Dec 162017
DF 4.61: Small, fast, configurable file manager with advanced user-defined functions and SmartViewers. New version is even more configurable and even faster.

Full Description of File

Directory Freedom v4.61 Small/fast dir
manager. Move/copy files, create archives,
change time/date/attributes and much more.
Advanced user-defined commands and Smart
Viewers; includes archive viewers. Maint
release w/system info screen enhancements,
PKZIP 2.0x support in archive viewer, range
of bug fixes, more. $25 registration.

File DF461.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category File Managers
DF 4.61: Small, fast, configurable file manager with advanced user-defined functions and SmartViewers. New version is even more configurable and even faster.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
AR.COM 13920 9844 deflated
AR.ZIF 830 385 deflated
DF.COM 32832 20511 deflated
DF.ICO 766 128 deflated
DF460.TXT 162200 48506 deflated
DF461.NEW 1757 937 deflated
DFCONFIG.EXE 121560 53091 deflated
DFCONFIG.HLP 28287 8836 deflated
DFHELP.TXT 1084 479 deflated
FILE_ID.DIZ 344 245 deflated
LIBERTY.ICO 766 250 deflated
LR.COM 13920 9829 deflated
LR.ZIF 830 387 deflated
PATCH.COM 12874 7722 deflated
PATCH.DOC 3252 1476 deflated
READ_ME.DF 7618 3284 deflated
REGISTER.DOC 5842 2156 deflated
UNARJXR.EXE 19168 11829 deflated
VENDOR.DOC 1070 523 deflated
XR103.TXT 34065 10966 deflated
ZOR.COM 13920 9864 deflated
ZOR.ZIF 831 387 deflated
ZR.COM 14512 10314 deflated
ZR.ZIF 792 377 deflated

Download File DF461.ZIP Here

Contents of the DF460.TXT file


Copyright 1989 - 1992 by Gordon Haff and Bit Masons Consulting.
All rights reserved.

Command: DF

Syntax: DF [d:][source-path][file-mask] [d:][target-path]
[/O,N,E,D,T,or O][+/-] [/M(0,T,P, or C)] [/F] [/V] [/Ccfg_file]

Prereqs: 100% IBM Compatible PC running DOS 3.0 or higher

Purpose: DF provides a fast, compact alternative to both the DOS
`dir' command and large, unwieldy hard disk managers. DF
displays all files in a directory in sorted order (name,
date, size, attribute, or extension) and provides an easy
way to copy, delete and rename marked files. The directory
structure on the disk can be quickly traversed by simply
selecting a directory name from the displayed list. A wide
range of user-defined functions and SmartViewers enables DF
to work with and augment existing customer software.

DF is very simple to use. A menu of DF's basic functions is
displayed next to the list of files; no need for the novice
or infrequent user to refer to a manual or a complex set of
help screens. There is on-line help, however, and it can be
customized by the user!

DF is also advanced. A wide range of functions such as
directory creation, file date/time alteration, archive file
creation, and directory printing are available on alternate
menus which are displayed merely by pressing the Alt,
Control, or Shift key. In addition to the many intrinsic
functions, the companion program DFCONFIG allows users to
add their favorite programs to DF's menus or file viewers.
DFCONFIG also makes it easy to change operational features
such as the default color.

Association of
o Professionals



1.0 History and Program Philosophy .......................... 8
2.0 Installing Directory Freedom ............................ 9
2.1 Upgrading from Earlier Versions .................... 9
2.2 Using the Installation Program ..................... 10
2.3 Manual Installation Instructions ................... 10
2.4 COMSPEC variable ................................... 11
3.0 Using Directory Freedom ................................. 12
3.1 About this Manual .................................. 12
3.2 Manual Conventions ................................. 13
3.3 Program Limits and Prerequisites ................... 13
3.4 Starting up Directory Freedom ...................... 13
3.5 Changing Directories ............................... 15
3.6 File Marking ....................................... 15
3.7 Hints and Suggestions .............................. 15
3.8 Key by key Summary of Commands (by category) ....... 17
Exiting DF .......................................... 17
Marking files ....................................... 17
Copying, Moving, and Deleting files ................. 18
Changing active source and destination directories .. 18
Re-sorting the working directory .................... 19
DOS Shell functions ................................. 19
Directory functions ................................. 19
Miscellaneous additional commands ................... 19
View Commands ....................................... 20
Attribute Commands .................................. 20
User-defined Commands ............................... 20
Internal Viewer commands ............................ 21
4.0 Program Feature Information ............................. 21
4.1 Internal Viewer .................................... 21
4.2 Shell functions and SmartViewers ................... 22
User-defined functions .............................. 22
Viewers ............................................. 22
Run a Program ....................................... 23
DOS Shell ........................................... 23
4.3 Attribute Functions ................................ 24
4.4 Mouse Support ...................................... 24
4.5 Network Support .................................... 25
4.6 About Configuration Files .......................... 25
4.7 System Information Screen .......................... 26
4.8 Ultravision Compatibility .......................... 27
4.9 DESQview and Microsoft Windows Compatibility ....... 27
5.0 Customization ........................................... 28
5.1 DFCONFIG Command Line .............................. 28
5.2 Creating a Configuration File ...................... 29
5.3 DFCONFIG Usage Notes ............................... 29
5.4 DFCONFIG Main Menu ................................. 30
5.5 Commands Modification .............................. 31
Command-line syntax ................................. 32
Example ............................................. 32
Archiver Command .................................... 34
Other command line controls ......................... 34

5.6 Attributes Modification ............................ 35
Color ............................................... 36
Switch .............................................. 36
Snow Check .......................................... 36
Sort Option ......................................... 37
Verify Default ...................................... 38
Beep Default ........................................ 38
Extended Keyboard ................................... 39
SmartViewer Key ..................................... 39
Secondary Menu Key .................................. 39
Mouse ............................................... 40
Startup Video Mode .................................. 40
Exclude Attributes .................................. 40
Printer Port ........................................ 40
Disable CFG Read .................................... 41
Drive Table ......................................... 41
Drive Table Keys .................................... 41
Memory Allocation ................................... 42
5.7 Read Help Screen ................................... 43
5.8 Filenames .......................................... 43
6.0 Companion Programs ...................................... 44
6.1 Bit Masons Programs ................................ 44
X-Ray Viewers ....................................... 44
ND .................................................. 45
6.2 Third-Party Programs ............................... 45
PRUNE ............................................... 45
SLED or TED or QEDIT or ... ........................ 45
LIST ................................................ 46
VPIC ................................................ 46
RVS ................................................. 46
7.0 Technical and Sources ................................... 46
8.0 Acknowledgements ........................................ 47
9.0 Appendix A: User-defined Commands ........................ 49
10.0 Appendix B: Patching Instructions ....................... 50
RN.COM .............................................. 50
PRUNE.COM ........................................... 50
11.0 Appendix C: Site Licenses ............................... 51
12.0 Appendix D: Keystrokes for Data-entry ................... 52
13.0 Appendix E: "Undocumented" Patches ...................... 53
14.0 Appendix F: System Information Screen ................... 54
CPU ................................................. 54
Memory .............................................. 54
BIOS ................................................ 55
Sound ............................................... 55
DOS ................................................. 56
Hardware ............................................ 56
Disks ............................................... 57
Video ............................................... 57

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 3

DISCLAIMER of WARRANTY (a.k.a. Legal Stuff)

The Shareware evaluation (trial use) version is provided AS IS. Bit

Bit Masons Consulting warrants the physical diskette(s) and physical
documentation provided with registered versions (only) to be free of
defects in materials and workmanship for a period of thirty days from
the date of registration. If Bit Masons Consulting receives
notification within the warranty period of defects in materials or
workmanship, and such notification is determined by the publisher to
be correct, the defective diskette(s) or documentation will be

The entire and exclusive liability and remedy for breach of this
Limited Warranty shall be limited to replacement of defective
diskette(s) or documentation and shall not include or extend to any
claim for or right to recover any other damages, including but not
limited to, loss of profit, data, or use of the software, or special,
incidental, or consequential damages or other similar claims, even if
Bit Masons Consulting has been specifically advised of the
possibility of such damages. In no event will Bit Masons Consultings'
liability for any damages to you or any other person ever exceed the
lower of suggested list price or actual price paid for the license to
use the software, regardless of any form of the claim.



Directory Freedom is a Shareware product. As such, it is made
available to the general personal computing public for evaluation.
Users are licensed to operate this program on their computers for the
purpose of test and evaluation on a trial basis for a limited trial
period. It is not possible to reasonably define the limits of a fair
and equitable time period for evaluation; therefore it is left to the
user's judgment and sense of fair play as to the time required to
make a decision as to its usefulness. (As a guideline, 30 days
should generally be sufficient time to evaluate the utility of a
program of this type.) If the user decides the program is not of
sufficient merit to warrant purchase through registration with the
author, he/she should remove the program from his/her personal
computer. Otherwise, if the program is deemed useful and is in
regular use on the user's computer system, registration with the
author is required.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 4

Registered users are those users who elect to pay for Directory
Freedom and register that payment with the author. By virtue of
registration and payment for the program, registered users are
granted a license to continue to utilize the program on their
personal computer for as long as they choose. This license
authorizes the user to use the program on any personal computer
system he or she may own or use so long as the program is operated on
only one computer system at a time.


Directory Freedom is offered with an unconditional 30-day money-back
guarantee. If you become dissatisfied with the program for any
reason within that period, just let me know and your registration fee
will be refunded. If you purchased a registration package which
included a diskette and/or a manual, please return these when
requesting a refund.

This guarantee is unconditional. I would ask, however, if you are
having a problem to let me know before giving up on DF since your
problem may be something I can solve.

Finally, if you order a registration package which includes a
diskette or manual and either of these items are defective - either
through my error or through postal service "processing", let me know
and I will send replacements promptly.


The registration fee is $25, payable to:
Bit Masons Consulting
3205 Windsor Ridge Dr.
Westboro, MA 01581

The payment of this registration fee to the author entitles the user
to full use of the product for an unlimited period of time in
addition to product support and a diskette with the latest version
and other utilities written by the author. Hardcopy documentation
and future updates are not included as part of the basic registration
fee. See the REGISTER.DOC file for the charges associated with these

Directory Freedom is a fully functional Shareware product. Shareware
is a computer program distribution and marketing method that permits
potential buyers to thoroughly try the program prior to purchase. It
is NOT free and it is not in the Public Domain. If, after evaluating
the program, you find it useful enough to use on a regular basis, you
are expected to pay for it by registering with the author.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 5

Please note that the registration fee is specifically limited to
Directory Freedom (DF.COM), the configuration program (DFCONFIG.EXE),
and their associated documentation. Other copyrighted "Freeware"
(i.e. copyrighted software for which no fee is asked) and public
domain software may be distributed with Directory Freedom only for
the convenience of users. The copyrights for such software remain
with the original authors. In addition, various software is
mentioned in this documentation in conjunction with DF's user-defined
functions and SmartViewers. Much of this software is Shareware for
which a registration fee must be paid to the individual authors to
use their programs past an initial trial period.

Site Licensing

Attractively priced site licensing is available for commercial users.
Pricing for "typical" site licensing is given in an appendix to this
manual. If you have needs which are not met by the standard license
terms, please call or write for a quote which addresses any unique
support or product update requirements. Customization is also
available on a contract basis.

Upgrade and Update Policies

There has been some confusion in Shareware circles recently about
upgrade/update policies for certain pieces of software. Therefore,
I'd like to take this opportunity to spell out my policies. First,
some definitions: I define upgrade as the RIGHT to use a later
revision of a piece of software. I define update as the physical
media on which the upgrade resides. I'll further define an update as
not including hardcopy documentation unless specifically defined.
With that out of the way, I'd like to spell out my current
upgrade/update policies:

There are no upgrade charges associated with DF and I do not have any
plans at present to institute such charges with future revisions. I
do reserve the right to do so, however, if in my sole opinion the
nature and magnitude of DF changes to such a degree as to constitute
a substantially new product. I currently do charge for updates and
plan to continue to so charge. The content and pricing for specific
update packages is described at the end of this document and in the
REGISTER.DOC file. Pricing is subject to change without notice,
however, to accommodate postage, printing, and other price increases.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 6

ASP Ombudsman Statement

This program is produced by a member of the Association of Shareware
Professionals (ASP). ASP wants to make sure that the shareware
principle works for you. If you are unable to resolve a
shareware-related problem with an ASP member by contacting the member
directly, ASP may be able to help. The ASP Ombudsman can help you

resolve a dispute or problem with an ASP member, but does not provide
technical support for members' products. Please write to the ASP
Ombudsman at 545 Grover Road, Muskegon, MI 49442 or send a Compuserve
message via Easyplex to ASP Ombudsman 70007,3536.

DISTRIBUTING Directory Freedom

DF may be freely distributed subject only to the following
distribution for-charge restrictions:

Directory Freedom is the sole property of Gordon Haff. The program
may be freely copied and transferred to individual parties for
evaluation purposes. It may be posted on Bulletin Board systems
(BBS) for electronic access as long as NO FEE is charged for its
distribution except for private BBS operations that charge a regular
user subscription fee. Computer information services such as
Compuserve (CIS), Genie, and Byte Information Exchange (BIX) are
authorized to post this product for subscriber access. Directory
Freedom may be distributed on diskette only by 1) disk
distributors/vendors who are associate members of the Association of
Shareware Professionals (ASP) or 2) users groups which do not charge
more than a nominal fee to cover the costs of distribution. Any
changes to these policies must be made in writing by the author.

