Dec 302017
OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions version 2.1d (includes long discussion on OS/2 for Windows).
File FAQ21D.ZIP from The Programmer’s Corner in
Category OS/2 Files
OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions version 2.1d (includes long discussion on OS/2 for Windows).
File Name File Size Zip Size Zip Type
OS2FAQ.ICO 874 185 deflated
OS2FAQ.INF 220057 126734 deflated
OS2FAQ.TXT 229940 75424 deflated

Download File FAQ21D.ZIP Here

Contents of the OS2FAQ.TXT file

OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions List
User's Edition (U.S. English)
Release 2.1D
November 23, 1993
Compiled by Timothy F. Sipples
Copyright (c) 1993 by Timothy F. Sipples
All Rights Reserved.

For changes, suggestions, or additions please mail [email protected]
or write:

Timothy F. Sipples
Center for Population Economics
University of Chicago
1101 East 58th Street
Chicago, IL 60637

I cannot acknowledge your contribution(s), but they are greatly appreciated.

Mention of a product does not constitute an endorsement. Customers outside
the United States should not necessarily rely on 800 telephone numbers, page
numbers, part numbers, or upgrade policies contained in this List.
Electronic mail addresses are in Internet form; use addressing appropriate
to your mail system.

This List is freely distributable {{ for noncommercial purposes. (For
commercial purposes, please contact the author.) }} If you redistribute the
List, please include all the original files.

This List is updated monthly and is distributed through various computer
networks and online services, including the Internet, CompuServe, GEnie, and
many BBSes.

Both ASCII text and OS/2 Information Presentation Facility (INF) versions of
the List are provided. To view the INF version of the List, go to any OS/2
command line prompt (e.g. double click on "OS/2 Window") and type:


The ASCII text version may be viewed using any text editor, word processor,
or file listing utility. The text version is intended to answer any
questions you may have before actually obtaining and using OS/2. You will
find that the INF version provides a much more attractive List, with
hypertext links, fast indexing, and, increasingly, illustrations.

If you have not received all three files (OS2FAQ.ICO, OS2FAQ.INF, and
OS2FAQ.TXT), please ask your system operator to make sure he/she is
receiving the correct and complete package every month.

Related information:

(0.1) Release Notes

(0.1) Release Notes

{{ Text which has been revised or updated since the last release will appear
in the same color as this paragraph and will be enclosed in double braces.
(Revision marking in magenta proved to be so unpopular that now a dark
green/brown shade is used. Thank goodness.) }}

{{ This release of the OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions List has been delayed
to follow the release of IBM's newest member of the OS/2 family, OS/2 for
Windows. To read more about this exciting product, see (0.4) Special Report
on OS/2 for Windows. }}

{{ A Spanish language translation of the OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions
List is now distributed in Spain. Italian and Japanese versions are under
consideration. Volunteers for other languages are encouraged to step
forward. }}

At some point in the future I plan to add Master Help Index entries.

BBS operators and archive maintainers: please retain Versions 2.0L and 1.9G
of this List, the last versions to deal specifically with OS/2 Versions 2.0
and 1.3, respectively.

Related information:

(0.0) Introduction and Credits
(0.2) Recent Developments
(0.3) Questions in this Release
(0.4) Special Report on OS/2 for Windows

(0.2) Recent Developments

{{ IBM's newest member of the OS/2 family, OS/2 for Windows, is now
available. This low cost, specially designed Windows add-on brings the
power of OS/2 to the millions of Windows users currently searching for
better performance and more features. For more information on what will
probably be IBM's best selling software product ever, please see (0.4)
Special Report on OS/2 for Windows. }}

{{ BMDP Statistical Software (phone 800-238-2637 or FAX 310-312-0161)
announces the release of BMDP/Diamond, a "highly interactive graphical
visualization tool for exploring relationships in multivariate data." }}

{{ Skill Dynamics, IBM's training and education company, now offers
professional certification for OS/2 and LAN Server experts. Certification
testing is administered by Drake Training and Technologies, with classroom
training provided by Skill Dynamics (phone 800-426-8322). }}

{{ IBM's Worldwide Developer Assistance Program (WWDAP) announces its new
Internet e-mail address, [email protected], to add yet another means of
communicating with IBM's programmers. WWDAP provides direct IBM support to
developers of all sizes for the creation of OS/2 software. }}

{{ Congratulations to David Whittle (IBM Personal Software Products,
Austin), winner of the 1993 OS/2 Professional "Team OS/2" Award. }}

{{ IBM is now shipping LAN Distance, software which enables remote access to
IBM LAN Server, NetWare, Banyan Vines, and other PC-based LANs. LAN
Distance works over dial-up and other asynchronous (serial) communications
links to provide protocol transparent remote access. The OS/2 version is
available immediately; DOS and Windows versions will follow. For more
information on LAN Distance, phone 800-IBM-CALL in the United States, or
contact any IBM software dealer. }}

{{ Rightware Inc. (phone 301-762-1151 or FAX 301-762-1185) is now shipping
LinkRight, a parallel port and serial port file transfer utility (similar to
LapLink) with OS/2 Presentation Manager, OS/2 character mode, and DOS
versions included. Extended attributes are retained, even when transferring
to/from a DOS system. }}

{{ IBM has released a DCE (Distributed Computing Environment) runtime client
for OS/2 (Part No. 96F8691) and a Software Development Kit for OS/2 and
Windows (Part No. 96F8690). DCE allows programmers to construct
sophisticated, cross-platform client-server applications. }}

{{ FTP Software (phone 800-282-4FTP or mail [email protected]) is now shipping
PC/TCP Version 1.3. This TCP/IP software features several enhancements over
the previous version: a virtual device driver (for WinSock and DOS PC/TCP
application compatibility), a print redirector, and an IBM TCP/IP-compatible
DLL. }}

{{ IBM has released Screen Reader/2 Version 1.1, software which enables
blind and visually impaired computer users to access DOS, Windows, and OS/2
applications running under OS/2 2.1. For more information, call
800-426-4832 (voice), 800-426-4833 (TDD), or 800-465-7999 (Canada). }}

{{ CA-Realizer 2.0 from Computer Associates (phone 800-CALL-CAI) is now
shipping. Realizer, a visual BASIC development system, is QuickBASIC
compatible. Both OS/2 and Windows versions are included in the same box,
priced under $100. }}

IBM is now shipping Pen for OS/2, a powerful pen computing system that
offers pen capabilities, with handwriting recognition, to almost any OS/2,
DOS, or Windows application. Pen for OS/2 is just $89. For more
information or to order call 800-3-IBM-OS2. A developer's toolkit is also

{{ IBM has introduced C Set ++ Version 2.1 and C Set ++ FirstStep. C Set ++
Version 2.1 now includes Version 2.1 of the OS/2 Toolkit, the Workplace
Shell enabled WorkFrame/2 Version 2.1, new class libraries, and the KASE:Set
GUI builder. C Set ++ FirstStep is a lower cost package designed for all
but the most power hungry OS/2 C/C++ programmers, with a nonoptimizing
compiler, three basic class libaries, Toolkit 2.1, and WorkFrame/2 1.1. C
Set ++ FirstStep sells for just $99 (or less). Reduced price upgrades to C
Set ++ 2.1 are available from previous versions of C Set. Call 800-IBM-CALL
or 800-3-IBM-OS2 to order. }}

IBM is now offering developers access to their new Continuous Speech Series
for OS/2. Beta level software and an array of support services and
discounts are available for developers who wish to produce applications
based on IBM's new OS/2- and AIX-based continuous speech recognition
software, the most advanced technology of its kind. For more information on
IBM Continuous Speech Series, contact the Developer's Program at
800-627-8363 or 301-240-3356.

