Display a few different styles of graphs, and see the
various ways the same data can be displayed graphically. When you are
finished viewing or printing a graph, just press ESC to return to the
menu, and try another one. There are ten different possible selections
on the graph menus, and with the TRANSPOSE (ALT-T) command
and FLIP (ALT-F) command, there are eight ways of looking at
each one.

This concludes the tutorial. The remainder of this manual is
organized for reference. It is a good idea to read through it to
familiarize yourself with some of the more sophisticated commands.
But the best way to learn GRAPH is to use it.




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GENERAL INFORMATION


---------------------------------------------------------------


GENERAL INFORMATION

From 1 to 16 "groups", or columns of numbers may be graphed by
ExpressGraph. Each group can have from 1 to 52 values (numbers). So
the most data which may be represented in a single graph is 832
numbers (16 x 52 = 832). However, too much data can cause a graph to
be so cluttered that nothing can be learned from it. And since the
graphic image is formed by thousands of tiny dots on your screen and
on your printer, the "resolution", or detail, is reduced as the amount
of data being graphed is increased.

The easiest graphs to read are usually those with two or three groups
(columns) and fewer than 20 values (numbers) per group. Just as
printed reports with too many numbers can be difficult to read, when a
graph has too many numbers represented in graphic form, the same
"forest for the trees" problem occurs.

Numbers entered into GRAPH may be in the range 999,999,999,999 to
-99,999,999,999. Numbers may have decimals up to 11 places, provided
the total digits plus sign and decimal point do not exceed 12
characters. Negative numbers in the data prevent the use of some
graphs, such as pie charts, which inherently can't handle negatives.

Graphs are displayed on the screen and printer as a pattern of tiny
dots. If many numbers are being graphed, the clarity or detail of
the graphic image may suffer somewhat. This is because there are
fewer dots available when drawing a small object or line. Some
styles of graphs work better than others with certain kinds of data.
When a graph looks bad because of dot resolution, try the other
styles. One of them may look better. Or try summarizing your data so
there are fewer numbers to graph.

The quality of the graphic image is also a function of the printer
being used. All printers display your graph as the same number of
dots, but some displays are better than others. For example, the
screen displays and illustrations in this manual were produced with
ExpressGraph on a laser printer, in Epson-compatibility mode. The


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GENERAL INFORMATION


quality of these graphic displays is very good, even though the number
of dots in the graph are the same as on any other printer.

ExpressGraph can display the following kinds of graphs:

1. Line Graph
a. Regular (no symbols)
b. With symbols

2. Bar Chart
a. Regular
b. Overlapped
c. Stacked
d. Percentage
e. 3-Dimensional

3. Pie Chart
a. Uncut
b. Separated
c. Exploded






















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KEYBOARD CONVENTIONS


---------------------------------------------------------------
KEYBOARD CONVENTIONS

GRAPH supports most of the keys on the PC keyboard. Some prompts
can be answered with a single keystroke, in which case it is not
necessary to press ENTER after pressing the key, because GRAPH acts
on the keystroke immediately. When entering data into a field of two
or more characters, the cursor positions at the first character of the
field, and the field length is denoted by underscores on the right.
While entering data into a field, the following special keys may be
used:

CONTROL KEYS

Special Key Alternate Purpose of key
--------------- ------------- -------------------------------------

UP ARROW CONTROL-E Moves the cursor upward to the field
above the current field.

DOWN ARROW CONTROL-X Moves the cursor downward to the
field below the current field.

LEFT ARROW CONTROL-S Moves the cursor left one character.
BACKSPACE

RIGHT ARROW CONTROL-D Moves the cursor right one character.

TAB CONTROL-F Moves the cursor right one column.

BACKTAB CONTROL-A Moves the cursor left one column.

HOME Moves the cursor to the upper left
field on the screen.

END or Exits from the current menu to
ESCAPE the previous (higher level) menu.





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KEYBOARD CONVENTIONS



CONTROL KEYS

Special Key Alternate Purpose of key
--------------- ------------- -------------------------------------

INSERT CONTROL-V Toggles on/off insert mode, allowing
characters to be inserted in a field.

DELETE CONTROL-G Deletes the character at the cursor.

ENTER Moves the cursor to the start of the
next lower field.

PAGE DOWN CONTROL-C On multiple-screen displays, moves
down to the next (lower) screen.

PAGE UP CONTROL-R On multiple-screen displays, moves
up to the previous (higher) screen.

CONTROL-T Erases input data from the cursor
to the end of the field.

CONTROL-Y Erases all the data in the field.


















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THE MAIN MENU


---------------------------------------------------------------

THE MAIN MENU


The first screen to appear after the banner screen is the Main Menu:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Display Main Menu
Press PrtSc





--------------------------------------------------

From the Main Menu, all the other menus and functions of GRAPH are
invoked. To perform one of the functions on the Main Menu, either
press the number of the item, or press the first letter of the
function. For example, to graph data, you can press either <2> or .
(GRAPH also accepts ALT-G, CTRL-G or lower case g.) To get back
to the Main Menu from one of the submenus, press ESC or END.

A unique feature of GRAPH is that you do not have to return to the
Main Menu in order to go to another submenu. To go directly to the
Enter / Edit Data screen at any time, from anywhere in GRAPH, just
press ALT-E. To go to the Graph Menu at any time, press ALT-G.
Pressing ALT plus one of the keys E, G, S, L, O, P or Q takes
you immediately to a screen listed on the Main Menu.





16












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THE MAIN MENU


Each of the items listed on the Main Menu is discussed in its own
chapter following this one, except for "7 - Quit and return to DOS".
Use item 7 to exit from GRAPH. Press either <7> or and the
following window pops up:

--------------------------------------------------
ILLUSTRATION

On Main Menu, press Q
(Show only the pop up box here)
--------------------------------------------------

Reply to exit from GRAPH, or reply to return to the Main Menu
and continue with GRAPH.

Main Menu selections 1 through 6 are discussed in the following
chapters.

























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ENTERING DATA


---------------------------------------------------------------

ENTERING DATA

The first step in producing a graph is to provide numbers to GRAPH.
To enter numbers and legends into GRAPH, select "Enter / Edit Data"
from the Main Menu, by pressing either <1> or . The following screen
is displayed:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Select Enter / Edit Data
(If data appears on screen, press
then press to clear)
Press PrtSc



--------------------------------------------------


GRAPH TITLE

When this screen is displayed, the cursor is on the line labelled
Graph Title. A description of the graph may be entered here, or the
field may be left blank. This description is displayed at the top of
each graph.

Title letters can be one of three sizes: small, medium or large. The
default size is medium. To print small letters, add /1 to the end of
the title. To print large letters, add /3. To suppress the title
display, add /0 at the end.




18












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ENTERING DATA


GROUP NAMES
Below the title line are four Group Name fields, numbered 1 to 4.
These group names are used to label each group of numbers in the
graph. GRAPH allows up to 16 groups to be entered, but only four
groups fit on the screen at a time. Press the TAB key to move from
group to group. After moving across the four groups numbered 1 to 4,
the spreadsheet area "scrolls sideways" to the next four groups
numbered 5 to 8. If you continue pressing the TAB key, GRAPH
keeps moving to the next group until it hits group number 16.
Pressing SHIFT-TAB or left arrow moves back to the left.

The group names you enter are displayed
on each graph. On line graphs and bar
charts, they are displayed in a Legend
box on the graph, as in the example to ---------------------
the right. On pie charts, they are ILLUSTRATION
displayed under each pie chart. Load TUTORIAL
Select LINE GRAPH - Regular
Each group name may be up to twelve (Show only legend box)
characters. The Legend box on line
graphs and bar charts is exactly wide
enough for the longest group name, so
short group names create a narrow
Legend box, which in turn leaves room
for a wider graph. If there are no
group names entered, the Legend box is
not displayed, so the graph is wider
still. However, group names are
recommended for graphs with more than ---------------------
one group.


VALUE NAMES
Along the left edge of the Edit Mode screen are the Value Name fields.
Sixteen of them appear on the screen, but if you move the cursor
downward past the 16th line, the screen "scrolls" to lines 17 to 32.
If you continue moving the cursor downward, GRAPH scrolls down until
it hits line 52. Pressing the UP ARROW multiple times moves back up to
line 1. Pressing the HOME key moves to Group 1, Value 1. The PAGE
UP and PAGE DOWN keys scroll up and down a screen at a time.


19












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ENTERING DATA


The Value Names you enter are displayed on each graph. On line graphs
and bar charts they are displayed along the bottom of the graph. On
pie charts, they are displayed as a legend to the right of the chart.

Each Value Name may be up to twelve characters, or may be left blank.
It is usually best to keep these names short, because they have to
print side-by-side along the bottom of line graphs and bar charts,
like this:

--------------------------------------------------
ILLUSTRATION
Load TUTORIAL

Select LINE GRAPH - REGULAR
(Show only the bottom line)
--------------------------------------------------

If the group names are too wide to fit on one line, GRAPH staggers
them, alternating on two lines, like this:

--------------------------------------------------
ILLUSTRATION
Load SAMPLE01
Select BAR CHART - REGULAR
(Show only the bottom line)
--------------------------------------------------

If the value names are still too wide after staggering, consider the
following options:

a. Abbreviate them.
b. Skip every other one.
c. Transpose the graph. (See "Transpose and Flip" section.)
d. Widen the graph by changing the edges of the chart on the
"Optional Specifications" screen.
e. Widen the graph by omitting the right-hand legend. To do this,
reply "N" to the "Print Legend Titles" prompt on the "Optional
Specifications" screen. Removing all the group names will
also omit the right-hand legend.




