Dec 152017
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Contents of the DIFF.DOC file

Diff - A Change Bar Tool

by Peter van Es CompuServe 72677,1417
and mods by Steve Kraus 71531,2062

As a person who has to maintain large amounts of
documentation and needs to be able to track changes through
successive revisions of the same document, I quickly felt the
need for a tool which would insert change bars into

Remembering an article in Dr. Dobb's Journal, August 1987, by
Don Krantz, I found a utility written in C which would insert
Change Bars into existing document files in normal ASCII,
exactly what I needed. I entered the program on my system,
converting it to Turbo C (mainly using the Turbo C library
routines for string comparisons) and tested it. Whereas the
program worked fine on small text files, I had files for a
document of 900 K text to process. The program's limitations
became painfully obvious very rapidly. As it was written,
the program could not:

- deal with differences of over 200 lines, since the
resync module only looked 200 lines ahead;

- handle large text files since both uppercase and normal
versions of the line were stored in memory.

Furthermore the program was very slow on dealing with small
changes (1 line inserted or deleted) due to the way the
resynchronization algorithm was implemented.

Rather than re-designing the program I went through a series
of revisions on the program, tackling problems in small
chunks. Perhaps it would have been better to re-design the
program, but the resulting program has solved all of these
limitations, and works just fine for my needs. Some of the
existing limitations are documented at the end of this

Why have I documented the change process here? Well, I
dislike two things:

- reinventing the wheel;

- optimizing programs by delving into optimizers, or
transforming parts into assembler routines.

I believe in optimizing programs through the use of
different, more efficient algorithms. Changing a high level
language into assembler in selected places may give you a 10%
speed increase, or, if you are lucky, a 50% increase. By
altering the algorithm you can achieve improvements of 100%
to 1000% much more easily (depending on the problem, of
course). I hope that my thought processes might be of use to
someone else, which is why I document them in this document.

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Diff - A Change Bar Tool

The Improvements

The first problem was easy to solve. The original program
stored a line read into memory both in normal format and in
uppercase format to allow case insensitive change bars to be
inserted. Since Turbo C provides a subroutine to compare two
strings either with case sensitivity (strcmp()) or without
(stricmp()) the memory use of the program was halved at the
cost of some processing speed (deciding which one of the two
comparison routines to use). Since these routines have been
optimized by Borland, they actually performed faster than the
routine that was originally in the program.

The program included a good memory management scheme, which
ensured that every line of text was only read once, and
allocated memory would be freed at the earliest possible
opportunity, when a match has been found. Since this scheme
is quite efficient, I decided to keep it as an essential part
of the program.

Upon inspection the program was still CPU bound, spending
most of its time in string comparisons, with the disk drive
being idle. In order to eliminate the time on most of these
comparisons, where the same line of text is compared over and
over again with other lines, a simple hash value of the
characters in the line is added to the structure containing
the line. This hash value, or checksum, is an exclusive or
of all the characters in the line. Instead of comparing
lines, the program now compares the pre-calculated checksums,
and only if they are equal, will it compare the line
character for character. This reduced the amount of
processing on similar lines considerably.

However, the program was still very slow, which was very
noticeable on files with lots of small changes. Furthermore,
the program couldn't cope with changes of more than 200 lines
of text. Checking the program revealed why this was so. The
program would always take a line from file 1, and look up to
200 lines ahead in file 2, to find the matching line. Then
it would take line 2 of file 1, and look 200 lines ahead from
the current line of file 2 again. And so on, until it had
found a minimum of re-sync (which is a command line
modifiable value, normally set at 5) of un-changed lines.
This meant that in order to detect a 1 line change, the
program could perform up to a 1000 line comparisons.

Since most changes two documents are small ones, I modified
the program so that it now starts by checking only 10 lines
ahead. If that fails, it looks 20 lines ahead, then 40, 80
and so on until it runs out of memory. There is no upper
limit on the number of lines, other than constrained by
memory. As a result, a small change requires far fewer
comparisons and is detected far more rapidly.