Related information:

(0.3) Questions in this Release
(0.4) Special Report on OS/2 for Windows

(0.3) Questions in this Release

The following questions are addressed in this release:

(1.0) Fundamentals

(1.1) What is OS/2?

(1.2) What are the differences between versions?

(1.3) How good is OS/2 2.1's DOS and Windows compatibility?

(1.4) Where can I buy OS/2, and how much does it cost?

(1.5) Why should I use HPFS? What does it offer me? Does it
work with DOS?

(1.6) Why should I choose OS/2 over its competitors?

(2.0) Hardware

(2.1) What hardware do I need to run IBM OS/2 2.1? Do I need a PS/2?

(2.2) Will OS/2 2.1 work with my SuperVGA adapter?

(2.3) Will OS/2 2.1 work with my printer?

(2.4) Can I use COM3 and COM4 in OS/2 2.1?

(2.5) Are there any specific hardware recommendations?

(2.6) Can I use more than 16 MB of RAM?

(2.7) What device drivers are available that aren't included with

(3.0) Software

(3.1) What applications are available for OS/2?

(3.2) Where can I obtain OS/2 shareware and freeware?

(3.3) What are the "must have" shareware and freeware titles?

(3.4) Is there a Norton Utilities for OS/2?

(3.5) I would like to set up an OS/2 BBS. What is available?

(3.6) What do I need for OS/2 multimedia applications?

(3.7) Should I worry about viruses when running OS/2 2.1?

(3.8) What networking products are available for OS/2 2.1?

(3.9) What is Extended Services?

(3.10) Are there any special software offers I should know about?

(3.11) What backup software is available?

(3.12) What multiuser extensions and security options are available?

(3.13) What on-the-fly disk compression software is available?

(3.14) Are there any dealers that specialize in OS/2 products?

(4.0) Installation, Maintenance, and Support

(4.1) I am having trouble installing OS/2 2.1. What should I do?

(4.2) I can't install OS/2 from Drive B. What's wrong?

(4.3) What is the best way to partition my hard disk for OS/2?

(4.4) How do I access HPFS partitions on my hard drive without
booting from the hard drive? I'm getting error messages
now -- how do I "repair" my hard disk?

(4.5) How can I get answers to my OS/2 questions?

(4.6) What are CSDs, how do I tell which I have, and where do I
get them?

(4.7) Which online services support OS/2, and how do I join?

(4.8) Are there any OS/2 user groups?

(4.9) What OS/2 books and magazines are available?

(4.10) How do I report an OS/2 problem to IBM?

(4.11) What OS/2 BBSes can I dial?

(4.12) IBM has so many telephone numbers. Which one do I use?

(5.0) Using OS/2

(5.1) I'm a Unix wizard. How do I make OS/2 resemble Unix?

(5.2) I prefer Windows. How do I make OS/2 2.1 resemble Windows
(or OS/2 1.3)?

(5.3) Sometimes OS/2 2.1 will freeze when I run an application.
What do I do?

(5.4) How do I start a background process from the OS/2 command line?

(5.5) How do I add new Adobe Type Manager typefaces?

(5.6) How do I tweak OS/2 2.1 for maximum performance?

(5.7) How do I measure OS/2 performance and memory usage?

(5.8) My background bitmap does not display correctly. What's wrong?

(5.9) How do I boot a real version of DOS from within OS/2 2.1?

(5.10) Are there any clever tricks that apply to OS/2 2.1?

(5.11) How do I use REXX? What does it do?

(5.12) What ANSI escape sequences can be used?

(6.0) Miscellaneous

(6.1) What can I do to promote OS/2?

(6.2) How can I create INF files?

(7.0) Glossary of Terms

(0.4) Special Report on OS/2 for Windows

{{ On November 9, IBM announced widespread, on-the-shelf availability in the
United States of its newest software product, OS/2 for Windows.

OS/2 for Windows is the newest member of the OS/2 family, joining OS/2 2.1
and OS/2 2.1 Upgrade Edition in satisfying the growing demands of PC users
for a more powerful yet easy to use environment. This newest member is
specifically targeted at current Windows users who are becoming frustrated
with the limitations of their aging 16-bit operating environment. It offers
a smooth, low cost way of upgrading today to take advantage of the future
technologies that all pundits acknowledge will matter tomorrow.

OS/2 for Windows is no stripped down sibling; it contains all the features
found in its bigger brothers. Those features include true preemptive
multitasking, multithreading, advanced memory management, Adobe Type
Manager, the drag-and-drop ease of the object-oriented Workplace Shell (or
the familiar Windows Program Manager, if desired), state-of-the-art
multimedia (including the best software motion video technology for the PC),
support for long filenames through the High Performance File System (HPFS),
and superb compatibility with DOS, Windows, and OS/2 software. In fact,
OS/2 for Windows shares the same base OS/2 2.1 code as its brothers.

However, IBM has designed OS/2 for Windows to be a true Windows upgrade.
That means that the Windows compatibility code, Win-OS/2, found in OS/2 2.1
has been removed. The installation program has been modified so that OS/2
for Windows will install over a system which already has DOS 5.x (or later)
with Microsoft Windows 3.1 installed (including OEM and national language

How does OS/2 for Windows manage to work this magic?

The installation program in OS/2 for Windows modifies certain Windows files
just enough so that Windows 3.1 is compatible with the new OS/2 environment.
However, OS/2 for Windows preserves the existing DOS/Windows setup through
DualBoot. In other words, the modified version of Windows 3.1 will still
execute under regular DOS just as it always did, and OS/2 for Windows will
let you switch back and forth at will, much as you do now when switching
between Windows and DOS. Yet you still use Microsoft's Windows code to run
your Windows applications regardless of whether you do so under DOS or under
OS/2 for Windows. It's like giving your copy of Windows an upgrade without
getting rid of the old version (should you need it).

Why is IBM producing a special Windows upgrade?

IBM is producing OS/2 for Windows for several reasons. First, since OS/2
for Windows uses your existing copy of Microsoft Windows 3.1 for Windows
compatibility, IBM does not have to pay royalties to Microsoft for use of
the code. That means that IBM can ship OS/2 for Windows at a lower price
(with fewer diskettes) than regular OS/2 2.1 -- you do not have to pay twice
for the same code.