20












-







ENTERING DATA


ENTERING NUMBERS
Numbers are entered on the Edit Mode screen in the grid with the
rectangle around it. Use the arrow keys to move around the grid, then
type in the number corresponding to that group and value.

Numbers entered into GRAPH may be in the range 999,999,999,999 to
-99,999,999,999. Numbers may have up to 11 decimal places, provided
the total digits plus sign and decimal point do not exceed 12
characters. Negative numbers in the data prevent the use of some
graphs, such as pie charts, which inherently can't handle negatives.

To change a number, move the cursor to it, then type the new number
over it. Use the left and right arrow keys to position to a digit to
be changed. To remove a number, press the DEL key several times, or
press the space bar to erase from the cursor to the end of the number,
or press CTRL-Y to erase the entire number. To erase all the numbers
and descriptions on the screen, press ALT-C.


SPECIAL COMMANDS
The following two lines appear across the bottom of the Edit Mode
screen:
--------------------------------------------------
ILLUSTRATION
Select Enter / Edit
Press PrtSc
(Show only the bottom two lines)
--------------------------------------------------

Automatic Value Names
Since so many graphs are by month name, GRAPH has a means of
quickly filling in the value names with month names January through
December, or abbreviations Jan through Dec. There is also an option
for day names. Press ALT-A and a window pops up, prompting for
the automatic values to be filled in.

Clear Data
Pressing ALT-C clears all the data on the Edit Mode screen. It does
not alter the Optional Specifications. A warning message is given
before clearing the data, which appears in a pop-up window. The prompt


21












-







ENTERING DATA


gives you a chance to change your mind, in case you did not really
want to erase all the data.

Delete Row or Column
Insert Row or Column
Press ALT-D to delete a row or column of numbers. A window prompts
for whether a row or column is to be deleted. Press ALT-I to insert
a row or column of numbers.

Save
Pressing ALT-S causes the "Save Window" to pop up in the center of
the screen, allowing you to save your graph data to disk. For more
information, see the section titled "Saving Data To Disk".

Transpose
Flip
These commands cause the data to be rearranged. ALT-T changes rows
to columns and columns to rows. Pressing ALT-T a second time restores
the data to its original sequence. ALT-F causes columns (groups) to be
"flipped"; for example, if there are four group names, A, B, C, D then
pressing ALT-F rearranges them so their sequence is D, C, B, A.
Pressing ALT-F a second time restores them to their original
positions. For more information on these commands, plus examples, see
the section titled "Transpose and Flip".

Graph
Leaves the Edit Mode screen and goes directly to the Graph Menu
screen.

Finished
Pressing the END key returns to the Main Menu. Your data remains
intact, and can be changed later by selecting Enter / Edit Data.
Pressing the ESC key also returns to the Main Menu.

Print Data
If you want a printed copy of the numbers being graphed, press F9
when the Edit Mode screen is displayed. The numbers are printed in
columnar form similar to the screen display. Group Names are printed
as column headings and Value Names are printed on the left.



22












-







DRAWING GRAPHS


---------------------------------------------------------------

DRAWING GRAPHS

This section describes each of the graphs which can be produced by
ExpressGraph. Examples are shown, and suggestions made for using each
type of graph. There are some general rules which apply to all graphs,
regardless of type:


LIMIT THE DATA
Try to limit the amount of data to be graphed. Too much data makes a
graph too cluttered, making it hard to read. GRAPH has a maximum
capacity of 16 groups of 52 numbers (or 52 groups of 16 numbers). If
the data to be graphed is larger than that, it is necessary (and
probably desirable) to summarize it in some way before graphing.


RELATIVE SIZE OF GROUPS
When a graph contains more than one group of numbers, the numbers
should be relatively the same in size, or else the smaller group does
not graph well. Consider this example: A company sells videotape, and
they also occasionally sell video recorders. In a typical month they
sell 50,000 units of videotape but only forty recorders. If they were
to combine their monthly unit sales of both items on the same graph,
it might look like the graph below. As you can see from the sample
-------------------------------------
graph, the sales of the
videotape are graphed very
ILLUSTRATION well, but the much smaller
quantities of the video
Load SAMPLE01 recorders appear as no more
than a smudge along the
Select BAR CHART - REGULAR bottom of the graph. When
groups of numbers are this
different in size, it is
best to show them in
separate graphs.
-------------------------------------



23












-







DRAWING GRAPHS


ADDING CONTOUR
On occasion, the numbers you are graphing may be so consistent that a
line graph or bar chart appears to be exactly flat, with no peaks or
valleys at all. Sometimes that may be exactly what you want to see.
Other times, you may want a bit more "motion" in your graph. For
example, when graphing dollar amounts in the millions, a change of
$10,000 appears as no change at all. To see a visible trend in
numbers which are too constant to display a trend, change the Starting
Scale Adjustment value. This number is found on the Optional
Specifications menu, and usually is zero. The number is subtracted
from each of your data numbers before graphing them. For example,
the following line graph would have appeared perfectly flat if each
number were graphed as is. But by changing the Starting Scale
Adjustment to one million, GRAPH subtracts a million from every
number before graphing, so the graph gets some contour:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load SAMPLE02
Select LINE GRAPH - REGULAR





--------------------------------------------------

Now it can be seen that the numbers were dropping off, but have now
begun a gradual ascent. This would have been obvious by simply looking
at the numbers themselves, but comparitive numbers such as these are
often buried amid many other numbers and only a very patient, detail-
oriented examination reveals such trends after close study.




24












-







DRAWING GRAPHS


NEGATIVE NUMBERS
GRAPH accomodates negative numbers on many of its graphs by simply
starting the bottom scale value at the largest negative number. When
negative values are drawn on a bar chart, the bar extends downward
from zero, as in this example:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load SAMPLE03
Select BAR CHART - REGULAR





--------------------------------------------------

Some of the graphs which GRAPH produces do not work if there is a
negative number in the data, usually because the inherent nature of
the graph does not permit negatives. For example, in a pie chart,
there is no way to draw a negative slice. If your data contains
negative numbers, GRAPH gives the message:

Data contains negative number(s). Can't draw the chart...press any key.

This message occurs on all Pie Charts, and on Stacked, Percentage and
Three-D bar charts when negative numbers are present. To use one of
those styles when data is negative, either remove the negative numbers
or consider combining them with other numbers so that the combined
result is positive.






25












-







DRAWING GRAPHS


SCALING
Two of the graphs available are percentage-oriented: the Pie Chart and
the Percentage Bar Chart. The scale on those two graphs is based on
100%, so regardless of the size of the numbers, the pie or bar is
always the same physical size.

The remaining eight graphs have a series of scale numbers on the left
edge of the graph, which usually start at zero in the lower left
corner, and increase in large enough increments so that the largest
number graphed does not go above the top line. GRAPH examines the
numbers you have entered, and determines the best scale to use. If you
don't like the scaling provided by GRAPH, you can control it to some
degree. On the Optional Specifications menu there are two fields which
change the scaling: Scale Increment and Starting Scale Value. See the
section titled "Optional Specifications" for more information.



























26












-







LINE GRAPHS


---------------------------------------------------------------

LINE GRAPHS

Line graphs are the most common of all graphs, perhaps because they
are the easiest to draw with pencil and paper. ExpressGraph offers
two types of line graphs: Regular, and With Symbols. This section
discusses line graphs and gives some suggestions for their use.


WITH SYMBOLS
The only difference between Regular line graphs and those With
Symbols is that the latter has a small symbol such as a triangle or
square drawn at each plotted point on the graph.

Symbols are useful when a graph contains two or more sets of lines,
because they identify the lines. If group names have been specified, a
legend is drawn to the right of the graph showing the symbol used for
each line. The drawback to symbols is that they tend to clutter large
graphs, especially when lines are close to one another.

Most line graphs do not require symbols, because either:

(a) only one group of numbers is being plotted, or
(b) the meaning of each line is intuitively obvious.

















27












-







LINE GRAPHS


For example, the following graph plots a company's monthly sales,
gross profit and net profit as three lines. The management people who
look at these graphs are well aware that sales are always greater than
gross profit which is always greater than net profit (they went to
college to learn that). So in this graph, symbols are not necessary.
But they have been used here anyway, so you can see an example of
them:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load SAMPLE04
Select LINE GRAPH - WITH SYMBOLS





--------------------------------------------------



















28












-







LINE GRAPHS


INTERSECTING LINES
When overlap of numbers is significant information, line graphs are
best because the lines physically cross one another. For example, in
the following graph, a company compares the cost of manufacturing a
truck part in their own plant versus purchasing the part from an
outside source. They find that when quantity requirements are low,
they can purchase it for less than they can make it. But as more units
of the part are needed, they can make it themselves for less. To
graphically illustrate this to management, an engineer prepares the
following graph:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load SAMPLE05
Select LINE GRAPH - REGULAR





--------------------------------------------------

The graph above illustrates the benefit of purchasing the part when
small quantities are needed, and manufacturing the part when the
quantity requirements increase. And it shows the exact break-even
point where the two lines cross. A bar chart could show the same
trend, but the break-even (cross-over) would not be as vividly
illustrated. Other types of graphs, such as pie charts for instance,
would not be suitable for this application.