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Diff - A Change Bar Tool

Big changes can also be detected, since the program does not
have the artificial constraint of 200 lines look ahead
anymore. If it doesn't match on 80 lines it tries 160, then
320 and so on until it runs out of memory. Since the memory
management function is quite efficient (discarding lines as
soon as a match has been found) quite a few lines can be
stored in memory. That is also why the compact compilation
model is used, maximizing the amount of allocatable memory
for a small program.

There still turned out a problem with this. The program
could now almost always synchronize, but on extremely large
changes this was still very slow. The reason for this is,
that every time the lookahead number of lines is doubled, the
program has to start at line 1 of file 1 again, but now
checking half the number of lines in file 2 for the second
time, and half for the first time. Ie, the same line would
be compared against the same line lots of times anyway. In
order to minimize the amount of repeat lookups which occur
every time that the lookahead lines are increased, the
program now assumes that after 40 lines couldn't match, the
change is probably very big, and the lookahead is set to 400
lines. If it still doesn't match, it sets them at 800, 1600
etc until it runs out of memory.

Regrettably, although this helped a little bit, it was only a
little bit, since for each of the 400 lines in file 1 each
and everyone of the 400 lines in file 2 are checked, leaving
the program still CPU bound.

Then a brainwave hit. If we can use the checksum (a value
between 0 and 255) to compare lines in the files, why can't
we use it to quickly locate a line already read in for file
2? So an array was created, with an entry for each possible
checksum value. This entry is the start of an ordered linked
list, pointing to lines with the same checksum. Rather than
having to check all lookahead lines in order to resync, the
program uses the checksum value of the line in file 1 to
index into the array of linked lists. It then traverses the
list of lines with the same checksum, comparing the lines
until one has been found which is equal. If none are found,
the program takes the next line from file 1, and repeats the
process. If no match can be found at all, the program
restarts the lookahead procedure with twice the number of
lines to look ahead. In order to ensure that sufficient
lines are present, lookahead lines are read every time, which
means that the memory management still works and memory gets
cleared every time a synchronization has been detected. At
one point a resync will either be found, or end of file
reached (or memory is full -- this will not happen soon since
matched lines are discarded from memory, so the change would
have to exceed the size of memory).

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Diff - A Change Bar Tool

However, since file 2 is not scanned sequentially but
randomly, the last line before a match (which is used to be
able to produce the "deleted from file 2" difference list) is
not available any more. In order to allow for this, the line
structure now includes a pointer to the previous line, so
that the difference summary can still be printed.

The nextline() and discard() functions maintain the line
structure list, and have been modified to maintain the
checksum array and the previous line list as well. Resync
has been altered substantially in order to take advantage of
the array. Minor modifications have been made to other
routines in order to provide extra error checking.

As a result of these modifications the program now is much
faster especially with lots of small changes (due to the
lookahead line policy), and all large changes (due to the
checksum linked list). So much so, in fact, that it is also
I/O bound (ie the disk drive is almost operating
continuously). And it can handle bigger changes. The
program now can put change bars into my 900 K of document
faster than my word processor can print it.

Limitations of the program.

The main limitation of the program is due to the resynchro-
nization algorithm. The program considers a file
resynchronized if it discovers a number of matched lines.
This number is set at 3 as a default, but can be modified
using the -r option. However, the results of this algorithm
can be surprising. When text has been duplicated (with more
than resync lines) and sandwiched in between new text, and
the old text has been left unchanged after the inserted text
(as in the following example), a match will be detected. In
the example assume that resync is 3.

file 1 file 2

B _______ Q
C \ R
D ______ \__________________ B
E ____ \ C
F \ \___________________ D
G \ S
H _ \ T
I \ \ B
\ \ C
\ \ D
\ \________________ E
A false match... F
\ G
\___________________ H

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Diff - A Change Bar Tool

As can be seen above, BCD in file 1 will match with the first
occurrence of BCD in file 2. And as a result, the second BCD
in file 2 will not match with the BCD in file 1. (The
remainder, EFGH will match again). A more logical match
would have been to leave the PQBCDRST sequence as a new
insert, and just match on the sequence BCDEFGH. (Note that
the first match could have been avoided by selecting the
number of lines to be resynced to be larger than 3).

