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Why OS/2 2.0







October 1992




IBM Personal Systems


Preface


Trademark Acknowledgements

The following terms are trademarks or registered
trademarks of the IBM Corporation in the United
States and/or other countries:

IBM PS/2 RISC System/6000
OS/2 Operating System/2 Presentation Manager
SAA Systems Application Architecture Extended Services

Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks.
Windows, Windows NT, Win32, and Win32s are
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

Disclaimer

Some of the information in this paper concerns
future products, or future releases of current,
commercially available products. Discussion of
Windows is based on information which the
Microsoft Corporation has made publicly available
as of October 1, 1992, or information in the
public trade press and is subject to change. IBM's
future products and their performance, functions
and availability are based upon IBM's current
intent and are subject to change.

Special Notices

References in this publication to IBM's current
and future products, programs or services do not
imply that IBM intends to make these generally
available in all countries in which IBM operates.

IBM may have patents or pending patent
applications covering subject matter in this
document. This document does not grant anyone a
license to those patents, patent applications or
to any other IBM intellectual property.


Contents

Executive Summary i
Why OS/2 Surpasses both Windows 3.x and Windows
NT i

Why OS/2? i
The best of both worlds i
Freedom of Choice i
A productive environment for the user i
A platform you can rely on i
Superior connectivity i
The integrated system i
32-bit power i
Platform for growth i
Value for money i
Protects today's investment, and is a base for
the future i

What are some alternatives to OS/2? i
Windows 3.x i
Windows NT i
The Windows client-server strategy i

Windows Myths i
Myth #1: The marketplace has chosen - Windows is
the standard. i
Myth #2: Everyone is using Windows
applications. i
Myth #3: Windows is faster and leaner than
OS/2 i

What Microsoft is saying about OS/2 2.0 i

OS/2 2.0 offers it all... TODAY. i

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appendices i

Appendix A. OS/2 2.0 compared to Windows 3.1 and
Windows NT i

Appendix B. Windows 3.1 Application
Incompatibilities i


Executive Summary

WHY OS/2 SURPASSES BOTH WINDOWS 3.X AND WINDOWS NT

Most people agree that, as an operating system,
IBM's OS/2 2.0 is superior to Microsoft's Windows
3.1. To compete with IBM's OS/2, Microsoft has
announced another system, Windows NT. Windows NT
is not yet available and Microsoft says the first
version may ship in late 1992 or in 1993.

When it finally arrives, Windows NT is expected to
address some of Windows 3.1's shortcomings.
However, based on the preliminary beta release and
Microsoft's public comments, Windows NT will only
partially close the gap with OS/2 2.0.

For example, the state of the art in user-friendly
interfaces today is the object-oriented graphical
user interface, an example of which is the
Workplace Shell in OS/2 2.0. Only recently has
Microsoft begun to talk about releasing a similar
user-friendly interface -- sometime in 1994.

Today, OS/2 2.0 surpasses Windows 3.1 in the
following areas:

o Superior crash protection
o Greater number of applications supported
o Superior multitasking
o Object-oriented graphical user interface
o Superior file system
o More memory available for applications

Today, Windows NT is NOT available. In the
timeframe that Microsoft is expected to complete
Windows NT, OS/2 will have moved forward
significantly. The following enhancements are
planned for OS/2 later in 1992:

o Additional performance improvements,
especially for the minimum hardware
configurations
o Support for more displays, printers and other
devices
o Improved graphics engine
o Support for Windows 3.1 applications

When the first version of Windows NT finally
arrives, IBM is confident that OS/2 will still
surpass it in the following areas:

o Compatibility with DOS and Windows
applications
o Greater number of applications supported
o Object-oriented graphical user interface
o Less expensive hardware requirements (memory
and disk)

So, a customer can choose to live with the
shortcomings of Windows 3.1 and wait for Windows
NT to arrive. However, when they are finished with
this wait, they may face a hardware upgrade and a
conversion of Windows applications.

Or, a customer can enjoy the benefits of OS/2
2.0's superior operating environment, avoid the
upgrade and the conversion, and still have a
superior operating environment in the future.

WHY DO ANYTHING ELSE?
_____________________


Why OS/2?

THE BEST OF BOTH WORLDS

In the new PC environment, both personal
productivity and line-of-business applications are
essential. OS/2 can satisfy both needs. It
provides a better DOS than DOS itself, and it runs
a wide range of DOS and Windows applications. In
addition, OS/2 2.0 is a superior platform for
running in-house mission critical applications
with industrial strength, robust protection, and
powerful multitasking. Users don't have to choose
between different systems for their different
needs - OS/2 can do both.


FREEDOM OF CHOICE

Today's computing environment can be confusing;
the variety of options can be overwhelming. When
making choices about hardware and software
platforms, it is difficult to follow a path which
keeps a wide range of options open. Too often
choices are constrained by compatibility issues or
by a limited growth path. OS/2 2.0 aims to
simplify the decision by providing a choice; the
widest range of applications on a wide range of
hardware.

OS/2 2.0 runs DOS, Windows and OS/2 16-bit and
32-bit applications, the widest range of
applications available on an Intel-based platform.
In fact, OS/2 2.0 is such a superior environment
that even if users only run DOS applications on a
386-based machine, OS/2 2.0 is the best
environment in which to run them.

Furthermore, applications running under OS/2 2.0,
whether they are DOS, Windows or OS/2 based,
provide added value by working together; sharing
information and running from the common Workplace
Shell. This not only protects your current
investment in DOS, Windows and OS/2 applications,
but adds value by integrating them.

In addition, OS/2 2.0, and Extended Services and
OS/2 LAN Server are supported on a wide range of
IBM-compatible hardware as well as IBM PS/2s.
This means the user can run OS/2 2.0 with
confidence on machines from vendors like Compaq,
Olivetti, Dell, Hewlett Packard, Toshiba, and
others, and IBM support can be included. In fact,
IBM has certified over 260 configurations from 71
hardware vendors so it is highly likely that your
PCs equipped with an Intel 386SX or above
processor are supported.


A PRODUCTIVE ENVIRONMENT FOR THE USER

OS/2 provides an object-oriented user interface,
the Workplace Shell, which allows business users
to focus on the information they want to work
with, not the application that needs to be loaded.
This business-oriented way of working helps users
to become more productive, by concentrating more
on what they want to do, and less on how to do it.
It also provides a single consistent environment
in which multiple applications can be loaded from
different sources. Additionally, it is an
extremely easy environment to learn, since once a
user knows how to drag a file's icon with the
mouse to put it into a folder, he can use the same
operation to print it, and to copy it to another
disk or erase it. In addition, companies can
derive the benefits of a standard interface which
complies with IBM's Common User Access (CUA)
definition for user interface design.

Also, since many applications can be loaded and
running at the same time, users can be more
productive, especially in work that involves much
interruption and switching from one task to
another. OS/2's true multi-tasking means that
long-running processes can simply be switched to
run in the background, while the user continues
with something else - resulting in less 'wait
time' for the user. At the same time, more can be
done with the existing set of applications by
allowing them to share information easily through
consistent interfaces like the Presentation Manger
clipboard.


A PLATFORM YOU CAN RELY ON

When the PC becomes the center of information
processing, as it often is in today's environment,
then the PC platform must show the stability and
reliability of the host environment. Today, DOS
and extensions to DOS, like Windows, do not
provide the protection that OS/2 2.0 offers. OS/2
HAS BEEN DESIGNED TO PROTECT APPLICATIONS FROM ONE
ANOTHER and delivers today the stable platform
required for full multitasking and greater
protection from system crashes. It is little use
having the most fault tolerant server or host if
the client workstations are not fault tolerant.
And many users of productivity applications, like
word-processors and spreadsheets, consider their
PCs to be "mission critical". For this reason,
reliability is a requirement for every PC.


