Dec 202017
TP4.0 3D graphics unit with demo.
File TP4-3D.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category Pascal Source Code
TP4.0 3D graphics unit with demo.
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
3DEMO.PAS 13042 3605 deflated
TRI_D.DOC 11912 3622 deflated
TRI_D.TPU 28320 11139 deflated

Download File TP4-3D.ZIP Here

Contents of the TRI_D.DOC file


A library for 3 dimensional graphics

by Gus Smedstad

Table of Contents
Introduction 1
Statement of purpose 1
Registration 1
Types 2
Procedures 2
Definition of viewing conditions 2
Drawing primitives 3
Object operations 4


Statement of purpose

TRI_D.TPU is a toolkit for drawing and manipulating three
dimensional objects. The intent is to be fast, yet accurate, and to
keep the actual mechanics out of the way of the user.
For example, each point within an object is stored only once,
regardless of how many polygons share that point, and transformed only
once when object or the viewpoint moves. Similiarly, when drawing
wireframes, edges which two polygons share are stored (and drawn) only
once. None of this requires any explicit effort on the part of the

TRI_D.TPU is distributed as shareware. In order to use it
legally, receive support, and future updates, you must send $30
NoGate Consulting
#13 DesIsle Ave
Bar Harbor, Maine 04609

Make checks payable to Gus Smedstad.

Future improvements may include an assembler version (for speed),
a Turbo C library, and hidden edge removal for concave polygons or
polygons with holes. However, such improvements will ONLY be
distributed to registered users, and not as shareware.

Source is available for $100.


As part of this ARC, you should have a copy of 3DEMO.PAS, which
is a fair demonstration of the power of TRI_D.TPU. To compile it, you
will need GRAPH.TPU and TRI_D.TPU.
Once 3DEMO is running, you will see 5 objects - a cylinder, a
hemisphere, a pyramid, a house, and a plane. You can move and rotate
any of them, or the viewpoint, and remove the hidden edges at any
time. Simply select an object by typing a number from 1 to 5, and use
the arrow keys to move or rotate it. The and
keys will move the object on the Z axis.
Note that when the viewpoint is rotated to (say) look down the X
axis, moving an object with the and will
move it closer or farther from the viewpoint. Rotation of the
viewpoint, however, stays relative to the current viewing direction,
so the key will always appear to make the objects on the
screen rotate down.
Type H to remove the hidden edges, and then press any key to
return to the wireframe drawings.

- 1 -

Some suggestions: try moving very close to the objects, or make
the objects intersect and try removing the edges. Note that every
polygon has two separate sides, with separate colors.

When you're done, type Q or the key.

TRI_D only defines one type:

VECTOR = array[0..2] of real;

The VECTOR type is used extensively by TRI_D to hold 3-d points
(the term vector is used in the mathematical, rather than geometric,
sense). The [0] element holds the X coordinate, [1] the Y coordinate,
and [2] the Z coordinate.

For ease and speed of manipulation, lines, points, and polygons
can be grouped into objects. Objects are simply of type POINTER -
when MakeObject creates an object, it actually creates a more complex
internal data type, and returns the address, so that actual
implementation details don't intrude on the programmer.
All points and polygons are considered to be part of the last
object created with MakeObject or opened with OpenObject, or part of
the background.

The following is a list of the procedures provided by the unit

Definition of viewing conditions

procedure SetViewpoint(x, y, z : real);
- The location of the "observer."

procedure SetViewDirection(ThetaX, ThetaY, ThetaZ : real);
- Set the direction of viewing, relative to the negative Z
direction, with the Y axis being vertical, in terms of the angle
rotated about the X, Y, and Z axis. If this does not seem very
clear, think of ThetaY as rotation, ThetaX as inclination, and
ThetaZ as yaw. For example, SetViewDirection(pi/2,0,0) will look
along the Y axis, with the Z axis being 'up' on the screen, and
SetViewDirection(0,0,pi/2) will look along the Z axis, with the
negative X axis being 'up.'

procedure RotateViewDirection(ThetaX, ThetaY, ThetaZ : real);
- Rotate the direction of viewing, relative to the current view
direction. To keep subjective rotations consistent, ThetaZ
rotates around the current view direction, ThetaY rotates around
the current 'up' direction, and ThetaX rotates around the line
perpendicular to them both, instead of around the X, Y, and Z
axes as SetViewDirection does.