A different algorithm, called the "longest common
subsequence" algorithm, will do just that automatically. It
will select the longest matching sequence in the file and use
that as a basis for selecting the second longest matching
sequence both above and below the longest matching sequence
just found, and so on until all sequences have been found.
This method is also particularly suitable for implementation
using hashing. However, a disadvantage of this algorithm is
that no lines can be discarded until both files have been
processed in their entirety. As a result either lines have
to be kept on disk (for instance storing the lseek() value in
the line buffer with the checksum, so that lines can be
retrieved from disk using direct access), or the size of the
files that can be processed is limited. Furthermore, since
the program will recursively check for matching subsequences
(compare it for instance with CAR Hoare's QuickSort
algorithm) this algorithm will produce better difference
reports only at the cost of much more computer time. Thus
this algorithm is used most often on mini-computer systems.

Note that a mix between the "longest common subsequence"
algorithm as described above, and the "scan until next match"
as implemented in the program presented here can be
implemented to good effect. Rather than having a minimum
number of lines before resync is achieved, select a maximum
number of lines after which a matching subsequence is
considered the longest, causing the file to be split. By
setting this number as one larger than the largest sequence
which occurs more than once in a file (eg 100 lines) the
program will produce the same results as the unconstrained
version of the program, in less processing time.

A final limitation of the program is due to the fact that it
compares files on a line by line basis. This is fine for for
instance program source code, but gives problems with most
automatic paragraph reformatting features available in word
processors. The result of inserting a word in one sentence
can often be a re-format of several lines of text in the
paragraph. Although in reality those sentences have not
changed, the program will think they are changed.

The solution is to perform the comparison on a sentence by
sentence (or word by word) basis rather than line by line.
The difficulty is however not in the synchronization
algorithm (since that can stay as it is), but in the

Page 5

Diff - A Change Bar Tool

algorithm which inserts change bars on the correct line in
the correct place in the document. You would have to store a
representation of the original line of text somewhere, and
use a pointer to associate every word with the line from
which it came. This modification is left as an exercise for
the reader, however. If I ever get to it, I'll put the
resulting code in Public Domain again.

Using the diff program.

diff - text file differencer and change barrer
usage: diff [option{option}] newfile oldfile [barfile]

Where the options are optional and can be inserted in any order
except for the -n and -o option (which must appear in that
order). Newfile and Oldfile are required (you don't want to
compare a file against nothing, do you?). Barfile is optional,
used if you want a file with change bars in it as output.

The options are:

-t trace operation, default off
-b n change Bar column in barfile, default 78
-h n Header lines to skip at top of page, default 0
-f n Footer lines to skip at bottom of page, default = 0
-p n Page size (embedded form feeds override) default = 66
-c Case. uppercase/lowercase is significant (default is off)
-r n Resync lines that must match before files are considered
synced after differences are found. default = 3
-m n left Margin to start comparison, default = 0
-n Number display line number instead of page & line
number on output (default is pages/line numbers)
-w White blank lines are considered significant (default is not)
-s Screen listing off (default is on)
-u n Updated NEWFILE pages to skip before compare. default = 0,
also sets -o.
-o n OLDFILE pages in skip before compare. Must come after -u.
default = 0

The Trace option (-t) only shows if the program has been
compiled with the debug option on. It shows debug messages.

The Bar-column option (-b) selects the column in which the
vertical bar will be placed. The default is column 78.
Column 0 will put it in the left most position on the page.
If your program contains embedded tabs, these are not
expanded automatically to ensure that when the bar should
appear in column 78, it actually does appear there. So use
the option -b 0 in this case.