29












-







LINE GRAPHS


LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA
On graphs with many display points, line graphs look less cluttered
than other types, because each number being graphed takes only a small
amount of room. For example, this graph contains three groups of 52
numbers, yet is still readable:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load SAMPLE06
Select LINE GRAPH - REGULAR





--------------------------------------------------




















30












-







LINE GRAPHS


CONTINUOUS FLOW
On some graphs, even though just a few points are plotted, all the
points in between are meaningful too. For example, in the following
graph only six points are plotted, yet more than six values may be
taken from the graph. The data being graphed is the printing cost of a
brochure. Even though the cost of printing 4,000 brochures was not one
of the numbers plotted, it is easy to determine that 4,000 brochures
cost about $51 per thousand:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load SAMPLE07
Select LINE GRAPH - WITH SYMBOLS





--------------------------------------------------

















31












-







LINE GRAPHS


HORIZONTAL LINES
When a graph is to be compared to some specific constant, such as an
average or standard, a solid horizontal line can be easily drawn on a
line graph to represent the constant. For example, in the following
graph, a sales manager shows the actual sales as a line graph. He
shows the monthly goal as a solid horizontal line at $30,000 and the
year's average as a solid horizontal line at $36,000. This was easily
accomplished by simply entering the number 30,000 in all twelve of the
Group 2 values, and entering 36,000 in all twelve of the Group 3
values. Here is the graph which results:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load SAMPLE08
Turn off horizontal grid
Select LINE GRAPH - REGULAR




--------------------------------------------------

Note that the graph above is missing the dotted horizontal lines which
usually run across the graph at each scale mark. It is sometimes
desirable on line graphs with flat lines to remove the horizontal
grid. See the "Optional Specifications" section for more information
on horizontal and vertical grid lines.

This concludes the discussion of line graphs. For more information
about changing the physical appearance of your line graphs, see the
section titled "Optional Specifications" and the section titled
"Transpose and Flip".




32












-







BAR CHARTS


---------------------------------------------------------------


BAR CHARTS

Bar charts are the most flexible type of graph, providing numerous
ways of looking at the same data. GRAPH can produce the following
types of bar charts:

----------------------

ILLUSTRATION

Go to Graph Menu REGULAR
Select REGULAR ----------------------
Press PrtSc key
ILLUSTRATION
----------------------
OVERLAPPED Go to Graph Menu
Select OVERLAPPED
---------------------- Press PrtSc key

ILLUSTRATION ----------------------

Go to Graph Menu STACKED
Select STACKED ----------------------
Press PrtSc key
ILLUSTRATION
----------------------
PERCENTAGE Go to Graph Menu
Select PERCENTAGE
---------------------- Press PrtSc key

ILLUSTRATION ----------------------

Go to Graph Menu THREE-D
Select THREE-D
Press PrtSc key

----------------------


33












-







BAR CHARTS


You may note several similarities between regular bar charts and the
line graphs in the previous chapter. In fact, for many graphs,
choosing between the line graph format and bar chart format is largely
a matter of personal taste. But there are subtle differences between
bar charts and line graphs.

Because it is a continuous line, a line graph, is often used to show
the upward and downward "flow" of a series of numbers. Bar charts,
on the other hand, are usually used when the numbers being graphed are
separate, discrete values with no flow implied. For example, the data
in our earlier tutorial (sales dollars and profit dollars by month) is
usually considered more suitable for a bar chart than a line graph,
because the value for each month is a separate total for the entire
month. A daily or weekly graph of the same data might demonstrate
more clearly the ebb and flow of a company's sales, and a line graph
may be more suitable for that data.

There is another time when a bar chart is preferable to a line graph:
when the lines are overlapping too much, making the line graph hard to
read. On a bar chart each number has its own equal share of horizontal
space, so all numbers have equal representation or "opportunity" to be
seen. The size of a number determines the height of its bar, and it's
the height that makes the number appear large or small in comparison
to the other numbers.

On bar charts, as on line graphs, numbers are graphed in comparison to
each other. If all the numbers are small, the scale is reduced so that
the largest number fills the height of the graph. Then each of the
other numbers is represented by a bar whose height is shorter than the
largest number's bar.


REGULAR vs OVERLAPPED
Regular Bar Charts and Overlapped Bar Charts are almost identical.
The only difference is that in the latter, the bars overlap one another
slightly. It is mainly a cosmetic difference, since some people prefer the
bars to overlap and others don't. On bar charts with a lot of data, there
is one small advantage to overlapping bars: each bar takes up less
room on the graph, so the bars are slightly wider.



34












-







BAR CHARTS



STACKED BAR CHART
The stacked bar chart is a specialty chart, which works well for some
types of data, and is totally meaningless for other types. Another name
for a stacked bar chart might be "consolidated groups" chart. Stacked
bars are only meaningful when:

a) two or more groups are being graphed; and

b) the numbers in each group can be added together to
represent some meaningful total.

An example of a meaningless stacked bar chart is one produced with the
data in the tutorial: sales dollars and gross profit dollars. When
these two groups of numbers are added together, they have no meaning.
However, let's re-enter the sales amounts as expense amount. Now a
stacked bar chart is very meaningful (although this new data may be
meaningless on other types of graphs). Each bar in the chart below
represents total sales by its total height. The shaded portion at the
bottom of each bar indicates the portion of the sales dollars which
were gross profit:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load SAMPLE09
Select BAR CHART - STACKED





--------------------------------------------------




35












-







BAR CHARTS



PERCENTAGE BAR CHART
The Percentage Bar Chart is similar in many respects to a pie chart.
The bars from each group are stacked on top of one another as in a
stacked bar chart. But the size of each segment represents a
percentage of the whole bar, not the actual value.

The scale along the left-hand edge of a Percentage Bar Chart is always
the same, regardless of the values (see the example below). And every
bar is always a full 100% in height. Like the stacked charts discussed
earlier, Percentage Bar Charts are only meaningful if the values from
all Groups add up to some meaningful total. In the previous example,
the data from the tutorial example was re-entered, with the sales
figures reduced by the amount of gross profit. That same example works
for a Percentage Bar Chart as well, and shows graphically the
percentage of sales which are gross profit:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load SAMPLE10
Select BAR CHART - PERCENTAGE





--------------------------------------------------

Note the differences between this example and the previous one for
stacked bar charts. They are both graphing the same data, but this
chart shows profit as a percentage of sales, while the stacked bar
chart shows profit as a proportionate part of sales.




36












-







BAR CHARTS



THREE-D BAR CHART
The Three-Dimensional Bar Chart is probably the most exotic of all the
graphs that ExpressGraph can produce. A 3-D graph usually impresses
people the most, but it is also usually harder to read than the other
graphs. Let's look at the tutorial example again, this time in 3-D:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load TUTORIAL
Select BAR CHART - THREE-D





--------------------------------------------------

The three-dimensional effect of the graph is eye-catching, and for
many applications the 3-D Bar Chart is has great appeal. However, the
example above demonstrates two common problems with 3-D charts:

a) the bars in front cover up some of the bars in back; and

b) it is difficult to determine the value of a bar because of
the angle of the graph.










37












-







BAR CHARTS


In many applications, both of these drawbacks are acceptable. And
there are some customizations which can be done with the 3-D Bar Chart
to make it more readable. For example, by simply pressing ALT-F, the
two group columns are flipped, and the 3-D chart now looks like this:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load TUTORIAL
Select BAR CHART - THREE-D
Press ALT-F




--------------------------------------------------

Now the smaller numbers--the gross profit figures--are in front, so
the back row is visible. See the section titled "Transpose and Flip"
for more information on the ALT-F command.

















38












-







BAR CHARTS


Another way to get a better "vantage point" when looking at 3-D Bar
Charts is to change a field on the Optional Specifications screen
which is called the "3-D Aspect Angle". This field normally has a
value of 30, but may be any value from 20 to 80. Decreasing the aspect
angle causes the 3-D Bar Chart to sit more flatly; i.e. not to tilt
downward quite so much. Increasing the angle gives the impression that
the chart is opening toward you. For example, this is the same data
as above, but with an aspect angle of 60:

--------------------------------------------------



ILLUSTRATION


Load TUTORIAL
Change Aspect Angle to 60
Select BAR CHART - THREE-D
Press ALT-F




--------------------------------------------------

Note that the graph is really not being "rotated". The rear grid
remains vertical regardless of changes in the aspect angle. Changing
the angle simply "opens up" the graph more widely, by moving the base
of the graph downward -- a sort of wide-angle lense effect.












