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* *
* *
* * The
* *
* * Binary
* *
* * Toolshed
* *
* *
* ****** *
* * *
* * * Version 1.2
* * * July 2, 1992
* * *
* * *
******** *


1.0 INTRODUCTION......................................................1
1.1 General...........................................................1
1.2 System Requirements and Installation..............................2
1.3 Other Manuals.....................................................3

2.0 BTSPATCH..........................................................4

3.0 DIRS..............................................................6

4.0 DRIVES............................................................9

5.0 MAKEBAT..........................................................11

6.0 ONPATH...........................................................14

7.0 TOASCII..........................................................15

8.0 TREE.............................................................16

9.0 VIEW.............................................................24

10.0 WI..............................................................32


BTS Utilities User Manual Page 1


1.1 General

This manual describes a number of utility programs that are available
from The Binary Toolshed (BTS). They accomplish a variety of
functions, many of which are not available through DOS or elsewhere.
While these programs can be used in conjunction with the ToolBOX and
TBOXCFG programs, they are independent and are capable of being used on
their own.

The utility programs, are:

BTSPATCH Provides the capability to set the default command line
arguments for all Binary Toolshed programs.

*DIRS Displays disk space utilization for directory branches.
It produces the cumulative totals for a directory and
all of its descendants.

*DRIVES Displays disk drive parameters for all assigned drives.
The presentation includes drive types, volume names,
capacities, and free space available.

*MAKEBAT Creates batch files based on a template data file and a
file match specification for applicable files.

*ONPATH Determines if specified files are accessible through
the DOS PATH variable.

TOASCII Converts text files that use the extended IBM PC
character set to use the standard 95 printable ASCII

TREE Graphically displays the directory structure. The user
can cursor through this structure to change director-
ies or examine files.

VIEW Displays the contents of text files for viewing or

*WI A 'WhereIs' program. Finds specified files wherever
they are located on the disk drive(s), and optionally
carries out an operation on those files.

* these programs are only provided with the
registered version of the ToolBOX/TBOXCFG

These utilities are described in detail, starting alphabetically in
Section 2.0.

The VIEW program can be used to examine the contents of this document.

BTS Utilities User Manual Page 2

If your current printer does not support line drawing and other
extended characters, use the TOASCII program to make a version of this
document that is compatible with your printer.

Refer to the BTS General Product Overview Manual for a description of
conventions that are common to all BTS program products, including the
utilities. The manual also contains a glossary of the terms and
documentation conventions that are used throughout The Binary Toolshed

1.2 System Requirements and Installation

Refer to the BTS General Product Overview Manual for a more detailed
description of the system requirements and installation procedures.

System requirements:

o any DOS version, 3.0 through 5.0

o any video card - MDA, CGA, EGA, or VGA

Installation procedure:

o copy each of the utilities to a directory on the PATH.

o it may be advantageous to move the data file that is
created the first time the TREE program is run. Refer to
the TREE documentation in Section 8.

o use the BTSPATCH and TBOXCFG programs to personalize the
operation of each program as desired.

BTS Utilities User Manual Page 3

1.3 Other Manuals

For additional information, refer to:

STRTHERE.DOC Quick summary of the BTS program capabilities.

ORDRINFO.DOC Product support information - a description of the
shareware concept, when to register and the
advantages in doing so, warranty and support
terms, and site license prices.

GENERAL.DOC Information that is common to all of the Binary
Toolshed products; including packing information,
installation, common program conventions, setup
instructions for the sample datafiles provided, a
glossary of applicable terms, and a series of
questions and answers for many of the issues that
arise during operation of the Binary Toolshed

TBOX.DOC User Manual for the main ToolBOX shell program.

TBOXCFG.DOC User Manual for the TBOXCFG configuration program.
This program produces configuration files that are
used by the ToolBOX program, as well as to a
lesser extent the VIEW and TREE utilities.

BTS Utilities User Manual (BTSPATCH) Page 4


PURPOSE: Inserts a default set of command line arguments into any of
the Binary Toolshed programs.

USAGE: btspatch progName [=progName_argument_list]


progName BTS program to be patched. The.exe extension
is assumed.

the arguments to be used as the default
settings for progName.

SUMMARY: The utility program inserts (patches) the text after the
equal sign directly into the specified program - this must
be a Binary Toolshed program. The arguments are stored as
entered, no validation is performed. The effective result
is that these programs operate as if this text was entered
at the start of their command line each time the program is

BTSPATCH displays:
o the Binary Toolshed program name and version number
o the previously stored argument settings
o the new settings that are being inserted

If the =progName_argument_list is omitted, BTSPATCH just
displays the previously existing settings.

When the program is patched a backup copy of the original is
made with a .BAK extension.

EXAMPLE: 1) Set the default video parameters and a configuration file
for the ToolBOX program.

btspatch tbox =-ve43 -cg @c:\bin\data\my.cfg

BTSPATCH V1.1 (c) 1992 - The Binary Toolshed

Program : TBOX V1.10 (Unregistered Version)
Current arguments : -ve43 -xt
New argument list : -ve43 -cg @c:\bin\data\my.cfg

BTS Utilities User Manual (BTSPATCH) Page 5

2) Change the default for the number of levels displayed for
the DIRS program to one. Note the original factory
defaults are not actually stored as command line

btspatch dirs =-l1

BTSPATCH V1.1 (c) 1992 - The Binary Toolshed

Program : DIRS V1.00
Current arguments :
New argument list : -l1

BTS Utilities User Manual (DIRS) Page 6

3.0 DIRS V1.0

PURPOSE: Displays the physical disk space allocated to a directory
branch, i.e. a directory and all of its subdirectories.

USAGE: dirs path -l# -[pP] -[sS]

where (all arguments are optional):

path the root directory to start the display from.
The default is the current directory on the
current drive.

-l# where # indicates the maximum number of
displayed levels. # may range from 1 to 16
with a default of 7. Files for lower levels
that are not displayed are still incorporated
into the cumulative totals.

-p / -P determines if DIRS should Pause after each
complete output screen. Default is pause:-P.

-s / -S determines if the Summary report should be
inhibited. Default is no summary report:-S.