Page 6

Diff - A Change Bar Tool

The Header option (-h) and Footer option (-f) allow you to
specify the number of lines to skip at the top of the page
and the bottom of the page for headers and footers. You
don't usually want change bars just because the date or page
numbering of a file has changed.

The Page length option (-p) allows you to specify the number
of lines per page. 66 is the Default.
The Case Sensitive (-c) option will insert change bars if
just the case of text has changed. The default is no case
sensitivity, so that for instance changing "New york" into
"New York" does not generate a change bar. For case
sensitive language's program listings you'll want to use the
-c option.

The Resync option (-r) specifies the number of lines that
must match before the files are considered re-synced. The
limitations of this parameter have been discussed above. The
default is 3. For program source code you'll want to
experiment with slightly larger values.

The White option (-w) makes blank lines significant. The
default is that they are not significant. I never use this
option, but perhaps you have a need for it.

The Screen option (-s) turns off the screen listing of the
differences. This speeds up the program when you are not
interested in the differences list, or when you use the
program in a batch file. Note that the program will give an
error message if you specify the -s option and no bar file
(since then all it would do is waste computer time). The
differences list to screen has the following format:

002:12 002:13 002:12>This line has been deleted from oldfile, page 2 and
002:13>lines 12 and 13 and 14. Note that every time a match
002:14>has been found a blank line is printed first.

(Note the direction of the arrows: < for insertion into the
newfile, >for deletion (extraction if you like) from the
oldfile to the newfile).

The Newfile skip option (-n) and the Oldfile skip option (-o)
allow you to skip pages at the beginning of the file for
header pages and contents lists and the like, where you are
not interested in change bars. Note that the -n option sets
the -o option (unless you override the -o setting by
explicitly including it in case contents lists are different

Note that a space is required between a switch character and
its value. Use "-r 5", not "-r5" or "/r5". - SK

Page 7

Diff - A Change Bar Tool

Notes on Modifications by Steve Kraus. First, let me say
thanks for the invaluable tool by Don Krantz and extensively
modified by Peter van Es. I have used this program often.
But I am a programmer/analyst by profession. And DIFF is
designed to compare documentation on a page/line basis
instead of a program source code basis.

I often redirect the output from DIFF to another file or Vern
Buerg's LIST utility for perusal. DIFF originally wrote all
of its output and error messages to STDOUT. I added usage of
STDERR for the program version and error message lines, with
'screen' output and the help message written to STDOUT.

When I first started using DIFF, I had trouble using the
switch options until I browsed through the source code. I am
accustomed to using the forward slash switch character. So I
added recognition for the additional "/" switch character and
recognition of the upper and lower case switches. I modified
the help message to supply the keywords matching the options,
such as 'Screen' for -s.

I'm more interested in the line number instead of the page
number. Several PC editors enable you to start right at a
given line number. I wanted the difference display to show
line numbers instead of the page : line combination. So I
added the line numbering switch, called "-n" in honor of DOS
utilities FIND, GREP, and FC. I renamed the old -n switch to
-u for Update file (sorry, Peter)

I've been writing test set diagnostic software for HP9000
Basic systems. The HP Basic editor is miserable. After
transferring the saved Ascii files over to PC for editting
and printing, I would run DIFF on program files to verify the
program version changes. Unfortunately, HP Basic renumbers
source lines automatically for inserted lines, changing the
content of every line. So I devised the -m n Margin switch,
so I could ignore the mandatory Basic line numbers at the
beginning of every line. The checksum and line comparison
begins at the "/M 5" left margin column, if specified.

Plans for the next DIFF? Another logical change (for the
future) would be to add a right margin column too. I'd like
to modify option switch processing to allow the option value
to be catenated against the switch name. That is, allow
switches of the format: -b5 or /R7 instead of requiring
the space between the value and the switch name: -b 5 -r 7

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