39












-







PIE CHARTS


---------------------------------------------------------------

PIE CHARTS

The pie chart is a popular way to represent data graphically. There
are some inherent differences between pie charts and other types of
graphs. Each slice of a pie chart represents a percentage of some
total amount. Consequently, all the numbers used for a pie chart must
add up to some meaningful total amount. Using the example from the
tutorial, let's take a look at a pie chart of the data:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load TUTORIAL
Select PIE CHART - UNCUT





--------------------------------------------------

The Uncut Pie Chart on the left represents a year's sales, while the
one on the right represents a year's profits. Even though total profit
is much smaller than total sales, both pies are the same size. That is
because they are representing percentages, not actual amounts. Each
pie is 100%. The slices in this example each represent one month, so
there are twelve slices in each pie.

Earlier we discussed the Percentage Bar Chart, and indicated that in
many respects it is similar to a rectangular pie chart. (Some might
call it a cake chart.) Just as in the percentage bar chart, the size
of each pie slice represents a percentage of the whole pie, not the
actual value.


40












-







PIE CHARTS



If there is only one group of values, GRAPH draws a single large
pie chart. If there are two or three groups, GRAPH draws two or
three pie charts side-by-side. GRAPH cannot draw more than three pie
charts. If there are more than three groups to be graphed, they must
be drawn in separate graphs. Or alternatively, they might be displayed
as percentage bar charts, which are similar to pie charts, but allow
up to 52 bars to be displayed on the screen at once.


SEPARATED PIE CHART
A Separated Pie Chart is just like an Uncut Pie Chart, except that the
slices are all pulled out from the pie a small distance. This makes
each slice a bit more visible:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load TUTORIAL
Select PIE CHART - SEPARATED





--------------------------------------------------


EXPLODED SLICES
On an Exploded Pie Chart, one or more slices are pulled out from the
pie a small distance. The default is to explode only the first slice
(the slice associated with value number 1). It is possible to explode
more than one slice, and to indicate which slices to explode, by
changing the value called "Exploded Pie Chart Sections" on the
Optional Specifications screen. For example, this is the same pie


41












-







PIE CHARTS


chart as above, but with slices 3, 5 and 10 exploded:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load TUTORIAL
Change Exploded Pie Chart Sections to 3 5 10
Select PIE CHART - EXPLODED




--------------------------------------------------

There is also a field on the Optional Specifications screen called
"Distance to explode", which tells GRAPH how far out of the pie each
slice should be pulled. A small number (minimum 10) causes the slice
to be pulled out a small distance. A larger number (maximum 40) causes
the slice to be pulled out more.


















42












-







SAVING DATA TO DISK


---------------------------------------------------------------

SAVING DATA TO DISK

When you have finished preparing your graph, the data can be saved on
disk for future use. To save your data at any time, regardless of what
screen you are on, press ALT-S. A window appears on the screen that
looks like this:

--------------------------------------------------

ILLUSTRATION

Press ALT-S
(include only the pop-up window)

--------------------------------------------------

To save your graph data to disk, enter any valid file name from one to
eight characters. GRAPH adds an extension of GRF to your file name.
For example, if you enter ABC and press ENTER, then GRAPH
creates a file on your disk called ABC.GRF. If there is already a file
on disk by the same name as the one you specified, a warning message
is given. The warning pops up in another window:

--------------------------------------------------

ILLUSTRATION

Save TUTORIAL, Press ENTER
(include only the pop-up window)

--------------------------------------------------

When this window appears, if you do not want to destroy the file on
disk which has the same name, then Press ESC and change the name of
the file you are saving. If the file on disk with the same name can be
erased, and this one written over it, reply "O". If you want to save
the old file as backup, reply "B". The file on disk gets renamed from
name.GRF to name.BAK, then the current data is saved as name.GRF.


43












-







SAVING DATA TO DISK



All the data about your graph is saved in the .GRF file, including:

* Titles, group names, value names
* All numbers
* Dimension of matrix (16 x 52 or 52 x 16)
* All fields on the Optional Specifications screen
* Currently selected type of graph
* Override pattern sequence

































44












-







LOADING DATA FROM DISK


---------------------------------------------------------------

LOADING DATA FROM DISK

The previous section explained how to save data for a GRAPH file onto
disk. To read data from disk into GRAPH, press ALT-L. A window
pops up which looks like this:

--------------------------------------------------


ILLUSTRATION

Press ALT-L
(include only the pop-up window)

--------------------------------------------------

Usually the data you are loading was saved earlier by GRAPH as a
GRF file. The other two types of files (.FE and .DIF) are discussed
later in this section. Press 1 or E to load an ExpressGraph (.GRF)
file. The following screen appears:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Press ALT-L
Press 1





--------------------------------------------------



45












-







LOADING DATA FROM DISK


All the GRF files on the disk are displayed on this screen, and each
one is numbered sequentially. To load a data file, enter the file's
number, then press ENTER.

When a file is loaded, it replaces all the data currently in GRAPH,
including the numbers and descriptions on the Enter Data screen and
the values on the Optional Specifications screen. If there is data
which you do not want to lose, use ALT-S to save it before loading a
new file in over it.


REPORT FILES (.FE)
Users of File Express, Expressware's popular database program, may
sometimes want to produce graphs from information in their databases.
To accomodate that need, the .FE file type is included in GRAPH. The
quickest and easiest way to summarize data from a File Express
database is to use the report writer to create a report. Write the
report to disk with a file name that ends with .FE which can then be
read by GRAPH.

Most databases have a large number of records, and need to be sorted
and summarized before meaningful graphs can be produced from them.
For example, a database with five hundred sales invoice entries
produces a meaningless graph if its detailed, raw data is graphed. But
let's say each of the sales entries has a month number: 1 for January,
2 for February, and so forth. The database is sorted into month
sequence, then a summary report is prepared, with sales dollar totals
and profit dollar totals for each month. A summary report called
SALES.FE is written to disk. On disk, the report looks like this:













46












-







LOADING DATA FROM DISK



Annual Sales and Gross Profit
July 1, 1986 Page 1

Sales Gross Profit
---------- ------------
48,000 21,000
31,000 16,000
45,000 20,000
51,000 22,000
55,000 24,000
58,000 26,000
43,000 21,000
61,000 28,000
65,000 32,000
74,000 37,000
110,000 58,000
90,000 45,000


These are the steps to follow to write the above report to disk:

1. Sort the database index by MONTH.
2. Select "Print Reports".
3. Select "Define REPORT LAYOUT".
3. Select utomatic spacing between fields.
4. Select SALES and PROFIT, then press the END key.
5. For Title line 1, enter: "Annual Sales and Gross Profit".
6. Leave Title line 2 blank.
7. Select any report width.
8. Select ubtotals.
9. Select
ll fields to be subtotaled.
10. For field to determine subtotals, select MONTH.
11. For length of MONTH to compare, press ENTER.
12. For Duplicate Grouping, select Y or N (doesn't matter).
13. For Save Report Format, select N.
14. Select Write to isk.
15. Name of Output File is SALES.FE.
16. Select ubtotals only.



47












-







LOADING DATA FROM DISK


Now exit from File Express and start ExpressGraph, then press
ALT-L. On the first prompt, indicate that a "Report File (.FE)"
is being loaded. Then select the report (.FE) file called SALES.
The data from the summary report is now on GRAPH's data screen,
and looks like this:


--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load TUTORIAL

Blank all the value names




--------------------------------------------------

To add month names of Jan, Feb, etc., press ALT-A for Automatic
Value Names. A window pops up which looks like this:

--------------------------------------------------


ILLUSTRATION

Press ALT-A
(include only the pop-up window)


--------------------------------------------------





48












-







LOADING DATA FROM DISK


Press 1 for abbreviated month names. Another window appears:

--------------------------------------------------


ILLUSTRATION

Press ALT-A then 1
(include only the pop-up window)


--------------------------------------------------

Press 1, then press the ENTER key. The value name column is
automatically filled with month abbreviations, starting with January.
Now the data is ready to graph. For a sample of the graph which is
produced from this data, see the Tutorial section.


DIF FILES (.DIF)
GRAPH can also read the popular DIF files which can be produced by
many software programs. "DIF" is an acronym for Data Interchange
Format, which is a standard format for numbers and text to be passed
from one program to another.

A DIF file is simply one or more columns of data and one or more
rows of data, arranged in an array. For GRAPH's purposes, there are
four types of data which go into the DIF file:

* Report Title
* Group Name(s)
* Value Name(s)
* Numbers to be graphed









49












-







LOADING DATA FROM DISK


These four types of data are stored in a simple row-column array in
the following format:

Report Title Grp Name 1 Grp Name 2 Grp Name 3 . . .
Value Name 1 Value Value Value
Value Name 2 Value Value Value
Value Name 3 Value Value Value
.
.
.

Users of ExpressCalc, Expressware's popular spreadsheet program, can
pass data to GRAPH using DIF files. The following example illustrates
the use of DIF files, and also demonstrates the ease of interfacing
between CALC and GRAPH.

Start CALC and load the spreadsheet called EXAMPLE, a simple interest
calculation spreadsheet discussed in the CALC tutorial. EXAMPLE looks
like this on the screen:


A B C D
1
2 Compute Annual Interest
3
4 Rate: 5.50
5
6 Year Balance Interest
7 1983 5,000.00 275.00
8 1984 5,275.00 290.13
9 1985 5,565.13 306.08
10
11 Totals 5,871.21 871.21

The numbers to be graphed are in cells C7:D9. The two Group Names
are "Balance" (in C6) and "Interest" (in D6). The three Value Names
are "1983, 1984, 1985" (in B7:B9). The title of the graph is to be
"Annual Interest: 5.5%", and does not appear on the spreadsheet.