SUPERIOR CONNECTIVITY

OS/2's strong multitasking and robust protection
make it the best operating system available for
connectivity applications such as client/server
and distributed processing. In addition, OS/2 has
Extended Services for OS/2, which provides
communications and database functions, and OS/2
LAN Server, which provides a full client-server
environment. This allows networking to be an
integral part of the operating system, and
provides high functionality at a much more
economical cost than buying many separate
packages.

OS/2 is not only a superior server platform, but
also the most functional and stable client. It
provides a consistent platform for both server and
client, can handle multiple concurrent
communications protocols (e.g. NETBIOS, APPC, IPX,
TCP/IP) with ease, and even provides a
LAN-independent user interface to mixed vendor
networks. In addition, it is enabled for automated
LAN-based installation. Most importantly, OS/2
offers the stability and reliability in a client
to match the reliability of the server or host.

The result is that "mission critical" applications
which depend on communications with various
systems can be implemented much more safely in
OS/2 than on DOS or its extensions.


THE INTEGRATED SYSTEM

OS/2 allows DOS, Windows and OS/2 applications to
run together while providing a GUI, and the
database, communications, and LAN support included
in Extended Services for OS/2 and LAN Server. For
developers, this means the APIs and services have
been designed to work together, eliminating the
need for the systems integration of a variety of
DOS-based packages, a process which often presents
incompatibilities or problems.

Instead, the OS/2 function has been designed and
tested to work together - IBM has already done the
integration work. In addition, the Workplace
Shell environment integrates DOS, Windows and OS/2
applications and allows them to work together,
even though they may have been written by
different vendors. That's why OS/2 is THE
INTEGRATING PLATFORM for the 1990s.


32-BIT POWER

OS/2 2.0 is a 32-bit system. It gives users the
advantages of a 32-bit system, which include
superior application performance and the
opportunity to fully use the 386 and 486 hardware
that runs OS/2. It provides users with a 32-bit
system NOW - eliminating their need to wait for
other alternatives with uncertain delivery dates.

The 32-bit API also allows developers to create
richer, more sophisticated applications.
Applications like multimedia require an advanced
32-bit interface to exploit their full potential
and power. Additionally, moving to the OS/2
32-bit API gets developers ready for future
developments in OS/2.


PLATFORM FOR GROWTH

OS/2 will be the base of new developments for many
of the features that will be requirements for the
workstations of the mid-90's. These include
multimedia, object-oriented systems, support for
the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) and
portability across different processors. These
applications will require a robust, architected
and powerful 32-bit system, and that system is
OS/2.

IBM plans to enhance OS/2's capabilities for
object-oriented application development in
distributed environments by advancing the function
provided by the System Object Model. IBM intends
to leverage a subset of Taligent's object services
and frameworks to benefit OS/2 application
development and enable future compatibility with
Taligent's environment.


VALUE FOR MONEY

OS/2 2.0 offers a "3 in 1" environment, allowing
users to run DOS, Windows and OS/2 applications so
there is no need to buy DOS or Windows separately.
It also includes a series of productivity
applications, utilities and games at no additional
cost. OS/2 also provides scalable font support for
both Windows and OS/2 applications with Adobe Type
Manager. OS/2 offers all this functionality at a
list price which is less than the combined list
prices of DOS and Windows 3.1.(1) Upgrading from
DOS or Windows makes the cost of moving to OS/2
even less.


PROTECTS TODAY'S INVESTMENT, AND IS A BASE FOR THE
FUTURE

Today, OS/2 supports the widest choice of existing
applications while meeting the needs of current
client-server and networked environments. OS/2
also provides a strong base for future
technologies and a very reliable migration path.
OS/2 currently offers what other environments can
only promise for the future - so why wait?


What are some alternatives to OS/2?

WINDOWS 3.X

Microsoft Windows 3.0 and 3.1 are good attempts to
work around some of the architectural limitations
of the 10 year old, 16-bit, single-tasking
architecture of DOS. They offer the user a more
attractive interface and provide an environment in
which programs can be written to do limited
multitasking. The underlying architectural
limitations still remain and it is these
limitations that will prevent Windows 3.x from
fully satisfying the demands of most in the 90's.
Let us review these demands:

1. Reliability
2. Pre-emptive multitasking
3. Application support
4. Networking support
5. User interface
6. 32-bit


Reliability

DOS was written to run on the Intel 8086/8088
processors available at the beginning of the
1980s. These processors ran in "Real Mode", that
is any program could address and change any part
of memory. Therefore any program which made a
mistake could overwrite itself or the operating
system. In any case the program would fail. This
might be irritating to the user if it led to lost
work, but the impact was likely to be small.

Windows enabled more than one program to run, but
still sometimes ran the processor in Real Mode.
In this situation, one failing program could
necessitate the shut-down of the whole system.
This was the well-known "Unrecoverable Application
Error" (UAE). In Windows 3.1, Microsoft reduced
the frequency of the UAE in Windows 3.1 (and
renamed the remaining UAEs to General Protection
Faults or "GPF".) However, AS LONG AS A PROGRAM
RUNS ON TODAY'S DOS, THE POTENTIAL FOR THESE
FAILURES REMAINS. These failures can be very
irritating to end-users and can represent a real
impact to their productivity. For businesses that
want to run "mission-critical" or higher-speed
communications applications on PCs, it can be
potentially disastrous.

From the beginning, IBM designed OS/2 to be a
"protected" operating system. This means the
operating system and the hardware cooperate to
prevent failing applications from impacting any
other part of the system. For the user, that means
fewer problems and less inconvenience. For the
business, it means lower risk and greater
productivity.


Multitasking

Windows 3.x is built on the foundation of a
single-tasking operating system, DOS. Therefore,
multitasking of Windows applications must be done
within the applications themselves. Programmers
of Windows applications must explicitly include
"yield points" to enable other applications to get
a share of the processor time. This is called
"cooperative application multitasking" and results
in inefficient use of available resources and
unsatisfactory and uneven response to users when
multiple programs are running.

IBM designed OS/2 to be a multitasking system by
basing multitasking in the operating system, not
the applications. For this reason, OS/2 can
outperform Windows 3.x in many multitasking
situations. In practice, this advantage is felt
by the end-user in the increased smoothness of
response. For example, an OS/2 user can continue
to type into a word processor while formatting a
diskette.


Application support

OS/2 runs more Windows applications than Windows
3.1 because it enables users to simultaneously run
applications written for Windows Real Mode
(Windows 2.x applications) and Windows 3.x
applications. (Windows 3.0 can run these
applications but not simultaneously with Windows
3.x applications.) OS/2 will also run OS/2
applications written for OS/2 2.0 and all previous
releases of OS/2. An independent estimate put
the customer investment in OS/2 applications at 2
billion dollars, in addition to the 2 billion
dollars invested by software vendors.

OS/2 is the first mainstream 32-bit operating
system for the Intel hardware architecture. Many
software vendors and companies are developing
applications that take advantage of the investment
made in Intel 386 and 486 processor based machines
over the last several years. The second edition
of the OS/2 Application Solutions Directory
published by Graphics Plus, Inc. lists 1100 32-bit
OS/2 applications available or in development as
of July 1992. OS/2 has the widest applications
portfolio of any operating system in the market.


Networking

The role of the Personal Computer is changing;
fewer business PCs are now stand-alone machines
and highly connected client-server architectures
will provide the Information Technology (IT)
systems of the 90s. The original PCs were not
designed to manage the demands of networking,
which always required compromises for DOS-based
PCs. The limited memory available for programs in
DOS often meant that certain, larger applications
were mutually exclusive with networking.
Networking with Windows 3.0 was not always easy
because of the various techniques used to
circumvent the memory restrictions.

Windows 3.1 has helped ease these difficulties but
has not completely eliminated the restrictions. In
addition, the implementation of networking
programs as Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR)
programs (which ran in the Real Mode of the Intel
processor) further compromised the reliability of
the system. Networking is fundamentally a
multitasking activity and the limited multitasking
in Windows was sometimes inadequate to manage
high-speed communications tasks running in the
background.