The default is equivalent to: dirs .\ -l7 -P -S

SUMMARY: Graphically shows the directory tree with the cumulative
space used by a directory and all of its subordinates.

Entries within each level are listed alphabetically.

All byte totals are in terms of integral cluster units.

That is, the unused space (slackspace) at the end of the
last allocated cluster for each file is included in the
total sizes.

The main report contains three columns. The first displays
the directory tree. The second column identifies the total
space allocated by the directory to the left, INCLUDING all
of its subdirectories. The third column identifies the
number of files and disk space used within the single

The optional summary report contains two sections, one for
the drive and one for the branch.

The drive portion is essentially self explanatory showing
the volume name, total capacity, free space (in bytes and as
a percentage), and the cluster size (the minimum allocation
unit size). If the path started from the drive root, a
fourth line is displayed showing the drive space that is

BTS Utilities User Manual (DIRS) Page 7

unavailable for file allocation. This includes space
allocated to bad blocks as well as directories. For hard
disks this is typically in the order of 1 to 2%, while
network drives are usually much higher in the 10 to 15%

The branch portion of the report pertains specifically to
the information associated with the displayed branch: total
number of directories, files, and allocated bytes, as well
as the portion of the total drive used. The last line shows
the slack space within the branch - the cumulative total of
the unusable space at the end of the files. This varies
considerably, usually being higher with greater proportions
of smaller files.

BTS Utilities User Manual (DIRS) Page 8

EXAMPLE: To display the data for drive c: for two directory levels
starting from the root, and to include a summary report:

dirs c:\ /s /l2

Directory branch for - C:\

\ 32,360,448 30,720 in 3 files
ÃÄBIN 3,502,080 2,863,104 in 278 files
³ ÃÄDATA 313,344 313,344 in 34 files
³ ÃÄDOC 139,264 139,264 in 5 files
³ ÀÄOLD 186,368 186,368 in 19 files
ÃÄDEV 2,390,016 2,390,016 in 21 files
ÃÄDOS 585,728 585,728 in 44 files
ÃÄPKG 25,694,208 0 in 0 files
³ ÃÄLNL 129,024 129,024 in 9 files
³ ÃÄMAVIS 544,768 544,768 in 7 files
³ ÃÄMSC6 1,705,984 886,784 in 65 files
³ ÃÄPCPLUS 1,155,072 980,992 in 52 files
³ ÃÄPCTOOLS 1,777,664 1,777,664 in 63 files
³ ÃÄPM-PLUS 1,034,240 1,034,240 in 108 files
³ ÃÄQB 2,000,896 786,432 in 81 files
³ ÃÄQC 2,918,400 2,404,352 in 23 files
³ ÃÄTCPP 1,503,232 1,169,408 in 25 files
³ ÃÄWIN3 5,822,464 3,250,176 in 103 files
³ ÃÄWINWORD 1,155,072 1,155,072 in 202 files
³ ÃÄWORKS 2,748,416 2,654,208 in 92 files
³ ÃÄWP 2,807,808 1,828,864 in 30 files
³ ÀÄXY 391,168 391,168 in 13 files
ÀÄSYS 157,696 157,696 in 19 files

Drive : Volume - C:(SYS)
: 33,449,984 total with 667,648 bytes free (2.0%)
: Cluster size 2,048 bytes
: 421,888 (1.3%) unavailable for file allocation

Branch : 32,360,448 bytes in 1,698 files, and 50 dirs
: Occupies 96.7% of the total drive
: Slack space 2,100,550 bytes or 6.5%

BTS Utilities User Manual (DRIVES) Page 9

4.0 DRIVES V1.1

PURPOSE: Displays parameters for all of the allocated disk drives.

USAGE: drives [-f]


-f include diskette data in the report

SUMMARY: Produces a report with a summary line for each allocated
logical drive in the system.

If the -f option is not specified, the particular diskette
drive type is determined but the drive is not physically
accessed. With the -f argument, the diskette drives must
have valid diskettes mounted. Fields that are not available
because the diskette was not accessed are shown as ---.

Information contained within the report includes:

drive where multiple drive letters all reference
the same physical drive, only one line is
produced. This can occur through the DOS
SUBST command or a network mapping.

capacities for each drive, the total capacity and the
free space, as a percentage and in MegaBytes
(1 MegaByte = 1,024,000 bytes).

type whether a hard disk, ramdisk, network drive,
Stacker (the pseudo drive created by the
STACKER disk compression program), or one of
the six diskette types (if the -f option is
used, this is the type of the diskette,
otherwise it is the type of the drive).

volume disk drive name.

Following the report are totals for the total capacity, and
free space (Mb and %). These totals do not include the
diskette drives or ramdisks, and each physical disk is only
included once.

BTS Utilities User Manual (DRIVES) Page 10

EXAMPLE: Display parameters for currently assigned drives. Do not
physically access the diskette drives:


free used capacity
drive (Mb) (%) (Mb) type volume name
a: --- --- 1.20 1.2Mb 5¬ ---
b: --- --- 0.36 360KB 5¬ ---
c: 1.23 96.3 32.67 Hard Disk SYS
d: 4.96 85.2 32.67 Hard Disk WRK
e: 0.07 92.8 0.97 Hard Disk TINYDRIV.E
f: 0.08 81.3 0.41 Ram Disk MS-RAMDR.IVE
g: j: y: 8.83 96.4 246.29 Net Drive USR
h: w: x: z: 10.48 95.6 238.80 Net Drive PUBLIC
k: 2.34 99.0 225.28 Net Drive DEV
l: 17.09 93.6 262.13 Net Drive NET-WRK
m: 15.00 80.2 75.78 Net Drive VCS
59.99 94.7 1112.88

BTS Utilities User Manual (MAKEBAT) Page 11

5.0 MAKEBAT V1.1

PURPOSE: Creates batch files based on a template file and a selection
of files from a specified directory.

USAGE: MAKEBAT [d:][path]matchlist [@template.ext] [-arg1]...


selection criteria for files to be applied
to the template.

a template file containing text lines with
embedded variables that reference selected
files. If not provided, the input is
assumed to come from STDIN. No standard
extension is used.