50












-







LOADING DATA FROM DISK


Comparing the sample spreadsheet to GRAPH's DIF format above, we
can see that the array to be graphed is in cells B6:D9. The only thing
that array is missing is the report title. Move the cursor to cell B6
and enter the text Annual Interest: 5.5%/1. (Note: the /1 on the end
of the title tells GRAPH to display it in small letters, since it is
too big to display in medium letters.)

Now use the /Save function of CALC, and specify EXAMPLE.DIF as the
file name. When CALC notices that the file being saved is a .DIF file,
it prompts for the range to be saved. Enter B6:D9, and press ENTER
twice (defaulting to "save by rows").

Now exit from CALC, and start GRAPH. Press L (for load) and D
(for DIF), then select EXAMPLE.DIF from the list of files. The
following prompt appears:

--------------------------------------------------


ILLUSTRATION

Press L, then D
(include only the pop-up window)


--------------------------------------------------

Since our DIF file had group names and value names, reply Y to this
prompt. If the DIF file had only contained numbers, we would reply N
to this message (to prevent the first row and column of numbers from
ending up in the group name and value name columns).











51












-







LOADING DATA FROM DISK


Now that EXAMPLE.DIF is loaded, you can review it on the Data
Entry screen:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load SAMPLE11





--------------------------------------------------

The data is ready to graph, without adding anything more. Press
ALT-G and select BAR CHART - REGULAR to display the graph:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load SAMPLE11
Select BAR GRAPH - REGULAR






--------------------------------------------------



52












-







LOADING DATA FROM DISK


This is not much of a graph, with only three years' data. Later in the
CALC manual, in Example #2 of the /Replicate command, the same
graph is carried out for twenty years. Using that example, with a 12%
annual interest rate, save cells B6:D26 as a DIF file, then load that
file into GRAPH. This data makes for a bit more interesting graph:

--------------------------------------------------




ILLUSTRATION


Load EXAMPLE2.DIF
Select BAR GRAPH - REGULAR





--------------------------------------------------




















53












-







OPTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS


---------------------------------------------------------------

OPTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS


The Optional Specifications screen can be selected from the Main Menu
by pressing the letter O. It can also be selected from anywhere in
GRAPH at any time by pressing ALT-O. The screen looks like this:

--------------------------------------------------





ILLUSTRATION


Press ALT-O





--------------------------------------------------

For most graphing applications, the optional specification fields do
not need to be changed, because GRAPH determines the best value to
use. But sometimes you may want to customize a graph by changing one
or more of these fields.


EDGES OF CHART
The graphics screen is composed of thousands of tiny dots. There are
640 columns of dots across the screen and 200 rows of dots vertically,
for a total of 128,000 dots. The first four fields of the Optional
Specifications screen define the boundaries on the screen within which
GRAPH confines its drawing. As you can see from the default settings
shown in the screen above, a graph normally occupies almost the entire
screen. Changing the left or right edges of the area causes the graph


54












-







OPTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS


to be "squeezed" into a narrower space. This changes the appearance
of the graph, giving it --------------------------------------
a taller look. For example,
the graph on the right
shows how the TUTORIAL
bar chart looks when the
left edge is changed to ILLUSTRATION
150 and the right edge is
changed to 450.
Load TUTORIAL
Note the month descriptions Left edge to 150, right to 450
in the graph on the right.
They have overlapped one
another until they are
unreadable. On narrow
graphs, it may be necessary
to eliminate the value
names, or to leave some of
them blank.
--------------------------------------

To give a graph a low, flat look, change the top and bottom edges to
70 and 130, but leave the left and right edges unchanged:

--------------------------------------------------

ILLUSTRATION
Load TUTORIAL
Change top edge to 70, bottom edge to 130

--------------------------------------------------

The problem of overlapping value names that occurred with tall, thin
graphs is not a problem when flattening a graph. If there is not
enough room for the vertical scale numbers to fit on a flat graph,
then GRAPH uses fewer scale numbers so they don't overlap.

Changing all four edges of a graph simply makes the graph smaller.
For a small graph or one that is flat or tall, try experimenting with
the four edge values to change the graph's shape and size.


55












-







OPTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS



PERCENT OF CHART USED
Looking at some of the line graphs and bar charts in this manual, you
may notice that the tallest bar never goes all the way to the top of
the graph. In fact, it always occupies exactly 90% of the vertical
space available, unless you tell GRAPH otherwise. If you decrease the
Percent of Chart Used value, GRAPH uses less of the vertical graphing
area. This can be useful, for example, when creating graphs with
different values, but trying to keep them proportionate to one
another. The two graphs below reflect sales figures for the years
1985 and 1986:

---------------------------------- ----------------------------------

ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

Load SAMPLE13 Load SAMPLE14
Select Bar Chart - Regular Select Bar Chart - Regular

---------------------------------- ----------------------------------

At first glance, it would appear that 1986 sales are no better than
1985 sales. But actually, sales doubled in 1986. How can the charts be
made more proportionate to one another? One solution is to graph all
24 months on a single graph. But then the graph becomes cluttered, and
the bars become very narrow. An alternative is to change the Percent
of Chart Used value on the 1985 graph, so that the bars are not as
tall. Since the 1985 numbers are roughly half the size of the 1986
numbers, try 45% as the 1985 Percent of Chart Used. It may take some
experimenting to get both of the charts with the same high value; in
this case, 37%. Now the charts look like this:

---------------------------------- ----------------------------------

ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

Load SAMPLE13 Load SAMPLE14
Change % used to 37 Leave % used at 90
Select Bar Chart - Regular Select Bar Chart - Regular
---------------------------------- ----------------------------------


56












-







OPTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS



THREE-D ASPECT ANGLE
Three-dimensional bar charts sometimes have a unique problem: the bars
in front block the bars in back so they can't be seen. There are
multiple solutions to this problem. The first is to Flip (ALT-F) the
columns, causing the sequence of the bars to be reversed. Sometimes a
Flip is all that is needed, because the larger sales figures are
blocking the profit figures, or the larger 1986 figures are blocking
the '85 figures. But sometimes no amount of flipping or transposing
can make the bars in back more visible.

Changing the 3-D Aspect Angle effectively "opens up" the 3-D chart, as
if it were a pop-out birthday card. The wider it is opened, the easier
it is to see the bars in
back. Another comparison is -------------------------------------
to imagine yourself on an
airplane, flying toward ILLUSTRATION
a "city" of 3-D bars. From
a distance, the city looks Load SAMPLE15
like the graph to the right. Select 20% Aspect Angle
Some of the buildings in Select 3-D Bar Chart
front are blocking the -------------------------------------
buildings behind them.
-------------------------------------

As the airplane gets ILLUSTRATION
closer, (50% aspect angle),
the "roofs" of the hidden Load SAMPLE15
bars in back become Select 50% Aspect Angle
visible, as in the second Select 3-D Bar Chart
example to the right. -------------------------------------

-------------------------------------
Finally, as the airplane
nears the city, (80% aspect ILLUSTRATION
angle), you can see all the
buildings, and maybe even Load SAMPLE15
part of the street between Select 80% Aspect Angle
them. Select 3-D Bar Chart
-------------------------------------


57












-







OPTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS



CIRCLE ASPECT RATIO
Some printers and video screens distort the circular shape of a pie
chart, giving it either a flat, oval shape or a tall, stretched oval
shape. For example:

--------------------------------- ---------------------------------

ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

Load TUTORIAL Load TUTORIAL
Change circle aspect ratio to 25 Change circle aspect ratio to 75
Select PIE CHART - UNCUT Select PIE CHART - UNCUT

--------------------------------- ---------------------------------

On a video monitor, this distortion can usually be adjusted with the
vertical height adjustment on your video monitor. On printers, an
adjustment is usually not available; it is inherent in the dot pattern
produced by the printer.

Reducing the Circle Aspect Ratio causes circles to be drawn flatter.
Increasing the Ratio causes circles to be drawn taller. If pie charts
are not perfectly circular on your printer, change the Circle Aspect
Ratio until the pie chart becomes round. Changing the aspect ratio
changes both the screen image and the printed image, so it may be
necessary for the screen image to be slightly distorted so that the
printed pie chart can be circular.

The distorted pie charts produced by changing the Circle Aspect Ratio
value may even be desirable sometimes. The flat pie chart in the
example above has a sort of slanted, three-dimensional effect which
may be desirable for some charts.









58












-







OPTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS



HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL GRIDS
GRAPH prints rows of dotted lines across line graphs and bar charts,
alongside each scale number. These dotted lines can be removed by
changing the Horizontal Grid field from Y to N. Vertical grid lines
can also be printed, but are normally left off the graph. To print
vertical grid lines, change the Vertical Grid field from N to Y. Here
are examples of graphs with and without grid lines:

---------------------------------- ----------------------------------

ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

Load SAMPLE03 Load SAMPLE03
Select Bar Chart - Regular Select Bar Chart - Regular
N for Vert grid, Y for Horiz. N for Vert grid, N for Horiz.