Networks are increasing in size and effective
network and systems management is becoming more
important. A sophisticated multi-tasking system
is required to ensure these tasks can be safely
performed in the background at any time without
the intervention or knowledge of the user. OS/2
was designed to be part of a network and
consequently, is an ideal choice for a client
workstation.


User interface

Windows introduced many users to the benefits of a
Graphical User Interface (GUI ). Research shows
that the underlying conceptual model presented by
a software system is as important as the actual
look of the program. Windows is still harnessed
to the same underlying organization as DOS. This
necessitates users understand the structure of the
file system, the distinction between program and
files, and so on.

The OS/2 user interface (the Workplace Shell) is a
second generation GUI and presents an interface
modelled on the real world. Users interact with
the system by manipulating "objects"; dragging a
file to a printer for instance. IBM has conducted
thousands of hours of usability research to ensure
OS/2 is easy to use, not just easy to learn.

In addition, the Workplace Shell acts as a
unifying layer for applications. No matter for
what system they were originally designed, they
are used in the same way and information can be
shared between them using the same techniques.
Printing is easier in OS/2, enabling users to
forget about the mechanics of the system and
simply accomplish their tasks. OS/2 is designed
to work the way users work, not force them to work
the way the computer works. Finally, OS/2 removes
from many users the responsibility for
understanding and controlling such things as
extended memory management (provided by add-on
products to DOS like QEMM) and enables them to
concentrate on their jobs.


32 bit

For the end-user, the internal design of the
system is probably not important. However, for
the decision maker, the architectural basis of the
product is significant because it dictates the
range of future possibilities.

Microsoft has announced a 32-bit API for Windows
3.1 (Win32s), but it is important to understand
the limitations inherent in this approach. As the
full name (Win32 subset) implies, Win32s
implements only some of the API calls in the full
Win32 API which Microsoft states is supported in
Windows NT. This means that developers may have
to make a choice; They can write an application
common to Windows 3.1 and Windows NT (which cannot
exploit the additional functions in Windows NT),
or develop separate applications for Windows 3.1
and Windows NT. In the latter case, the benefits
of the Win32s API will be limited to the flat
32-bit memory model (which a Win32s Dynamic Link
Library will map back to the native 16-bit
segmented memory model of Windows 3.1). The
performance implications of this are unknown.

OS/2 implements a complete 32-bit API with
advanced features today. The benefits of this
increase as developers ship more advanced,
high-performance applications for OS/2. The
requirements of the 90's are already here and OS/2
can satisfy them today.



WINDOWS NT

Microsoft has announced it will provide a
completely new operating system called Windows NT.
It will share the Windows name and provide some
compatibility to existing Windows programs. It
has been announced for availability at the end of
1992 or early 1993. At this time, only pre-beta
code is available and this discussion is based on
the functions present in this code and stated by
Microsoft representatives to be in plan. It must
be stressed that WINDOWS NT IS NOT AN AVAILABLE
PRODUCT.

Windows NT will implement a number of subsystems
on a newly written kernel that borrows elements
from different operating system models.(2)
Microsoft states that important features of
Windows NT will be:

o Preemptive multitasking and multi-threading
o Protected architecture
o 32-bit system
o Support for DOS and existing (i.e. 16-bit)
Windows applications

IBM agrees that these features are important,
which is why they are already available in OS/2
2.0. Other features that Microsoft claims that
Windows NT will have are:

o Improved security API

o Support of symmetrical multiprocessing (SMP)

o Portability (easily migrated to different
hardware architectures)

o POSIX

IBM agrees that these features are likely to be of
increasing importance in the future and intends to
add these features to a future version of OS/2.
However it is unclear to what extent these
features are required by customers today, or
whether they will be more important than other
technologies on which IBM is also working. In
particular, the first version of Windows NT will
not include any object-oriented user interface
technology (unlike OS/2 which incorporates and
uses the Workplace Shell / Systems Object Model
(SOM) as the basis of its object-oriented user
interface).

When considering the value of a new operating
system it is better to take a business-oriented
viewpoint rather than concentrating on the
technology. In particular users should consider
two vital points: the resources required to run an
operating system and its compatibility with the
existing application portfolio.


Windows NT system requirements

The recommended minimum configuration for Windows
NT will be a fast Intel 386 with at least 8Mb of
RAM and 100Mb of disk space.(3) However, PC Week
has reported, "Many observers say that the
practical recommendation will probably end up
closer to a 12Mb system. Others predict even
higher memory requirements."(4) Gartner Group has
also told its customers it believes "a mainstream
platform for Windows NT will be a 486DX with 12 to
16 megabytes of RAM (and up) on the
workstation."(5)

Since Windows NT is not generally available, it is
unclear how much memory will be required to run a
typical networked application.


Windows NT compatibility

Windows NT will be a break with previous PC
operating systems and may not offer full
compatibility with existing DOS or Windows
applications.

In its July 27, 1992 review of Windows NT, PC Week
stated, "Rather than provide compatibility for all
DOS and Windows applications, Microsoft Corp.
officials have stated their intentions to focus
support on 'major' DOS and Windows 3.1
applications." Paul Muglia, a director of Windows
NT at Microsoft, was also quoted, "We'll look at
what are the top 100 Windows applications and the
top 100 DOS applications, and focus more on those
than on those that haven't sold well."(6)

In addition, the operating system design is
processor independent and so if code written for
the Intel 16-bit processors is to run on other
processors, a software emulation of the underlying
hardware may have to be provided. This technology
is familiar from the UNIX world. It enables a
basic level of compatibility but has a number of
potential drawbacks:

o Performance

The software emulation of hardware processes
may cause applications to run slower

o Hardware dependent programs

These may often not run. In particular, many
DOS device drivers may have to be rewritten.
This means that fax, scanner, file backup and
even 3270 emulation programs may not run. Many
software vendors will only undertake the work
of rewriting device drivers if they are
assured of a significant marketplace. The
hardware requirements of Windows NT are likely
to mean that it will not be a mass-market
product.

o Usability of DOS programs may also be
compromised

Microsoft has acknowledged that, in the first
release of Windows NT, DOS programs using VGA
(or higher mode) graphics will not be able to
be windowed onto the desktop.(7) This is not a
problem for OS/2. Microsoft's plans to support
clipboard and DDE for these DOS programs have
also not been made clear.

Windows programs written for Windows 3.x are
16-bit programs and Microsoft has stated that
Windows NT will support these programs in a
single Virtual DOS machine (VDM).(8) This
means that if one program fails other Windows
16-bit programs may fail - just as in Windows
3.1.


Windows/NT market positioning

Windows NT may have a number of compatibility
issues that could make it an unacceptable option
for many end-users. Add to this the projected
higher cost of the hardware needed to run NT and
it's clear that Windows NT is unlikely to become
the client of choice for most people. Microsoft
has also clearly positioned Windows NT as more
suitable for a server or high-end workstation
operating system.(9)

While Windows NT has many of the features that
would make it an attractive base as a server
operating system, the reality is that changing a
Network Operating System is a difficult and
expensive procedure. Most network managers would
choose to run with lower function rather than
incur the risk and cost of changing server
software.

Because nearly three-quarters of the networks in
the world use Novell products that will not even
run on Windows NT, it could take a long time for
Windows NT to gain any significant acceptance. In
addition, it is not clear what effect Microsoft's
plans to bundle some basic networking functions
with Windows NT will have on other networking
product vendor's inclinations to support the
platform.

OS/2 users will gain little if any benefit from
moving to Windows NT because OS/2 already offers
the key features of multitasking and application
protection. In addition, Microsoft has stated
that Windows NT will not run OS/2 32-bit or OS/2
Presentation Manager programs.