-arg1 -arg2 . . .
these arguments (stripped of the - prefix)
are used by variable references within the
template file.

SUMMARY: While intended for creating batch files, the facility can be
used for a variety of purposes. The basic operation is that
for each file specified by the match list, the text lines
from the template (or STDIN) are copied to STDOUT. Each of
the text lines within the template may contain variables (of
the form $x) which are replaced with some attribute of the
matched file.

Within the template file, whether it was an actual file or
STDIN, each line is processed once for each selected file
except for lines prefixed with "[" or "]". These are
processed once only, before and after the balance of the
template processing respectively.

BTS Utilities User Manual (MAKEBAT) Page 12

The text lines within the template file can contain two
letter variables consisting of a "$" followed by a letter.
These are similar to the variables available within
ToolBOX. The variables, which can reference the current
path or the matchlist path, are:

$D current drive letter
$P current path
$d matchlist drive letter
$p matchlist path
$n filename (to 8 characters)
$x extension (to 3 characters)
$f minimized file name (for $d:$p\$n.$x)
$$ a single literal $

Variables can also reference the optional arguments
specified on the command line:

$1 the first argument -arg1
$2 the second argument -arg2
$9 the ninth argument

When using STDIN, type to terminate the input data.

A summary line is produced showing the number of input
lines, files, and output lines. This is issued to STDERR so
that it will not be redirected.

EXAMPLE: Assume a template file (MAKEBAT.TST) containing:

- REFERENCED PATH : $$p = $p
- REFERENCED NAME : $$n = $n
- REFERENCED .EXT : $$x = $x
- arg1 : $$1 = $1
- arg2 : $$2 = $2
- arg3 : $$3 = $3
- arg4 : $$4 = $4

BTS Utilities User Manual (MAKEBAT) Page 13

Now execute the following command from the d:\utl directory.
Assume this matches two files, TBOX.EXE and TBOX.DOC.

>makebat c:\bin\tbox.* @makebat.txt -first -second -third

The summary line is

Lines in 13: Files matched 2: Lines output 34

The output to STDOUT is:

- arg1 : $1 = first
- arg2 : $2 = second
- arg3 : $3 = third
- arg4 : $4 =
- arg1 : $1 = first
- arg2 : $2 = second
- arg3 : $3 = third
- arg4 : $4 =

BTS Utilities User Manual (ONPATH) Page 14

6.0 ONPATH V1.0

PURPOSE: Determines if any files, and which ones, will be accessed
through the search path.

USAGE: ONPATH matchlist [=setvariable] ...


matchlist list of one or more file specifications
to be searched for.

=setvariable alternate set variable in place of PATH.

SUMMARY: ONPATH will search through the directories in the PATH
variable to find the files identified in the matchlist. The
search is carried out in the same order as the DOS search
for program names; that is the current directory and then
the PATH directories starting from the first. A summary
line is displayed as each valid file match is detected.

If multiple matches for programs occur, it is the first that
would be executed if the program name were entered without a
path specification. Also, if multiple executable files are
found within the same directory, DOS gives precedence to the
.COM, then .EXE, and finally the .BAT variation.

While the default is to search the PATH variable, any
alternate set variable that follows the same format can be
specified: for example =LIB, =TMP, or =INCLUDE. =PATH is
assumed if no other set variables are referenced.

EXAMPLE: To find all files on the PATH which start with "tbox"
followed by anything, and which have any extension:

onpath tbox*

120,466 Jly14/92 12:29 D:\BIN\TBOX.DOC
57,723 Jly14/92 01:00 D:\BIN\TBOX.EXE
50,367 Jly14/92 01:12 D:\BIN\TBOXCFG.EXE

BTS Utilities User Manual (TOASCII) Page 15

7.0 TOASCII V1.1

PURPOSE: Filter for converting text files with IBM extended
characters to standard ASCII text.

USAGE: toascii output

SUMMARY: The primary purpose of this utility is to make text files
that contain line drawing and other extended characters,
acceptable for printers that only support standard ASCII
characters. This applies for example to the text of this
document as well as data output by the DRIVES and DIRS

The TOASCII utility program translates text from STDIN to
STDOUT. Embedded characters that are outside the standard
ASCII text range are translated to the closest equivalent
within the range. The acceptable ASCII characters are those
in the range 32 through 126, plus carriage return, linefeed,
tab and EOF.

The general translations performed are:

o line drawings to | - or +
o accented characters to the unaccented equivalent
o numeric type characters to #
o shaded and bullet characters to #
o all other characters to ?

Substitutions are always one for one; the file size will not

EXAMPLE: 1) To convert this document to a file containing only
standard ASCII characters:

toascii utils.asc

2) To convert this document directly to the printer:

toascii prn

3) Use pipes to produce a paginated ASCII screen version of
the DIRS program output:

dirs \ /p | toascii | more

BTS Utilities User Manual (TREE) Page 16

8.0 TREE V1.2

PURPOSE: Full screen program to provide a visual representation of a
directory structure.

USAGE: tree path @cfgfile -Dpath -V[b m c s e v] -C[m c g]

where (all arguments are optional):

path initial display drive and/or directory.
Defaults to current directory.

@cfgfile full configuration pathname. Color and
default-command-line- argument components
are used.

-Dpath directory for BTS-TREE.DAT. Defaults to
first directory on PATH.

Refer to the VIEW utility in Section 9.0
for details. No argument is provided
for screen lines as TREE automatically
adapts to the DOS setting, whether 25, 43,
or 50 lines.

Refer to the VIEW utility in Section 9.0
for details.

-X eXecute flags (Default = -Xa15Dt7U)

a# Audio, where # enables error sounds for
1(border) + 2(syntax) + 4(execution)
+8 (directory screen update).

c force Current drive tree initialization.

d / D use Datafile.

i force Initialization of all drive trees.

t# set filelist update wait Time

u / U Update datafile enable.

BTS Utilities User Manual (TREE) Page 17

SUMMARY: The TREE utility provides a windowed visual representation
of the disk directory structure. Commands are provided to:

o scroll through the directory structure.

o change the display to an alternate drive.

o move to a particular directory.

o display the list of files within a directory, or view
the contents of individual files.