---------------------------------- ----------------------------------


---------------------------------- ----------------------------------

ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

Load SAMPLE03 Load SAMPLE03
Select Bar Chart - Regular Select Bar Chart - Regular
Y for Vert grid, N for Horiz. Y for Vert grid, Y for Horiz.

---------------------------------- ----------------------------------


PRINT LEGENDS
Sometimes the legend to the right of a graph is not necessary, either
because the legends are intuitively obvious, or because there is only
one entry in the legend. Legends can be removed by specifying N on the
Print Legends field.

A secondary benefit of removing legends is that the area available for
the graph becomes wider. On graphs with many numbers, a wider
graphing area usually improves readability.


59












-







OPTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS



SCALE INCREMENT AND STARTING SCALE
The numbers which run up the left side of a line graph or bar chart
are called the scale numbers. GRAPH usually does a good job of
determining the best scaling increment for you. The default increment
is usually a power of ten: 10, 100, 1000, 10000, etc. There may be
times when you want the increment to be something different. For
example, if you are graphing accounts receivable aging, you may want
the scales to read 0, 30, 60, 90, 120. All it takes is to change the
scale increment to 30.

The Starting Scale Adjustment was discussed in the section titled
Drawing Graphs -- Adding Contour. An example is given in that section
of a graph which appears flat and unchanging. Then the starting scale
value is changed from zero (the default) to one million, and the graph
gets some contour.


EXPLODED PIE CHART SECTIONS AND DISTANCE
When drawing pie charts, it is often useful to have certain sections or
"slices" pulled out from the rest of the pie. GRAPH automatically pulls
out the first section (value 1) on an exploded pie chart. To explode a
different section, or
---------------------------------------- more than one section,
change the field called
ILLUSTRATION Exploded Pie Chart
Sections. To explode
Load TUTORIAL more than one slice,
delete "Gross Profits" column enter two or more
Set "Exploded pie chart sections to "1 5 11" numbers separated by a
Select Pie Chart - Exploded space. For example, the
pie chart on the left
has an Exploded Pie
Chart Sections field of
1 5 11, so the first,
--------------------------------------- fifth and eleventh
sections are exploded.





60












-







OPTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS



CURRENT DATA DRIVE
The disk drive you selected in response to the banner screen message
(or on the command line) is shown on the Optional Specifications menu.
Another drive can be selected for loading and saving graphic data by
simply changing the drive letter.

If a drive letter is specified which does not exist on your computer,
then no files are available to be loaded, and a message is given when
saving indicating the file cannot be opened.
































61












-







PATTERN SEQUENCES


---------------------------------------------------------------

PATTERN SEQUENCES

Pressing 6 or P on the main menu, or pressing ALT-P at any time,
passes control to the Pattern Screen:

--------------------------------------------------





ILLUSTRATION


Press ALT-P





--------------------------------------------------

Use this screen to change the shading patterns on your graph. The
sixteen available patterns are displayed across the top of the screen,
and the current pattern sequence is displayed across the bottom. The
default pattern sequence is ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP. When a bar chart
or pie chart is drawn, group 1 is shaded with pattern A, Group 2 with
pattern B, and so on. Symbols for line graphs can be resequenced in
the same manner.

To change the sequence, press R, then type one or more characters over
the old pattern sequence characters. For example, if your graph is to

be done only with black and white shadings, use a pattern sequence of
AFAFAF. The sequence needs to only be as long as the number of
groups in your graph. If all the shadings are to be black, (white when
printed), press CONTROL-Y to clear the pattern sequence field. If you
find it hard to differentiate, for example, between patterns A, B and
K, omit B and K by using a pattern sequence of ACDEFGHIJLMNOP.


62












-







ADVANCED FEATURES


---------------------------------------------------------------

ADVANCED FEATURES


TRANSPOSE AND FLIP
It is not easy to visualize how your data will look graphically until
you graph it. So after the data is all entered and you are looking at
your graph, you may decide that it is backward or upside down. You can
rearrange your data with Transpose and Flip. These commands can be
invoked at any time by pressing ALT-T or ALT-F. If you are displaying
a graph when you enter ALT-T or ALT-F, the data is rearranged and the
graph is redrawn. If you are looking at the Enter Data screen when the
keys are pressed, the data is redisplayed in the new sequence.

TRANSPOSE (ALT-T) is a "rotate" command. It moves groups to
values and values to groups. For example, this data:

Sales Profit
Jan 10 1
Feb 20 2
Mar 30 3

looks like this after transposition:

Jan Feb Mar
Sales 10 20 30
Profit 1 2 3

FLIP (ALT-F) is a "mirror image" command. It swings around all the
columns of data so the last one is first. For example, the transposed
data above looks like this when flipped:

Mar Feb Jan
Sales 30 20 10
Profit 3 2 1

After one of the ALT-T or ALT-F keys is pressed, if the resulting
graph is undesirable, press the key a second time to return the graph
to its previous state.


63












-







ADVANCED FEATURES


Using Transpose and Flip, the same graph can be displayed in eight
different ways:

---------------------------------- ----------------------------------
ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

Load SAMPLE16 Load SAMPLE16
Select Bar Chart - Regular Select Bar Chart - Regular
Press ALT-T
---------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Normal Transposed

---------------------------------- ----------------------------------
ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

Load SAMPLE16 Load SAMPLE16
Select Bar Chart - Regular Select Bar Chart - Regular
Press ALT-F Press ALT-T then ALT-F
---------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Flipped Transposed then Flipped

---------------------------------- ----------------------------------
ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

Load SAMPLE16 Load SAMPLE16
Select Bar Chart - Regular Select Bar Chart - Regular
Press ALT-F then ALT-T Press ALT-T, ALT-F, ALT-T
---------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Flipped then Transposed Transposed then Flipped
then Transposed

---------------------------------- ----------------------------------
ILLUSTRATION ILLUSTRATION

Load SAMPLE16 Load SAMPLE16
Select Bar Chart - Regular Select Bar Chart - Regular
Press ALT-F, ALT-T, ALT-F Press ALT-T, ALT-F, ALT-T, ALT-F
---------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Flipped then Transposed Transposed then Flipped
then Flipped then Transposed then Flipped


64












-







ADVANCED FEATURES


ADDING TEXT TO GRAPHS
After a graph is drawn, there is a large flashing cursor at the top,
immediately to the right of the title. This cursor can be moved around
the screen with the arrow keys, and additional text can be entered on
the screen at the spot the cursor occupies. The following keys control
movement of the cursor:

CONTROL KEYS

Special Key Alternate Purpose of key
--------------- ------------- -------------------------------------
UP ARROW CONTROL-E Moves the cursor upward one line.
PAGE UP

DOWN ARROW CONTROL-X Moves the cursor downward one line.
PAGE DOWN

LEFT ARROW CONTROL-S Moves the cursor left one character.

BACKSPACE Moves the cursor left one character,
and erases the current position.

RIGHT ARROW CONTROL-D Moves the cursor right one character.

HOME Moves the cursor to the upper left
corner of the screen.

END Moves the cursor to the lower right
corner of the screen.

ENTER Moves the cursor to the start of the
next lower line.

CONTROL-LEFT ARROW Moves the cursor left one dot.

CONTROL-RIGHT ARROW Moves the cursor right one dot.

CONTROL-PAGE UP Moves the cursor up one dot.

CONTROL-PAGE DOWN Moves the cursor down one dot.


65












-







ADVANCED FEATURES



Fine-Tuning The Cursor
As it is moved around the screen, the cursor normally moves upward and
downward a distance equal to its height. It moves left and right a
distance equal to its width. For "fine tuning" the cursor to an exact
location, hold down the CONTROL key and press LEFT ARROW,
RIGHT ARROW, PAGE UP or PAGE DOWN, and the cursor moves only
a single dot (pixel) at a time.

Destructive Backspace
The BACKSPACE key erases the entire area occupied by the cursor after
moving to the left. If the area contains part of your graph as well as
text, the graph data is erased as well as any text.

Text in Three Sizes
Text may be added to a graph in three different sizes. Press the F1
key to change the size of the cursor. Press F1 multiple times to
rotate through the three sizes. The cursor size roughly indicates the
size of the letters:

--------------------------------------------------


ILLUSTRATION

Load TUTORIAL
Select PIE CHART - UNCUT (with no legend)
Across the top, type "These are large characters"
Below it, type "These are medium characters"
And below that, type "These are small characters"


--------------------------------------------------

Text in White or Black
Text is normally added on the screen as white letters on a black
background (on the printer these become black letters on white paper).
But suppose you want to enter some text in the middle of a pie chart
slice which is white. Pressing F3 toggles the character color from
white to black, so that characters display by removing dots instead of


66












-







ADVANCED FEATURES


adding dots. Entering black characters on a black background has no
effect; it looks like nothing is happening. But if black characters
are entered on a white or shaded background, they appear as in this
example:

--------------------------------------------------


ILLUSTRATION

Load SAMPLE17
Display BAR GRAPH - REGULAR
In the center of the first bar, enter 1985 in large letters
In the center of the second bar, enter 1986 in large letters



--------------------------------------------------

Unfortunately, not all printers have the precise resolution of the
laser printer used for preparing this manual. On some dot matrix
printers, the 1985 and 1986 in the graph above would appear as little
more than a blur. There is another way to label the inside of a white
or shaded area of the graph: use the backspace key to "make a hole"
in the middle of a shaded area, then type your descriptions into it.
For example:

--------------------------------------------------


ILLUSTRATION

Load SAMPLE17
Select BAR GRAPH - REGULAR
In the center of the first bar, press BACKSPACE four times,
then enter 1985 in large letters
In the center of the second bar, press BACKSPACE four times,
then enter 1986 in large letters

--------------------------------------------------


67












-







ADVANCED FEATURES



Extra text on graphs is not saved in any form. If the Redraw key
(F5) is pressed, the graph is redrawn and all extra text disappears.
Likewise, when the graph is saved to disk, extra text is not saved
with it. Consequently, if the graph is to be changed and reprinted at
some time in the future, it is best to use the graph title, group
names and value names for labelling, because they are saved with the
graph and redrawn each time.


