Please feel free to distribute copies of this program to friends,
coworkers, bulletin boards, and users' groups. I do ask, however,
that you please distribute all of the original files and not modified
copies. The main reason for this is that modified (e.g. with
DFCONFIG) versions may have different default attributes or other
settings from those specified in the manual and will have different
CRC values from those files in the standard distribution. The former
could confuse new users. The latter may cause someone to conclude
that DF is damaged. In particular, some non-default (but user
selectable) switch settings such as "Enable F11/F12" will not work
properly on systems without the requisite hardware and BIOS support.

If you have come up with user-defined settings which you would like
to share with others, please do so by describing them in a separate
file (or by distributing a copy of your own .CFG file) rather than
distributing a modified version of DF.COM. I strongly encourage such
sharing of ideas about using DF most effectively. Please distribute
such information in a separate archive, however, rather than adding
to my archive. Thank you in advance for your cooperation.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 7


Registered Users: Full technical support is available to registered
users of Directory Freedom. I have found that the most effective
product support can be delivered through the electronic services
listed below. If this option is not open to you, however, I also
offer full product support through the mails, or, if the problem
absolutely cannot wait, the telephone (no collect calls please). I
will do my best to resolve any software bugs in a timely manner and I
am always open to incorporating new features or changes which are
appropriate to the nature of the product.

Unregistered Users: I will attempt to respond to software trouble
reports made by non-registered users if the problems concern the
general functionality of the program. Such users should not,
however, expect product support beyond initial aid in determining
whether the program is suitable for their needs.

If you have a problem: I ask that, before calling or writing, you
take the following steps:

1) Check the manual. We all sometimes approach a piece of software
with preconceived ideas about how it ought to work which may not
correspond to how it actually does work. (Of course, I'm interested
in your input if you have this sort of experience.)

2) See if you can duplicate the problem with your original,
unmodified version of DF. (You do still have an original, unmodified
version, don't you?)

3) If you're still stuck, please make a note of a) your hardware
and software environment; b) your attribute and command settings. DF
is a very configurable program and, unfortunately, one of the
downsides of this configurability is that user-defined settings can
sometimes interact in unexpected ways. (I try to test a broad range
of configurations and settings, but obviously can't try every one.);
and c) the sequence of actions which lead to the error. If I can't
reproduce an error, it will be very difficult to correct, so your
help is vital in isolating the problem.

If you follow these steps, it will help me to solve your problem in a
more efficient and timely manner.

Contact via:

Channel 1 BBS (617) 354-8873
Compuserve User ID# 72561,2637 (use Easyplex mail)
Internet [email protected]

U.S. Mail 3205 Windsor Ridge Dr.
Westboro MA 01581
Telephone (508) 898-3321 (after 6pm Eastern time)

I usually check Channel 1 daily and Compuserve weekly. In addition,
I monitor the Ilink and RIME Shareware relays through Channel 1.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 8

1.0 History and Program Philosophy

The Directory Freedom of today originally grew out of a variety of
programs which owe their "look and feel" to Michael Mefford's DR and
CO utilities in PC Magazine Volume 6, #17 and #21. DF was most
directly adapted from Peter Esherick's DC (Directory Control) version
1.05B. Peter helped get DF started by making the source code for DC
available to me and has also shared some fixes which he has made in
subsequent revisions of his program.

DF came into being because, while DC became a staple in my utilities
subdirectory, it still lacked a few features which I wanted. Some of
these were included in Brad Stephenson's modifications to DR; others
didn't exist at all. At the same time, more conventional DOS shells
usually lacked these features as well plus they tended to be rather
big clunky things by comparison.

The initial revisions of Directory Freedom represented minor
enhancements to DC. As time went by, users suggested more and better
features, many of which were incorporated into DF. With Revision
3.0, I made DF shareware. I felt that, at this point, DF had
achieved a unique identity and was substantially different from the
software on which it was originally based. Furthermore, by making DF
shareware, I was able to commit to a significantly higher level of
ongoing development and support than would have otherwise been

So what uniquely defines DF? Some of the major features are listed
below. These are just a sampling but should help to give the user of
one or more of the earlier programs mentioned a flavor for how DF has
been extended from its original roots.

The usual file copying, moving, deleting, and renaming
Directory creation, deletion, and renaming
Ability to run external programs from a menu (and pass them file
names, etc.)
SmartViewers (external file viewers calls keyed to file extension)
File and directory attribute manipulation
Send a directory listing to a printer
Change file dates
On-line help
Support for 43/50 line modes with EGA/VGA
High degree of configurability: colors, beep type, verify flag,
exclude attributes and more
Command-line file mask (e.g. *.exe)
A wide range of sort methods (including by attribute)
Create file archives (e.g. with PKZIP)
A detailed system configuration screen
A user-friendly configuration program

Yet, for all the above, the main DF program is still less than 35
KBytes in size! (As you might guess, it's written 100% in assembly

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 9

Directory Freedom is designed to provide what one user called "a
rational alternative to the DOS 'dir' command." While, at this stage
in its development, DF has grown far past the point where it merely
provides DOS directory services, I have tried to stay true to one
fundamental philosophy of design. This philosophy is that DF should
stay sufficiently small and fast that you does not feel that you are
bringing up an applications program every time you type "DF".
Rather, the user should find it faster and easier to just type "DF"
that typing DIR, or COPY, or whatever other DOS command is required.
Along the way, additional functionality has been added, but with the
intent of never compromising this basic design goal.

2.0 Installing Directory Freedom

Installing Directory Freedom is straightforward. You may either use
the supplied installation program (diskettes purchased directly from
Bit Masons only) or you may manually extract the contents of the .ZIP
format archives. Manual extraction requires that you use the PKUNZIP
decompression/dearchive program from PKWare (not supplied).

2.1 Upgrading from Earlier Versions

Whenever you upgrade, I strongly recommend that you make a copy of
your old revision working files (DF.COM, DFCONFIG.EXE, and any
configuration files) and put them in a safe place. While I conduct
extensive testing, it is never possible to absolutely guarantee that
something about your hardware and/or software environment won't have an
allergic reaction to a new revision. Keeping your old revision files
somewhere safe will allow you always to easily move back to the previous
revision in the case of problems.

If you are upgrading from a version prior to 4.50, skip to the next
section. DFCONFIG is not compatible with these older revisions
because of extensive additions made in version 4.50. Simply make a
note of your settings and spend a few minutes reentering them after
installation is complete.

If you are upgrading from version 4.50, you may bring over
user-defined commands and attributes using DFCONFIG, if you so
desire, by performing the following steps:

If you store your configuration info internal to DF.COM, life is easy

Backup your version 4.50 files
Rename DF.COM to DF450.COM (for example)
Install the new program version in the same directory as the old
To bring over your old settings and install the new help
Choose the "Read Help Screen" menu item and select the
Confirm that you know what you're doing
Select "Save and Quit" from the main menu

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 10

If you store your configuration info in an external .CFG file, life
is even easier

Backup your version 4.50 files
Install the new program version in the same directory as the old;
your existing configuration files will be used automatically
To update the help screen (not required, but a good idea):
Type DFCONFIG df.cfg where df.cfg is the name of the
configuration file. (If you use another name for your
configuration file, use that.)
Choose the "Read Help Screen" menu item and select the
Confirm that you know what you're doing
Select "Save and Quit" from the main menu
Repeat for any other configuration files you use

2.2 Using the Installation Program

1) Make a backup of the distribution disk
2) Insert the distribution disk in a floppy disk drive.
3) Type A:INSTALL (assuming the distribution disk is in Drive A)
4) The installation program will prompt you for the destination
directory for Directory Freedom and its companion files (such as
the X-Ray Viewers). Only DF.COM itself is required to run
Directory Freedom. You may wish to initially extract the
Directory Freedom files to their own directory and then move
only the executables you plan to make use of (e.g. DF.COM,
DFCONFIG.EXE, and whatever archive viewers you use) to a working
directory contained in your PATH statement such as a utilities
5) Make sure that you have a COMSPEC environment variable defined
per Section 2.4
6) The file README.DFD on the distribution diskette (diskettes
purchased directly from Bit Masons only) can be read at any time
by typing TYPE README.DFD | MORE at the DOS prompt. This file
may contain updated information not available when this manual
went to press.
7) Run DFCONFIG.EXE at any time to change program settings. (See
Section 5 for more information.)

(Now that wasn't hard, was it?)

2.3 Manual Installation Instructions

The main Directory Freedom files are contained in the archive file
DF460.ZIP. This archive contains all files required to use Directory
Freedom in addition to documentation, registration information, and
miscellaneous support files. A complete description of the archive
contents are contained in the README.DF file in the archive. The
README.DF file also describes companion archives distributed by Bit
Masons which can be used either by themselves or to enhance Directory
Freedom's capabilities.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 11

After extracting DF460.ZIP, copy the files DF.COM and (optionally)
other files such as DFCONFIG.EXE and DFCONFIG.HLP to a working floppy
diskette or a subdirectory on your hard disk. If you've got a hard
disk, the easiest thing is probably just to copy these files to
whatever subdirectory you normally keep your utilities in. Since DF
is nice and small and simple, there's really no need to go off
creating a separate subdirectory for it. To be most useful, whatever
subdirectory DF ends up in should be part of the PATH setup in your
AUTOEXEC.BAT file. You can also go ahead and copy any of the
associated utilities distributed with DF to the same location if you
like and do whatever you normally do with the documentation.

After you've done all this, put your original files in a safe place!
Having the original files will allow you to start over again if
something happens and your modified files are lost or corrupted.
Please also use the original files if you ever have an urge to
distribute copies of this program to a local bulletin board or user's

At this, or any other point, you can also run the DFCONFIG
customization program. Full instructions for doing so are given in
Section 5.0 of this manual. DFCONFIG.EXE allows you to easily
configure DF, so you'll probably want to keep it handy [unless you
are in an environment in which you are setting up DF in a standard
manner for the use of others and don't want that standard setup to be

**Revision 4.5 Note**: In the interests of further increasing
user-configurability (more switches, longer and more user-defined
command lines, multiple extensions per SmartViewer) many changes were
made in the user-changable data area of DF in revision 4.50. As a
result, users of earlier revisions will need to bring their switch
settings and command lines over from previous revs manually. Revision
4.50 configurations are compatible with version 4.60.

Finally, you MUST make sure that you have a COMSPEC environment
variable defined. This is explained below.

2.4 COMSPEC variable

When DF shells to (i.e. executes) another program, it uses something
called the COMSPEC variable located in its environment block. This
variable tells DF what command interpreter it should use when it
shells and where that command interpreter is located.

Now in the good old days, most programs didn't bother to look for
this variable. They just assumed it was COMMAND.COM and that it was
located in the root directory of the current drive. Nowadays,
fortunately or unfortunately depending upon your point of view,
things aren't so simple. Some people use software such as J.P.
Software's excellent 4DOS as a COMMAND.COM replacement (a version of
4DOS is included with the Norton Utilities as NDOS). Others don't
want to put COMMAND.COM in the root directory of every drive they

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 12

use. The result is that good software doesn't go around making
assumptions any longer. It looks to see what the user actually

How does the user tell the software what she wants? By setting the
COMSPEC variable. How do you set it? In the following manner: At
the DOS prompt (or more commonly in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file), type or
include a line like the following:


The above example tells your software to look in the root directory
of your C: drive for the COMMAND.COM interpreter. This is probably
the most common setting for users with hard disks. Other common
settings include the following:

SET COMSPEC=\COMMAND.COM (look in root of current drive)
or SET COMSPEC=C:\4DOS.COM (Use 4DOS in root of C:)

You can check your COMSPEC (and other environment settings) at any
time by typing SET at the DOS command line.

If you found this whole section hopelessly confusing, just use one
the COMMAND.COM settings listed above. Use the first if you have a
hard drive and the second if you have only floppies. Ask a friend to
modify your AUTOEXEC.BAT file if you don't know how to do so.

3.0 Using Directory Freedom

I'm tempted at this point to offer a monetary reward to anyone who
has actually read this far into the manual. (But I'm not going to --
sorry.) If you're still with us and awake -- Congratulations! (but
no cash prizes). DF is so easy to use that people like me probably
think they don't need to read the manual. I suggest reviewing the
full manual anyway; DF has many advanced features and shortcuts which
even experienced users can overlook.

3.1 About this Manual

This documentation was written at a level which, I hope, is
appropriate to the level of computer sophistication of most DF users.
This level assumes a degree of familiarity with keyboard usage on an
IBM-PC/AT compatible and a basic understanding of how DOS runs
programs and executes commands. DF attempts to make life easier for
the person who knows how to use the command line but, unlike a DOS
shell, does not try to insulate the user from the underlying system.

If the above scares you a bit, don't let it. We have all been
beginners at one time and I'm sure you can borrow a book or friend
who will help you through any rough spots you run into. (And
feedback on any spots of opaqueness in this manual is always welcome
as well.)

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 13

This manual does go into some depth explaining the how's and why's of
certain functions. These explanations exist largely to satisfy the
curiosity of the more technical users of this program and therefore
the beginning user should not feel put off if he does not understand
every concept mentioned in these supplementary discussions.