As shown in the following sample screen, the TREE window
overlays the central portion of the DOS screen. The display
consists of three separate subwindows. At any time, the
active cursor is in either the Directory Tree or the File
List window. The three windows are:

Top Header

Shows the current drive and volume name, time,
free space on the current drive (as a percentage),
and the full directory path for the directory at
the current cursor position.

It also contains the byte total for the files in
the File List window - see below.

Directory Tree

This lower left window pictorially displays the
directory tree structure. The entry for the
currently selected cursor position is highlighted,
and a diamond () is placed to the left of the
current directory. Directory entries within each
level are ordered alphabetically.

File List

This lower right window displays an alphabetical
list of the files within the directory at the
current Directory Tree cursor position. This data
changes each time the Directory Tree window cursor
is moved. See below for a complete explanation.

By default, when the utility is initially started the
display shows the current drive with the cursor at the
current directory. The command line "path" argument can be
used to override this initial default drive and/or path.

BTS Utilities User Manual (TREE) Page 18

ÚFree 1% ÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ C:(SYS) ÄÄÄÄÄÄ13:01:38¿
³ \DOS 540,004 ³
º³ ³ ÃÄ1200B ººCURRENT.STS º

The optional command line argument "@cfgfile" specifies a
configuration file as created by TBOXCFG.EXE. The color
settings and default-command-line-arguments within this file
are used, with all other settings being discarded. Any
required path or extension for the configuration file must
be explicitly specified.

On startup, the Directory Tree window is active. Subse-
quently the user can switch back and forth between the
Directory Tree and File List windows, with the active window
being indicated by the highlighted border.

can be entered at any time. It produces several Help
screens of information that describe the available keyboard
controls and command line arguments. Use to terminate
the Help screens.

Enter or to exit from the program without
making any directory changes. No verification prompts are

BTS Utilities User Manual (TREE) Page 19


Within the Directory Tree window, the user has a number of
single key commands available:

, , , , , ,

These vertical motion commands move the cursor for
the selected directory. The motion is independent
of the actual tree structure. For example
moves to the next adjacent directory, regardless
of whether it is at the same, or a higher or lower

Activate the File List window with data for the
directory selected at the current cursor.

Change the current drive and directory to the
directory at the selected cursor position, and
then exit from the TREE program.


Move to the previous or next directory respect-
ively that exists at the same level as the current
directory cursor.


Move to the next directory at a higher (i.e.
parent) or lower (i.e. first subdirectory) level

Equivalent to and above
except moves in same direction as the previously
used cursor key.

Fast directory find. Cursor is moved to the next
directory that starts with the entered letter
(actually any valid filename character). Case is
not significant. The directory tree is treated as
a circular list with automatic wrap around.

BTS Utilities User Manual (TREE) Page 20

Switch the tree display to the drive represented
by the letter. For example, to move to
drive D. An error tone is issued if the requested
drive does not exist.


The TREE utility maintains a list of the last
accessed disk drives. These keys update the
display in a circular manner respectively to the
next previous or oldest drive in the list.


These keys update the display to the next adjacent
logical disk drive - alphabetically down or up
respectively. This sequence automatically wraps
around after the lowest or highest drive. For
example, if the user is on drive B: and only
drives A:, B:, and C: exist, then successively
entering cycles to C:, A:, B:, C:,
A:, and so on.

Refer to the General Product Overview Manual for alternate
keys for the and keystrokes which
may not be available on all PCs.


The File List window contains an alphabetical list of the
files for the directory identified by the cursor location in
the Directory Tree window.

The File List window can be in any of three states:


To prevent unnecessary disk activity and screen
updates, the File List window is not updated until
the user stops scrolling through the directory
tree for a predefined duration. By default this
is seven tenths of a second, or slightly higher
than the default initial keyboard repeat rate. To
suit personal tastes, this duration can be changed
to a higher or lower rate by the -Xt# command line

When Not-used, the File List window is clear and
the Tree Directory window border is highlighted.
The directory total in the header window is

BTS Utilities User Manual (TREE) Page 21


The File List window is filled-in with an alpha-
betical list of the files when the time delay for
the deferred update expires. The Directory Tree
window is still active.

At this time the directory total field in the
header is set to the total number of bytes for all
files within the directory. The field is set to
"No files" if there are no files.

There is a current maximum of 400 files within the
window. If this is exceeded, the first 400 are
used, the error tone is issued, and a "*" is
placed after the total field in the header.


If there is a need to view a file, see the file
list quicker, or scroll through the file list,
then activate the File List window. Do this by
entering from the Tree Directory window.
If the window is not already filled-in the file
list is initially updated as above. The active
File List window is identified by the highlighted
border and a cursor on the initial file entry.

Scroll through the file list as desired. As for
the Tree Directory window, enter as a
fast file find. The cursor will move to the next
file entry that starts with the entered letter.

To view the file at the cursor, enter .
This will initiate the VIEW.EXE utility.

Enter to return to and reactivate the Tree
Directory window.


To optimize speed, the utility maintains a data file with
the most recent representation of the directory structure
for all drives. This file, BTS-TREE.DAT, is automatically
updated as required to reflect changes in the directory

The first time the TREE utility is run, it will create the
file in the first directory that exists on the PATH. A
window message is generated indicating where this data file
is being created. On subsequent times, the utility searches
the current and then PATH directories for this data file.
After the data file is initially created you may wish to

BTS Utilities User Manual (TREE) Page 22

move it to another directory on the PATH. Especially if the
first directory corresponds to a ramdisk.

The -Dpath command line argument can be used to explicitly
specify a directory for the BTS-TREE.DAT file. If the file
does not exist in this directory, it will be created.

The -Xd command line argument inhibits use of the data file.
With this setting, the data file is ignored and the disk
structure is re-analyzed in its entirety each time a new
drive tree is displayed.


Normally, changes within the directory tree structure are
automatically detected and adjusted for. The tree
information for the drives is initially read from the BTS-
TREE.DAT file. Each time the file list window is updated,
the accompanying directories are compared to the BTS-
TREE.DAT version. If there is a difference, this branch of
the tree is automatically updated. An audible tone, best
characterized as a "sproing", is issued when the update
occurs. The BTS-TREE.DAT file is updated with all such
changes prior to displaying the next drive.