68












-







TECHNICAL INFORMATION


---------------------------------------------------------------

TECHNICAL INFORMATION


SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

Computer: IBM PC / XT / AT or 100% compatible
Memory: 256K RAM minimum
DOS: Version 2.0 or higher
Disk Drives: 1
Printer: Dot Matrix Graphics
Graphics screen printing required
Display: Graphics Adapter required
Monitor: Color or Graphic monochrome


CAPACITIES

Maximum Numbers Graphed: 832
Maximum Groups: 52 (with 16 values)
Maximum Values: 52 (with 16 groups)
Maximum Number: 999,999,999,999
Minimum Number: -99,999,999,999
Types of Graphs: 10


SINGLE DRIVE USERS

GRAPH works fine on systems with only one diskette drive. There is
adequate room on a single diskette for the programs, the complete
documentation, and dozens of graphs. If your diskette starts filling
up, delete the GRAPH.DOC file to make more room. Just remember
if you share GRAPH with a friend, be certain to share the
GRAPH.DOC file too.








69












-







TECHNICAL INFORMATION



USERS WITH HARD DISKS
To install GRAPH on a hard disk, boot up DOS, then follow these
steps:

C: If not already logged to drive C (the
hard disk), then log to it.

CD\ Log to the root directory of the hard
disk.

MD GRAPH Make a new directory called GRAPH.

CD GRAPH Log to the new directory.

COPY A:*.* Copy all the files from the GRAPH
Program Disk in drive A to the hard
disk. GRAPH is now installed on your
hard disk.


To start GRAPH from the hard disk, follow these steps:

CD \GRAPH Change to the GRAPH subdirectory.

GRAPH C: Run the GRAPH program, specifying
drive C as the drive for saving data.
Data is saved in the GRAPH
subdirectory with the programs.



USERS WITH RAM DISKS
If you are using part of your computer's memory to emulate an
additional disk drive, there is typically no advantage to installing
GRAPH on the RAM disk. When GRAPH is started, the entire program
is loaded into memory, and remains there at all times. GRAPH files
are usually so small that it takes just a few seconds to load or save
one from even the slowest disk drive. Consequently, there is little or
no benefit to using GRAPH with a RAM disk.


70












-







TECHNICAL INFORMATION



COLOR MONITORS
Those who have a monochrome graphics monitor connected to a color
graphics card may not see everything displayed on the screen, or the
screen may appear blurred and unreadable. If this happens, press ESC
to leave GRAPH, then start the program again, using the /M option:

GRAPH /M

Users with color monitors may also use the /M option to cause all
screens to display in black and white.































71












-







CUSTOMIZING EXPRESSGRAPH


---------------------------------------------------------------

CUSTOMIZING EXPRESSGRAPH



When GRAPH is started, several optional fields may be included on the
command line. First of all, a file name and optional drive designation
may be included. For example:

GRAPH C:TUTORIAL

starts GRAPH, then loads the GRF file from drive C. The first prompt
for "drive to use for data" is not given, since the drive has already
been specified. After loading the specified file, the Enter/Edit Data
screen is displayed. The drive designation may also be specified by
itself:

GRAPH C:


There are also some optional commands which may be included on the
command line at startup. If there is a file name and/or drive
designation, these commands follow them. The commands are:

/M Monochrome (black and white) display: This command is
usually necessary when using GRAPH on a monochrome
graphics monitor with a color graphics board. Users
with color graphics monitors may also use the command
to make menus appear in black and white.

/S Turn off the sound: GRAPH makes a distinctive "beep"
when it accepts a data field from the keyboard. It
makes a slightly different sound when an invalid
character is entered. Some computers have louder
speakers than others, and the sound may be annoying to
you or to others around you. Use the /S command to
turn it off.




72












-







CUSTOMIZING EXPRESSGRAPH


/B BIOS Calls for screen display: Some computers' video
memory is not fully compatible with the IBM PC. To
display data on the screen as quickly as possible,
GRAPH places data directly into video RAM. If
characters are not being properly displayed on your
compatible computer, or if "snowy" static appears on
the screen when characters are displayed, use the /B
option. GRAPH will call the ROM BIOS routines in your
computer to display characters on the screen. This
usually results in slower screen display.

/F Fast startup: If you have specified the drive letter or
file name on the command line, use the /F command to
bypass the banner screen and go directly to GRAPH.




























73












-







GRAPH FILE FORMAT


---------------------------------------------------------------

GRAPH FILE FORMAT

This section is for programmers whose programs access data in .GRF
files, or whose programs create .GRF files. The file format is
designed so user programs can access or create .GRF files easily. All
data is saved in ASCII string format.


READING AND WRITING THE FILE
In Microsoft BASIC, use the INPUT# command to read data from a
GRF file, and PRINT# to write a GRF file. All data fields
are string format. Numeric data can be read into a string workarea,
then converted to a double-precision numeric value using the VAL
function.

Here is an example of a simple GRF file, which contains two groups,
Sales and Profit, and three value names, Jan, Feb and Mar:

GRAPH 1.0
16,52
2,3
Sales
48000
31000
45000
Profit
21000
16000
20000
Jan
Feb
Mar
Sales and Gross Profit
10,600,20,150,90,30,50,1,0,1,0,0," 1 ",15
1
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP
0



74












-







GRAPH FILE FORMAT



HEADER FIELD
The first field is the header field. It looks like this:

GRAPH 1.0

To verify that the input file is a GRAPH file, check the first
five characters of this field for the letters "GRAPH". The "1.0"
is the version number of GRAPH that produced the output. If you are
creating a GRAPH file in your own program, it is recommended that
you use "0.0" through "0.9" in this field, so it is evident that the
file was not created by GRAPH, but by another program. You can also
put descriptive info in the field, starting at column 20, to describe
the source and/or contents of the file.


MAXIMUM DIMENSION
Following the header field are two numbers separated by a comma,
which indicate the maximum dimension of the data matrix. For files
created by GRAPH, these numbers are either: 16,52 or 52,16.


DIMENSION USED
Following the maximum dimension are two more numbers separated by a
comma, which indicate the Number Of Groups Used and the Number Of
Values Used. The earlier example has two groups (sales and profit)
and three values per group (Jan, Feb, Mar), so the two numbers are
2,3.


GROUP NAMES AND VALUES
Next comes the first group name, on a line by itself. Following it is
each value (number) for the group, on a separate line. (The Number
of Values Used tells you the exact count). Following the last value
is the second group name. It is in turn followed by all the values
for the second group, and so forth for as many groups as are specified
in the Number Of Groups Used.





75












-







GRAPH FILE FORMAT


REMAINING FIELDS OPTIONAL
The fields explained below, which follow the group names and values,
are optional. If the GRF file ends with none or only some of the
optional fields, GRAPH loads the fields that are present, and uses
system defaults for the rest.


VALUE NAMES AND GRAPH TITLE
Next come the value names, one per line. If no value names were
specified, the lines are still present, but contain blanks or null.
Following the last value name is the graph title. It also is present
even if blank.


OPTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS
The next line contains each of the values from the Optional
Specifications screen, separated by commas.


OTHER PARAMETERS
Following the optional specifications are the following parameters:

* Current selection on the Graph Menu (1 to 10)
* Alternate pattern selection
* Starting scale adjustment

As this product is enhanced, more special parameters will be added at
the end. The program checks for end-of-file as it loads, so if some
new parameters are missing, the module will still load, and use
standard defaults for the missing parameters. None of these parameters
are required for the graph to display, and it is recommended that
programs passing data to GRAPH not include Optional Specification
parameters or the fields following them. Bad data in one of the
fields can cause unpredictable results.








76












-







FILES ON THE GRAPH DISK


---------------------------------------------------------------

FILES ON THE GRAPH DISK

The following files are included on your GRAPH diskette:

* README: Contains general information about ExpressGraph and
Expressware. It can be displayed with the TYPE command, or can
be printed using this DOS command: COPY README PRN:

* GRAPH.EXE: The GRAPH startup program. It must be on the
logged disk drive.

* GRAPH2.EXE, GRAPH3.EXE, etc.: Overlay programs used by
GRAPH. They must be on the currently logged disk drive.