- 2 -

procedure SetCenter(x, y : integer);
- position of viewpoint on screen, in screen coordinates. May be
off-screen, if desired.

procedure SetScale(s : real);
- width of the viewport in world coordinates.

procedure SetDrawMode(HideEdges, Perspective : boolean);
- Set hidden plane removal and perspective or parallel views. Note
that the drawing primitives (below) do not produce any immediate
output when edges are being removed. Use the Regenerate
procedure to see the objects. When Perspective is TRUE, objects
are scaled and foreshortened by distance. A caveat - objects
will be much smaller, so set the scale appropriately.

Drawing primitives

procedure MakePoint(x, y, z : real; color : byte);
- Create a point. Not very meaningful when hiding edges.

procedure SetPolyColors(pattern1, color1, pattern2, color2 : byte);
- Define colors and fill patterns for polygons. Polygons drawn
after this command will have (Color1,pattern1) on one side and
(color2,pattern2) on the other. See the GRAPH unit from color
and pattern definitions. Only color1 is used for drawing lines,
and when not hiding edges.

procedure MakePolygon(var pts; numpts : word);
- pts is assumed to be an array[1..numpts] of VECTOR. This version
requires that Polygons be convex (that is, no interior angle >=
180 degrees) for hidden-edge removal to work perfectly, though
later versions may eliminate this restriction.

procedure MakeLine(x1, y1, z1, x2, y2, z2 : real);
- Make a line from the first point to the second. Same as
MakePolygon(pts,2), where pts = array[1..2] of VECTOR.

procedure MakeTriangle(var pt1, pt2, pt3 : vector);
- Make a triangle with points pt1, pt2, pt3.

procedure MakeSurface(var pointlist; rows, cols : word;
steps : integer);
- Perform a Bspline curve-fit on an array[1..rows,1..cols] of
VECTOR. The curve is created in STEPS increments.

- 3 -

Object operations

procedure Makeobject(var object : pointer);
- Creates an object.

procedure DeleteObject(var object : pointer);
- Deletes an object (but doesn't erase it from the screen).
Selects the background for further drawing.

procedure OpenObject(object : pointer);
- Start adding polygons/points to an OBJECT previously created with
MakeObject. Closes any previous object. Note that objects may
be switched as many times as you like. If given an uninitialized
object, the background is selected instead.

procedure CloseObject;
- Select the background for drawing.

procedure CopyObject(object : pointer);
- Copies all the polygons of an object into the current object.

procedure DrawObject(Object : pointer);
- Draw a single object. Note that other objects on the screen are
ignored when hiding edges, so Regenerate is more useful in that

procedure EraseObject(Object : pointer);
- Erases a single object. When drawing wireframes, other images
will be quickly redrawn where they overlap the erased object.

procedure Regenerate;
- Draw ALL objects, including the background object. Does NOT
clear the screen/viewport.

procedure ObjectColors(Object : pointer;
pattern1, color1, pattern2, color2 : byte);
- Changes all of the polygons in the object to a color/pattern set.

procedure ObjectStyle(Object : pointer;
LineStyle, pattern, thickness : byte);
- Changes the linestyle of the object (when drawn as a wireframe).

procedure MoveObject(object : pointer; dx, dy, dz : real);
- Move an object by dx, dy, and dz.

procedure RotateObject(object : pointer; theta,
center, delta : vector);
- A more general object-moving procedure. Rotate an object
Theta[0] radians about its X axis, Theta[1] about its Y axis, and
Theta[2] about its Z axis. Center defines the center point to
rotate about, and Delta is the amount to move the object after
the rotation.

- 4 -

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