Two command line -X subarguments are available for control-
ling the use of the BTS-TREE.DAT datafile:


This argument specifies whether to use (-XD) or
not use (-Xd) the BTS-TREE.DAT data file. If not,
then each time the directory tree is displayed, it
is created by analyzing the entire disk structure.
This is considerably slower than reading the
equivalent information from the BTS-TREE.DAT file;
however, it does guarantee that the entire direct-
ory tree information is correct immediately.

The directory information for removable diskettes
is never stored in the BTS-TREE.DAT file. It is
always created directly from the directory
structure on the diskette.


Controls whether the BTS-TREE.DAT file is to be
updated (-XU) or not (-Xu) with the changes
detected for any of the directories. Note the
screen display is always updated, this option just
controls whether the changes are to be recorded.
This feature is useful if there are temporary
drive reassignments.

BTS Utilities User Manual (TREE) Page 23


Requests that the directory tree for the current
drive be updated immediately before the program
starts. This is useful if there are known changes
that can be handled up front rather than waiting
for each to be detected individually later.


Requests that the directory tree for all drives be
updated immediately.

The BTS-TREE.DAT updates identified above can be requested
at any time through the keyboard by:

Update the directory tree for the current drive.
This is similar to the -xc command line argument.

Update the directory trees for all non-removable
drives. This is similar to the -xi command line

EXAMPLE: To start the TREE program for drive d: with the cursor
starting at the \dos directory, disabling the audible tones
for syntax errors and the automatic directory updates,
using color information from the c:\bin\my.cfg configuration
file, and using the c:\data\bts-tree.dat data file:

tree d:\dos -xa5 @c:\bin\my.cfg -Dc:\data

BTS Utilities User Manual (VIEW) Page 24

9.0 VIEW V1.1

PURPOSE: Provides a mechanism for viewing the contents of text files.

USAGE: view [d:][path]matchlist @cfgfile
-V[b m c s e v][25 43 50] -C[m c g] -X[a#][iI][rR]

where (all arguments are optional):

specification for one or more files to be
viewed. There are no assumed extensions.

@cfgfile full configuration pathname. Color, command-
line-argument, and banner name components are
used. No default extensions are assumed.

-V[b m c s e v] [25 43 50]

By default, VIEW will select a video mode
applicable to the hardware and DOS state at
program startup. The -V argument is used to
override this selection in order to use a
different monitor type (m,c,s,e,v), to use a
different output technique (b,s) or to alter
the screen resolution (25, 43, 50).

b use BIOS output routines. Normally video
data is issued directly to the video card.
Using the BIOS will slow down the video
update rate but may be necessary for some
incompatible systems.

m assume monochrome text (MDA) video card.

c, e, or v
assume color graphics (CGA, EGA, or VGA)
video card. All 3 settings have the same

s assume CGA graphics video card and do
processing to remove snow on screen. This
option slows down the update rate and should
be avoided unless necessary.

25 assume 25 visible lines of text.

43 assume EGA/VGA card and use the 43 line by 80
column mode.

50 assume VGA card and use the 50 line by 80
column mode.

BTS Utilities User Manual (VIEW) Page 25

-C[m c g]

Selects one of the predefined color tables. If the
argument is not specified the current video hardware
configuration is examined and m or c assumed. Any
setting can be used with any monitor. Also, there is
no connection between the -C and -V settings.

m monochrome text displays.

c color displays.

g gray scale displays, that is LCD or mono-
chrome monitors using color video cards.
This is greatly affected by the particular
combination of video card and display device.

-X eXecute flags (Default = -Xa7cir)

a# Audio, where # enables error sounds for
1(border) + 2(syntax) + 4(execution)

c / C make text searches Case sensitive.

iI exit Immediately without a verification
prompt when is entered.
always exits immediately, regardless
of this setting.

The I setting is primarily for the use
of the ToolBOX and TREE programs which
"appear" to integrate VIEW into their

r / R Restore the original DOS screen on exit,
the alternative (r) being to leave the
VIEW screen unaltered.

BTS Utilities User Manual (VIEW) Page 26

SUMMARY: The VIEW utility provides a convenient mechanism for
scrolling through the contents of a text file. As
illustrated in the following sample screen, the utility
produces a full screen display of the text. Commands are
available to:

o scroll through the text contents, vertically and

o search for specific text strings

o specify and view additional text files

o alter screen parameters

While optimized for standard text in lines of less than 78
characters, VIEW can be used to examine binary information.

ÕÍThe Binary Toolshed ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ VIEW ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ Tue Jly 14/92 23:12:54͸
³ ³
³This is a sample text file. The text lines demonstrate the use of ³
³the VIEW.EXE utility to examine or browse the contents of such a ³
³data file. ³
³ ³
³The ÚÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ¿le up to the available memory limit.³
³It a³File list ³lection, and text searches. ³
³ ³set file Matchlist ³ ³
³ ³NextÚÄÄEnter filename matchlistÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ¿ ³
³ ³Prev³sample2.txt ³ ³
³ ³set search Case ³ ³
³ ³set search Direction ³ ³
³ ³
³ ³
³ ³
³ ³
³ ³
³ ³
³ ³
³ ³
³ ³

EXAMPLE VIEW SCREEN : Popup Menu With Text Entry Window For Matchlist

BTS Utilities User Manual (VIEW) Page 27


The VIEW screen contains status information on the top and
bottom border lines.

All of the file specific data is contained on the bottom
line. This includes the data file pathname, the last
modification date, and on the lower right the line number of
the last line on the screen. If the last line number in the
file is known, it is shown in parenthesis just to the left
of this number. Rather than reading all of the data
initially, VIEW only reads subsequent sections of the data
file when warranted. A "***READING**" status indicator is
shown on the bottom line when this occurs. Only when the
last line of the file has been been read will the parenthe-
sized number appear. If no data file is open, then the
bottom status line is blank.

While viewing the text file, the user has a number of single
key commands available:

Produces several Help screens of information that
describe the available keyboard controls and the
command line arguments. Use to terminate
the Help screens.