Many RISC-based workstation users are using UNIX
because the specialized applications they need are
written for UNIX. It is likely to be a large
migration job to re-write a UNIX program for
Windows NT and, in the absence of a large market
acceptance, it is questionable whether software
vendors will be willing to make that investment.
Some UNIX users have already expressed their
unwillingness to move to a new operating system
that is inherently single-user when they are used
to the flexibility of the multi-user UNIX. Jay
Kidd, a director of marketing at Silicon Graphics
(the manufacturer of the only RISC-based
workstation that Windows NT runs on today), has
stated "UNIX, rather than Windows NT, will
continue to be the operating system of choice for
those who want the absolutely best performance and
are willing to sacrifice compatibility to get
it."(10)

In summary, Windows NT is at risk of becoming a
high-technology white elephant. If it cannot run
existing programs and needs more powerful hardware
than is widely installed then it should have a
limited market and remain an academic solution to
niche needs.


THE WINDOWS CLIENT-SERVER STRATEGY

Microsoft has a two operating system strategy.
Today, the company recommends DOS and Windows for
the client AND OS/2 FOR THE SERVER.(11) When
Windows NT is delivered, it says that customers
should migrate their OS/2 servers to Windows NT
servers. IBM believes that the reason Microsoft
proposes two separate and different operating
systems for the client and server roles is because
Microsoft does not offer a product that provides
the reliability and efficient multitasking for
clients with more limited hardware requirements.
IBM PROPOSES ONE OPERATING SYSTEM FOR BOTH THESE
ROLES: OS/2. This reduces administration workload
and training overhead for support staff while
making better use of software developers' skills.

The dominant system design of the 90's will be
client-server. The flexibility, development speed
and cost advantages of this architecture increase
the requirements for systems and network
management. A reliable client is a must (why pay
for fault-tolerant servers if the clients are not
fault-tolerant?) but true multitasking is also
vital to enable effective and non-intrusive
management. OS/2 IS AN IDEAL CLIENT. LAN Server
with OS/2 on the server provides the highest
performance server in the industry.


Windows Myths

Some claims and beliefs about Windows have gained
popularity. They often do not stand up to closer
examination.


MYTH #1: THE MARKETPLACE HAS CHOSEN - WINDOWS IS
THE STANDARD.

Windows has been an impressive sales success with
Microsoft claiming to have shipped 10 million
copies. However, the independent consultant
groups, Creative Strategies and IDC, estimate that
only 55% or 30% (respectively) of Windows licenses
are in use. Windows magazine has also questioned
Microsoft's number and estimated the number of
copies of Windows in real use at about 4.5
million.(12) Any of these independent estimates
reveal 5% or less of the close to 100 million
installed base of PCs are using an installed copy
of Windows, far from being a standard.



MYTH #2: EVERYONE IS USING WINDOWS APPLICATIONS.

Many software vendors have invested a lot of money
developing Windows applications, and, as a result,
much attention has been focused on these products.
However, in 1991, the Windows applications market
was smaller than the Macintosh applications market
(according to the Software Publishers
Association). In the nine months to June 1992
there were never more than 5 Windows applications
in the "Top 20" best selling applications(13)

Personal Computer Magazine in May 1992 said
"Companies that have invested a lot of money in
developing Windows applications are battling for a
small share of what is a small pie".

Users continue to use, and buy, the tried and
trusted DOS applications making compatibility with
DOS applications a key requirement for any
personal operating system. That is one of the
things that OS/2 excels at and this DOS
compatibility is one of the areas that should be
of most concern to users considering Windows NT in
the future.


MYTH #3: WINDOWS IS FASTER AND LEANER THAN OS/2

OS/2's design is optimized for multitasking,
making OS/2 better than Windows in most
multitasking scenarios. What is not well known is
that OS/2 can also outperform DOS and Windows when
running some DOS applications individually. OS/2
has a superior file system that gives a
significant performance advantage to programs that
do a lot of I/O for instance, database programs.
Microsoft has drawn considerable attention to the
different minimum hardware requirements of
DOS/Windows and OS/2. However, Windows can run in
more than one "mode". The Windows mode with the
smallest hardware requirements offers the fewest
benefits to users (more limited multitasking of
DOS applications, for instance).




What Microsoft is saying about OS/2 2.0

Microsoft has published a number of documents that
compare Windows 3.1 and Windows NT to OS/2 2.0.
Some of the titles include:

o "A Guide to Evaluating Microsoft Windows
Operating System Version 3.1 for The PC
Desktop With Comparisons to OS/2 2.0"

o "Microsoft Windows NT Operating System - A
Technical Comparison With OS/2 2.0"

o "Microsoft Windows or OS/2 2.0"

These documents from Microsoft contain many
statements regarding OS/2 that are incorrect or
could mislead users. To help IBM's customers make
a more informed choice of operating systems, the
following are clarifications to some of
Microsoft's statements:

o OS/2 WILL RUN ON LESS THAN 2% OF THE WINDOWS
CAPABLE-MACHINES, CITING INFOCORP AS THEIR
DATA SOURCE.

According to Microsoft's data, approximately
200 thousand (1.38% of 18 million) machines
are capable of running OS/2. Microsoft's
information is obviously incorrect since there
have been over 1 million copies of OS/2 2.0
shipped in the first 120 days of availability.

IDC has stated that at least 28% of the
installed base of PCs are OS/2 capable. Almost
50% of machines shipping in 1992 and 66% of
machines to be shipped in 1993 are OS/2
capable signaling a trend in the marketplace.
In addition, OS/2 can run on many of today's
notebook and laptop computers.

o OS/2 IS NOT SUITABLE AS A NETWORK CLIENT
BECAUSE OF THE "RELATIVELY FEW NATIVE DESKTOP
APPLICATIONS AVAILABLE."

OS/2, as the Integrating Platform, runs DOS,
Windows and OS/2 applications. No company has
more experience and capability in networking
than IBM. IBM believes OS/2 is the industry's
best desktop client for connecting to complex
enterprise networks. It is an ideal solution
for mission-critical networked applications.

o OS/2 HAS LIMITED HOST CONNECTIVITY BASED ON
THE NUMBER OF NATIVE COMMUNICATIONS PACKAGES.

That is not correct. The OS/2 Communications
Manager has a very comprehensive set of host
connectivity options and current DOS and
Windows based packages work on OS/2 as well.

o WINDOWS HAS MORE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS THAN OS/2

OS/2 has a full complement of more than 250
development tools, although Windows has more
native development tools. Many of today's
leading edge tools originated on OS/2 which is
why OS/2 is the preferred development
environment for many vendors.

o THE DOCUMENT "MICROSOFT (R) WINDOWS NT (TM)
OPERATING SYSTEM - A TECHNICAL COMPARISON WITH
OS/2 (R) 2.0" CONSISTENTLY USES THE PRESENT
TENSE, "WINDOWS NT IS... "WINDOWS NT
SUPPORTS...", "WINDOWS NT MEETS..."

Windows NT has not been shipped for general
availability, therefore the use of the present
tense is inaccurate. The actual ship date of
the first release is not certain. In
addition, Microsoft expressly does not
guarantee that all of the function that has
been described as part of Windows NT will be
delivered in the first release.

o MICROSOFT STATES THAT OS/2 RUNS MULTIPLE DOS
APPLICATIONS BY STARTING A VIRTUAL DOS MACHINE
OR VDM. MICROSOFT GOES ON TO SAY THAT THIS IS
A FEATURE OF THE 386 DESIGNED TO SUPPORT OLDER
REAL MODE APPLICATIONS AND THAT THIS FEATURE
HAS BEEN USED FOR SOME TIME BY A NUMBER OF DOS
EXTENDERS. THE READER MIGHT INFER THAT THIS IS
A LIMITATION OR SHORTCOMING IN OS/2.