* GRAPH.DOC: The GRAPH User Guide in a disk file. This is an
evaluation copy of the guide, provided so you can share the program
with others. This file is not needed to run GRAPH.

* PRINTDOC.BAT: This batch file is used to print the evaluation
copy of the User Guide.

* RESPONSE: This is a file similar to the User Response Form at
the end of this manual. You can either remove the pages from the
manual, or COPY RESPONSE PRN: to print this file.

* SAMPLE01.GRF, SAMPLE02.GRF, etc.: Sample graph files which are
referenced in the documentation on the diskette. Since the diskette
documentation does not contain the illustrations found in the
registered User's Guide, all the illustrations have been saved as
GRF files on diskette for easy display by GRAPH.

* TUTORIAL.GRF: A sample of the graph file referenced and
discussed in the tutorial at the beginning of the User's Guide.







77












-







FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS


---------------------------------------------------------------

SOME FREQUENTLY
ASKED QUESTIONS


Q: What is your update policy?
A: All registered Expressware users are notified by mail when a new
version of GRAPH becomes available. The cost of an update is
usually $20 (to registered users).

Q: Do you have any other programs you are distributing?
A: Yes. File Express, a powerful data base management program, and
ExpressCalc, an easy-to-use spreadsheet.

Q: What else are you working on?
A: An advanced report writer, as yet to be named. And new versions
of ExpressCalc, File Express and ExpressGraph are also in
development. In the section titled "User Response Form" we list
some future enhancements, and ask you to indicate which ones are
the most desirable to you. By filling out and returning the form,
you can help us decide which improvements should be made first.

Q: In what language was GRAPH written?
A: It was written in BASIC, then compiled with the Microsoft
QuickBASIC Compiler. It also has some assembler subroutines.

Q: What computers does GRAPH run on?
A: Based on our users' responses, we know that GRAPH runs on
the following computers (provided they have a graphics adapter):

IBM PC COMPAQ Deskpro TANDY 1000
IBM XT COMPAQ Portable TANDY 1200
IBM PCjr CORONA ZENITH Z-150
IBM PC Portable ITT Xtra ZENITH AT
IBM AT TAVA
AT&T 6300

If you have tested GRAPH on another brand, please let us know,
and we will add it to the list.


78












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DISTRIBUTION NOTICE


---------------------------------------------------------------

DISTRIBUTION NOTICE


Expressware is distributing GRAPH as a "SHAREWARE" product.
After trying the product, if you decide to use it, we trust you to
purchase the registered set.

You may obtain a production copy of GRAPH for $10 from your local
software dealer or directly from Expressware. The $10 disk set
contains a diskette with the complete GRAPH software and the
complete documentation, ready to be printed on your own printer. The
disk set also contains a $10 rebate coupon to be used toward the
purchase of the GRAPH registered set.

The complete GRAPH registered set is also available from software
dealers throughout the U.S. and Canada, or may be purchased directly
from Expressware. The registered set includes a commercially printed
copy of the User's Guide, one diskette and a user registration form.
Registered owners of GRAPH receive phone support on Expressware
products, newsletters, product announcements, and update service.

Whether or not you purchase a registered copy, you are still
encouraged to copy GRAPH and share it with your friends, so they
can evaluate it. The following restrictions apply:

* No charge is to be made for copying or distributing GRAPH.

* No alterations may be made to the files on the diskette.

* The printed manual may not be copied or reproduced in any way.

* Commercial sale or use of GRAPH in any manner is prohibited
without Expressware's written permission.







79












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USER RESPONSE FORM


---------------------------------------------------------------


USER RESPONSE FORM


We are always interested in knowing more about our users. This
information helps us to channel our efforts in the directions you
want. Please help us by completing the questionaire on the
following page and mailing it to:

Expressware
P. O. Box 230
Redmond, WA 98073


If you do not want to remove these pages from your manual, and a
copy machine is not readily available, there is a file on the
GRAPH diskette called RESPONSE which is a copy of this form.
The file can be printed by typing the following on the DOS command
line:

COPY RESPONSE PRN:



















80












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USER RESPONSE FORM


1.
Where did you hear about GRAPH? _________________________________
2.
System being used to run GRAPH:

a) Computer brand/model ________________________________________

b) Amount of computer memory? _________________________________

c) Type of disk? _______________________________________________

d) Black & white or color monitor? _____________________________

e) Printer brand/model? _________________________________________

3.
For what types of applications do you use GRAPH?

_________________________________________________________________

4.
____ Registered user ____ Non-registered user

(If you are a non-registered user, we are interested in knowing
why. Is the price too high? Is GRAPH missing features you need?)

5. Which database manager do you use? _____________________________

6. Which word processor do you use? _______________________________

7. Which spreadsheet do you use? _________________________________

8. Name and address (optional):
____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________




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USER RESPONSE FORM


9.
Here are some of the enhancements to GRAPH that are planned.
Help us prioritize these enhancements. Put a "1" on each feature
you would find useful. Put a "2" on any you feel are important,
and a "3" on those you feel are absolutely essential.

___ Help screens.
___ Scatter graphs.
___ Area charts.
___ Horizontal bar charts.
___ Subtotals and totals.
___ Overlay/combine different types of graphs.
___ Save screen dump images to disk.
___ Profiles (configuration files).
___ Formulas in data fields.
___ Smart keys (keyboard macros).
___ Save extra text entered on graph.
___ Mark a block of data to be graphed.
___ Specify a subdirectory for data files.
___ Move portions of the graph around on the screen.
___ Allow user-defined shading patterns.
___ ____________________________________________
___ ____________________________________________
___ ____________________________________________

10.
If you find a bug in GRAPH, an error in the manual, or you just
have a suggestion for doing it a better way, we would like to hear
from you. Write your comments here, or attach a separate sheet.

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________



82












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Index


-----------------------------------------------------------

A D
adding text 65 data drive 61
advanced features 63 delete column 22
aspect angle 37, 57 delete row 22
aspect ratio 58 destructive backspace 66
automatic value names 21 dimensions 75
available patterns 62 disk files
loading 45
saving 43
B diskette drive 3
backspace, destructive 66 diskette files 77
bar chart 33 distance to explode 60
overlapped 34 distorted circles 58
percentage 36 double precision 74
regular 34 double-sided diskette 3
stacked 35 drawing graphs 23
three-D 37 drive letter 61
bell, turning off 72 DIF files 49
black and white monitor 71 DOS version required 69
black text 66
bugs, reporting 80
BIOS 72 E
bypass banner screen 72 edges of chart 54
entering data 18
entering numbers 21
C erase column 22
capacities 12, 69 erase row 22
circle aspect ratio 58 exploded sections 60
clear data 21 exploded slice 41
color extra text 65
graphics board 3 ExpressCalc, graphing data 49
monitor 3, 71
compatible computers 78
computers, runs on 78
continuous flow 27
current data drive 61
cursor movement 66



85












-







Index



F K
file format 74 keyboard conventions 14
file names 77 keys, alternate 14
files on disk 77 kinds of graphs 13
fine-tuning cursor 66
flatten graph 54
flip 37, 63 L
format, file 74 language 78
frequent questions 78 large text 66
future enhancements 80 learning 6
fast startup 72 letter sizes 18
FE files 46 line graph
File Express, graphing data regular 27
with symbols 27
loading data 45
G
getting started 4
graph title 18 M
graphic types 13 main menu 16
graphing databases 46 maximums 12, 69
graphing spreadsheets 49 memory required 3, 69
grid lines 59 minimum configuration 3
group names 19 monitor
color 3
monochrome 3
H monochrome mode 72
hard disk 70 monochrome monitor 3, 71
header record 75 Microsoft BASIC 74, 78
horizontal grids 59 MSDOS 3
horizontal lines 27


I
installing on hard disk 70
installing GRAPH 4
invert matrix 63





86












-







Index


N Q
narrow graph 54 question & answer 78
negative numbers 23
non-IBM computers 78 R
numbers, entering 21 regular bar chart 34
regular line graph 27
reporting bugs 80
O requirements 3
omit legends 59 response form 80
one drive 69 reverse matrix 63
operating system 3 RAM disks 70
optional specs 54 ROM BIOS 72
order form 83
ordering software 83
overlapped bar chart 34 S
overlapped legends 54 saving data 43
scale increment 60
scaling 23
P separated pie 41
pattern sequences 62 shading 62
percent used 56 single drive 69
percentage bar chart 36 slash commands 72
permission to copy 79 sound, turn off 72
pie chart 40, 60 stacked bar chart 35
policy, updates 78 starting scale value 60
prices, software 78 startup options 72
prices, software 83 symbols 27
print legends 59 system requirements 3, 69
print numeric data 22 Skip banner screen 72
printer 3 Slow display 72
programming language 78
public domain 79
PCDOS 3









87












-




Index


T
technical info 69
text sizes 66
three-D aspect 37
three-dimensional bar chart 37
transpose 63
turn off sound 72
tutorial 6
Three-D aspect angle 57


U
update policy 78
user response 80


V
vertical grids 59


W
white text 66
widen graph 59


3
3-D aspect angle 57
3-D bar chart 37

















88














  3 Responses to “Category : Databases and related files
Archive   : EXGRAPH.ZIP
Filename : GRAPH.DOC

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

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