, , , , ,

These vertical motion commands move the screen
view in the anticipated direction - by one line,
one page, or to the extreme limits of the file.


Normally the text window displays the first 78
characters of each line. Text past column 78 can
be viewed by entering . This scrolls the
entire display right by 10 characters. When the
text is scrolled right, the maximum line number
field on the bottom line is replaced by an

indicator for how far right the window is scroll-
ed. For example if the screen is scrolled right
by two steps, then the field shows "(COLS+020)" to
indicate the viewable screen is actually showing
columns 21 through 98 of each line. Use to
scroll back.

, , ,

See the following File Operations section.

BTS Utilities User Manual (VIEW) Page 28

, , , ,

See the Goto/Search Operations section.

See the Popup Menu section.

, , ,

These commands set the number of screen lines for
the VIEW display - to 25, 43, and 50 lines
respectively. The setting restores the
screen lines to the same setting DOS had when the
VIEW program was started.

Exit from the VIEW program. Unless the "-XI"
command line argument is set, this key will
initiate a verification window to ensure the exit
is actually desired. If there are additional
files in the current file list (see File
Operations below), then an option is also provided
in the verification window to open any of these

is also used to escape from the current
operation; whether entering search text or a
matchlist specification, or the popup menu.

Exit from the VIEW program immediately. No
verification prompt is issued.

The single text file as described here, appears on startup
if a single file was specified on the command line.
Additional initial windows occur if no files, or multiple
files, were specified on the command line. For these
conditions refer to the and explanations in
the following File Operation section.

Error windows will be generated if read errors occur or if
the file size exceeds the available memory limit (for
systems with a full complement of memory, this is typically
in excess of 500KB).

BTS Utilities User Manual (VIEW) Page 29


While VIEW is only capable of displaying one file at a time,
it is possible to specify multiple files through a matchlist
specification. These can then be viewed in sequence.

The file operation commands are:

Enter a new file matchlist specification. A text
entry window is generated for entering the match
list specification. For example:

d:\dos\!*.com !*.exe

specifies all the files in the D:\DOS directory
except for the executable programs.

The default specification placed within the text
entry window is "*". Simply enter if you
wish to see all of the files, or overwrite this
with a particular matchlist specification. The
window will scroll horizontally if required for a
long specification.

If the completed matchlist specification refer-
ences a single file, the file is opened
immediately and the text presented on the VIEW
screen. If the matchlist corresponds to no files,
an error tone is issued and the screen is blanked.
Re-enter and the correct specification.
If the matchlist specification corresponds to two
or more files a file list window is generated -
see the explanation below.

Display an alphabetical list of all files matching
the current matchlist specification. Cursor
within this list to the desired file and enter
. This closes the current file, if any,
and opens the new one. Newly opened files always
start with line one, column one in the upper left
corner of the screen.


Open the next, or previous, file respectively in
the current file list; that is the files refer-
enced by the last matchlist specification.

BTS Utilities User Manual (VIEW) Page 30


These commands are provided to move through the file in a
non-sequential manner. In particular:

or + - or any numeric character

Goto an absolute or relative line within the file.
A text entry window is provided for entering the
line number. Enter a specific number to request
an absolute line number. Precede the number with
a + or - to indicate a displacement relative to
the current position. For example, enter "3,000"
to go to line 3000, and enter "+50" to move 50
lines past the current position. Following the
Goto operation for an absolute line number the
destination line is highlighted. For relative
amounts the screen is simply shifted the
appropriate distance (i.e. no highlighting

or any alphabetical or punctuation character

Search for a text string. Enter the desired
string into the text entry window. By default,
the search is case insensitive and in the forward
direction, but these attributes can be altered
through the popup menu described in the next
section. The text entry window will scroll
horizontally for long search strings.

If the requested text is located, it will be
highlighted on the screen. If the text is found,
but lies horizontally outside the currently
visible columns, the entire line will be
highlighted (that is rather than scrolling the
screen horizontally to the search text).


Repeat the last Search operation. As for the
initial search, if there is a highlighted entry on
the screen, the search starts there - otherwise
from the top screen line for forward searches or
the bottom screen line for backward searches. The
search will not cycle through from the end of the
file back to the beginning - use . The
search string is retained across multiple file

BTS Utilities User Manual (VIEW) Page 31

Repeat the last Search operation, but in the
opposite direction.

The Goto and Search functions have the normal single key
activation code, but also respond to any of the ASCII keys
entered through the keyboard. For shortcut purposes it is
assumed that all numeric keys are intended for the
Goto function, and the other non CTRL and ALT keys are
destined for the Search function. Obviously search
operations can start with a leading number; but for these
explicitly enter the and then the numeric text.


The popup menu, initiated by , provides a means for
setting search direction and search case sensitivity flags,
and an alternative mechanism for many of the functions
described above. The popup menu command entries are shown
below, with the equivalent keyboard key function at the

o display file list

o enter file matchlist spec

o open next file

o open previous file

o search for text string

o set search direction

o set search case sensitivity

EXAMPLE: To start the VIEW program in 43 line mode, using the banner
name and color information from the c:\bin\personal.cfg
configuration file, to start with a filelist of all files
with an extension starting with the letter "p" expect for
files with a .pag extension, and to exit immediately on
without a verification window:

view -V43 *.p* !*.pag -XI @c:\bin\personal.cfg

BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 32

10.0 WI V1.0

PURPOSE: A multi-drive file find utility that is capable of carrying
out an arbitrary action on the located file(s).

USAGE: wi -? [drives:][path]matchlist -[pP] -d#:# -s#:# -d -s -h
-t -D -S -H -T -[oO] -c[#] -C[#] -x[#l#cdst] :DOS-command

where (all arguments are optional):

-? provide two complete help screens for the WI
command. The first covers the search
criteria arguments, while the second page
covers arguments for the associated DOS
command operation.

[drives:] specification for the drives to be included
in the search. This defaults to the current
drive if not specified. Multiple drives can
be specified by concatenating the letters
together (e.g. cde:), by *: to indicate all
fixed drives, or ?: to indicate all drives,
whether removable or not.