This misses the point and could be misleading.
It is precisely because OS/2 uses the hardware
isolation VDMs provide that OS/2 can offer
superior crash protection. HARDWARE protects
each application in a VDM from taking down an
application or operating system in another
VDM. Since Windows does not use this feature,
the Windows Unrecoverable Application Errors
(UAE ) and General Protection Faults (GPF - a
UAE by another name) can and sometimes do
crash the operating system and other
applications.

OS/2 also provides support for more DOS
applications than is planned for Windows NT.
Microsoft has confirmed that Windows NT will
have limited support of DOS applications
because it does not plan to support the v86
mode of the hardware the same way that OS/2
does. PC Week reported that many programs that
support fAX, scanner, MIDI, terminal emulator
and LAN cards (that today run under OS/2 2.0)
will not run unmodified on Windows NT. In
addition, DOS programs that support VGA or
higher graphics will not run in a window on
the Windows NT desktop.(14)


o THE NEW OS/2 WORKPLACE SHELL IS DIFFICULT TO
USE. HAVING WINDOWS APPLICATIONS RUNNING ON
THE OS/2 DESKTOP WILL CONFUSE USERS AND DRIVE
UP SUPPORT COSTS.

This argument is very difficult to understand,
especially in our industry where new
innovations are constantly bringing better
products to consumers.

The Workplace Shell represents a second
generation of graphical user interface and is
a major advance over the Windows and previous
OS/2 interfaces. These older generation
interfaces basically put a pictorial face on
the menus of OS/2 1.x and Windows 2.0.
Instead of working with operating systems
constructs like File Managers and Program
managers, you work with a desktop with
pictures (icons) of familiar things such as
letters, folders and appointment books.
Instead of working with directories, paths
and print commands, you just pick up the
picture of the letter and put it on the
printer. OS/2 also allows users to preserve
the command prompt or menu interface. IBM's
OS/2 gives you the choice.

Microsoft has also recently demonstrated a
future (1994) Windows NT user interface,
codenamed "Cairo", that adds object oriented
functions to Windows NT which bears a
resemblance to the OS/2 Workplace Shell.

o OS/2 2.0 DOES NOT RUN WINDOWS 3.1
APPLICATIONS, WHICH LEADS TO DEFICIENCIES IN
THAT IT WILL NOT USE TRUE TYPE(R) FONTS, HAS
LIMITED NETWORKING SUPPORT, PERFORMANCE AND
RELIABILITY.

Support of Windows 3.1 applications in OS/2
2.0 has been demonstrated at various trade
shows and is now in beta test with customers.
IBM intends to make the Windows 3.1
application support generally available near
the end of 1992.

With respect to TrueType fonts, OS/2 2.0
offers built-in Adobe Type Manager (ATM) font
technology for both OS/2 and Windows modes.
Adobe is widely used in the industry while
TrueType is still proprietary. In addition,
there are thousands more fonts available for
Adobe than TrueType. TrueType support for
Windows 3.1 applications will also be included
in OS/2 in the near future.

OS/2 currently provides more networking
options than does any generally available
version of Windows, and OS/2's reliability and
performance when performing many simultaneous
tasks are hard to match. Several vendors,
such as Novell, have networking products
available for OS/2 2.0 today, with more coming
from other vendors. In addition, OS/2 can run
many DOS-based LAN products in its DOS
sessions.

With OS/2's entry-level hardware requirements
and its superior communications extensions,
both from IBM and other vendors, OS/2 is
ideally suited for both the client and server
ends of communications, thus keeping all
systems consistent and homogeneous.

o THE INSTALLATION OF OS/2 2.0 CAN BE DIFFICULT

Installing 15 to 20 diskettes can seem complex
at first, but OS/2 does an admirable job of
making it easy and of migrating existing
applications. The installation process can
even be accomplished across a local area
network or eliminated entirely by choosing
OS/2's remote IPL capability. In addition,
many new systems are pre-loaded with OS/2 and
a CD-ROM version is planned for availability
soon.

o OS/2 2.0 OFFERS LIMITED RELIABILITY WHEN
RUNNING MULTIPLE WINDOWS APPLICATIONS IN THE
SAME SESSION.

Actually, OS/2 has a big advantage over
Windows 3.1 when it comes to reliability.
Under Windows, an errant application can
disable other applications or even Windows
itself. OS/2 provides protection which can
prevent a failing application from bringing
down another or the whole system.

Under OS/2 2.0, if a user runs several Windows
applications in the same session and two or
more conflict, the user can simply specify
them to run in separate sessions to protect
one from harming the other. Of course this may
use more memory, but the gain is the
reliability that Windows 3.1 does not offer.

o APPLICATIONS RUNNING IN SEPARATE OS/2 SESSIONS
DO NOT FUNCTION PROPERLY.

This is incorrect. Windows applications
function just fine when run together in the
same OS/2 session or in different sessions.
This includes applications that use the
clipboard, NETBIOS, Dynamic Data Exchange
(DDE), Named Pipes or Object Linking and
Embedding (OLE).

o DATA EXCHANGE OF GRAPHICS BETWEEN WINDOWS AND
PRESENTATION MANAGER APPLICATIONS DOES NOT
WORK.

This too is incorrect. Dynamic Data Exchange
(DDE) and the clipboard functions work fine
for graphics.

o OS/2 2.0 HAS LIMITED VIDEO SUPPORT IN THAT A
WIN-OS2 WINDOW WILL ONLY RUN IN VGA GRAPHICS
MODE.

In the initial shipment of OS/2 2.0, this is
true. However, there are SVGA board makers who
have already produced WIN-OS2 window (seamless
window) drivers for their SVGA boards and
IBM's 32-bit XGA and SVGA high-resolution
seamless drivers are also available in the
market.

o CONFIGURING OS/2 2.0 IS DIFFICULT BECAUSE
USERS MUST CONFIGURE BOTH THE OS/2 AND THE
WINDOWS SIDE OF THINGS.

Some users may want to customize the
configuration of their Windows applications
but OS/2 is generally self-configuring. Once
the user installs fonts and other tools, it
runs seamlessly.

o NT WILL BE BETTER IN ITS SUPPORT OF 16-BIT
WINDOWS APPLICATIONS. NT WILL RUN THESE
APPLICATIONS IN ONE ADDRESS SPACE WITH
PARAMETER VALIDATION.

We disagree that this provides better
protection. In contrast, it should provide no
more protection than the current Windows
version and still far less than OS/2 2.0.

Since the applications will only run in one
address space, they can still conflict with
each other. The parameter validation in
Windows 3.1 simply gives users a little more
information on what went wrong. Windows can
have difficulty recovering from such a
situation and users may still have to reboot
their system when a General Protection Fault
(UAE) occurs. There is no advantage in this.

When a Windows application fails under OS/2,
one only need stop and restart the failed
session. There is no reason to reboot the
entire system. Additionally users have the
advantage of running the applications in
separate sessions to avoid conflicting with
another application.

o NT IS MORE OF AN "ADVANCED OPERATING SYSTEM"
THAN OS/2 2.0

This is a very subjective statement! Both NT
and OS/2 2.0 are pre-emptive, multithreaded,
prioritized multitasking systems and ONLY OS/2
IS A FULL PRODUCT IN THE MARKETPLACE TODAY.

o OS/2 FALLS SHORT BECAUSE IT DOES NOT HAVE A
FULL 32-BIT ARCHITECTURE.

In the current release of OS/2 2.0, the
operating system code contains a mixture of
16- and 32-bit code. Due to the native support
for DOS and Windows applications, 16-bit code
must be present. The APIs provided however are
full 32-bit implementations. This allows
developers to write full 32-bit native
applications and have total compatibility with
OS/2 2.0 as more of the internal subsystems
are migrated to 32-bit. In particular, a
32-bit graphics engine which will offer
improvements in performance, function and
stability is already in beta test. IBM's
intentions are to deliver this new graphics
engine to end-users later in 1992.

o PRESENTATION MANAGER RUNS IN A SHARED ADDRESS
SPACE WITH ITS APPLICATIONS AND THUS CANNOT
PROTECT ITSELF.