3.2 Manual Conventions

The commands on the main alternate menu are designated throughout
this manual as Alt-Fx commands for simplicity and consistency with
previous revisions of this program even though they can be
alternately defined as LeftShift-Fx.

Which, by the way, suggests that I'd better say what I mean by
expressions such as Alt F1. It means that you should press on the
Alt key with one finger and (while continuing to hold down the Alt
key) press the F1 key with some other appendage.

The Source or Working directory refers to the directory which is
being displayed on the screen by DF. The Target directory is the
default destination for copies and other operations. It is also the
current DOS directory (meaning that a user-defined command which
sends output to the current DOS directory will send that output to
the DF Target directory.

3.3 Program Limits and Prerequisites

Maximum of about 1500 files in a directory (unless small memory
setting used in which case the limit is about 400-500)
Up to 1GB per logical disk
Operating system revision of at least DOS 3.0
Minimum 192MB of memory; more memory is useful if you use
user-defined commands

3.4 Starting up Directory Freedom

The basic syntax of the DF command line is:

DF [d:][source-path][file-mask] [d:][target-path]
[/O,N,E,D,T,or O][+/-] [/M(0,T,P, or C)] [/F] [/V] [/Ccfg_file]

All parameters are optional. If no pathnames are entered, both the
source and the target directories default to the current DOS
directory. If only one path is entered, this path is taken to be
that of the source directory and the target directory defaults to the
current DOS directory. (Pathnames can be a maximum of 63 characters
long, starting at the drive letter and including the filename.) The
file-mask is a wildcard specification such as *.EXE which allows for
the display of a subset of files in a directory. Options, specified
by a "/" followed by a letter, may appear either before or after the
pathnames and override any settings made with the DFCONFIG program.
The options are as follows:

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 14

/N Sort directory by filename
/E Sort directory by extension
/D Sort directory by date and time
/S Sort directory by file size
/T Sort Directory by attribute (i.e. archive, hidden,
read-only, system)
/O Use original order, i.e. do not sort directory at all.

+ or - Any of the sort attributes can be appended with a + or a -
on the command line (though the suffix has no effect on an
Original order "sort"). A + indicates that the sort is to
take place in ascending order, while a - indicates that it
is to be in descending order. If no suffix is specified,
the sort will take place in whatever has been stored as the
default order for that key.

/M0 Use "small" memory setting of 64KB for both DF's code and
directory. Use for maximum shell space when no XMS or EMS
memory is available. (DF requires memory space for code
approximately equal to the size of DF.COM.)

/MT Use full 64KB segment for directory. Swap to XMS memory,
if available, when shelling
/MP Use full 64KB segment for directory. Swap to EMS memory,
if available, when shelling
/MC Use full 64KB segment for directory.

/V Turn on DOS Verify switch for disk file writes
/F Fast display on IBM Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) - i.e. no
snow check
Use specified cfg_file for parameter and command-line settings

Examples of valid command lines:

DF Use default settings. Source directory = Target
directory = Current DOS
DF c:\util Use default settings. Source directory = c:\util.
Target = current DOS
DF c:\util\*.com As above, but display only files with a .COM extension
DF .. Source directory = Parent (directory above current).
Target = current DOS
DF . c:\util Source directory = current. Target = c:\util
DF c:\util d:\foo Source directory = c:\util. Target = d:\foo
DF c:\util /N- Source directory = c:\util. Display files in
descending name order
DF c:\util /T /V Force verify ON for all disk file writes. Sort in
default attribute order
DF /Cdft.cfg Use settings stored in the configuration file DFT.CFG

DF comes up displaying the source directory. A brief menu of
optional commands is displayed to the right of the directory display.
You may move up and down the directory list with the up and down
arrow keys on the cursor keypad. Files may be individually copied,
deleted, moved or renamed by pressing the function keys F1 through
F4, respectively. Alternatively, a number of files may be selected,

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 15

or "marked" using the Grey + and Grey - keys on the right side of the
keypad. After marking, pressing the appropriate function key will
apply the chosen operation to the entire group of files.

3.5 Changing Directories

The source (displayed) directory can be changed in one of three ways:

Press the F9 function key and enter a new drive and path name. (The
Backspace key is a shortcut for typing F9 followed by .. (double
dot). This shortcut is primarily intended for those using networks
which may not display the .. parent directories as part of the
file/directory display in some configurations.) Use the left and
right arrow keys to move through your drive table To move to
different subdirectories on the same drive, simply press the
key after using the up or down arrow keys to highlight the desired
subdirectory. Note that as always within DOS, ".." denotes the
parent of a given subdirectory, i.e. the level above the currently
displayed directory, and "." denotes the current directory.

The target directory can be changed either by using the F10 key in a
manner analogous to the F9 key or by swapping the source and target
directories with the F8 key, changing the directory in one of the
ways described above, and then swapping things back with the F8 key
again. However, note that any file marks are erased when the source
(displayed) directory is changed.

3.6 File Marking

Entries may be marked with the following exceptions. The marking
keys will NOT operate on the following:

Hidden files

3.7 Hints and Suggestions

The following techniques, explanations, and hints have proven useful
to myself or to other users. They may help you to get more out of
your copy of Directory Freedom.

To "re-mark" a group of files (i.e. mark the same group of files
which have just been operated on and which now have a * next to
their entries) press F6 and F7 in sequence. (If you have an extended
keyboard, just use the F11 function.)

One of the PC Magazine utilities is called SWEEP and allows you to
automatically repeat the execution of a command through multiple
directories. If you type 'SWEEP DF' from the root directory,
therefore, DF will be executed in succession in each directory on the
hard disk. Ben Stock suggests that this "is the best thing for
housekeeping, reclaiming disk space, and preparing for major
backups." SWEEP should be available on most major bulletin boards.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 16

Dir of Source E:\
Target D:\TD\PROGS\DF\DF460
ACTOR 9-20-91 9:46p
AFTERDRK 3-27-92 6:48p Directory Freedom
AMIPRO 10-09-91 11:32p Version 4.60
CORELDRW 9-20-91 9:47p Copr. Gordon Haff 1992
DASH 12-14-92 6:52p
DEMYSTS 10-04-92 4:13p F1 Copy
EXCEL 9-21-91 6:13p F2 Delete
FORMS 9-20-91 11:14p F3 Move
ICO 9-20-91 9:48p F4 Rename
MSCOPE 10-04-92 4:09p F5 Clear marks
NDW 9-21-91 5:35p F6 Mark remainder
PERFORM 9-20-91 10:38p F7 Swap Mark/Unmark
POWERPNT 9-20-91 9:43p F8 Swap Source/Target
TRASHCAN 10-10-91 12:01aH F9 Change Source
WINDOWS 9-20-91 9:44p F10 Change Target
WINMCAD 12-29-91 8:31p F11 Re-Mark files
WINWORD 9-20-91 9:45p F12 Secondary Viewer
LOGFILE TXT 63796 10-03-92 11:32p A Alt-Z Help
SPINRITE LOG 29325 10-26-91 2:39p A Esc or Alt-Q to Exit
TREEINFO DT 2658 10-30-91 1:46a A
Volume: WINDOWS 7,241,728 bytes free
Target disk has 8,394,752 bytes free
1 of 21. 102,400 bytes/ 4 files

Figure 1. Example of opening DF screen.

This screen displays a typical Directory Freedom file listing.
The displayed directory is referred to throughout this manual as
the Source or Working directory. The Target directory is shown on
the second line of the display. This directory is the default
destination for copies and moves; it is also the current DOS
directory - and hence the default directory for many user-defined

The main menu is shown on the right. Other menus are brought up
my pressing the Alt (or Left-Shift), Control, or Right-Shift keys.

To pop up a directory level, highlight the '..' entry and press

The DF Target directory is also the current DOS directory. Hence
user-defined commands which send output files to the default
directory regardless of the directory of the source file (e.g.
PKUNZIP) will send their output to the DF Target directory -- NOT the
(displayed) Source directory.

To print a file, COPY the file to your print device. For example, to
print a file to LPT1:, press F1 and give LPT1 or PRN (note that there
is no trailing colon) as the destination file name.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 17

To efficiently pack files on to multiple floppies, do a sort in
descending size order. This way, DF will copy the all the files it
can (starting with the largest) onto each diskette in order. When DF
runs out of room on a diskette, it will skip all files which don't
fit. Just put in a new diskette and press the COPY key again.
(There's a bit of beeping associated with this procedure -- if you
set the Beep Option to "Beep 1" rather than "DOS Beep", the sound is
a good bit less obnoxious.)

JOIN and SUBST are relics of an ancient DOS past which Microsoft
introduced primarily to deal with programs which came from an even
more ancient past. You probably shouldn't be using them and I can't
guarantee that DF will do everything perfectly on drives that have
been JOINed or SUBSTituted. Most of the time, everything seems to
work fine but some odd problems have been reported from time to time.

3.8 Key by key Summary of Commands (by category)

Exiting DF

Esc Exit program and return to original directory.
Ctrl Q Exit program leaving the currently displayed directory
(source) as the current default drive and directory for DOS.

Marking files

Grey + Mark current file entry, if not a subdirectory or hidden
or Ins file, and advance cursor to next line.

Grey - Remove mark on current file, and advance cursor to next line.
or Del

Space Toggle marking of highlighted file. Same as Grey + (Mark)
unless currently highlighted file is already marked, in
which case it is the same as Grey - (Remove Mark).

F5 Clear all marks.

F6 Mark all remaining files, i.e. those not marked with an * .

F7 Swap marked and unmarked files.

F11 Re-mark files (i.e. mark those files with *'s next to their
names) This function is equivalent to F6 followed by F7.

Most functions operate on the marked files, if any, otherwise they
operate on the currently highlighted file. If the operation is
successful the mark is replaced with an asterisk (*), if unsuccessful
the file is passed over, leaving the mark, and the program proceeds
on to the next marked file.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 18

Copying, Moving, and Deleting files

F1 Copy file(s) via a read/write sequence to requested target
or Ctrl C

Alt F1 Protected Copy - similar to F1 except that an error is
generated if the target file already exists or cannot be
written to (e.g. is Read-only or Hidden)

F2 Delete file(s) or directory after asking for confirmation
(unless empty directory). Directories containing
subdirectories or Read-Only/Hidden files cannot be deleted.

F3 Move file(s), i.e. Copy to requested target, delete source.
or Ctrl M Where possible this function is performed using an across
directory rename instead of a file read/write sequence.

Alt F3 Forced Move - Unlike a regular move (F3), this option will
overwrite the target file if it already exists. (This
command has the same relationship to MOVE as COPY has to

F4 Rename file(s) or directory within the currently displayed
(source) directory.

Changing active source and destination directories

F8 Swap the Source Directory and the Target Directory.

F9 Prompt for a new Source Directory.

F10 Prompt for a new Target Directory.

] Make the Target Directory equal to the Source Directory.

[ Make the Source Directory equal to the Target Directory.

Change to next drive specified in Drive Table.

Change to previous drive specified in Drive Table.

Backspace Pop the Source Directory up one level.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 19

Re-sorting the working directory

Alt N Sort by filename (ascending)
Ctrl N (descending)
Alt E Sort by file extension (e.g. .COM vs .DOC). (ascending)
Ctrl E (descending)
Alt D Sort by date and time. (ascending)
Ctrl D (descending)
Alt S Sort by file size. (ascending)
Ctrl S (descending)
Alt T Sort by attribute (ascending)
Ctrl T (archive, read-only, hidden, system) (descending)
Alt O Re-read and display dir in original DOS order (unsorted)
Ctrl O (unsorted)

However you sort the files, note that the actual order of the files
on the disk is unchanged. Sorting changes only the display of files
within Directory Freedom; any changes to the sort order are not
written to disk. Attribute sorting sorts by the value of the
attribute bits such as Archive and Read-only.

DOS Shell functions

Alt F2 Invoke DOS Shell.
Alt F5 Runs the highlighted program. Parameters to insert after
the program name are prompted for.

Directory functions

Alt F6 Create a directory. Creates a new subdirectory under the
Source Directory using a name provided by the user.

Miscellaneous additional commands

Alt F4 Re-read source directory. Required after changing
diskettes in a floppy disk drive. Also useful if a copy or shell
command has changed the directory's contents.

Alt F7 Displays system information screen
Alt F8 Swap video mode between 25 lines and 43 lines (EGA) or 50 lines (VGA). Only operational if you have an EGA or VGA display adapter.

Alt F9 Set file date/time. Prompts for new date and time for
marked files. Uses the system date and time by default.

Alt F10 Creates an archive file (e.g. ZIP file) from marked files
using a command line specified through DFCONFIG.

RShift F10
Secondary 'Create Archive' key

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 20

Ctrl F Toggle display of directories in listing on/off

Alt F11, Ctrl L
Edit Volume name of source Volume.

Alt F12, Ctrl P
Prints the source directory listing to your printer.
Ctrl W Send Form-feed to printer

Ctrl Z Show Help screen.

View Commands

(i.e. the key on the central portion of the keyboard).
or If file highlighted: SmartView uses the external viewer
Ctrl V specified for the extension of the highlighted file. If
the extension is not defined, the default viewer is used.
If directory highlighted: Change to highlighted directory (i.e. make
it the source).

Grey (i.e. the key on the numeric keypad)
or If file highlighted: Force default viewer.
Ctrl If directory highlighted: As above.

Note: The function of the and Grey keys can be
exchanged through the SmartViewers setting in DFCONFIG.

F12 Use Secondary Viewer.
or Ctrl B

Attribute Commands

Alt A Add Archive bit Ctrl A Remove Archive bit
Alt R Add Read-Only bit Ctrl R Remove Read-Only bit
Alt H Add Hidden bit Ctrl H Remove Hidden bit
Alt Y Add System bit Ctrl Y Remove System bit

User-defined Commands

Ctrl-F1 through Ctrl-F12, RShift-F1 through RShift-F6, RShift-F11,
RShift-F12 plus external file viewers. The two Create Archive
functions can also be customized.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 21

Internal Viewer commands

These commands are ONLY applicable when using internal viewer

W Toggle word wrap/horizontal scroll. The startup status of
this toggle can be set through a patch location.

A Toggle ASCII string display.
B Toggle blanking of non-ASCII characters.
Grey * Toggle WordStar bit mask (shift non-ASCII high-order
characters (from 128 to 255) down into the displayable
ASCII range of 1 to 127.

In addition, the cursor control keys act as you would expect. The
key duplicates the key.

4.0 Program Feature Information

The following sections describe some of Directory Freedom's main
features and compatibility with environments such as networks and
windowing systems.

4.1 Internal Viewer

(Note that this section applies ONLY if an external file viewer is
NOT configured as your main and/or secondary default viewer. The
internal viewer obviously has a speed and size advantage over
external viewers - especially on a floppy disk system. On the other
hand, an external viewer such as Vern Buerg's LIST can have a much
wider array of features (e.g. text searching). DF is shipped with
the internal viewer preconfigured although the user can, of course,
change this easily by adding a command line such as LIST ~ from
within the DFCONFIG program.)

Just as pressing lets you view a new directory, pressing
when a filename is highlighted lets you view the contents of
the file. In the default mode the display is wrapped at the edge of
the screen if a line is more than 80 characters wide. This option
can be toggled by pressing W. Display of non-ASCII characters can be
toggled with the ASCII and Blank options by pressing A or B. In
ASCII mode only strings of 5 or more normal ASCII characters
(including tab or space) are displayed. This is useful for viewing
the messages contained in an .EXE or .COM file. With the Blank
option, non-ASCII characters are replaced with a blank or space. A
final option, Grey *, masks the high-order bit of non-ASCII
characters to make WordStar files readable.

The startup status of the Word-wrap bit can be swapped with a patch.
See Appendix E.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 22

4.2 Shell functions and SmartViewers

DF allows the user to significantly build on the internal program
functions by accessing external programs in a variety of useful ways.
While this functionality has existed in DF from the start (in fact,
it was the major new feature of DF 1.0), with version 4.0 I added a
wide new array of methods to access external programs.

User-defined functions

Up to 16 (or 20 if the F11/F12 keys are enabled) external shell
functions can be assigned to the CONTROL-F1 through CONTROL-F10 and
RShift-F1 through RShift-F6 keys. (Why not all the RShift keys, you
ask? Answer: I'm reserving the rest of the RShift keys for DF's own
use in future versions.)

Functions such EDIT and UNARCHIVE can be added to the user-defined
menus to correspond with the programs which you use, not to some
arbitrary set of functions which I've set up. To illustrate the use
of these functions, DF comes configured with a few typical external
programs predefined, but these can be easily added to or changed
through the use of the DFCONFIG program. (Those of you wondering how
someone could ever have a need for this many user-defined functions
might want to take a look at Appendix A which contains some of the
clever things which users have done with these functions.)

An important note: The user-defined functions (and SmartViewers)
depend on external DOS programs. If a defined program cannot be
found (either by specifying its full path in the command line or by
placing it in a directory contained in your DOS PATH), the
corresponding user-defined function will not work.


DF has both default viewers and SmartViewers.

If you wish, the main default viewer can be left in its shipped
configuration of using DF's internal viewer. Alternatively, a
program such as Vern Buerg's LIST or PC Magazine's SMOOTH can be
substituted by entering the appropriate command line for the default
viewer in DFCONFIG. (For example, to use LIST, enter LIST ~ as the
default viewer command line.) The default viewer will be used to
examine the contents of the highlighted file if 1) the file's
extension has not been configured for a SmartViewer or 2) one of the
default viewer override keys (e.g. Ctrl ) have been pressed.

SmartViewers allow you to automatically use the external viewer most
appropriate to a given file's type (as reflected in its extension).
For example, you can configure ZR (the author's ZIP file viewer) for
files with a .ZIP extension and a program such as VGIF or VPIC for a
file with a .GIF extension. As with all the other user-defined
functions, customizing the settings for your personal preferences is

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 23

easy with DFCONFIG. Each SmartViewer command line can have up to
three corresponding extensions defined. Single character wildcards
(i.e. ?) are allowed. (Multiple character wildcards, i.e. *, are not

For example, a multi-purpose graphics viewer such as VPIC might have
a command line and extensions line which looks like the following:

Command Line: VPIC ~ Extensions: GIF PCX RLE

(Hint: If you require more than the allowed three extensions, just
replicate the command line and define additional extensions which
correspond to the replicated command line.)

In addition to the main default viewer and Smartviewers, a secondary
default viewer (accessible through the F12 key or Ctrl B) was added
in version 4.50. The purpose of this viewer is to permit easy access
to a viewer which is used frequently but which does not correspond to
specific file extensions. For example, you might want to leave the
internal viewer configured as the main viewer because of its speed,
but assign a more fully-featured external program to the secondary

Run a Program

The Run-a-Program function (Alt-F5) allows you to run an executable
program from within DF. The program under the highlight bar will be
executed when you press this key combination. You will then be
prompted for the command-line parameters to pass to the executing
program. Press to abort the operation or to continue
without parameters.

Use this option with caution on programs you haven't tried out
before. For one thing, DF has no way of testing a program's memory
requirements. If a program doesn't do its own testing it may hang
your system. Also, some programs seem to be allergic to being run in

NEVER execute a Terminate-And-Stay-Resident (TSR) program from a
shell. You'll end up creating a hole in memory which will, at the
least, cause you to lose memory and, at worst, will cause a system

DOS Shell

The DOS Shell (Alt-F2) allows you to temporarily exit to DOS. You
should be able to do anything in this shell which you would normally
do from the DOS command line subject to the constraint that the DF
parent is using between 35 KB and 100 KB of memory. Type EXIT at the
DOS prompt to return to DF.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 24

4.3 Attribute Functions

DF incorporates functions which allow you to add or remove file
attributes. The ALT-attribute functions allow you to set attribute
bits while the CTRL-attribute functions allow you to remove the bits.
The A, R, H, and Y keys control the Archive, read-Only, Hidden, and
System bits respectively. (An S-key would have conflicted with the
sort function, so the system attribute was assigned a different key
since it will be seldom used anyway.)

In general, attribute functions can be performed using standard
marking just like all other functions. The exception is un-hiding
hidden files. Hidden files can be unhidden one-by-one, but hidden
files cannot be marked. This is because the ability to mark must
carry over to all program functions and I thought that, in general,
users would want hidden files to be automatically skipped since most
DF functions are illegal on hidden files. (On a broader note, DF
intentionally forces a few extra steps to delete or otherwise disrupt
both Read-Only and Hidden files. I believe that this philosophy
represents reasonable, if conservative, practice. Files are
generally made Hidden or Read-Only for a reason and, therefore, I
don't believe it should be too easy to tamper with them.)

4.4 Mouse Support

As of Revision 4.0, DF directly incorporated mouse cursor emulation
(prior versions required a companion memory-resident program, DFM).
This mouse cursor emulation provides the following:

Mouse up/down movements emulate and
Mouse left button emulates
Mouse right button emulates
Mouse middle button (if present) emulates

In addition to using the mouse in the main directory listing, the
Mouse button emulation is also active in the internal viewer.

I realize that the above mouse support is relatively limited. I do
not, however, have plans to significantly increase the level of this
support since I believe that doing so would tend to decrease the
ease-of-use of DF from the keyboard.

In DF 4.50, the mouse initialization code was changed to do a mouse
software reset rather than a hardware reset. This lets DF start up
quite a bit faster on some systems. If this change causes you any

problems, see Appendix E for "undocumented" patch location

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 25

4.5 Network Support

Directory Freedom has been tested with a variety of networks
including Novell Netware, FTP Systems' PC/TCP running idrive,
Lantastic, and Data General PC*I running the MS-NET redirector
without any problems. Of course, networked drives typically impose
some restrictions on what the PC can do -- such as changing volume
labels. Any such limitations will apply to DF as well.

There is one "feature" of Netware of which you may want to be aware.
Unless the Netware configuration file (SHELL.CFG) contains the line
DOTS=ON, you will not see the .. which indicates the parent directory
under DOS and within DF. This is a function of the way Netware
interacts with DOS system calls and has nothing to do with DF.
Realizing that many users are not in a position where they can change
their network server configuration, I've added a shortcut key to DF
which lets you move to the parent directory more easily -- the
Backspace. Note, however, that this shortcut emulates doing an F9
(Change Directory) and typing .. ; therefore it does not preserve the
cursor location when you pop up a level.

4.6 About Configuration Files

By default, DF will happily go on its way using the configuration
information stored within its own program file (DF.COM) whether that
information consists of the defaults the program with which was
shipped or new settings stored directly to the program file by
DFCONFIG. There may even be a slight startup speed advantage to
doing things this way since there's no configuration file to read
when initializing.

Because of virus concerns, however, some users may prefer not to

write to an executable program file (like DF.COM). In fact, resident
virus detection software might well trigger when DFCONFIG tries to
modify DF.COM unless you've told the virus software to ignore
modifications to that file. For this reason (in part) DF allows for
the use of configuration files.

Section 5.2 tells you how to go about creating an initial
configuration file if you don't already have one (since DF does not
ship with such a file, seeing as how it isn't needed and can be
easily constructed from the program file). Once you've got a
configuration file, however, what determines if or how DF uses it?
Here's the scoop:

If you've modified DF.COM with the "Disable CFG Read" option, no-way
no-how are you going to convince DF to read a configuration file
until you've changed this. See Section 5.6.

Assuming you haven't so disabled the use of configuration files, DF
will, on startup, look in the directory containing the executing copy
of DF for a file called DF.CFG. If there is, it will use that
configuration file's settings to override those stored in the

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 26

If you use the /C command line switch (e.g. /Cdft.cfg -- note no
spaces), DF will instead look for the configuration file pointed to
on the command line.

4.7 System Information Screen

The components of the System Information Screen (Alt F7) are
described in hideous techno-weenie detail in Appendix F. This
section just gives a brief overview of the type of information shown
and the philosophy behind the choice of information.

The major components of the system information screen are as follows:

CPU type, frequency, and floating point unit type
System memory totals, allocation, and drivers
DF memory utilization
BIOS copyright information
Sound board information
DOS, memory manager, and windowed environment information
Hardware summary
DIsk drive information
Video summary

Directory Freedom 4.60 Copyright 1992 Gordon Haff and Bit Masons Consulting
System Information Screen Press or to return
CPU: 80386 Step: D0+ DOS version: 5.00 Logical Drives
Running at 19.8 MHz 12-17-92 1:42a ABCDEFGHIJ
NDP: none Environ 399/ 800 CMOS Information
Memory Files 80 Buf 20 A: 1.2MB 5
KB Total Free Verify N Break N B: 1.44MB 3
Convl 640 569 Win N DV N Type HD1: 1 HD2: 0
EMS 4.0 7,504 3,520 QEMM 6.03
Extnd 7,168 Hardware D Drive letter
XMS 3.00 3,520 Bus ISA DRIVE D Volume Label
XMM driver 6.03 Mouse Y 2E2B-1CE1 Serial #
HMA used 16K free 101-key Supprtd Y Fixed Type
Kybd Present Y 2,048 Cluster size
DF Program 32KB Conv 133,920,768 Total space
Directry 63KB XMS LPT1 3BCh 8,390,656 Free space
for shell 537 KB LPT2 278h
BIOS LPT3 not present L/R cursor keys cycle disks
12/15/89 (C)1987, Americ Video
an Megatrends Inc.All ri COM1 3F8h 16450 Active: VGA + analog color
Sound COM2 not present Inactive: MDA + 5151 (mono)
SBlaster Y 220h COM3 not present
Adlib Y COM4 not present

Figure 2. Sample System Information Screen. This screen comes
from a 386-25 running under DOS 5.0.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 27

You may cycle through the logical drive table (less drives A and B)
by pressing the and keys. Using the Ctrl
and Ctrl keys includes drives A and B.
(You will of course get an error if there's no disk in a floppy drive
when you try to access it.)

The philosophy behind the information presented is to provide a
useful single-page summary of the system information of most concern
to users. I've tried to address both the cases where the system
being examined is the user's regular system and the cases where the
utility is being used to examine an system with the intent of
figuring out what it is.

The philosophy is not to replace the rich set of dedicated system
analysis utilities available in the market. While I will make
reasonable efforts to keep abreast of hardware and software changes
which affect the system information screen, DF revisions will not be
driven by updates to this screen nor will the focus of DF switch to
being a system information utility.

4.8 Ultravision Compatibility

Directory Freedom Revision 4.0 and later is compatible with
Personics' Ultravision. Ultravision is a very nice program which
allows for an expanded range of screen modes on EGA/VGA systems as
well as providing for alternate palette sets.

DF will respond to Ultravision in the following ways:

If the screen mode is 80 columns by n rows (where n is any number),
DF will come up in that mode, whether n is 25, 43, 50, 63, or
whatever. The Swap Video Mode (Alt-F8) will, however, alternate
between 25 lines and 43/50 lines only.

If the screen mode is j columns by n rows (where j is any number not
equal to 80 and n is any number), DF will come up in 80 column by 25
row mode. The Swap Video Mode will work as above.

In all cases, DF will, upon exit, restore the screen to whatever mode
was in effect on entry.

In other words, DF can display any number of rows but requires an 80
column display and will act accordingly.

4.9 DESQview and Microsoft Windows Compatibility

As of version 4.60, Directory Freedom is a DESQview-aware
application. DF will detect whether DESQview (or DESQview/X) is
running and, if it is, will make the appropriate function calls to
assign an alternate video buffer address if required. DF will also
relinquish time slices while in keyboard polling loops for more
efficient multitasking operation.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 28

In addition, the LShift key can be substituted for the Alt key as
the "hot-key" for the secondary menu since holding down the Alt key
is the default mechanism for popping up the DESQview menu.

Microsoft Windows does not require specific "awareness" in the same
way as DESQview. However, also as of version 4.60, DF will detect
the presence of Windows and release idle time slices in the same
manner as for DESQview.

(DF is hardly a Windows application. In fact, it has none of the
characteristics of a typical Windows application -- it's small and
efficient and doesn't require a 50MHz 486 for acceptable performance.
However, many users setup DF on their Windows desktop to perform most
of their file management tasks since it's faster and quicker to use
than any Windows-based file managers they've run across.)

5.0 Customization

User customization is carried out through the DFCONFIG program which
is menu driven and includes its own help screens. DFCONFIG version
4.60 can read and write version 4.60 DF.COM files and can read
version 4.50 DF.COM files. (It can probably write DF.COM 4.50 files
without problems also, but this has not been qualified.) DF.CFG
files are compatible between version 4.60 and 4.50. DFCONFIG version
4.50 can be used with version 4.50 files only.

5.1 DFCONFIG Command Line

There are three possible permutations of the DFCONFIG command line:


If you do not specify a path and filename on the DFCONFIG command
line, DFCONFIG assumes that the program you wish to modify is called
DF.CFG and is in the current directory. The current configuration
settings will be initially read from this file and any modifications
made will be saved to this file. If DF.CFG cannot be found, DF.COM
is searched for. If that cannot be found, DFCONFIG terminates with
an error message.

b) DFCONFIG [[path\]filename]

The specified filename will be used for both input and output as
specified in a). The path is optional if DFCONFIG and the .COM or
.CFG file are in the same directory.

c) DFCONFIG [[path\]in_file] [[path\]out_file]

The current configuration settings will be read from in_file. Any
modifications will be saved to out_file. As for b), the path is
optional if everything is in the same directory.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 29

If you do specify any path\filename(s) on the command line, you must
give a full legal pathname from either the current directory or a
root and the full filename with extension. This allows you to use any
names you desire for DF and/or its configuration files. (You must
maintain either the .COM or .CFG extensions, however.) Note that
in_file and out_file can be either DF.COM or DF.CFG files in any

5.2 Creating a Configuration File

To create a configuration file, follow the following steps (or, once
you figure out their purpose, embellish them as you see fit):

Change to a directory which contains DFCONFIG.EXE and DF.COM
Type DFCONFIG DF.COM DF.CFG (where DF.CFG is the name of the
configuration file you wish to create)
Type Y when the program asks you if you want to create a
configuration file
Save and Quit from the main DFCONFIG menu

You now have a configuration file. If you used the name DF.CFG and
leave it in the same directory as the copy of DF.COM which you intend
to run, it will be used automatically. If you've named it
YUH459X6.CFG, that's fine too, but you'll have a hard time
remembering that name when you use the /C switch on the DF command
line. If you've tried to use anything other than a .CFG extension
DFCONFIG has probably dutifully stopped you; if not, it still won't

5.3 DFCONFIG Usage Notes

A mouse is supported in DFCONFIG's menus. The
button is equivalent to on the keyboard, the Button> button to .

If you make changes to DF's parameters, make sure that you tell
DFCONFIG to save them; i.e. changes are not automatically saved.

DFCONFIG modifies DF.COM by making changes to the memory image of the
program, and then saving the memory image back to disk if told to
save the changes thereby overwriting the original. This modification
procedure may alert certain anti-viral programs such as Flushot+ and
will alter the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) value of the DF.COM
file. Starting with version 4.50, a configuration file may be used
in place of direct modification of the program file.

DFCONFIG cannot work on a DF.COM file that has been compressed with a
program such as LZEXE or PKLITE. DF.COM is compatible with these
programs, but it cannot be modified in its compressed state since
DFCONFIG depends on data being in specific locations in the program.
(Don't even think about compressing DF.CFG since then neither DF.COM
or DFCONFIG.EXE will be able to read it.)

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 30

DFCONFIG is compatible with Ultravision from Personics. If
Ultravision is detected, DFCONFIG will set an 80x25 screen mode, but
will restore the initial screen dimensions upon exit.

If you have a monochrome monitor attached to a graphics card
(CGA/EGA/VGA), DFCONFIG will automatically map the screen colors to
their monochrome equivalents (with minor changes to make it easier to
recognize the "quick selection characters" in the menus). The best
results may be obtained, however, if you issue the "MODE MONO"
command prior to invoking DFCONFIG.

5.4 DFCONFIG Main Menu

Attributes: Accesses the Attributes sub-menu for changing DF
settings such as color and Printer Port. This
menu item is described in detail in Section 5.6.

Commands: Accesses the Commands sub-menu which allows the
specification of user functions such as
SmartViewers. This menu item is described in
detail in Section 5.5.

Help Screen File: Reads in a plain text (i.e. ASCII) help screen to
replace the one which DFCONFIG has read in from a
DF.COM or configuration file along with the other

Info: Gives registration information.

Registration Form: An easy way to enter your information and print a
registration form for DF.

Filenames: Allows the current in_file or out_file to be
changed. See Section 5.7 for additional

Save and Quit: Saves the current settings in memory to the
current out_file. These settings could have been
read in from another copy of DF and/or could have
been entered by the user through the Attributes
and Commands sub-menus.

Quit w/o saving: Quit the program without making any alterations
to the out_file.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 31

5.5 Commands Modification

DFCONFIG can be used to modify the user-defined shell functions
accessed by the following menus:

Control Keys (Ctrl F1 through Ctrl F10)
Right Shift Keys (RShft F1 through RShft F6)
Extended Keys (Ctrl and RShft F11 and F12)
Viewers (SmartViewers and default viewers)
More SmartViewers (What do you think?)
Archivers (Command line used by 'Create Archive' functions)

See Appendix D for the edit keystrokes used in these data entry

At the simplest level, the shell functions can merely be used to run
an external program with no arguments (or at least no variable
arguments). Thus, if you had a program called CPUTYPE which you
would ordinarily run just by typing:


at the DOS prompt, you would just enter the same thing as one of the
command lines within the DFCONFIG commands modification screen.

There may indeed be situations where you want to access such a
program from within DF, however, this usage does not take full
advantage of the DF user-defined shell feature.

Since the DF highlight cursor is always resting on a file or
directory, it might seem useful to be able to pass that information
to a shell command line. DF can do exactly this. By entering a ~
(tilde) as part of a defined command line in DFCONFIG, the user tells
DF to "Insert the full path and filename of the file or directory
under the highlight at this spot in the command." For example:

The syntax to start Qedit with a file to edit is: Q [path\]filename

In DFCONFIG, Q ~ will start Qedit with the highlighted file.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 32

Command-line syntax

In addition to the aforementioned tilde, a variety of other
parameters are available to increase the flexibility of the
user-defined command lines.

%n Synonym for ~. This parameter is replaced with the full
drive:path\filename of the highlighted file. (e.g.

%d Source drive (e.g. c:)

%p Source pathname (e.g. c:\work) [Versions before 4.60 included a
trailing \ for this parameter -- and, unfortunately, a second
one for good luck if you were pointing to the root directory]

%c Target drive (note that since DF makes the target path the
current DOS path, the default path on the target drive is the
same as the target path)

%f Highlighted filename only (e.g. df.txt). This differs from %n
in that drive and path information is not included.

%b Highlighted "base" filename only (e.g. df)

%e Highlighted extension only (e.g. txt) [This corrects information
in previous versions of this manual which indicated that the
parameter included the leading period.]

` Synonym for ` (grave, i.e. the backwards accent under the tilde
on most keyboards). This allows for the runtime insertion of
parameters. The user is prompted for the input to this field.
More than one grave may be placed on a command line, but the
user will only be prompted one time and the input will be replicated.

%% Literal %


All the above is really a whole lot more complicated to read than it
actually is to do, so let's go through an example. Let's suppose
that we want to define a key for Phil Katz's PKUNZIP program which
views or extracts the archives found on many electronic bulletin
board systems. Although we would normally set this program up on two
different keys (one to view and one to extract), let's assume for the
purposes of the example that this is a seldom used function and we
only want to use one key for it.

We go into DFCONFIG and the Commands menu. We then enter the desired
command line. (We'll assume we're programming CTRL-F3):

The usual syntax for PKUNZIP is something along the lines of:
PKUNZIP [options] [path\]filename

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 33

In DFCONFIG, entering PKUNZIP ` ~ for the command line will prompt
you to input the option you want, for example, -v if you want to view
the highlighted ZIP file or -e if you want to extract the highlighted
ZIP file.

Enter whatever you like for the command line's menu name - it's only
for your own reference. Don't worry about the Pause?, Refresh?, and
Multi? fields for now. They're described later.

We save the modified data entry screen with a , return to
the main menu, and choose Save and Quit from the main DFCONFIG menu.

When we next run DF, you'll notice that, when pressing the Control
key, the new item has been added to the menu.

to abandon changes, Ctrl to save
Command Field Description Refresh?

Ctrl-F1 q ~ Edit (Qedit) N Y N

Ctrl-F2 arj e ~ Extract ARJ Y Y Y

Ctrl-F3 pkunzip ~ Extract ZIP Y Y Y

Ctrl-F4 nd ~ Name -> Date Y Y Y

Ctrl-F5 fv ~ Archive View Y N Y

Ctrl-F6 N N N

Ctrl-F7 These definitions N N N

Ctrl-F8 are examples only N N N

Ctrl-F9 and require other N N N

Ctrl-F10 software to work N N N

Figure 3. Data entry screen for main user-defined menu.

We now select a file to operate on. Just move the cursor down until
the desired file is highlighted and, while holding down the Control
key, press F3. DF will prompt you to enter parameters. Let's assume
you want to view the archive. In this case, type -v and then hit the
key. If the highlighted file were called ARCHIVE.ZIP and was
in the DOWNLOAD directory on the C: drive, DF would expand the
command line to the following:


Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 34

Archiver Command

The default command line for the main archiver is: pkzip -ao
@dfzip998 '

The @dfzip998 refers to a temporary file which DF creates to hold the
filenames to be archived. You shouldn't mess with this. The -ao
switch creates an archive, the time/date stamp of which is equal to
the time/date stamp of the most recent file in the archive as opposed
to the current time/date. (Using the -a switch instead would cause
the current date to be used.)

The ' (grave or back-quote) in the command line prompts you to enter
the name of the archive file you wish to create. You can combine the
name with any additional switches you wish to add to the process.
(Of course if there are different switch settings which you use all
the time, you will probably want to modify the command line in

Other command line controls

The Pause? value is asking whether you want a "Press any key to
return" after exiting the program. You probably don't want a pause
for things such as editors and do for programs which place
information on the screen without inserting their own pause before

The Refresh? value is asking whether you want DF to reread the
directory before returning from the shell. You will generally want
to set this value to 'Y' when performing functions such as extracting
archives. There is a minimal performance penalty attached to
performing such a reread on hard disks unless the directories are
very large. If a function is regularly used on a floppy diskette
directory, however, you may wish to perform Rereads manually (Alt-F4)
only when you need them. Refresh will wipe out any file markings.

The Multi? value is asking whether or not you want the function to
operate on Marked files (if any exist) or the highlighted file. If
Multi? is set to 'N', the function will operate only on the currently
highlighted file - whether or not other files in the directory are
highlighted. If Multi? is set to 'Y', the function will operate
SEQUENTIALLY on the marked files in the directory (or the highlighted
file if no files are marked). The Multi switch is not available for

In the customization screen, you save your work by either typing
CTRL- at any point, or when positioned on the last
field of the screen. Exiting with DOES NOT SAVE THE CONTENTS

All the movement and edit commands for the data screen are available
through on-line help in DFCONFIG.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 35

5.6 Attributes Modification

In addition to DF screen colors (NORMAL, INTENSE, MENU, MENU2,
BORDER, and INVERSE), the following attributes can be changed by the
DFCONFIG program:

Switch [Default: / (Standard DOS)
Snow check [Default: Off]
Sort Default [Default: Ascending Name order]
Verify Default [Default: Floppy only]
Beep tone [Default: Standard DOS Beep]
Extended Keyboard [Default: Auto]
SmartViewer Key [Default: ]
Secondary Menu Key [Default: Alt]
Mouse [Default: Enable]
Startup Video Mode [Default: 25 lines]
Exclude Attributes [Default: N for all attributes]
Printer Port [Default: LPT1]
Disable CFG Read [Default: No]
Drive Table [Default: empty]
Drive Table Keys [Default: left/right arrow]
Memory Allocation [Default: Try XMS,EMS, and large Conventional]

Each of these options are explained below.

Edit Attributes

Switch Directory of C:\TC
Snow Check Example of Intense
Sort Default
Verify Default Filename Ext 45678
Beep Default FILENAME EXT 6478
Extended Keyboard 89098765 ABC 123098
SmartViewer key AUTOEXEC BAT 13818
Secondary Menu Ke Normal INVERSE 0
Mouse Intense GORDONHA FF 76438
Startup Video Mod Menu
Exclude Attribute Border
Printer Port Inverse Sample of
Disable CFG read 2nd Menu MENUS/BORDER
Drive Table
Drive Table Keys
Memory Allocation
Return to Menu

Figure 4. Attributes modification menu showing color modification

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 36


Both the foreground and background settings of the six color
combinations used in DF can be modified through DFCONFIG's Attribute
modification. To aid you in this process, a sample color screen
changes dynamically based on the currently set and currently
highlighted colors.


/ ("Standard" DOS switch)
- ("UNIX" switch)

For the UNIX hackers, the switch character is used to identify an
option entered on the DOS command line when you first call up DF.
Normally this is '/', so that options would be specified by /d or /o.
By changing the byte to '-', options can be entered as -d or -o.
This lets you use '/' in your path names, so that instead of entering
command lines like:


You can now enter:



But not: DF C:\COMM\DOWN D:/UTIL /D (This will confuse DF)

(Note that since the confusion results from the option switch, and
since there are no options entered with pathnames once the program is
running, you can use either / or \ as a path delimiter when entering
a destination or changing the path with F9 or F10 keys.)

Snow Check


When DF starts up it determines the primary display type and if it is
monochrome, EGA, or VGA, snow checking is neither performed nor
necessary. If it is not one of those, then DF can query the display
adapter before writing to the display memory to see if it is OK to do
so. This procedure is necessary to avoid spurious dots or "snow" on
old IBM Color Graphics Adapters (CGAs) caused by the CPU and the
display circuitry simultaneously accessing the video buffer.
Unfortunately, this check also slows down the display quite a bit.
If snow checking is specified by the command line switch /F, the
default setting is overridden. (It's unlikely you'll ever need to
use this setting unless you have one of the original "true Blue" IBM

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 37

Sort Option


A new default sort key and order can be chosen from within DFCONFIG.
The choices (Name, Extension, Size, Date, Attribute, and Original)
are the same as those which can be specified on either the DF command
line or by pressing the appropriate Alt- or Ctrl-key. If a sort
order is specified as a command line switch, this default setting is

If (O)riginal is chosen, no sort takes place and the filenames are
displayed in the same order as they are displayed when typing the
'dir' command at the DOS prompt.

Other choices (e.g. (N)ame) bring up a secondary menu which asks you
to specify (A)scending or (D)escending. You can use the sort menu to
specify a sort order for each primary key (except for (O)riginal).
This sort order will be used as the command-line default if you
specify a primary key but not an order suffix. (In other words, if
you specify a sort key but no order on the command line, (e.g. /D)
whether the sort takes place in ascending or descending order will be
a function of what you set up in this menu item.)

If (N)ame, (E)xtension, or A(t)tribute is chosen, the sort is in
ascending (i.e. alphabetical) order by default. If (S)ize is chosen,
the sort is in descending order by default to allow for more
efficient packing when copying to multiple floppy diskettes. (D)ate
also sorts in descending order by default to place the most recently
created or modified files at the top of the directory listing.

DF automatically uses a logical secondary key and secondary key order
for each primary key sort. The identity and sort order of this
secondary key is not configurable.

Press from the primary sort key menu to return to the main
attributes menu.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 38

Verify Default

No Change
Floppy Only

From the DOS command line, you can type VERIFY ON or VERIFY OFF to
change DOS's write-verify status. If Verify is on, MS-DOS performs a
series of checks following each disk-write operation to attempt to
verify that the data just written can be read without error. The
downside of such checking is that write operations are slowed down
significantly and the enhanced security provided by VERIFY ON is
questionable, at least with hard disks.

In any case, DFCONFIG allows the write-verify status within DF to be
set in one of four different ways. It can be set ON, in which case
all affected DF commands will operate with write-verify status
enabled. It can be set OFF, in which case all affected DF commands
will operate with write-verify status disabled. It can be set to NO
CHANGE, in which case DF will use the write-verify status which was
in use by DOS prior to running DF. Or it can be set to FLOPPY ONLY
in which case verify is set on if the target is a floppy diskette and
set off otherwise. Using DF's /V command-line switch will force
write-verify status ON no matter how this switch is set.

Beep Default

DOS Beep
Beep 1

If an error is made when using DF (e.g. an illegal operation such as
deleting a Read-only file is attempted), the program beeps to alert
you of the error. By default, the standard DOS beep (ASCII 07) is
used. Personally I find this standard tone very annoying and grating
on the ear so DFCONFIG allows an alternative "soft beep" to be chosen
instead. (This alternative tone is generated by programming the
timer chip directly instead of using standard DOS or BIOS services.
Therefore it may not work on some computers which are not 100% IBM
PC/AT hardware compatible.)

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 39

Extended Keyboard


On systems with extended keyboards (101-key or equivalent), selecting
Yes will allow the user to program two additional function keys on
the Control and RightShift menus (and use the function key commands
Alt-F11 and Alt-F12). The status of this switch does NOT affect the
ability to program these keys in the DFCONFIG command line editor.
Unless this switch is set to Yes, however, those programmed keys
cannot actually be used (nor will they be displayed) within DF.

In revision 4.0, a new default setting (Auto) was added to this menu.
The Auto setting attempts to automatically detect the presence of a
BIOS which supports a 101-key keyboard. Unfortunately, this sort of
detection is kind of a kludge and 101-key support will NOT be
automatically detected on all systems. If automatic detection
doesn't work on your system and you know that you have an extended
keyboard BIOS (or memory resident software which emulates such a
BIOS), just manually force the support by selecting "Yes".

Simply having a 101-key keyboard does not guarantee that the BIOS of
your system will support the extended function keys. If you do not
have an extended keyboard BIOS, enabling F11/F12 may hang your

SmartViewer Key


DF normally uses the key on the main keypad as the
SmartViewer key (i.e. the one which calls up user-defined viewers if
an extension matches). Some people prefer to use the numeric keypad
key as their primary key. This switch lets them do that.

Secondary Menu Key

Left-Shift (i.e. the Shift key on the
left side of the keyboard)

This switch chooses the "hot-key" used to bring up the secondary menu
of "hardwired" DF functions. (This is the menu which includes the
Directory-specific functions and items such as "Run a Program.") The
choice is offered because pressing and releasing the Alt key may also
bring up the DESQView menu if DESQView is active. Since Alt has been
the secondary "hot-key" in all versions of Directory Freedom to date,
however, it has been left as the default for backward compatibility.
Choosing Left-Shift as the hot-key will also lessen the chance of
keystroke conflicts with memory resident programs.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 40



By default, DF uses mouse cursor emulation if a mouse driver is
detected. If you wish to disable this support for some reason, use
this menu.

Startup Video Mode

25 line
43/50 line

The setting of this item will determine whether your system starts up
with a 25 row display or a 43 row (EGA) / 50 row (VGA) display. If
you do not have an EGA or VGA display adapter, this switch setting
will have no effect and you will start up with a 25 line display.

Exclude Attributes

Read-Only Y/N
Hidden Y/N
System Y/N

By default, DF will display all files in the Working (source)
directory regardless of their file attribute bits. This menu item
allows you to exclude the display of one or more of the "special"
attribute settings. (There is also an archive bit which is most
commonly used to handle backups as well as subdirectory and volume
bits - the latter two are already handled in a special manner by DF.)
If , for example, Read-Only were set to 'Y', files with a Read-Only
bit would not be displayed by DF. This switch settings allows a
person such as a PC manager to protect files which would be hidden
from normal DOS displays or protected from normal DOS functions such
as ERASE but which DF would normally display.

Printer Port


This item selects the printer port which will be used by the Print
Directory Listing command.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 41

Disable CFG Read


Normally, DF searches for a DF.CFG file in its home directory if no
configuration file is specified on the command line. If that search
fails, the settings stored in DF.COM are used. If you definitely
don't want to use configuration files, you can save a little time
when DF starts up by disabling DF's search for a configuration file.

Note that this setting is not stored in any configuration files
created. Doing so wouldn't make sense since DF would see the setting
too late to do any good. This setting is only stored when DFCONFIG
saves directly to a DF.COM file.

Drive Table

The Drive Table is the list of drives which you can move among with
the and keys from the main DF menu. By
default, the table is empty. Fill it up with the drive letters you
wish to add to the list unseparated by colons or spaces. For
instance, entering CDEFG would allow you to move among those five
drives. It is allowed (though not really recommended) to add floppy
drives to the list.

If DF.COM sees that the table is empty, by default it will use all
logical drives on the system less A and B. If you want to tell DF
that empty means empty, you may patch DF.COM per Appendix E.

Drive Table Keys

Left/Right Arrow
Control Left/Right Arrow

By default, you move through the drive table with the left and right
arrow keys. Some people have found that, especially on systems which
use brain-damaged cursor key arrangements such as the Inverted-T,
they hit these keys by accident rather too often. These folks can
now optionally use the Control left/right arrow combination instead.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 42

Memory Allocation

Low (Large) Y

Starting with version 4.60 of Directory Freedom, memory management
has been rewritten to allow a full 64KB memory segment to be devoted
to storing the displayed directory. This translates into about 1500
files. Earlier versions forced the directory to share its space with
the program code which meant that only about half this number of
files could be accommodated.

This configuration item determines whether you use this new memory
feature and, if so, whether you want to swap out the directory space
to XMS or EMS when executing a user-defined command or otherwise
shelling to DOS. If any of the above items are set to 'Y', DF will
use the large directory space. If XMS is checked, DF will check for
the presence of XMS memory and, if available, will swap the directory
space to XMS memory on a shell. Ditto for EMS. If both XMS and EMS
are set to 'Y', DF will first try to use XMS memory and will only do
its thing with EMS if XMS is not available. If both XMS and EMS are
set to 'N' (or if they are unavailable), DF will still use the large
directory space but will not swap. If you're the tinkering type, you
can see the effects of all this in the System Information Screen
under DF Memory Usage.

"Boy, that last paragraph was sure confusing!?! I wonder what I
ought to do????" The simple answer to this is that you'll very
rarely want to make any changes from the default settings. I can
really only think of a couple of instances:

If your system does not have XMS or EMS memory and you want to
make about 30K more memory available for shells (in exchange for
a smaller maximum directory size), set all options to 'N'

(Rare) If, for some reason, your system is having problems with
XMS or EMS swapping you may want to try turning the relevant
option off.

Note that DF automatically detects XMS and EMS memory availability.
Setting, say, XMS to 'Y' only means that DF will try to use XMS for
swapping. If it can't find XMS or there's no XMS free, no harm is

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 43

5.7 Read Help Screen

This menu item allows you to read in a plain ASCII text file as DF's
help screen. When you read in a file in this manner, it will replace
the current help text in DFCONFIG. The text file should consist of
18 lines with up to 77 characters each. (If it's bigger or has
longer lines than this, fine -- but the preceeding is all that will
get read in.) Important! The file must be a plain ASCII file. It
cannot be formatted output from a word processor or the results will
likely be spectacular but not very useful.

Why would anyone want to do this? Again, I have a couple of reasons:

You want to write a new help file with your favorite text editor
and take advantage of all the text editor's features such as
column moves and line drawing boxes

You want to bring over user-defined commands and settings from
an earlier revision of DF while also getting the help screen
which came with the new version. The is actually the case when
moving from DF 4.50 to 4.60 and, for this reason, the file
DFHELP.TXT is supplied. See the installation section of this
manual for upgrading instructions.

5.8 Filenames

The Filenames item on the main menu allows you to specify new in_file
and out_file names to replace those specified (or defaulted to) on
the DFCONFIG command line. The filenames can be either entered
directly or selected from a directory list of .COM or .CFG files. If
filenames are entered manually, they must end in either a .CFG or a
.COM extension which corresponds to their identity as configuration
or program files. If a .CFG file which does not exist is specified
as an out_file (either through this menu item or on the DFCONFIG
command line, you will be asked whether you wish to create a new

DFCONFIG will attempt to validate any selected files to ensure that
they correspond to the proper format for the chosen file type. By
necessity, however, the checking is limited to a search for certain
coded strings which DFCONFIG inserts in .CFG files or which are
present in .COM files. If the chosen file is corrupted in a more
subtle way (for instance by manual editing outside of the DFCONFIG
program), DFCONFIG may still think the file is valid when it is not.
The results in such a case will be unpredictable.

When a file is chosen for input, its contents will be read into
DFCONFIG as the current settings as soon as you verify that the
program should go ahead. When a new file is chosen for output, no
writing takes place until DFCONFIG is exited through the "Save and
Quit" item on the main menu.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 44

6.0 Companion Programs

Bit Masons has written software which can be used in conjunction with
DF. The main example of this is the X-Ray Viewers which, while they
can also be used outside of DF from the DOS command line, are
primarily intended to be used as SmartViewers from within DF. This
companion software has been released by Bit Masons as "Freeware" and
is not part of Directory Freedom.

Those of you who order updates directly from the author will receive
all Bit Masons companion programs together with the latest revision
of Directory Freedom.

In addition to software written in-house, Bit Masons also sells a
companion disk of third-party software which many users find works
well together with DF as SmartViewers and for other purposes. Bit
Masons acts only as a distributor for this software. Most of it is
shareware and must be registered with the individual authors per
their license agreements if you use it. See the REGISTER.DOC file
for information on ordering this disk. This third party software is
also available from a variety of electronic sources and from disk

6.1 Bit Masons Programs

X-Ray Viewers

The X-Ray Viewers provide a scrollable environment for examining the
contents of various types of archive files and allows the user to
view those contents by piping them to LIST. In other words, you can
read a text file contained within, for example, a .ZIP file without
extracting the archive. In combination with the SmartViewer
functions in DF, the X-Ray viewers make the examination of .ZIP,
.ARJ, .LZH, and .ZOO files almost automatic (just highlight a file
and press ).
"Freeware" but requires the appropriate archive program and LIST
to function.
Latest revision: 1.02;
Archive name: XRAY102 (XRAY.ZIP on Compuserve) Contains ARJ,
ZIP, LZH, and ZOO viewers. See XR.TXT on the disk for more
information. Subsumes ZR which was in turn a renaming of ZV.

In the interests of providing an integrated environment for viewing
archives, the X-Ray Viewers revision 1.02 are bundled with Directory
Freedom revision 4.60. Since they are separate software, however, DF
will not be automatically updated if new revisions of these viewers
become available. Those who obtain their software from Electronic
Bulletin Boards may therefore wish to download copies of XRAYxxx.ZIP
when new revisions become available. Diskettes shipped by Bit Masons
will always contain the most recent copies of the X-Ray Viewers.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 45


This program can be set to a user-defined function key and will
rename the highlighted file to a new name which is derived from the
current date. For example, FILENAME.TXT would be renamed to
891015.TXT if the date were Oct 15, 1989. It appends a letter to the
base name (e.g. 891015A.TXT, 891015B.TXT, etc.) if the "dated name"
already exists. I find this very useful for handling message-base
files from BBS's. Version 2.00 adds a great deal of flexibility with
command-line switches.
ND is "Freeware."
Latest revision: 2.0;
Archive name: NAMD200.ZIP (ND200.ZIP on Compuserve)

6.2 Third-Party Programs

As noted, some of these useful programs are included on the DF
companion disk. Please check the README.DF file for the latest
contents of this diskette.


A Michael Mefford creation which appeared in PC Magazine is PRUNE.
PRUNE shows two disk drives simultaneously and contains powerful
functions for manipulating entire directory trees. An older Mefford
program which fulfilled a similar function was RF. RF has not been
updated for many years, however, and apparently has a variety of
problems with high-capacity disks, DOS 5, and other recent additions
to the PC world. I no longer recommend that RF be used in
conjunction with DF. PRUNE is available on PCMAGNET and can be
patched with the instructions in Appendix B. A pre-patched version
with a couple of other changes to make calling DF easier is available
on many BBS systems and the DF companion disk as DFPRUNE.

SLED or TED or QEDIT or ...

Since I do not want to start a religious war, I won't even begin to
suggest which editor people should configure. SLED is a small
shareware editor which many people like and is very sophisticated for
its size. TED is a simple editor from PC Magazine which is free
copyrighted software. While lacking such features as word-wrap, it
is very compact (~ 12K bytes) and more than sufficient to edit batch
files and perform similar tasks. QEdit is a very good shareware
programmers' editor. Personally, I have my working copy of DF setup
to use Multi-Edit (a programmer's editor).
SLED is included on the companion disk.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 46


As mentioned earlier in this documentation, I recommend Vernon
Buerg's LIST in place of the built-in file viewer for many
applications. Vernon has been making significant enhancements to
LIST recently and is well worth a look in the event you don't already
have a copy.
LIST is included on the companion disk.


VPIC will view many formats of graphics files (e.g. GIF and PCX) on a
variety of graphics boards including most Super-VGA adapters. VPIC
is well-suited for configuration as a SmartViewer against a range of
graphics formats.
VPIC is included on the companion disk.


RVS fulfills much the same function as the X-Ray Viewers. A single
program can be used against a variety of archive formats to view
their contents and view text files within the archive. RVS is
somewhat more powerful than the X-Ray Viewers, but also takes more
memory and isn't quite as fast. Which is best for you will depend on
your requirements. Many users find it convenient to use the X-Ray
Viewers as their SmartViewers while assigning RVS to a user-defined
RVS is included on the companion disk

7.0 Technical and Sources

DF was written using Borland's Turbo Assembler and Turbo Debugger
3.0. The vast bulk of the code is custom although some modified
routines from Base Two's Spontaneous Assembler 2.0 libraries were
also used. Multi-Edit 6.0 from American Cybernetics was used as an
editor. DFCONFIG was compiled using Borland C++ 3.1 in conjunction
with the TCXL rev 5.52 libraries. [A sidebar: TCXL was formerly Mike
Smedley's CXL. The libraries were purchased by Innovative Data
Concepts who now own the rights. IDC can be contacted at
215-443-9705.] Documentation was prepared using Ami Pro 3.0 and
converted for the on-disk version with the aforementioned Multi-Edit.

DF was developed on a homebrew 386 (named Dejah Thoris) based on an
AMI 20MHz full-size motherboard with Micropolis 660MB ESDI disk and
Ultrastore 12(F) ESDI controller. It is a dual monitor system with
an Orchid Prodesigner 512KB VGA board and an IBM MDA board. The
system runs DOS 5.0, QEMM, and Windows 3.1. While it is not possible
to test with all possible configurations, test systems have included
a DG/One 2T laptop, a DG Dasher/286 with EGA, and a DG/Dasher 386/25k
with VGA. Testing included both DOS 3.3 and DOS 5.0.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 47

The following, in no particular order, are some of the sources and
tools which have been helpful for the development of DF:

Borland C++, Assembler, Debugger, and Profiler tools
Innovative Data Concepts' Tesseract Development Tools
Base Two's Spontaneous Assembly libraries
American Cybernetic's Multi-Edit editor
Lotus Development Corp.'s Ami Pro 3.0
Many Hax and articles from PC Techniques magazine
The rich assortment of assembler code which (mostly used to appear)
in PC Magazine together with much information from the back
pages of same
The Waite Group's MS-DOS Developer's Guide
A VERY well-thumbed copy of Ralph Duncan's Advanced MS-DOS
Michael Abrash's Zen of Assemby Language
Peter Norton's Programmer's Guide to the IBM PC
Richard Wilton's Programmer's Guide to PC and PS/2 Video Systems
Phoenix Technology's System BIOS for IBM PC's, Compatibles, and EISA
Robert Hummel's Programmer's Technical Reference: The Processor and
Microsoft Press's Microsoft Mouse Programmer's Reference
Steve Grant's and Andrew Rossmann's InfoPlus program for which they
generously make the sources available. Information in these
sources contributed greatly to making the System Information
screen possible.
CPU frequency code adapted from ATPERF published by the late,
lamented PC Tech Journal
386 Step detection from 386STEP.ASM, Jeff Proise PC Magazine 2/11/92
CPU code detection, including NEC variants, from PC Tech Journal 4/86
by Bob Smith with 486 detection from Hummel added

8.0 Acknowledgements

For Directory Freedom 4.60, special thanks go to my beta testers: Don
Dougherty, Mike Cromer, Rick Strom, Ron Lloyd, John Windhorst, and
others. Blame me for any bugs you find, but rest assured that there
would be many more without the efforts of these testers.

I would also like to thank the many other users whose suggestions
have contributed greatly to the advancement of DF and, of course,
those who have registered their copies and made the Shareware concept
work. In addition to the above testers, the "inhabitants" of the
Ilink and RIME Shareware Relays have been especially forthcoming with
many suggestions for improvements and new features.

Finally, I would like to thank the sysops of my "home" BBS (Channel
One), Brian Miller and Tess Hedder.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 48

DF 1.00 was based extensively on Peter Esherick's source code from DC
rev 1.05b with the additional help of some code from Brad
Stephenson's DR26 program. Peter has also been kind enough to share
some DC code fixes with me for incorporation into DF. Peter can be
contacted at the following:

Albuquerque PC Users' Group
Albuquerque RBBS 296-7672, John Maio, sysop
ARPANET: [email protected]

Steve Grandi of U. Arizona also contributed to DC and has made
helpful suggestions for DF as well.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 49

9.0 Appendix A: User-defined Commands

This section shows just a sample of some of the command lines which
myself and other users of DF have come up with to make our computing
a bit easier. As stated earlier, many of the programs listed in this
Appendix are Shareware. As such, you can fully try out these
programs (subject to the limitations, if any) in their individual
license agreements. If you find them useful, however, you are
expected to register them with the individual authors. Most of these
programs should be readily available from private electronic bulletin
boards, Information Services such as Compuserve, and disk vendors
such as PC-SIG. If you can't find a particular program, I may be
able to help, but some of the command lines in this Appendix were
contributed by other users so I do not have all (or the latest
versions of) some of the software listed here. Thanks to Don
Dougherty, Robert Ramsdell, and Shakib Otaqui for contributing.

Editors and Word Processors

q ~ [Qedit]
wp ~ [Word Perfect]

Virus Detection

chk4bomb ~|list/s
scan ~ /nomem

Listing Files

These programs tend to have complicated switches; you may well want
different settings than in these examples]

4print ~ -h -s [Print 2 to a page on Laserjet]
lp ~ lpt1: /N /132 [Norton Line Print]


dirmatch %p %c [Look at source and target directories side by side]
lzeshell ~ [Create compressed executable file]
pkunzip ~ [Extract archive to default directory]
pkunzip ~ s:\ [Extract archive to s: drive]
4dos [Execute 4DOS command shell]


list ~ [LIST for general-purpose viewer]
zr ~ [ZR for .ZIP]
vpic ~ [VPIC for .GIF]
wpdraw ~ [Word Perfect Draw for .WPG]
playrol ~ bank.bnk [Plays Adlib sound files (.ROL) with bank.bnk instrument file)

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 50

10.0 Appendix B: Patching Instructions

This section describes how to patch PC Magazine's RN and PRUNE to
call DF instead of the default DR. An alternate method of achieving
the same effect is to rename DF.COM to DR.COM. The instructions in
this section are valid as of the specified revs of the RN.COM and
PRUNE.COM which were downloaded from Compuserve on 20 November 1990.

This section is not intended to be a tutorial on patching programs.
The changes detailed in this section can be made with any byte-level
editor such as DISKEDIT or NU in the Norton Utilities or even DEBUG.
As always, make sure that you have a backup of the original program
before you start messing around with its bytes!


Instructions apply to RN.COM, Revision 2.0 (4676 bytes).

At offset 029Ah old: 52 2F 45 0D 00
new: 46 0D 00 00 00
At offset 043Bh old: 52
new: 46

The above changes alters DR references to DF and changes the
command line which spawns DR/O to a command line which spawns
DF with no arguments.


Instructions apply to PRUNE.COM, Revision 1.0 (7388 bytes).

At offset 0093h: old: 52
new: 46
At offset 0633h: old: 52
new: 46

The above changes DR references to DF references.

I also have patched versions of these programs which will call DF by
pressing the key. These patches required modification of the
source code and, in the case of PRUNE, I will include it on any
update disks I distribute.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 51

11.0 Appendix C: Site Licenses

Site Licenses are available for DF. The rates below are for a
"basic" site license. This includes registration for the specified
number of copies and support through a single specified individual.
I will, however, be happy to address specific requirements such as
update subscriptions and support through multiple persons.

$40 1 registration with media, typeset manual and update
$18 2-5 registrations
$16 6-9
$14 10-19
$12 20-29
$10 30-99
$8 100 and up

Unlimited $2,500

The above schedule means that the first copy is $40, the 2nd through
5th copies are $18, and so forth. (The exception is the unlimited
license which represents the total license cost.) So, for example, 6
copies would cost $128 ($40 + 4x$18 + 1x$16). The table below lists
the site license cost for a variety of user counts. My terms read
support through a single person, though I'm flexible within reason.
(i.e. I won't hang up the phone on anyone who isn't the "official"
contact, but I would start to get unhappy if I were to start getting
dozens of calls with setup questions.)

Users Price Users Price
5 $112 40 $546
10 $190 50 $646
15 $260 60 $746
20 $328 70 $846
25 $388 80 $946
30 $446 90 $1,046
35 $496 100 $1,144

DF is currently licensed by a wide range of companies and government
agencies. I'd like to add you to the list!

For more information, contact Gordon Haff at:

Bit Masons Consulting
3205 Windsor Ridge Dr.
Westboro, MA 01581
Tele: (508) 898-3321
Compuserve: 72561,2637

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 52

12.0 Appendix D: Keystrokes for Data-entry

LeftArrow cursor left
RightArrow cursor right
UpArrow cursor up
DownArrow cursor down
Ctrl-LeftArrow word left
Ctrl-RightArrow word right
Tab field right
Shift-Tab field left
Enter process field
Ctrl-Enter process all fields
Decimal (.) move to right side of decimal point
Home beginning of field
End end of field line / end of field
Ctrl-Home beginning of first field
Ctrl-End end of last field
Ins toggle field insert mode
Del delete character at cursor
BackSpace delete character left
Ctrl-BackSpace delete word left
Ctrl-R restore field to original contents
Ctrl-T delete word right
Ctrl-U delete to end of field
Ctrl-Y delete to end of last field
Esc abort data entry

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 53

13.0 Appendix E: "Undocumented" Patches

Most DF user-definable switch settings can be altered quickly and
easily through the companion DFCONFIG program. This appendix
documents the DF.COM patch locations for values stored in DF which I
do not anticipate most users having a need to alter (and as such are
not settable through DFCONFIG).

Each entry in this section describes allowable values for each patch
location and what the values mean. It is assumed that any user
wishing to do such patching has the appropriate software (DEBUG or a
full-screen hex editor such as Norton Diskedit) and knows how to use
it. As always, any changes should be made on a backup copy of DF.COM.

Mouse_reset @ 002Dh (Byte)

0: [default] Use software reset
1: Use hardware reset (used in earlier revs of DF)

This patch is provided in case the change to a software reset creates
any incompatibilities. Such incompatibilities are not expected (and
using a hardware reset is slower).

DOS_version_check @ 002Ch (Byte)

0: [default] Check for DOS version. Abort if < 3.0.
1: Skip version check.

If you wish to try running DF with DOS versions earlier than 3.0, you
can try patching this location. No testing has been done, however,
and it is likely that severe problems will be encountered in several
areas of the program (possibly including initialization). The
recommended solution to running with older versions of DOS (such as
on older rev-locked hardware which cannot use standard Microsoft DOS)
is to run an older version of DF which does not have code dependent
on DOS 3-specific features.

View_Flags @ 0026h (Byte)

1: [default] Wordwrap initially on for internal viewer
0: Wordwrap initially off

The internal viewer flags are, by default, initialized with the
WRAP_BIT (1) set. To startup the initial viewer with wordwrap set to
off, set this byte to 0.

Use_logical @ 0028h (Byte)

0: [default] If drive table empty, use logical drive table less A and B
1: If drive table empty, leave it empty (i.e. disable left/right
arrow drive movement)

By default, DF will fill in the drive table for you automatically if
it isn't explicitly set through DFCONFIG. Patching this location
disables this feature.

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 54

14.0 Appendix F: System Information Screen

This Appendix describes to a fairly grotesque level of technical
detail what the system information screen is showing and how it
arrived at some of the nonsensical numbers it displays (while
conveniently forgetting to mention the random number generator).
Somewhat seriously though, this Appendix is aimed at a fairly
technical audience and assumes you know what things like the DOS
Environment are together with other facts which make you an
absolutely scintillating cocktail party guest. If you don't know
about such things you may want to consider yourself lucky and move on
to the next section. But anyway....


CPU: Identifies the type of CPU. 80586 (i586) is not supported yet,
nor does DF currently figure out the width of the memory bus (to
distinguish, for example, between an 8088 and an 8086 or an 80386DX
and an 80386SX). NEC V20's and V30's together with Intel 8018x's are
supposedly detected as are 80486SX's as distinguished from DX's
(486DX2's are not treated uniquely). 80386 chip steppings are
detected as B0 or earlier, B1, and D0 or later. D0+ is good.
Earlier steps had some bugs (See PC Mag 2/11/92).

Cycle time is computed by timing a bunch of fixed point multiplies
and making some adjustments for instruction overhead. The results
have been pretty good across a range of machines tested though they
aren't exact because of the effect of things like memory refresh,
wait states, caches, etc. The code to do this was based on ATPERF
from PC Tech Journal. (The results of this benchmark are not rounded
the the probable "right" answer as an intentional design decision.)

NDP: The type of numeric coprocessor is detected (including Weitek).
Weitek detection is only done on an 80386 and is based on the state
of bit 24 of eax as returned by INT 11h.


Convl: Total and Free KB of Conventional (Low) memory. Total memory
obtained from 040:13h. Available memory computed from offset 03h in
the PSP.

EMS: EMS revision number, Total, and Free KB of EMS memory. Obtained
using various INT 67h calls.

Extnd: Total extended memory. If you are running DOS 4 or later
this is obtained from offset 45h in the List of Lists. If you are
running DOS 3 it is obtained from an INT 15h call with ah = 088h
(with the former being the more reliable method even though it uses
an undocumented function call to obtain the List of Lists). Since
"old style" extended memory was accessed in various and sundry

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 55

unconventional and documented ways, there is no way to really
determine how much extended memory is in use outside of a
specification such as XMS.

XMS: XMS version number and Free KB of XMS memory. Obtained using
XMS multiplex function calls. Duncan's Extending DOS is probably the
best source for both EMS and XMS memory access information.

XMM driver: The version number of the XMS memory driver.

HMA: HMA is the famous 64KB high memory area which Microsoft
"discovered" could be accessed in real mode by flipping the state of
the A20 address line. Possible states are none, free, and used. If
used, the amount free is given. (Theoretically the HMA can only be
used by one program at a time but this "rule" is sometimes broken.
Furthermore, if you have a choice of giving the HMA to one of two
pieces of software such as DOS 5.0 and DESQview, amount free may give
you an idea about how efficiently one program makes use of the
available space relative to the other.)

DF Program: The amount of conventional memory used by DF program

DF Directory: The amount of memory taken up by the DF directory
listing. The type of memory shown (XMS, EMS, or Conventional) is the
type of memory being used by the directory when you have shelled out
of DF to a user-defined command. The directory is always in
conventional memory while DF is active (not shelled out).

DF for shell: This is the amount of memory available for programs
when you shell out of DF. (Actually, some of this space will be be
taken up by the command interpreter you have defined with COMSPEC=)


The BIOS date is assumed to reside at 0F000:FFF5h. The rest of the
copyright signature is obtained by searching for a copyright notice
in the BIOS ROM starting at the beginning of segment 0F000h. This
works most of the time especially with relatively modern systems.
The only quirk I've noticed with recent systems is that some device
drivers (e.g. the TCP/IP packet drivers from FTP Systems) very rudely
overwrite the relocated BIOS ROM information with their own copyright


Sound Boards are detected with all sorts of hairy I/O port bit
twiddling which I don't really want to think about any more. The
code for doing this was obtained from the aforementioned INFOPLUS
Pascal sources (and if you think it looks bad in Pascal, try it in
assembler sometime!)

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 56


DOS version: Major and minor versions of DOS obtained from DOS
function call 30h.

System date and time: Read through DOS functions 2Ah and 2Ch.

DOS environment space: Used / Total. If used is getting up near
total, don't be surprised if you start running into all sorts of
peculiar problems on your system which neither you nor anyone else
can explain. Total is set through parameters to the CONFIG.SYS
SHELL= statement.

Files: The number of files set through FILES= in CONFIG.SYS.

Buf: The number of Buffers set through BUFFERS= in CONFIG.SYS.

Verify: The state of the DOS verify flag. Note that this is the
state of this flag in DOS. It does not necessarily reflect its state
within DF unless you've configured verify through DFCONFIG as "no

Break: The state of the DOS break flag.

Win: Indicates whether Microsoft Windows is running (i.e. whether
you're in a Windows DOS Shell) and, if so, what version.

DV: Indicates whether DesqView is running and, if so, what version.

The bottom line in the DOS section indicates any detected memory
managers. DF looks for QEMM, 386^MAX, and EMM386. In the case of
QEMM only, version number information is also returned. Note that
environments such as Microsoft Windows may disable memory managers
temporarily and make it impossible, therefore, for DF to detect them.


Bus: Detects ISA, EISA, and MCA busses. Does not distinguish 16-bit
AT from 8-bit XT.

Mouse: Is a mouse present on the system? Note that a physically
connected mouse will not be detected if its driver is not present in

101-key Kybd Supported and Present: Detects whether a 101-key
keyboard can be supported by the system BIOS and, if so, whether one
is present.

LPT1 / LPT2 / LPT3: The addresses of each of the parallel printer
ports detected on the system. (3 words starting at 040:08h)

Directory Freedom 4.60 Page 57

COM1 - COM4: The address and UART type of each of the serial ports
detected on the system. The information screen distinguishes among
8250, 16450, and 16550 UART's. (16550 UART's may not be properly
detected under Microsoft Windows.) (4 words starting at 040:00h)


Logical Drives: All the logical drives detected on the system.
Cycles through ALL drive letters checking to see if Set Default Drive
(0Eh) function calls work on each. This method captures
non-contiguous logical drives.

CMOS or BIOS Information: If the system has CMOS RAM (all AT's and
later plus some later 8088/86 systems) this item gives the system
setup information stored therein. This information may not be
complete or accurate for systems such as those with floppy or hard
disk drive BIOS's which provide extended capabilities (such a 4
floppy disks). If CMOS is not found, the small degree of information
which can be gleaned from the BIOS equipment table is displayed.

The cursor keys allow you to move through the system's logical
drives. Most of the displayed information is obtained through DOS
function 1Ch (Get Allocation Information). Serial number and volume
label info is obtained through the undocumented DOS function 69h.


Video information is obtained from int 10h, function 1Ah if
available. Otherwise the video hardware detection routines used by
the main DF program are used to identify the main display adapter.

Registration for Directory Freedom 4.60

To register, please return this form with your registration check or
money order (Purchase orders are also accepted) to:

Gordon Haff
Bit Masons Consulting
3205 Windsor Ridge Dr.
Westborough, MA 01581
Phone: (508) 898-3321

Name ____________________________________

Address ____________________________________________________________



Phone (_____)_____-______

Where did you get DF 4.60 from:

BBS / Service Name ______________________ Number (_____)_____-______

DF 4.60 Registration w/ diskette @ $ 25.00 ea $ _______
(Includes a license for one user, diskette w/
DF and associated files, and product support.)

DF 4.60 Registration (*) @ $ 20.00 ea $ _______
(Includes a license for one user and product support;

DF 4.60 Registration w/ diskette/docs/upd @ $ 40.00 ea $ _______
(Includes Registration and product support plus: A diskette with
DF and associated files, typeset documentation, one free update

DF Companion Utilities Diskette @ $ 5.00 ea $ _______
(Third-party utilities as described in the documentation)

DF Update w/ diskette and docs @ $ 15.00 ea $ _______
(Latest revision on diskette plus typeset documentation.

(**) Non-North American shipping @ $ 5.00 $ _______

TOTAL Enclosed (in US Dollars please) $ _______

If a diskette is being ordered: 3.5" ____ 5.25" ____

(*) Please note that this option covers registration ONLY. You will
receive acknowledgement of registration but will NOT receive a
diskette or printed documentation! This economy option is intended
for those who receive software by electronic means and are sure that

they have the latest version.

(**) Non-North American orders need include $5.00 extra to cover
additional shipping and handling charges ONLY if a diskette and/or
manual is being ordered. Please send all payments payable in U.S.
Dollars unless you have explicitly made other arrangements with the

Canadian customers may use Canadian postal money orders in dollar

Feel free to attach any other comments or instructions (e.g. program
features you'd like to see, or don't send a copy of the program until
the next major rev, etc.)

Note that the update option is::

1) Only available to users who have registered a previous revision
of Directory Freedom and

2) Only required of registered users if they wish a copy of the
latest revision on disk and a printed manual. In other words, this
is a Materials/S&H charge for sending out the latest revision.
Registered users of DF who have obtained the latest rev from other
sources (e.g. a BBS) are under no obligation to pay an upgrade fee
for the use of that rev.

(Of course, this revision will be mailed out automatically to those
users for whom it represents their free update.)

If you or your organization would like a Software Subscription
Service so as to receive the latest copies direct from the author as
soon as they become available, you may pay for multiple updates at
the time of the initial order and, by so doing, will be automatically
placed on the list for the appropriate number of future update
mailings. If you have special requirements in this area, please call
or write. We will try our best to accommodate your needs.

The DF Companion Utilities are described in Section 6 of the manual.
These are third-party programs which many users have found to
complement Directory Freedom well. Bit Masons is acting solely as a
distributor for these utilities. Many of the included utilities are
Shareware and must be registered with their authors after a trial
period if you find them useful.

Now you can order your very own registered copy of Directory Freedom

Registered copies of the full Directory Freedom package
(registration, media, typeset manual, and update) can be ordered
online from Channel 1 Communications(R). To order:

Call Channel 1 at (617) 354-8873 and logon as a new user (if you are
not already a member)

Type S at the main Command prompt to get to the Signup menu. Then
select the Shareware Registration signup.

Order Directory Freedom (specifying 5.25" or 3.5" disks -- if you
don't specify, you will be shipped 5.25"), charging it to a major
credit card. The price is $40. Massachusetts Residents must add 5%
sales tax. Note that your credit card statement will reflect a
charge from Channel 1 and not from Bit Masons Consulting or Gordon

Bit Masons Consulting will ship your order promptly.

Please do not contact Channel 1 for technical support or other
questions about Directory Freedom (such as site licensing or other
special orders)

 December 16, 2017  Add comments

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