Moreover, IBM believes there is a large market among Windows users who are
frustrated with their current environment. Most of those users do not
believe that Microsoft's NT (with tremendous hardware requirements and a
price tag of $300 and up) is a viable upgrade, and many of those users are
not willing to wait until Microsoft attempts to offer equivalent
functionality some time in the future.

What media sizes are available, and how much will OS/2 for Windows cost?

OS/2 for Windows is available in four packages: 3.5 inch diskettes (IBM
Part No. 71G5391), 5.25 inch diskettes (71G5392), CD-ROM (71G5395), and
without media (additional license certificate, 71G5397). Street prices in
the United States are expected to be $49 to $59 for either of the diskette
packages, $39 to $49 for the CD-ROM package, and $29 to $39 for an
additional license. (You would pay more for a Windows desktop replacement
or accessory!)

At those prices, what about toll free technical support?

IBM will provide exactly the same toll free technical support to OS/2 for
Windows customers as it does its regular OS/2 customers, that is, 60 days of
toll free technical support per copy purchased starting from the first call.
(Outside the United States, support policies may differ.) In addition, all
the other support vehicles are available indefinitely (such as BBSes,
CompuServe, etc).

Will OS/2 for Windows support "seamless" mode? Enhanced mode? VxDs?

While operating under OS/2 for Windows, both "seamless" and enhanced modes
are supported. (Seamless Windows is the ability to execute Windows
applications on the OS/2 Workplace Shell desktop. Enhanced mode is the
default Windows mode on 386 or higher processors and is required by certain
Windows applications.) VxDs, or Windows virtual drivers, are not supported
while executing under OS/2 for Windows and, by implication, neither is
Win32s. Only a tiny number (four at last count) of applications require one
or both of these features. (Microsoft NT, in fact, does not support VxDs at
all.) Again, OS/2 for Windows preserves an existing Windows 3.1 setup, so
such applications, if absolutely necessary, can be run under DOS/Windows.
On the other hand, OS/2 for Windows allows Windows users to run any of the
thousands of OS/2 applications available (none of which are available to
users running DOS with Windows, NT, or any other environment except OS/2).

Should VxD and/or Win32s support become important in the future, IBM has
stated that it will support these technologies.

If I do not have a copy of Microsoft Windows 3.1, can I install OS/2 for
Windows and use it to run DOS and OS/2 applications?

Yes! While OS/2 for Windows is designed primarily for people upgrading from
Windows, it will install if you have DOS alone on your hard disk. You will
not be able to run Windows applications within OS/2 for Windows, however.
When used as a DOS upgrade, you might think of OS/2 for Windows as "OS/2
WOW": OS/2 WithOut Windows.

If I install OS/2 for Windows on a DOS-only system, and I later decide I
need support for Windows applications, can I install Windows 3.1?

Yes! When you install OS/2 for Windows on a DOS-only system, the DualBoot
facility (for switching between native DOS and OS/2 for Windows) is provided
by default. To add Windows 3.1 to a system with OS/2 for Windows already
installed, simply DualBoot into native DOS, install Windows 3.1, DualBoot
back into OS/2 for Windows, then use Selective Install to "migrate" Windows
3.1. (Precise instructions should be available in the OS/2 for Windows

If I have to install OS/2 for Windows over a DOS/Windows system, how do I
use HPFS?

OS/2 for Windows itself may be installed on a High Performance File System
(HPFS) formatted volume, but Windows 3.1 must reside on a DOS File
Allocation Table (FAT) volume (since DOS cannot read and write to HPFS).
Since DOS (and Windows when it is installed and running under DOS) requires
a FAT (File Allocation Table) file system, and since OS/2 for Windows needs
the existing Windows code on your hard disk to provide Windows application
compatibility, the part of your hard disk which holds Windows 3.1 must be
FAT. Other parts of your hard disk (including the section holding OS/2 for
Windows itself) may be formatted to HPFS if you wish. If you have no
intention of ever running Windows 3.1 under native DOS, you can back up any
FAT volumes (using OS/2 backup software), repartition/reformat for HPFS,
then restore. (This procedure is recommended only for those users who are
reasonably familiar with OS/2.)

Can I still use OS/2's Boot Manager?

Yes, Boot Manager may be used provided there is unpartitioned space
available on the hard disk. Repartitioning may be required (using the FDISK
utility supplied with OS/2 for Windows) if this is not the case.

Can I still use MS-DOS's DoubleSpace?

IBM recommends that DoubleSpace users either (a) move files off DoubleSpace
drives completely and get rid of DoubleSpace, or (b) purchase Stacker for
OS/2 and DOS along with OS/2 for Windows, to provide on-the-fly disk
compression under both environments (and allow conversion of DoubleSpace
volumes). Users may keep DoubleSpace compressed files, but such files will
not be accessible while inside OS/2 for Windows.

Are there any extra drivers included with OS/2 for Windows?

Yes. With OS/2 2.1, users of S3-based video cards have to download a driver
disk for support. The S3 driver diskette is included inside the OS/2 for
Windows box.

Will OS/2 for Windows require separate Service Paks?

No. OS/2 for Windows will use the same Service Paks, when available, as
OS/2 2.1. See (4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes for more information.

I already have OS/2 2.1. What does OS/2 for Windows do for me?

There are minimal functional differences. OS/2 for Windows brings the power
of OS/2 in a lower cost package to a key audience. Windows users are now
even more inclined to experience OS/2 technology for themselves. The most
substantial difference is that the "About" dialog boxes in Windows, even
when running under OS/2 for Windows, still say Microsoft (and do not betray
IBM influence as those in Win-OS/2 do). So, if you have regular OS/2 2.1 or
OS/2 2.1 Upgrade Edition, relax and watch as a new wave of new users join
you in the OS/2 world. For future purchases, you may wish to consider OS/2
for Windows (as either a DOS or Windows upgrade).

Will there be an upgrade to OS/2 for Windows from regular OS/2 2.1 or OS/2
2.1 Upgrade Edition?

No. OS/2 for Windows is another member of the OS/2 family and is designed
primarily as an upgrade for Windows users (and for DOS users who are not
concerned about Windows compatibility). It is not an upgrade (nor for that
matter a downgrade) for OS/2 2.1 users.

What will happen to regular OS/2 2.1 and OS/2 2.1 Upgrade Edition?

Both regular OS/2 2.1 and OS/2 2.1 Upgrade Edition will continue to be sold
alongside OS/2 for Windows (possibly in even greater numbers than before).
Regular OS/2 2.1 is designed as IBM's premier operating system for new PCs
-- PCs purchased without any operating system whatsoever. OS/2 2.1 Upgrade
Edition is intended for those PC users who do not have a copy of Microsoft
Windows 3.1 but who run DOS or for those who are running a previous version
of OS/2. Both regular OS/2 2.1 and OS/2 2.1 Upgrade Edition include
built-in Windows application support (Win-OS/2). (OS/2 2.1 is also slightly
more convenient for those users who wish to run with only HPFS, or for those
users at larger sites who perform such tasks as OS/2 remote installation and

How do I order OS/2 for Windows?

IBM will sell OS/2 for Windows directly through its toll free telephone
number (800-3-IBM-OS2), but you really ought to ask your local software
vendor (Egghead, Software Etc., Babbages, or wherever) for a copy. Prices
from dealers should be lower than those offered by IBM directly.
Availability will vary by country, so consult your local IBM dealer if you
happen to live outside the United States. }}

Related information:

(4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes

(1.0) Fundamentals

The following questions are addressed in this section:

(1.1) What is OS/2?

(1.2) What are the differences between versions?

(1.3) How good is OS/2 2.1's DOS and Windows compatibility?

(1.4) Where can I buy OS/2, and how much does it cost?

(1.5) Why should I use HPFS? What does it offer me? Does it work
with DOS?

(1.6) Why should I choose OS/2 over its competitors?

(1.1) What is OS/2?

What is OS/2?

OS/2 is an advanced operating system for PCs and PS/2s with an 80286
processor or better. It was codeveloped by Microsoft and IBM and envisioned
as the successor to DOS.

It was designed from the ground up with preemptive multitasking and
multithreading in mind. "Preemptive multitasking" means that the operating
system is responsible for allocating processor time to the one or more
applications which are running. (Cooperative multitasking, as found in
Microsoft Windows or the Macintosh's System 7, requires that each
application surrender the processor after a certain amount of time. If one
application refuses to yield, all the other applications stop running.)
"Multithreading" means that programs can start subtasks which will then be
executed by the operating system in the background. For example, a word
processor may create a separate thread (subtask) to handle printing or
saving to disk. When the user asks the word processor to perform one of
these tasks, the word processor creates a new thread and control returns to
the word processor (and the user) immediately. The subtask is executed by
the operating system in the background. The user is then free to ask the
word processor to perform another task without waiting for the thread to
complete. Applications which utilitize multithreading can be much more
responsive to the user.

OS/2 also protects applications from one another (a single misbehaved
program will not typically disrupt the entire system), supports all
addressable physical RAM, and supplies virtual memory to applications as
requested, breaking DOS's 640K barrier.

An OS/2 demonstration diskette (which will run on any PC with VGA or better,
and DOS or OS/2) is available from IBM by calling 800-3-IBM-OS2. The OS/2
2.1 demo diskette may also be downloaded; see (3.2) Shareware and Freeware

Related information:

(1.2) Differences Between Versions
(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(3.9) Extended Services

(1.2) Differences Between Versions

What are the differences between versions?

o IBM OS/2 Version 2.1 is the latest release of OS/2, offering Windows 3.1
compatibility, multimedia support (including software motion video), and
more device drivers. With Version 2.1 IBM has ended the practice of
including extra features in its own, preinstalled versions of OS/2 2.0 that
were not found in the off-the-shelf package. {{ See (0.4) Special Report on
OS/2 for Windows for details on the new, lower cost member of the OS/2 2.1
family. }}

o IBM OS/2 Version 2.0 is the first release of OS/2 which will run only on
machines with an 80386SX processor or better. With this release IBM started
developing OS/2 (and its Intel and non-Intel-based successors) independently
but continued to involve third party PC manufacturers in its testing.
Improvements included an object-oriented Workplace Shell (WPS); a multiple
operating system boot mechanism; better DOS and Windows support [See (1.3)
DOS and Windows Compatibility]; new 32-bit programming interfaces; support
for more than 16 MB of physical RAM [See (2.6) More Than 16 MB RAM]; and
more third party device drivers. OS/2 1.x applications, unmodified, still
run under OS/2 2.0.

o IBM OS/2 Version 1.3 is the last release of OS/2 to operate on PCs with
80286 CPUs. This version introduced built-in Adobe Type Manager (ATM) [See
(5.5) Adobe Type Manager], providing scalable typefaces for screen and
printer. Procedures Language/2 (REXX), a powerful batch-oriented
programming language, became a part of Standard Edition with this release.
[See (5.11) REXX.] (A few OEMs are shipping Microsoft OS/2 Version 1.3, but
Microsoft has ceded all OS/2 development to IBM.)

o OS/2 Version 1.2 was the first to incorporate the High Performance File
System (HPFS) [See (1.5) High Performance File System]. With this release
IBM OS/2 added a dual boot mechanism and IBM Extended Edition [See (3.9)
Extended Services] introduced REXX.

o OS/2 Version 1.1 was the first to include the Presentation Manager (PM)
GUI/API. Microsoft OEM versions added a dual boot mechanism with this

o OS/2 Version 1.0, introduced in late 1987, was the first release of OS/2.
Task switching was accomplished using a character-based shell and limited
DOS compatibility was provided.

Related information:

(0.4) Special Report on OS/2 for Windows
(1.1) What is OS/2?
(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility
(2.6) More Than 16 MB RAM
(3.9) Extended Services
(5.5) Adobe Type Manager
(5.11) REXX

(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility

How good is OS/2 2.1's DOS and Windows compatibility?

OS/2 1.x [See (1.2) Differences Between Versions] justifiably earned a
reputation for poor DOS compatibility. Since it was hampered by the 80286,
it could not run more than one DOS application at a time.

The situation changed dramatically with OS/2 2.0, and Version 2.1 adds
further refinements. Version 2.1 preemptively multitasks DOS and Windows
(standard and enhanced mode) applications in separate, protected sessions,
without purchasing either environment.

OS/2 2.1 provides a complete DOS emulation equivalent to DOS 5.0. The
operating system can provide each DOS application with up to 32 MB of EMS
4.0 (expanded memory), 16 MB of XMS 2.0 (extended memory), and/or 512 MB of
DPMI 0.95 (DOS Protected Mode Interface extended memory), all from its pool
of physical and/or virtual memory (meaning you do not have to have as much
RAM in your system as your applications request). These limits are in
addition to the up to 730K free conventional memory supplied to each DOS
application, even after mouse and network drivers [See (3.8) Networking
Products] are loaded. As in DOS 5.0, DOS code and device drivers may be
loaded into high memory. A 386 memory manager like QEMM is not needed --
these features are provided by OS/2 2.1 directly.

The DOS emulation allows customization of device driver sets -- each DOS
application shares a systemwide CONFIG.SYS and the equivalent of its own
CONFIG.SYS. Also, there is a systemwide AUTOEXEC.BAT file; however, batch
commands particular to each DOS application can be invoked using separate,
application-specific AUTOEXEC.BAT files. And many DOS Settings are provided
to fine tune [See (5.6) Performance Tuning] each DOS/Windows application's
behavior (e.g. IDLE_SENSITIVITY). Most of the popular DOS/Windows
applications on your hard disk will be migrated automatically when you
install OS/2 2.1.

In addition, OS/2 2.1 will boot one or more specific versions of DOS in
separate sessions, to assist in running particularly difficult applications
(e.g. DOS networks, MSCDEX and CD-ROM drivers). So, for example, it is
possible to multitask DOS 3.3, DOS 4.0, DOS 5.0, {{ DOS 6.0, DOS 6.2,
DR-DOS, }} emulated DOS, and Desqview running atop DOS, all in separate
sessions, either windowed or full screen, all with the same and/or separate
device drivers, TSRs, environment variables, etc. DOS boot images may be
stored on a hard disk. These procedures are described in the online Command
Reference (under VMDISK), Master Help Index, and in the Installation Guide
(Appendix E). [See also (5.9) Specific DOS Sessions.]

Standard graphics modes [generally up to the resolution of the desktop; See
(2.2) SuperVGA Support] are supported in DOS windows, as are selectable text
mode fonts. Cut/paste to/from windowed DOS applications is supported
(to/from other DOS, OS/2, and Windows applications), including graphics
cut/paste. Theoretically, OS/2 2.1 can run up to 240 simultaneous
DOS/Windows sessions; the practical maximum depends on system resources.

OS/2 2.1 will, in fact, run virtually all DOS applications in existence,
including notorious ones such as Microsoft Flight Simulator, Wing Commander,
Maple, MatLab (Version 3.5k or later), {{ AutoCAD (Release 12 requires
maintenance version C2 or later), }} and others. Those that do not run
generally fall into the following categories:

1. Programs that use Virtual Control Program Interface (VCPI) memory
extenders or other extenders which require direct access to 80386 control
registers. Since such applications are also all but incompatible with
Windows, most vendors have updates for DPMI compatibility;

2. Applications which attempt to directly address the physical sectors of an
OS/2 managed nonremoveable hard disk drive. Such programs include UnErase
in Norton Utilities [See (3.4) Disk Utilities]. Fortunately OS/2 2.1 has a
built-in UnDelete feature which is more robust than Norton's approach.
(Consult the online Command Reference for information on how to enable

3. Timing sensitive DOS applications. Certain DOS programs that generate
digitized sound through the PC's internal speaker may have distorted sound.
High speed, real time data collection may be compromised. These problems
can often be minimized or even eliminated using OS/2 2.1's DOS Settings.

4. Certain DOS programming debuggers. DOS applications running under OS/2
2.1 are not permitted to access debug registers DR0-DR7 from a DOS session.
Also, DOS debuggers will not be able to set hardware breakpoints, and all
read/write operations to debug registers in virtual 8086 mode will be

See (3.11) Backup Software for information on OS/2 backup issues.

DOS-based disk caching software is not required since OS/2 includes a
built-in, highly configurable, efficient disk cache. Also, the OS/2 CD-ROM
file system's cache may be adjusted; see the online Command Reference for

DOS programs running under OS/2 2.1 are extremely fast. A single DOS
application (no other applications open) running full screen under OS/2 2.1
typically achieves 95-97% of the performance it would have under native DOS.
If the DOS application performs any disk I/O it can actually operate up to
several times faster than it would if running under native DOS.

If pure DOS is absolutely required, OS/2 2.1 includes a utility called the
Boot Manager. The Boot Manager can provide a listing of all the operating
systems available on the system and will allow selection of any one at
startup, with a default after timeout. The OS/2 DualBoot method (to switch
between DOS and OS/2 only) is still available as well. Consult the
Installation Guide for instructions on how to use Boot Manager or DualBoot.
Note that OS/2 2.1 need not be installed on Drive C -- it can reside on
other volumes [See (4.3) Hard Disk Partitioning].

Compatibility with Windows, a popular DOS extender, is provided by Win-OS/2,
an environment based on Microsoft's Windows source code. It runs Windows
3.x enhanced mode and standard mode applications under OS/2 2.1, either on a
full screen Windows desktop (with the familiar Program Manager and one or
more Windows applications) or "seamlessly," alongside OS/2 applications on
the Workplace Shell desktop. "Seamless" operation is available in VGA, many
SuperVGA, 8514/A, and XGA resolutions with OS/2 2.1 as it ships. [See (2.2)
SuperVGA Support.]

Several icon conversion utilities can convert Windows icons for use by the
OS/2 Icon Editor and/or OS/2-specific programs [See (3.2) Shareware and
Freeware Sources]. (No conversion is necessary if the icons are to be used
with Windows programs running under OS/2 2.1.)

OS/2 2.1 directly provides all Windows enhanced mode features save one:
support for Windows virtual drivers (VxD). Only two major applications are
affected: MathCAD 4.0 and Microsoft Visual C++. Services provided by
WINMEM32.DLL are supported.

Windows applications are well integrated into the overall OS/2 Workplace
Shell environment with DDE and Clipboard hooks, and OLE (Object Linking and
Embedding) is supported among Windows applications. Adobe Type Manager [See
(5.5) Adobe Type Manager] and TrueType for Win-OS/2 comes with OS/2 2.1.
Windows screen (for a full screen desktop) and printer device drivers will
work under Win-OS/2 [See (2.2) SuperVGA Support]. Such notorious Windows
applications as Word, Norton Desktop (save portions described above),
Toolbook, and After Dark work fine under Win-OS/2. Even applications which
rely on the Windows Multimedia Extensions (supplied as part of Win-OS/2)
operate without trouble. [See (3.6) Multimedia for information on the OS/2
multimedia extensions, MMPM/2.] All the Windows applets (except those made
redundant by OS/2's applets) are provided.

Win-OS/2 departs from Microsoft Windows in that it allows more than one
Windows desktop and can preemptively (rather than cooperatively) multitask
Windows applications in separate, robust, protected sessions, at the user's
option. Also, both DOS and OS/2 applications can be started from the
Win-OS/2 Program Manager.

Some Windows applications require custom settings in WIN.INI. If such a
Windows application has been installed under the DOS version of Windows,
Win-OS/2 may not be able to find the appropriate files or configuration.
Try reinstalling the Windows application under Win-OS/2. (Note that several
options are available for Win-OS/2 interaction with the Windows INI files.
For example, the Windows INI files may be migrated during installation. Or
both Win-OS/2 and Windows can share a single set of INI files.)

In short, OS/2 2.1 is generally regarded as the most DOS and Windows
compatible among the new crop of 32-bit operating systems (NT included). It
is also generally regarded as a better DOS multitasker than Desqview.

Related information:

(1.2) Differences Between Versions
(2.2) SuperVGA Support
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(3.4) Disk Utilities
(3.6) Multimedia
(3.8) Networking Products
(3.11) Backup Software
(4.3) Hard Disk Partitioning
(4.4) Starting OS/2 from Diskette
(5.5) Adobe Type Manager
(5.6) Performance Tuning
(5.9) Specific DOS Sessions

(1.4) Availability and Cost of OS/2

Where can I buy OS/2, and how much does it cost?

In the United States IBM OS/2 Version 2.1 is available directly from IBM by
calling 800-3-IBM-OS2. {{ Call for the latest information on pricing --
promotional pricing may be in effect. Diskette versions (5.25 or 3.5 inch
media) are typically priced lower than the CD-ROM version (which contains
only only the CD-ROM plus 5.25 inch and 3.5 inch "bootstrap" diskettes), and
an Upgrade Edition is available. Express shipping is provided with all
orders placed through this toll free number. }}

IBM part numbers are as follows: 61G0900 for 3.5 inch media, 61G0902 for
3.5 inch media Upgrade Edition, 61G0901 for 5.25 inch media, 61G0903 for
5.25 inch media Upgrade Edition, 61G0904 for compact disc, 71G1877 for
compact disc Upgrade Edition. An additional license certificate (no media
or manuals) is 61G0910; an additional license Upgrade Edition certificate is

However, OS/2 2.1 is now available from almost any software dealer
(including Corporate Software, Egghead, Software Etc., and many others).
Software dealer pricing is lower than that available directly from IBM --
often $10 or $20 lower.

Additional license certificates are available for second and subsequent
copies. {{ Note that each OS/2 CD-ROM or diskette package }} includes a set
of OS/2 manuals and 60 days (per package) of toll free technical support.
An additional license certificate does not come with either.

These prices mean that OS/2 2.1 costs about the same as Microsoft Windows
for DOS and roughly one fifth to one third as much as the base (not server)
versions of Windows NT, NeXTStep, Solaris, and UnixWare.

In Canada phone 800-465-1234 to order. In the U.K. phone the OS/2 User
Group at 0285-655888 or IBM at 0256-841818 or 0800-919-929. In other
countries, contact any IBM dealer or office. Pricing varies from country to

IBM OS/2 Version 1.3 is still available and may be ordered through many IBM

IBM is trying to make OS/2 2.1 available everywhere DOS is purchased. If
your dealer does not stock OS/2 2.1, take your business elsewhere (and
explain why). IBM bundles OS/2 2.1 with some PS/1, most ValuePoint, and all
386SX (and above) PS/2 systems, {{ as requested. }} Several other vendors,
including AST, Compaq, Everex, Northgate, ALR, Unisys, Dell, Ariel Design,
and Tangent, will preload OS/2 2.1 on request.

IBM offers two money back guarantees in the U.S.: a 30-day, no questions
asked, money back guarantee, and a 90-day compatibility guarantee [See (2.1)
Hardware Requirements].

Related information:

(0.4) Special Report on OS/2 for Windows
(1.2) Differences Between Versions
(2.1) Hardware Requirements
(3.8) Networking Products

(1.5) High Performance File System (HPFS)

Why should I use HPFS? What does it offer me? Does it work with DOS?

{{ HPFS is an installable file system (IFS) provided with OS/2 which may
optionally be used instead of (or alongside) the standard DOS-style FAT
(File Allocation Table) file system. }} HPFS offers long file names (up to
254 characters including the path, greatly exceeding the "8 dot 3" limit in
DOS's FAT file system), contiguous storage of extended attributes (without
the EA DATA. SF file used by FAT), resistance to file fragmentation,
improved media error handling, smaller cluster size, support for larger file
storage devices (up to 512 GB), and speedier disk operation, particularly on
large hard disks, on systems with more than 6 MB of RAM. HPFS is not case
sensitive, although it does preserve case in file names.

However, HPFS is not currently supported on removeable media, although some
programs (e.g. BACKUP) preserve long file names on such FAT disks. Also,
native mode DOS cannot access a HPFS partition. However, DOS/Windows
sessions running under OS/2 can use all files that conform to the "8 dot 3"
naming conventions, even if they are stored on HPFS volumes. {{ (FAT is not
required for compatibility with DOS and Windows applications.) }}

Related information:

(3.4) Disk Utilities
(4.3) Hard Disk Partitioning
(4.4) Starting OS/2 from Diskette

(1.6) Why OS/2?

Why should I choose OS/2 over its competitors?

(Information from other sections of the OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions List
will be brought here in a future release.)

Related information:

(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility

(2.0) Hardware

The following questions are addressed in this section:

(2.1) What hardware do I need to run IBM OS/2 2.1? Do I need a PS/2?

(2.2) Will OS/2 2.1 work with my SuperVGA adapter?

(2.3) Will OS/2 2.1 work with my printer?

(2.4) Can I use COM3 and COM4 in OS/2 2.1?

(2.5) Are there any specific hardware recommendations?

(2.6) Can I use more than 16 MB of RAM?

(2.7) What device drivers are available that aren't included with OS/2?

(2.1) Hardware Requirements

What hardware do I need to run IBM OS/2 2.1? Do I need a PS/2?

You need any ISA (AT bus), EISA, VESA LocalBus, {{ PCI, }} or Microchannel
PC compatible with at least an 80386SX CPU, 4 MB (6 MB or more strongly
recommended) of RAM, a 60 MB or larger hard disk (with 15-37 MB free,
depending on which features you wish to install), a supported video adapter
(CGA, EGA, VGA, many SuperVGA, 8514/A, XGA, or third party driver) with
appropriate display, and a high density 3.5 or 5.25 inch floppy drive for
installation. A mouse or other pointing device is strongly recommended.
Allow extra RAM and hard disk space for OS/2-based networking [See (3.8)
Networking Products], Extended Services [See (3.9) Extended Services],
and/or extra system loads (i.e. an extraordinary number of large
applications running simultaneously). When calculating hard disk space
requirements, subtract space occupied by files already on the hard disk
which are functionally included in OS/2 2.1 and may be deleted, e.g. DOS, a
386 memory manager, Windows 3.1, Adobe Type Manager [See (5.5) Adobe Type
Manager] with base typefaces, etc.

{{ The performance of OS/2 itself will not be increased appreciably with the
addition of a math coprocessor. However, certain applications may benefit.

The Workplace Shell (WPS) will not operate with the Monochrome Display
Adapter or the Hercules Monochrome Graphics Adapter. Usually the WPS will
fail to work with monochrome EGA. However, some EGA adapters (e.g.
Paradise Monochrome EGA Card, ATI EGA Wonder) will emulate all color EGA
modes on TTL monochrome monitors and, thus, will work with the WPS.

The following dual monitor configurations are supported: VGA or most
SuperVGA with Monochrome Display Adapter (not Hercules), 8514/A with VGA,
XGA with VGA, and XGA with one or more other XGA. A secondary monitor is
most often used with code debuggers that explicitly support such
configurations. The Workplace Shell desktop is currently shown only on the
primary display (except for the STB MVP-2 and MVP-4 ISA and Microchannel
display adapters which do support the Workplace Shell desktop spanning
multiple monitors -- contact STB at 214-234-8750 or FAX 214-234-1306 for
more information; {{ and the Double Edge video card from Nth Graphics, phone
800-624-7552 }}).

OS/2 specifically supports hard drive adapters which conform to the Western
Digital chipset interface standard (nearly all MFM, RLL, IDE, and ESDI
adapters) and Adaptec, Future Domain, DPT, and IBM SCSI adapters. [True
OS/2 2.1 drivers for most SCSI adapters, e.g. {{ Always, }} Trantor,
Rancho, Procomp, Corel Systems, BusLogic, Seagate, Mylex, CE Infosys,
Ciprico, MediaVision ProAudio Spectrum, and others are available directly
from the adapter manufacturers or from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware
Sources.] In addition, "generic" INT13 support is provided for all other
hard disk adapters. This "generic" support even embraces such devices as
Iomega's Bernoulli and SyQuest's removeable media products (but for best
results contact Iomega or SyQuest for an OS/2 2.1 driver).

OS/2 driver support is available for the following CD-ROM drives (and close
cousins, {{ including later models }}):

o Apple {{ (uses Sony driver) }}

- CD 300

o Hitachi

- CDR-1650S
- CDR-1750S
- CDR-3650
- CDR-3750


- all models


- CDR-25
- CDR-36
- CDR-37
- CDR-38
- CDR-55
- CDR-72
- CDR-73
- CDR-74
- CDR-80
- CDR-82
- CDR-83
- CDR-84
- {{ (most others) }}

o Panasonic

- CR-501
- LK-MC501S
- MC501B
- MC521

o Pioneer

- DRM-600
- DRM-604X

o Sony

- CDU-541
- CDU-561
- CDU-6111
- CDU-6211
- CDU-7211

o Texel

- DM-3021
- DM-3024
- DM-5021
- DM-5024

o Toshiba

- XM-3201
- XM-3301
- XM-3401

when attached to IBM, Future Domain, Adaptec, DPT, or other SCSI adapters
with native OS/2 2.1 support. The OS/2 CD-ROM support includes audio, ISO
9660/High Sierra, CD-ROM/XA, and Kodak Photo CD compatibility for those
drives which support these standards.

Drivers for non-SCSI Sony CD-ROM drives (e.g. CDU-535, CDU-31A, and related
models), {{ Creative Labs/Panasonic CD-ROM drives, and later model Mitsumi
drives }} are available from several sources [See (3.2) Shareware and
Freeware Sources]. Drivers for Mitsumi CD-ROM drives (and compatibles, e.g.
Tandy CDR-1000 and DAK) are {{ also }} available from either Systems
Integration Technologies (BBS 305-979-1976 or netmail
[email protected]) or Totronik (49-711-244272, FAX 49-711-6406815 or
netmail [email protected]). Drivers for non-SCSI Hitachi CD-ROM
models are available by calling either Laser Resources (800-535-2737) or
Proline (415-692-5262); ask for CDREXT5D. A Philips CD-ROM driver is
available from Aha Computers (49-4531-17070 or FAX 49-4531-170737). Storage
Devices offers OS/2 drivers for its parallel port attached peripherals,
including its CD-ROM drive. Corel Systems offers a set of OS/2 drivers (in
its "Corel SCSI" package) for many more CD-ROM drives, magneto-optical
drives, and other SCSI devices when attached to any of a number of SCSI
adapters. DOS device drivers, when installed using a specific DOS session
[See (5.9) Specific DOS Sessions], will still provide CD-ROM services to
DOS/Windows programs for the remainder.

See (2.3) Printer Support for information on OS/2 printer and plotter

Version 2.1 is explicitly supported on non-IBM PC compatibles. IBM is
offering a money back compatibility guarantee in the U.S. Should OS/2 2.1
fail to work on your compatible within the first 90 days of use, and should
IBM be unable to fix the problem, your purchase price will be refunded. To
date over 750 non-IBM models have been tested in IBM's own labs.

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(3.8) Networking Products
(3.9) Extended Services
(5.5) Adobe Type Manager
(5.9) Specific DOS Sessions

(2.2) SuperVGA Support

Will OS/2 2.1 work with my SuperVGA adapter?

Consult the OS/2 2.1 Installation Guide and Using the Operating System
manuals for complete information on SuperVGA support.

OS/2 2.1 contains built-in 256 color drivers for most SuperVGA adapters
based on the following chipsets:

o ATI 28800
o Cirrus Logic CL-GD5422 and CL-GD5424
o Headland Technologies HT209
o Trident Microsystems TVGA8900B and TVGA8900C
o Tseng Labs ET4000
o Western Digital/Paradise WD90C11, WD90C30, and WD90C31 (in WD90C30 mode)

Some SuperVGA adapters (notably ATI's Vantage and Ultra lines) are 8514/A
hardware compatible and will function in 1024x768 256 color mode with OS/2's
built-in 8514/A driver.

Drivers for other SuperVGA adapters (along with installation instructions),
and modified versions of the built-in drivers (such as 16 color versions or
small icon versions) should be available from the adapter vendors directly
or through (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources. In addition, IBM has
released a set of drivers for SuperVGA adapters based on S3 chipsets to
these public sources. (However, certain S3-based adapters require custom
drivers from vendors.)

Regular Windows 3.1 display drivers may be used for the full screen Win-OS/2
desktop. To install a Windows 3.1 display driver under Win-OS/2, simply
replace the \OS2\MDOS\WINOS2\SYSTEM\VGA.DRV file with the Windows .DRV file
supplied by the vendor. (Be sure to make a copy of the original
OS/2-supplied driver file first.) Note that you may have to use the EXPAND
program supplied with Win-OS/2 to decompress the vendor's .DRV file.

OS/2 2.1 has now routinized the procedure for setting customized refresh
rates using DOS-based utilities (such as VMODE). You will be prompted
during installation of a SuperVGA driver, and you can specify the DOS
utility you wish to execute along with its parameters (if any). You may
also need to invoke the utility in your OS/2 AUTOEXEC.BAT file so that DOS
sessions are properly configured to your monitor's specifications. Read the
OS/2 manuals carefully for details on how to use the DSPINSTL program to
install SuperVGA drivers and customize refresh rates for your monitor.
[Note that for SuperVGA adapters based on the Tseng 4000 chipset ONLY you
may use the command SVGA MONITOR from any full screen DOS session to
customize refresh rates for your particular monitor.]

Related information:

(2.5) Specific Hardware Recommendations
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(5.8) Displaying Background Bitmaps

(2.3) Printer Support

Will OS/2 2.1 work with my printer?

OS/2 2.1 includes support for Hewlett-Packard LaserJets (including the
LaserJet 4 series), DeskJets (including the new 1200C and 510 models), and
PaintJets; IBM/Lexmark ExecJets, InkJets, Proprinters, Quickwriters,
Quietwriters, Pageprinters, and Laserprinters; Epson dot matrix, ink jet,
and laser printers; Postscript devices; and other printers (e.g. Panasonic,
Okidata) compatible with these families. A variety of IBM and HP plotters
(including HPGL/2 plotters) is also supported. Drivers for NEC dot matrix
printers and Canon laser and BubbleJet printers are now available for
download [See (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources or contact the Canon
Support BBS at 714-438-3325]. Most BubbleJet printers also work quite well
with either the IBM 4072 ExecJet or IBM {{ 4070 }} InkJet driver. If your
printer model is not listed when you install OS/2 2.1, consult your Using
the Operating System manual starting on Page 351 for advice. Or check your
printer's manual to see if the printer emulates one of the models that is

DOS/Windows printer drivers continue to work for DOS/Windows applications.
OS/2 2.1 includes a large assortment of Windows printer drivers for
Win-OS/2. If necessary install Windows printer drivers using the Win-OS/2
Control Panel. OS/2 2.1 and OS/2 1.3 printer drivers are interchangeable in
many cases.