Presentation Manager does not really "run", it
is a set of routines that provide functions to
applications which run in their own address
space. A failing PM application will only
hurt itself, not PM or any other program. PM
and the rest of the operating system code
remain intact.

o OS/2 CANNOT SUPPORT SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSING
MACHINES.

It is true that OS/2 does not yet support
symmetric multiprocessing, but very few people
have true SMP machines today. What some
customers have today are systems that support
multiple processors (MP) and IBM plans to
ship, in the near future, an extension of the
LAN Server (LS) that will support up to five
loosely coupled processors. This LS/MP
extension will support IBM's new PS/2 Model
295.

It is IBM's intention to also support
multi-threaded SMP applications in the future.

o OS/2 FALLS SHORT BECAUSE, AS A MIXED
16/32-BIT SYSTEM, IT CANNOT BE PORTED TO RISC
PROCESSORS.

This is incorrect. It is part of IBM's
strategy to port OS/2 to the RISC platform and
maintain compatibility with existing OS/2
32-bit applications. Only sections of OS/2
required to maintain compatibility with
existing 16-bit DOS and Windows applications
will remain 16-bit.

o OS/2 DOES NOT HAVE A DESYNCHRONIZED INPUT
MODEL.

OS/2 has a mechanism to interrupt
"ill-behaved" applications that might "hog"
the message queue and inhibit user input. Most
OS/2 applications are written so that this is
not a problem.

With OS/2's modular design, a desynchronized
message queue can be implemented as a
replacement subsystem and added to the system
in the future.

o OS/2 FALLS SHORT BECAUSE IT HAS LIMITED
ASYNCHRONOUS I/O.

OS/2 has full support for asynchronous I/O and
with its enhanced FAT and HPFS file systems,
along with device drivers for communications
and other peripheral ports, it is a very
powerful and efficient system for synchronous
and asynchronous I/O.

o OS/2 SUPPORT FOR WINDOWS APPS IS MORE LIMITED
IN THAT IT RUNS MODIFIED WINDOWS 3.0, NOT 3.1
AND WILL NOT RUN 32-BIT WINDOWS APPS. THESE
ARE SHORTCOMINGS GIVEN THE SIZE OF THE
INSTALLED BASE OF WINDOWS

First, there are no 32-bit Windows (Win32)
applications today. OS/2 can add this support
if there is demand for it. As stated earlier,
OS/2 has been demonstrated running Windows 3.1
applications. The code is in beta test now and
is planned for availability before the end of
1992.

Finally, there is a fairly large Windows
application install base and OS/2 2.0 runs
virtually all of those Windows applications
today.

o THERE ARE ONLY ABOUT 300 GRAPHICAL
APPLICATIONS FOR OS/2 AVAILABLE.

Since OS/2 can run all the OS/2 and the
majority of the DOS and Windows applications,
most of the 6500 Windows applications should
be added to the list of what OS/2 will run.

While these applications were not written to
take advantage of OS/2's native protected
mode, they will run well under OS/2
nonetheless. Windows 3.1 cannot run a number
of these applications without changes. In
addition, Microsoft has published a
compatibility list describing more than 30
applications written for Windows 3.0 that will
not function properly on Windows 3.1 but run
on OS/2 2.0.

Following Microsoft's logic, Windows NT will
be in the same situation as OS/2, in that the
6500 Windows and thousands of DOS applications
were not written for its native mode.
Microsoft has also stated recently that it
will only focus on support efforts on "major"
DOS and Windows 3.1 applications for Windows
NT.(15)

o THERE ARE SIGNIFICANT ADVANTAGES TO CODING FOR
THE WIN32 SUBSET (WIN32S) FUNCTIONS, TO HAVE
CODE THAT RUNS AND IS PORTABLE UP TO WINDOWS
NT ONCE WINDOWS NT SHIPS.

While this may appear to be a sound technical
idea, there are some severe shortcomings in
this approach.

Applications coded only to the Win32s API will
not exploit many advanced operating system
features (multi-threading, preemptive
multitasking, etc) on either Windows 3.1 or
Windows NT. On the other hand, applications
coded only to the full Win32 API may not run
on Windows 3.1 at all.

Essentially, the Microsoft strategy forces
developers to make a choice:

- Sub-optimize either the Windows 3.1
clients or the Windows NT servers
...or...

- Maintain separate source libraries for
each, significantly increasing development
costs.

OS/2, however, has a single, consistent 32-bit
API for developers to build both client and
server applications.

o OS/2'S SCHEDULER WILL NOT PREEMPT A TIME SLICE
ONCE IT HAS BEEN STARTED WHILE WINDOWS NT
WILL, LEADING ONE TO CONCLUDE THAT OS /2 IS
LESS EFFICIENT FOR TIME-CRITICAL APPLICATIONS.

OS/2 is ideal for time-critical applications,
and indeed, is being used in many sites today
to control plant floors, loading docks and
medical equipment. OS/2 was also used at the
1992 Summer Olympic Games to control data and
has been used to gather and report real-time
data at the Indianapolis 500 car race for
several years now.

o WINDOWS NT WILL SUPPORT 2 GIGABYTES OF ADDRESS
SPACE PER APPLICATION WHILE OS/2 2.0 ONLY
SUPPORTS 512MB.

OS/2's architectural limit per application is
4 gigabytes, the current implementation is
512Mb. Today, there are very few applications
that come anywhere near 512Mb of memory and
very few computers that even have 100Mb of
real memory.(16)

o WINDOWS DEVELOPERS CANNOT LEVERAGE THE
INVESTMENTS MADE IN THEIR WINDOWS-BASED
PROGRAMS IN OS/2.

In OS/2, Windows developers can gain great
benefits and leverage their investments in
Windows code in several ways:

1. Users can continue to run their Windows
applications under OS/2 while developers
work on OS/2 versions. OS/2 2.0 can run
the majority of the Windows applications
that Windows 3.1 does not.

2. Windows and OS/2 have a number of things
in common. Many of the programming
interfaces are similar and in many cases,
the structures and APIs are virtually
interchangeable. If a user understands
Windows programming, he will understand
OS/2's Presentation Manager. Dealing with
multitasking and multiple threads is
something he would have to learn for
Windows NT and OS/2 2.0.

3. There are porting tools available today,
for the initial port from Windows code to
OS/2. Many large applications can be
ported in an hour or two. Then developers
can begin to optimize the code for OS/2's
advanced features.

Once application code runs on OS/2, it has
been able to run on future versions of
OS/2. IBM has been able to maintain this
commitment to protect customer investment
in applications since version OS/2 version
1.0. Microsoft has forced developers to
upgrade code with virtually every revision
of Windows. Microsoft has already
published a document on porting Windows 16
bit applications to the Windows 32 bit
APIs.

o WINDOWS NT CAN SHARE PRINTERS AND OS/2 CANNOT.

OS/2 can share printers with any of several
network products available. It appears that
Windows NT will have some networking features
built into the base system. This can have
advantages and disadvantages.

The advantage is that users will not have to
purchase extra network products to use the
most basic of networking functions.

The disadvantage is that users who do not want
network functions are bogged down with the
extra disk and RAM required to keep this code
around. This may also limit compatibility with
other vendors' networking offerings.


OS/2 2.0 offers it all... TODAY.

OS/2 2.0 is a fully preemptive, prioritized,
multitasking, multithreaded operating system with
a superior object-oriented graphical interface,
networking and host connectivity support along
with compatibility with most other software
written for Intel based PCs and compatibles, and
best of all, it's available today.

The prioritized, preemptive multitasking of OS/2
utilizes the processor more efficiently than
Windows 3.x. The connectivity support along with
its entry-level hardware requirements make it an
ideal platform for both client and server
computing.