[path] the root of the branch (on each drive) the
search is to start from. This defaults to
the root of the drive(s) if not stated. To
start the search from the current directory,
enter the path as ".\".

any valid file matchlist specification. For

*.doc *.txt *.asc !known.doc

If no matchlist is provided, but a search
criteria is, such as a date range or file
attribute, then a default *.* matchlist is
assumed. For example, to find all files on
the current drive that were modified today:

wi -d=0

-p / -P specify if there should be a Pause after each
complete output screen. Default is pause:

-d#:# date range search criteria in days since last
modification. The #:# range specifies the
first through the last day to be included.

BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 33

If the first # is omitted, it is assumed to
be today (0), if the last # is omitted it is
assumed to be infinity (at least before the
1980 start date where life as we know it
began). Commas can be inserted anywhere in
the numbers as desired. As a shorthand, a
single specific day can be specified as =#.
For example:

today's files
-d0:0 or -d:0 or -d=0

within the last 4 days

more than one week old

-s#:# file size range search criteria in bytes.
Commas can be inserted for legibility. The
range encoding is as above for dates, for
example, files of 1Mb or more are specified

-d include subdirectory names in the search
operation. Normally subdirectory names are
not included in the match operation. The
term "file" as used here and subsequently,
infers files and directories if the -d
argument is set. The size specification does
not apply to directories.

-s include system files in the search. Normally
system files are not examined.

-h include hidden files in the search. Normally
hidden files are not examined.

-t display summary total at the completion of
the command. The summary identifies the
number of files and or directories, and the
total number of bytes involved. Without the
-t argument, this is only shown if more than
5 files are selected.

-D include ONLY subdirectory names. That is,
ignore files during the selection process.

-S include ONLY files that have the system
attribute set. Ignore normal files.

-H include ONLY files that have the hidden
attribute set. Ignore normal files.

BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 34

-T display ONLY the summary total. Do not show
status lines for each selected file.

-o / -O display Output lines for selected files and
the summary. The -o option is similar to -T
except that even the summary is inhibited
from being displayed. The default is to
always issue status lines and the summary if
there are more than 5 selected files: -O.
This command has no affect on the text issued
from programs initiated through the DOS-
command facility.

Whereas the preceding arguments covered the search
criteria and the presentation of the selected files, the
following arguments determine the operations to be
done with the selected file when the match occurs.

-c[#] on completion of the search operation, change
directories to the drive:path associated with
the #th selected match. If the # argument is
not specified, the first match is assumed.

-C[#] as per -c[#] except change directories
immediately when the #th match occurs, rather
than searching for additional matches.

execution flags for the processing of the
DOS-command line:

# maximum number of matches that are to
occur before stopping. The default is
effectively infinity (don't stop due to

l# maximum number of directory levels to
search. To search only the current
directory, specify -xl1

c before performing the command, tempor-
arily change the current directory to
the directory containing the selected

d only execute the command once per
directory. The command will be carried
out for each directory containing at
least one selection. File variables
within the command, such as $f (see
below), refer to the directory
containing the selections and not to the
selections themselves.

BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 35

s show each command line executed. Each
command line, with expanded arguments,
is displayed, preceded by "WI".

t test mode - display the command line(s)
that would be executed, as for the -xs
option, but don't actually execute it.

a valid DOS command, complete with any
desired arguments. The command line is
executed for each matched file. In the same
manner as for ToolBOX and the MAKEBAT
programs, the command line can contain
embedded variables for matched filenames:

$D current drive letter
$P current path
$d matched drive letter
$p matched path
$n filename (to 8 characters)
$x extension(to 3 characters)
$f minimized matched filename (for
required portions of $d:$p\$n.$x)
$$ a single $

If the match corresponds to a directory (e.g.
d:\dos), then:

$p corresponds to \dos


$f corresponds to \dos\.

Whatever output is generated from the [DOS-
command] itself is not included in the
pagination calculation for the -P screen
pause option. Text lines will likely scroll
off the top of the screen.

The factory default is equivalent to: wi -PO

For the WI arguments:

o case is only significant for options that have
different interpretations for the upper and lower
case settings.

o order is not significant, except that if it exists,
the :[DOS-command] argument must be the last argument
on the command line.

o there is no ambiguity among the arguments if they are
properly stated.

BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 36

SUMMARY: The wi utility searches through drives or a directory branch
for files and/or directories that fulfill a given set of
criteria. As described in detail above, the search criteria
can be any of:

o matchlist specification for filenames

o file type attributes for directories, hidden, or

o days since last modification

o file size in bytes

The search is conducted through a specified directory and
then all of its descendant subdirectories. Normally the
search starts from the root directory, yielding a search of
all directories on the disk. Disk drives to be searched can
be stated individually or by referring to all disk drives,
or to all non-removable disk drives.

For each file (or directory) that is selected based on the
search criteria, a status line is generated on the screen.

Optionally, it is possible to carry out an action on each of
these selected files. This could be as simple as changing
the current directory to that of the selected file, or as
complicated as can be stated within a DOS command line.
Variables are available for referencing the selected files
from within the DOS command line.

For details refer to the argument descriptions in the USAGE
section above.

EXAMPLE: 1) Find all the .DAT files on the hard disks and get a total
of the disk space they occupy (sample output shown for
this example only):

wi *:*.dat

18,944 15Nov91 01:39 C:\BIN\BTS-TREE.DAT
47,288 11Aug91 00:33 D:\PKG\PAF\PAF-DATA\INDIV2.DAT
2,192 12Sep88 10:38 D:\PKG\QB\QCARDS.DAT
25,268 21Dec90 00:00 D:\PKG\PCPLUS\MODEMS.DAT
302,848 18Jly90 12:00 E:\PKG\WINWORD\SYN-AM.DAT
188,584 18Jly90 12:00 E:\PKG\WINWORD\LEX-AM.DAT
24,072 18Jly90 12:00 E:\PKG\WINWORD\HYPH.DAT
338 18Jly90 12:00 E:\PKG\WINWORD\PCW-RTF.DAT
10 files (633,707 bytes)

BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 37

2) Find all the hidden files on the current drive and then
change directories to where the first one occurred:

wi /H -c

3) Find and view the contents of all the README.DOC files on
all disks:

wi ?:readme.doc /xop :view $f

4) Delete all temporary .BAK, .TMP, and .OLD files on all
hard disks that are at least 2 days old:

wi *:*.bak *.tmp *.old -d2: -p :del $f

5) Copy all hard drive files that were modified today
(except .BAK files) to an archive directory on drive a:

wi -d=0 !*.bak :copy $f a:\save\

6) While crude, the following example removes all empty
directories on the current drive. This is done by
attempting to remove all directories, which only works
for the ones that happen to be empty. An error message
is in fact generated for each directory regardless; by
DOS if the directory is not empty and cannot be deleted,
and by WI if it was deleted since WI can then no longer
find it to search as a descendant. This will only remove
one level of empty directories at a time. Repeat for
successive levels.

wi -D -p :rmdir $p

7) For the current directory and all of it's descendant
directories, do a DOS dir command, if and only if, there
is at least one .WK1 file. Redirect all the DIR command
outputs (inhibit all WI output) to a data file for later
examination. Note the redirection occurs for the WI
command as a whole, not for the individual [DOS-

wi .\*.wk1 -xd -p -o :dir $p >wk1dirs.txt

or equivalently

wi .\*.wk1 -xdc -p -o :dir >wk1dirs.txt

BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 38


NOTE: -? is a valid request for help for all command line programs.


USAGE: BTSPATCH program[.exe] [=new-parameter-list]


program[.exe] any Binary Toolshed program.

[=new-parameter-list] valid set of arguments for specified




btspatch wi =-t


USAGE: DIRS [path] [-l#] [-pP] [-sS]


[path] root directory of branch to be displayed.
-l# maximum reported subdirectory level(s).
-pP pause after output screens.
-sS inhibit Summary report.


dirs .\ -l7 -P -S


dirs \workdirs -l1 /p


BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 39



-f read floppy drive media.




drives -f


USAGE: MAKEBAT [d:][path]matchlist [@template.ext] [-arg1]...


[d:][path]matchlist file selection criteria.
[@template.ext] template text file. If absent, input
assumed from STDIN. Contents of temp-
late file copied to STDOUT for each
matched file (except for lines preceded
with [ and ] which are copied as the
leading and trailing lines of STDOUT

respectively). Variables within the
template file are substituted for as
follows based on the matched name:

$D current drive letter
$P current path
$d matched drive letter
$p matched path
$n filename (to 8 chars)
$x extension (to 3 chars)
$f minimized file name
(for $d:$p\$n.$x)
$$ a single $

Command line arguments substituted for:

$1 arg1
$2 arg2
. . .

[-arg1]... Substituted into template file as above.



BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 40


makebat *.prn @fprint.tem >fprint.bat


copy $f prn:
del $f


USAGE : ONPATH matchlist [=setVariable] ...


matchlist specification for files to be located on the PATH.

[=setVariable] alternative set variable [to PATH] defining the
directories to be searched.




onpath wp*


BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 41

USAGE : TOASCII ascii.out


< STDIN input file containing IBM PC 8 bit

> STDOUT output file containing STDIN file
filtered to standard ASCII scharacter values.



toascii ascii.out


USAGE : TREE path @cfgfile -Dpath -V[b m s c e v] -C[m c g]

WHERE (all arguments are optional):

path display drive and/or directory.
-@cfgfile configuration file pathname.
-Dpath directory for BTS-TREE.DAT.
-V video flags for Bios/Monochrome/Snow/Cga/Ega/Vga.
-C color table selection for Monochrome/Color/Grayscale.
-X execution flags
a# Audio, WHERE # enables error sounds for
1(border) + 2(syntax) + 4(execution)
+8(automatic directory tree update).
c force Current drive tree initialization.
d / D use Datafile.
i force Initialization of all drive trees.
t# set filelist update Time (tenths/sec).
uU Update datafile enable.


tree .\ -Xa7Dt7U


tree d:\workarea @d:\bin\mycolors.tem -Xt12

BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 42

USAGE : VIEW [d:][path\]matchList @cfgfile -V [b m s c e v] [25 43 50]
-C[m c g] -X[a#][cC][iI][rR]

WHERE (all arguments are optional):

[d:][path\]matchList filename specifications...
@cfgfile full configuration pathname specification.
-V video flags for Bios/Monochrome/Snow/Cga/Ega/Vga.
plus setting for number of display lines 25/43/50.
-C color table selection for Monochrome/Color/Grayscale.
-X execution flags
a# Audio, WHERE # enables error sounds for
1(border) + 2(syntax) + 4(execution).
c / C make text searches Case sensitive.
i / I exit Immediately without prompt.
r / R Restore DOS screen on exit.


view -Xa7cir)


view -V43 *.doc *.txt -XI @c:\bin\personal.cfg


BTS Utilities User Manual (WI) Page 43

USAGE: WI [drives:][path]matchlist [-flags] [:DOS-command]

[drives:] single (a:), multiple (cdf:), all (?:) or all
hard (*:) drive selection.
[path]matchlist file selection criteria.

-? extended help (including auxiliary DOS command).
-pP pause after output screens.
-d#:# select files within range days old.
-s#:# select files within range size bytes.
-d include subdirectory names.
-s include system files.
-h include hidden files.
-t display summary total
-D include ONLY subdirectory names.
-S include ONLY system files.
-H include ONLY hidden files.
-T display ONLY summary total.
-oO issue Output lines.

-c[#] change dir to #th match on completion (DEFAULTS is first).
-C[#] change dir immediately on #th match.
-x execution flags
# maximum number of matches.
l# maximum number of directory search levels.
c change dir before executing cmd line.
d execute command once per directory.
s show each command line executed.
t test mode - just display command lines.

[DOS-command] DOS command line including embedded variables for
matched filenames:

$D current drive letter
$P current path
$d matched drive letter
$p matched path
$n filename (to 8 characters)
$x extension(to 3 characters)
$f minimized matched filename
(for $d:$p\$n.$x)
$$ a single $


wi dc:*.tmp *.old *.pag -d3: -opxt :del $f


  3 Responses to “Category : File Managers
Archive   : TBOX121.ZIP
Filename : UTILS.DOC

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: