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An explaination of the use of file sharing with Turbo Pascal 5.0+.
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An explaination of the use of file sharing with Turbo Pascal 5.0+.
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Methods for Dealing with Shared Files
in TURBO Pascal Version 5.0
by
John W. Wulff
Wulff Enterprises, Inc.
260 Terranova Drive
Warrenton, VA 22186-9227
(703) 349-8805

Revised May 15, 1989

This paper was first written January 19, 1987 as a means of
demonstrating how to modify Turbo Pascal 3.x to handle the
opening of READ-ONLY files and to make it able to deal with files
in a Shared, network environment. It provided a means of finding
an undocumented byte known as the "Open Mode Byte". Since then,
Turbo Pascal 5.0 has been released and this byte has been
globally declared as the FILEMODE variable. Even so, Turbo
Pascal 5.0 ignores the variable when opening TEXT files. While
there is a small explanation in the Turbo Pascal Reference Guide
as to its use, the information in this paper is still valid today
and has been updated to reflect its relevance to Turbo Pascal
5.0. For those wishing to continue to work in Turbo Pascal 3.0,
I have included the locations for this byte in appendix A.

There have been many innovations in the development of PCBoard
software for BBS's. One of which is the network environment that
the authors have included in the code. While this is wonderful
for the multi-node system, it does pose certain problems and
restrictions on application programs and utilities that are being
written for it, especially those written in Borland's Turbo
Pascal.

One problem that plagues most authors writing application
programs that eventually become used in network environments is
coping with the Share utility that DOS uses to protect files.
Any file opened for reading under Turbo Pascal will cause a
Sharing violation if running under a DOS 3.x and 4.x networking
mode. This is because Turbo Pascal opens all files in what is
known as "Inherited by Child Processes, Compatibility Mode,
Read/Write access".

I have written a utility for PCBoard systems, PCBFile, and since
it is extremely file intensive, I've had to do some research on
the technical aspects of DOS in the network mode. Because of
this research, I've been able to get Turbo Pascal to cooperate
and have written this paper to help other authors who are
struggling with the same problems.

As documented in the Turbo Pascal instructions, the FILEMODE
variable has a value of 2 when opening files for RESET or REWRITE
which allows both reading and writing. The instructions suggest
that you should assign a value of 0 to the variable to RESET or
REWRITE read-only files. While this works for READ-ONLY files,













it is not the only value to consider when running an application
in a network environment, especially one with PCBoard software
upon which I will focus my attention for the remainder of the
document.

One thing to consider, if using other languages, especially
assembly language, is that this FILEMODE variable, corresponds to
the AL register. All references to that byte and its decimal
number can be applied to assembly in this way:

AH contains 3DH - the function call
DS:DX points to an ASCIIZ path name
AL will be loaded with the 8 bit number that the
FILEMODE variable contains.

When the function returns, AX will contain error codes or a 16
bit file handle if successful. (See DOS manual for details.) I
don't profess to be anywhere close to fluent in assembly so I
will leave this information with those who are best suited to
take advantage of it.

This variable is GLOBALLY pre-declared in Turbo Pascal, so all
you have to do is refer to it as FILEMODE. Then a simple check
is necessary to see if the variable contains a 2 and if so, load
it with a 0:

begin
if FILEMODE = 2 then
FILEMODE := 0;
end;

The completed routine would look like this:

Procedure OpenMode(Var OpenFile : text;
InFileName : string
Var GoAhead : boolean);

{Remember, FILEMODE is a GLOBALLY declared variable of type
byte. No other declaration is necessary on your part}

begin
if FILEMODE = 2 then
FILEMODE := 0; (* allows reading of READ-ONLY files *)
assign(OpenFile,InFileName);
{$I-} reset(Openfile) {$I+};
GoAhead := (ioresult = 0);
if GoAhead then
writeln(InFileName,' opened!')
else
writeln(InFileName,' failed to open!');
end; { of Procedure OpenMode }


Shared Files in Turbo Pascal 5.0 2













Now we need to determine just what is going on with PCBoard and
how it opens files using DOS's SHARE. The DIR files, or the
files that contain the filenames of the available files for the
user to download, are opened in READ SHARED mode which in
QuickBASIC would be:

OPEN "" FOR INPUT ACCESS READ SHARED AS #1.

Upload DIR files are opened for APPEND in a LOCKED WRITE mode.
This keeps other nodes from writing at that particular moment but
allows other nodes to read this file.

In order to accomplish these same modes in Turbo Pascal we must
look into the DOS Technical Reference Manual (groan!). The
following is reprinted from that manual with some additions by
me.

The OPEN mode consists of 4 bit-oriented fields:
* INHERITANCE FLAG
* SHARING MODE FIELD
* RESERVED FIELD
* ACCESS FIELD
The INHERITANCE FLAG determines if the file will ever be
inherited by another process, which in the case of a network is
usually the desired effect. The SHARING FIELD defines what
operations may be performed on the file by other nodes. The
ACCESS FIELD defines what operations THIS node may perform on the
file.

The bit fields are mapped as follows:
< S > < A >
Open Mode bits 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
I INHERITANCE FLAG
If I = 0; File is inherited by child processes
If I = 1; File is private to the current process

S SHARING MODE
The file is opened like this:
if S = 000; Compatibility mode - The default open mode - it
denies ALL OTHER processes access to the file.
Since this is the mode that Turbo Pascal uses to
open a file, what do you think will happen on the
BBS side if you have a file open on your end and
the BBS tries to open it?
if S = 001; Deny Read/Write mode (Exclusive). This would
actually be the same as setting the I flag to 1.
if S = 010; Deny Write mode - you should open a file in this
mode if you wish to protect it. It will allow
other processes to read it but not write.
if S = 011; Deny Read mode
if S = 100; Deny None mode - Who cares what happens!


Shared Files in Turbo Pascal 5.0 3













It is important to specify what operations you want to perform
(access mode). The default access mode is Read/Write and causes
the open request to fail if another process has the file opened
with any sharing mode other than Deny None. File sharing
requires cooperation of both sharing processes. This is
communicated through the sharing and access modes.

R RESERVED (set third bit field to 0)

A ACCESS - The file access is assigned as follows:

If A = 000; Read Access
if A = 001; Write Access
if A = 010; Read/Write access

If all this seems a bit involved, I'm sorry. I don't know of any
way to give you the background for all this hocus-pocus except
with the above info. I also recommend picking up a Tech Ref
manual for more detailed study of the 3DH function call.

OK! With all these numbers in hand, let's see how to get Turbo
Pascal to duplicate these modes. Earlier I said that other gurus
had stated that Turbo Pascal opens files in COMPATIBILITY MODE
with READ/WRITE ACCESS and INHERITANCE BY CHILD PROCESSES and the
magic value for the FILEMODE variable is 2. Let's look at how
that was done:

Compatibility mode: 000 {S}
Read/Write ACCESS : 010 {A}
Inherited by child: 0 {I}
Reserved as ALWAYS: 0 {R}

Remember the bit fields are:
< S > < A >
Open Mode bits 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Let's plug in
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 the numbers.
Using binary arithmetic:
< S > < A >
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 = 00000010 = 2

By using a FILEMODE value of 0 we change the ACCESS field to 000,
READ ACCESS, which allows us to read a READ-ONLY file.

PCBoard is opening its DIR files as READ ACCESS SHARED and
actually opening the file with a SHARING MODE of Deny/Write which
would be a SHARE field of 010. The value for the FILEMODE
variable then becomes:
< S > < A >
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 = 00100000 = 32


Shared Files in Turbo Pascal 5.0 4













This is how I open ALL my files for reading or for general
ASSIGNING for RESET in Turbo Pascal for my program PCBFile. I
have some procedures written for TEXT files, and files of type
BYTE. I have reproduced the code below:
(* This procedure, KeepOn, is used to determine if the file has
been locked out. I try a file for 10 times as determined by
OpenAtt variable before I give up *)

Procedure KeepOn(OpenAtt : byte; var GA : boolean);
begin
if OpenAtt <= 10 then
GA := TRUE (* GoAhead Flag - if within 10 go for it *)
else GA := FALSE; (* forget it! *)
end; {of Procedure KeepOn}

Procedure SetResetMode(Var OpenFile : text; (* OPEN MODE FOR
InFileName : string; TEXT FILES *)
Var GoAhead : boolean);
var
OpenAttempts : byte;

begin
OpenAttempts := 1;
FILEMODE := 32; (* this is Deny Write
Mode/Read Access *)
assign(OpenFile,InFileName);
repeat
{$I-} reset(Openfile) {$I+};
GoAhead := (ioresult = 0);
if not GoAhead then
OpenAttempts := OpenAttempts + 1;
until (GoAhead) OR (OpenAttempts > 10); (* keep trying *)
KeepOn(OpenAttempts,GoAhead);
end; {of Procedure SetResetMode}

Procedure SetResetModeFile(Var OpenFile : file of byte
InFileName : string;
var GoAhead : boolean);
var
OpenAttempts : byte;
begin
OpenAttempts := 1;
if FILEMODE := 32; (* this is Deny Write
Mode/Read Access *)
assign(OpenFile,InFileName);
repeat
{$I-} reset(Openfile) {$I+};
GoAhead := (ioresult = 0);
if not GoAhead then OpenAttempts := OpenAttempts + 1;
until GoAhead OR (OpenAttempts > 10);
KeepOn(OpenAttempts,GoAhead);
end; {of Procedure SetResetModeFile}

Shared Files in Turbo Pascal 5.0 5














Now here comes a little zinger to change things up. I want to
create a file that I don't want the other nodes to damage. I
elect to open the file for READ/WRITE ACCESS for myself and give
the other nodes READ capability and deny them the ability to
write to my file. This would be Deny/Write Mode under the or
SHARING FIELD and would be coded 010. For READ/WRITE ACCESS the
or ACCESS FIELD is coded 010 also. This is the same mode
that PCBoard uses for writing to the Upload directory. Using our
binary formulae, the FILEMODE value then becomes:
< S > < A >
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 = 00100010 = 34

With the magic number of 34 the SetFileLock procedure was born.

Procedure SetFileLock(Var OpenFile : text;
InFileName : string;
var GoAhead : boolean);
var
OpenAttempts : byte;

begin
OpenAttempts := 1;
FILEMODE := 34; (* Deny Write Mode/Read-Write Access *)
assign(OpenFile,InFileName);
repeat
{$I-} rewrite(Openfile) {$I+};
GoAhead := (ioresult = 0);
if not GoAhead then
OpenAttempts := OpenAttempts + 1;
until GoAhead or (OpenAttempts > 10);
KeepOn(OpenAttempts,GoAhead);
end; {of Procedure SetFileLock}

Finally, a little walk around the park to insure that the
FILEMODE variable is returned to Borland's normal mode.

Procedure ReleaseOpenMode;

begin
FILEMODE := 2;
end;

So it's really simple to change the Turbo Pascal Open mode to
exactly what you want, you just have to know what results you
desire from the program. Just remember these definitions of the
fields that make up the magic number for DOS Function call 3DH.

* INHERITANCE FLAG I = 0; Inherited (usually the case)
I = 1; Private


Shared Files in Turbo Pascal 5.0 6













* SHARING MODE FIELD (Other node or process)
S = 000; Compatibility mode
S = 001; Deny Read/Write mode
(Exclusive)
S = 010; Deny Write mode
S = 011; Deny Read mode
S = 100; Deny None mode

* RESERVED FIELD R = 0; Always

* ACCESS FIELD (Your node or process)
A = 000; Read Access
A = 001; Write Access
A = 010; Read/Write Access
The bit fields:
< S > < A >
Open Mode bits 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Even though a DOS Technical Reference Manual gives a more
thorough discussion of Function Call 3DH, I will attempt to
create a matrix with the number for the FILEMODE variable based
on the SHARE and ACCESS fields.

ACCESS |SHARE-> Compat Deny/RW Deny/W Deny/R Deny/N
| 000 001 010 011 100
v -------------------------------------------
Read 000 | 0 | 16 | 32 | 48 | 64 |
|--------|-------|-------|-------|--------|
Write 001 | 1 | 17 | 33 | 49 | 65 |
|--------|-------|-------|-------|--------|
Read/ 010 | 2 | 18 | 34 | 50 | 66 |
Write -------------------------------------------

I know that this is probably more than a human can bear to
assimilate at any one time but I hope that you will be able to
see the logic behind my system and be able to use Turbo Pascal to
its full potential.

PCBoard (c) Clark Development Company, Inc., Murray, UT
Turbo Pascal (c) Borland International, Scotts Valley, CA
PCBFile (c) John W. Wulff
Compuserve (c) Compuserve, Inc., Columbus, OH











Shared Files in Turbo Pascal 5.0 7














Appendix

For Turbo Pascal 3.x Die-Hards:

Bela Lubkin published a text article, ACMODE.DOC, which is on
Compuserve in the Borland Sig that gives the locations of a
little gem known as the "Open Mode Byte". This byte is at an
absolute address for the various editions of Turbo Pascal and
communicates to DOS, via Function call 3DH, how the file is to be
accessed and what access to give other processes. It also
becomes very handy for us in trying to use Turbo Pascal in a
network environment. These locations are:
Open mode byte for Reset & Rewrite for Turbo 3.00x (PC-DOS)
TURBO.COM CSEG:$248D
TURBO-87.COM CSEG:$1F3C
TURBOBCD.COM CSEG:$2393
Open mode byte for Reset & Rewrite for Turbo 3.00x (MS-DOS)
TURBO.COM CSEG:$2182
TURBO-87.COM CSEG:$1C31
TURBOBCD.COM CSEG:$2088
Open mode byte for Reset & Rewrite for Turbo 3.01x (PC-DOS)
TURBO.COM CSEG:$24FC
TURBO-87.COM CSEG:$1FAB
TURBOBCD.COM CSEG:$2402
Open mode byte for Reset & Rewrite for Turbo 3.01x (MS-DOS)
TURBO.COM CSEG:$21D4
TURBO-87.COM CSEG:$1C83
TURBOBCD.COM CSEG:$20DA
Open mode byte for Reset & Rewrite for Turbo 3.02x (PC-DOS)
TURBO.COM CSEG:$24C6
TURBO-87.COM CSEG:$1F75
TURBOBCD.COM CSEG:$23CE

Another valuable document is Robert K. Blaine's RES_MODE.INC,
also available on CSERV. It details the procedure for finding
out the location of this byte, using DEBUG.
















Shared Files in Turbo Pascal 5.0 8








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