OS/2 2.0 provides:

o 32 bit virtual memory, allowing applications
up to 512 megabytes per application, limited
only by the size of the user's hard disk.

o Multitasking support, allowing many
applications to run simultaneously with
excellent performance.

o Multithreading to allow those applications
wishing to perform many simultaneous tasks to
do so.

o An easy-to-use and easy-to-program
context-sensitive online help system.

o Protection among applications and protection
to enhance operating system integrity. Users
have the option of running applications in
separate sessions, or combining them as
resources and the situation dictate, while the
operating system is protected from errant
code.

o Extendable subsystems, allowing programmers to
add new system services and create custom,
enterprise-wide applications while remaining
flexible for the small company or home user.

o International language support (currently 17
languages) including bidirectional languages
for Hebrew and Arabic.

o A state-of-the-art, object-oriented user shell
that integrates applications with the shell,
providing consistent interfaces across the
entire system.

o Compatibility. OS/2 will run:

- 16-bit and 32-bit OS/2 applications

- Most DOS applications

- Most Windows 3.0 and Windows 2.0
applications; and Windows 3.1 applications
soon

- Connectivity with various network systems
along with host environments


OS/2 2.0's compatibility with applications written
for previous versions of OS/2, DOS and Windows is
unsurpassed. Even Windows 3.1 will not run a
number of applications written for Windows 3.0,
forcing developers to update their code and users
to purchase upgrades. OS/2 will run many of these
applications, preserving users software
investments.

OS/2's programming interface has not changed from
earlier versions. With any new functions that
have been added, only minor changes are needed to
source code to recompile on OS/2 2.0, and programs
that ran on a previous version of OS/2 will run on
OS/2 2.0 unchanged. The only need to recode for
any upgrade of OS/2 is to take advantage of new
features, again preserving programming
investments.

IBM Multimedia Presentation Manager/2 (MMPM/2) has
been released to provide multimedia capabilities
for OS/2 systems for sound, CD-ROM and MIDI
support as well as advanced graphics.

Many applications have already taken advantage of
OS/2's powerful multitasking and multithreaded
features in their 16-bit versions. Vendors such
as Lotus, Describe, Aldus and Novell have 16-bit
OS/2 applications. 32-bit applications will, in
most cases, run even better and faster due to
OS/2's new 32-bit flat memory model along with its
other features. There are more than 200 32-bit
applications available now and more than 1000
software vendors have committed to delivering
32-bit OS/2 applications in 1992.

OS/2 2.0 offers users and developers alike
powerful multitasking features, with limitless
possibilities for the future. Best of all, OS/2
2.0 is available on the desktop today.



APPENDICES




Appendix A. OS/2 2.0 compared to Windows 3.1 and Windows NT

The following charts compare key operating system
features for Windows 3.1, Windows NT and OS/2 2.0.
Some of the entries under Windows NT are marked
with an asterisk, "*". This is because Windows NT
is a not generally available and therefore IBM
does not have the current specifications for all
items. For the same reason, the data on Windows NT
may change at any time.

+------------------------------------------------+
| Table 1. OS/2 2.0 compared to Windows 3.1 and |
| Windows NT |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | Windows | Windows | OS/2 2.0 |
| | 3.1 | NT | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Available | Today | * | Today |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Price (low - | $49 - | $400 - | $79 - |
| high) | $149 | $500 | $149 |
| | | (estimate| |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Applications Base |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| DOS | 30,000+ | * | 30,000+ |
| Applications | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Windows | 5,000+ | * | 5,000+ |
| Applications | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| 16-bit OS/2 | 0 | * | 2,500+ |
| Applications | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| 32-Bit OS/2 | 0 | * | 600 |
| Applications | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| --- TOTAL --- | 35,000+ | * | 38,000+ |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Hardware |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Processor | 286 and | 386DX | 386SX |
| | higher | (33Mhz) | (16 Mhz) |
| | | and | and |
| | | higher | higher |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Minimum RAM | 2 MB | 8 MB | 4 MB |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Recommended | 4 - 6 MB | 12 - 16 | 6 - 8 MB |
| RAM | | MB | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Minimum hard | 9 MB | 40 MB | 13 MB |
| drive | | | |
| (approximately| | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Hard drive | 11 MB + | 100 MB | 28 MB |
| for full | | | |
| install | | | |
| (approximately| | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Largest hard | 1 GB | 17 | 64 GB |
| drive | | Billion | (HPFS) |
| | | GB | |
| | | (NTFS) | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Largest file | 1 GB | * | 2 GB |
| size | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| SCSI | No | Yes | Yes |
| exploitation | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| File System | FAT only | FAT, | Enhanced |
| options | | HPFS, | FAT or |
| | | NTFS | HPFS |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Memory |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Virtual | 4 x | 2 GB per | 512 MB |
| Memory Limit | Physical | process | per |
| | Memory | | process |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Memory Model | Segmented| Flat | Flat |
| | (64 KB) | memory | memory |
| | | objects | objects |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Multi-tasking |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Multi-tasking | Time | Preemptiv| Preemptiv|
| - DOS | Slicing | Time | Time |
| Applications | | Slicing | Slicing |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Multi-tasking | Co-op | Preemptiv| Preemptiv|
| - Windows/PM | | | |
| Apps | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Priority | Static | Dynamic | Dynamic |
| | (set by | | |
| | user) | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Dispatchabilit| Process | Thread | Thread |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| System | Serial | Parallel | Parallel |
| Services | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Reliability/Protection |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Protection | Limited | Some | Yes |
| between | | | |
| Applications | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Kernel | Limited | Yes | Yes |
| protection | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Remains in | No - | Yes | Yes |
| protect mode | access | | |
| | to real | | |
| | mode | | |
| | possible | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Application Compatibility |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Multiple | Yes | Some * | Yes |
| Concurrent | (enhanced| | |
| DOS | mode | | |
| Applications | only) | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Windows 2.x | No | No | Yes |
| Applications | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Windows 3.0 | Most | Some * | Most |
| Applications | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Windows 32 | Some | Yes | No |
| Bit | | | (Possible|
| Applications | | | Future) |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Clipboard | Windows | Windows | Windows, |
| support | and DOS | and DOS | DOS and |
| | only | only | OS/2 |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| DDE support | Windows | Windows | Windows |
| | apps | apps | and OS/2 |
| | only | only | apps |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| OLE support | Yes | Yes | Yes |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| 16-bit OS/2 | No | Partial | Yes |
| Applications | | (char | |
| | | mode | |
| | | only) | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| 32-bit OS/2 | No | No | Yes |
| Applications | | (Possible| |
| | | Future) | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Printing and Fonts |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Print | Limited | Yes | Yes |
| spooling | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Adobe Type | No | No | Yes |
| Manager | | | |
| standard | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Network | Some | Yes | Yes |
| printing | | | |
| support | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Background |Unpredict-| * |Predictable
| printing |able | | |
| performance | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| National Language Support |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Number of | 12 | * | 17 |
| Language | | | |
| Versions | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Data | SO8859 | * | CP850 |
| Interchange |(different| |(consistent
| | from | |throughout|
| | DOS) | | OS/2) |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Host | 3rd | 3rd | Included |
| connectivity | party | party | in |
| | | | Extended |
| | | | Services |
| | | | for OS/2 |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Code Page | Single | Unicode |Selectable|
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Other Factors |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Full 32-bit | No | Yes | Yes |
| APIs | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Concurrent |Unreliable| * | Yes |
| High Speed | | | |
| Comms | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Background |Unreliable| * | Yes |
| Comms | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| OEM Hardware | Yes | Some | Yes |
| Support | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Development | Yes | Yes | Yes |
| Tools | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Command | .BAT | .BAT, | .BAT, |
| Language | | Basic | .CMD and |
| | | | REXX |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Installation | Limited | * | Yes |
| migration for | | | |
| existing apps | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| User Interface |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| CUA | Graphical| Graphical| Workplace|
| compliance | Model | Model | Model |
| | ('89) | ('89) | ('91) |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Icons | No | No | Yes |
| representing | | | |
| non-loaded | | | |
| files on | | | |
| desktop | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Place icons | No | No | Yes |
| anywhere on | | | |
| desktop | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Group windows | Single- | Single- |Multilayer|
| | layer | layer |hierarch. |
| | only | only | folders |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Customise GUI | No | No | Yes |
| look | | |(Workplace|
| | | | Shell, |
| | | | Windows |
| | | | 3.x, |
| | | | OS/2 |
| | | | 1.x) |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Context Menus | No | No | Yes |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Object | No | No | Yes |
| Management | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Graphical | Yes | Yes | Yes |
| Install | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Intelligent | Windows | Same as | Yes |
| fonts | 3.1 - | Windows | (Adobe |
| | Yes | 3.1 | Type |
| | (TrueType| | Manager |
| | - 650 | | for PM & |
| | fonts) | | Windows |
| | | | - 1200 |
| | | | fonts) |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Long file | No | Yes | Yes |
| names | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Applets | Yes | Yes | Yes |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Consistent | No - | Yes | Yes |
| GUI logon | requires | | |
| | Network | | |
| | vendor | | |
| | utility | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Interactive | Yes | * | Yes |
| Tutorial | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Command | No | * | Yes |
| Reference | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Advanced Connectivity |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Client and | No | No | Yes |
| Server | | | |
| platform | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Multiple | Limited | Yes | Yes |
| Concurrent | | | |
| Protocols | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| SNA LU6.2 | 3rd | 3rd | Yes |
| | party | party | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| APPN | 3rd | 3rd | Yes |
| | party | party | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| TCP-IP | 3rd | 3rd | IBM |
| | party | party | TCP-IP |
| | | | for OS/2 |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| Systems | 3rd | LAN Man | Various |
| Management | party | NT | from IBM |
| | | (future) | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| SQL Server | MS SQL | SQL | OS/2 |
| | Server | Server | Database |
| | (requires| NT | Mgr |
| | OS/2) | (future) | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| SQL Client | 3rd | Yes | Yes |
| | party | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| NFS | 3rd | 3rd | IBM |
| | party | party | TCP-IP |
| | | | for OS/2 |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+
| | | | |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+

Notes:

1. Although Windows 3.1 will run on a 286, doing
so limits the features available to the user
(multitasking DOS applications, demand paging,
32 bit support.)

2. An additional 50% of the remaining partition
is used for the swap file. This is the
default.

3. This includes a mandatory 20 MB swap file

4. Windows NT runs existing Windows 16-bit
applications in a single address space. If one
of these applications goes down, all of the
applications in the address space could go
down as well.

5. Windows NT has been shown to have
compatibility problems with some classes of
DOS and Windows applications. See PC Week,
July 27, 1992.

6. Windows 3.1 will not run some Windows 3.0
applications, which will need updates.
Compatibility notes are listed in the APPS.HLP
file. Several Windows 3.0 applications need
updated versions to run on Windows 3.1. OS/2
2.0 runs virtually all Windows 3.0
applications, as well as all the Windows 2.x
applications that Windows 3.1 will no longer
support (no Real Mode support provided)

7. Print spooling is not provided by Windows 3.1
for DOS applications, only for Windows
applications. OS/2 2.0 provides print spooling
for DOS, Windows and OS/2 applications. OS/2
2.0 has extensive user print management
capabilities (40 APIs vs 12 APIs in Windows
3.1) for querying, holding, releasing and
deleting jobs (including a graphical view of
job and queue status).

8. OS/2 has been shown to outperform Windows 3.x
with background print operations, in
multitasking environments

9. Early feedback on Compuserve of the pre-beta
SDK is indicates that 386 processors with a B0
or B1 stepping are incompatible with Windows
NT. Several common BIOS chips have also been
found to be incompatible.

10. In Windows, files only exist in the File
Manager, programs in Program Manager, etc.
There are no icons for printers.

11. OS/2 2.0's 'Yes' answers here are all using
Extended Services for OS/2 except where
stated. It is important to note that the
Windows column refers to Windows specific
programs (i.e. written to explicitly take
advantage of Windows GUI, memory
addressability, or time-slicing). Although
there are many DOS connectivity options, and
they may be usable under Windows, the
integration of these complex subsystems and
any co-residency of two or more options (eg
TCP/IP and SNA) is completely the
responsibility of the customer as a custom
integration effort.

Moreover, Windows on DOS has architectural
limitations (less memory, less protection, and
less multitasking support) which make multiple
network connections more difficult to
integrate than under OS/2. OS/2's base
environment provides tools and system support
designed to allow this type of
multi-connectivity installation. Besides, all
the extra software required for these
functions under OS/2 comes from IBM, and one
can therefore anticipate a greater degree of
integration.

12. The projected system requirements for Windows
NT may be too large for many of today's client
machines.


Appendix B. Windows 3.1 Application Incompatibilities

When a vendor ships new software, minor
incompatibilities often accompany the new
function. Windows 3.1, for example, has problems
running dozens of Windows 3.0 applications,
including Microsoft applications. Support for
Windows 2.x applications has been removed
entirely.

OS/2 2.0 will run Windows 2.0 and 3.0 applications
concurrently. It will also run nearly all of the
30+ Windows 3.0 applications that Microsoft warns
will not run properly under windows 3.1 and would
require upgrades or fixes:(17)
These include:

o Ace Software AceFile
o Adobe Illustrator
o Adobe TypeAlign
o Aldus FreeHand 3.0
o Aldus Persuasion
o Bitstream FaceLift 1.2
o Borland C 3.0 WInsight
o Campbell Services OnTime 1.0
o Central Point Software PC Tools
o Channel Computing Forest and Trees 2.0a
o Claris Hollywood
o Coda Finale
o Computer Support Arts & Letters
o Software Publishing Harvard Graphics for
Windows
o Computer Support Picture Wizard
o First Byte Monologue for Windows
o hDC First Apps Memory Viewer 1.0
o Hewlett-Packard NewWave
o Lotus Ami Pro
o Microsoft Bookshelf for Windows
o Microsoft PowerPoint 2.0e
o Microsoft Productivity Pack 1.0
o Microsoft Word for Windows 1.1
o PowerSoft Powerbuilder 1.0
o SofNet FAXit for Windows
o PFS:WindowsWorks
o NBI Legacy
o Norton Desktop 1.0
o (ALL Windows 2.x applications)
---------------

(1) At the time of this writing, the suggested retail prices of MS-DOS 5.0,
Windows 3.1 and OS/2 V2.0 are $99.95, $149.00 and $149.00 respectively.

(2) A Grand Tour of Windows NT - Microsoft Systems Journal, Jul/Aug 1992

(3) Microsoft Windows NT - An Overview - April 1992

(4) PC Week - Windows and OS/2 Supplement - August 17,1992 - Page S/1.

(5) Gartner Group - Personal Computer Research Notes, P-230-853, July 31,1992

(6) PC Week, July 27, 1992 - Page 1

(7) PC Week - Windows and OS/2 Supplement - August 17, 1992 - Page S/9

(8) Microsoft Windows NT Operating System - A Comparison with OS/2

(9) Microsoft Operating Systems Directions - Presented by Dwayne Walker at
Spring Comdex 1992

(10) Windows Magazine, October, 1992, Page 20

(11) Microsoft Windows Strategy - An Overview - Page 5

(12) Windows Magazine - October 1992 - Page 16

(13) Data from Romtec, Ingram-Micro, Software Unlimited, PC Connection

(14) PC Week, July 27, 1992 - Page 1

(15) PC Week - July 27, 1992 - Page 1

(16) Remember: the virtual memory limit for ANY system is it's real (physical)
memory plus all free disk space.

(17) PC Week, March 23, 1992. The article says that these products were taken
directly from the Win 3.1 on-line help system.


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