If your printer is not compatible with one of the drivers supplied with
OS/2, check with the printer manufacturer first then with (3.2) Shareware
and Freeware Sources. If you own an IBM printer, check with the Lexmark BBS
(modem 606-232-5653). Drivers for older IBM printers (including the
original IBM 5152 Graphics Printer) are available from (3.2) Shareware and
Freeware Sources.

If you are using a Postscript printer, and you are having difficulty
printing under Win-OS/2 3.1, particularly over a network, try adding the
following line to the Postscript section of your WIN.INI file:


If you are having trouble printing generally, see the configuration advice
in (4.1) Installation for assistance.

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(4.1) Installation

(2.4) COM3 and COM4

Can I use COM3 and COM4 in OS/2?

COM3 and COM4 are supported on most PS/2s without any additional effort. On
ISA, EISA, {{ PCI, }} and VESA LocalBus machines, some additions are
required to CONFIG.SYS. Using a text editor, include "(port number, base
address, interrupt number)" parameters next to the COM.SYS and VCOM.SYS
filenames. One example:

DEVICE=C:\OS2\COM.SYS (3,3E8,5) (4,2E8,10)
DEVICE=C:\OS2\MDOS\VCOM.SYS (3,3E8,5) (4,2E8,10)

Parameters for COM1 and COM2 need not be included (unless they are somehow
nonstandard). OS/2 must end up with sequentially numbered logical COM
ports, if possible. For example, if (physical) port two is not installed
but port three or port four is installed, start numbering using (2,...) in
the DEVICE lines. See the OS/2 2.1 Using the Operating System manual,
starting on Page 374, for more information on COM ports under OS/2. If
these efforts fail, try the SIO drivers [available from (3.2) Shareware and
Freeware Sources]. Note that IRQ 2 is actually redirected to IRQ 9 on the
AT bus, so use (...,...,9) in the above COM.SYS and VCOM.SYS settings if
your serial port is set to use IRQ 2.

AT bus COM ports cannot be used at the same time if they share interrupts
because of bus design limitations (cf. "Under the Hood: How Interrupts
Work," Byte, February, 1992). An adapter which provides more flexibility in
interrupt selection [e.g. the 16-bit model from STB; See (2.5) Specific
Hardware Recommendations] may prove helpful. Also, PolyCom, a replacement
driver available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources, supports up to
eight ports with the right hardware (Xenix-compatible multiport adapters).

"Smart" (coprocessor controlled) multiport communication adapters should be
used when installing more than four ports. Such an adapter will work with
OS/2 if the manufacturer has written an appropriate driver. Examples

Company Telephone Number

IBM (ARTIC) (800) PS2-2227
Digiboard (612) 943-9020
Stargate (216) 349-1860
Arnet (615) 834-8000
Computone (404) 475-2725
Comtrol (612) 631-7654
CTC Systems (415) 966-1688
Equinox (305) 255-3500
I-Concepts (214) 956-7770
Specialix (408) 378-7919
Stallion (408) 395-5775
{{ Quatech (216) 434-3154 }}

Related information:

(2.5) Specific Hardware Recommendations
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(2.5) Specific Hardware Recommendations

Are there any specific hardware recommendations?

Here are some of the peripherals and adapters that are particularly well
suited to OS/2. Some true bargains are included. Prices do not include
shipping and handling.

o S3-based Display Adapters. {{ Since IBM has produced high resolution
device drivers for video cards based on S3 chipsets, there are many S3 cards
which work well under OS/2. Choose one based on either the S3 801 or 928
chipset. Orchid, Diamond, Actix, and Number Nine all manufacture S3-based
display adapters with varying capabilities and prices. }}

o Toshiba 3201 CD-ROM Drives. {{ R.S.T. Computer Services (phone
603-595-8708 or FAX 603-889-5250) is selling Toshiba 3201 external CD-ROM
drives for just $200. These drives feature a data transfer rate of
150K/second and an average access time of 380 ms. }}

o NEC CD-ROM Drives. ITG Computers (tel. 708-259-1129 or FAX 708-259-1130)
is selling NEC CDR-73 ($225), CDR-83 ($205), CDR-74 ($315), and CDR-84
($295) SCSI CD-ROM drives. The CDR-73 (external) and CDR-83 (internal)
feature an average access time of about 350 ms and a 150K/second data
transfer rate. The CDR-74 (external) and CDR-84 (internal) increase the
data transfer rate to 300K/second and add Kodak Photo CD compatibility.
Some models are refurbished. Or you may wish to order the CDR-37 (portable,
caddyless, 150K/second, 450 ms, Photo CD) for just $139 from JEM (phone
617-254-5500). Say "Summer Sizzler" when ordering. Finally, MPS Multimedia
(phone 800-533-4677, 415-731-4075, or FAX 415-731-1217) sells the CDR-55
(300K/second, 340 ms, Photo CD) for $299 (internal) or $379 (external).

o Toshiba CD-ROM Drive. The latest, super fast (200 ms average access time;
300K+/second sustained data transfer rate) Toshiba CD-ROM drive, Model
XM-3401, is available from many dealers for about $500 (internal model;
external model is priced higher). The Toshiba is the best choice when
performance is critical.

o SCSI Adapters Two good values are the Adaptec 1522 (available for $79 from
Smart Computer Systems, tel. 510-656-6794 or FAX 510-656-6685) and the
Future Domain 1680 (only $129 from Computability, phone 800-554-9948 or FAX
414-357-7814). Both are 16-bit AT bus SCSI-2 adapters with on board
diskette controllers (which can be disabled if necessary), and both are
supported by drivers that ship with OS/2 2.1. Neither use DMA [see (2.6)
More Than 16 MB RAM]. Other possibilities include the bus mastering, AT
bus, Adaptec 1540B ($100 from Discount Electronics Trading Int'l, tel.
619-341-1107 or FAX 619-341-2217) and the Microchannel Adaptec 1640 ($139
from Discount Electronics Trading Int'l). These, too, are supported by
drivers included with OS/2 2.1 itself. For EISA and LocalBus systems,
consider BusLogic SCSI adapters (which come with OS/2 2.1 drivers and
complete instructions).

o Wangtek Tape Drives. Super Technologies (phone 909-393-4648) offers a
seven month warranty on several Wangtek SCSI tape drives. The Wangtek
5150ES (250 MB) is {{ $305, }} the 5525ES (525 MB) is $495, and the 6200HS
(2 GB DAT) model is $650. All will work with GTAK tape backup software [See
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources] when attached to an OS/2 supported
SCSI adapter.

o 16550AFN Buffered UART Serial Port Adapters. Improves high speed serial
communications performance. Price: $35 for a two port adapter from
Zero-One Networking (phone {{ 800-255-4101 }} or 714-693-0808). Ask about
adapters with parallel ports.

o Four Port 16550AFN Buffered UART Serial Adapter. The STB 4-COM adapter is
available for $110 delivered by calling 800-735-5266 Ext. 64 {{ (or
919-286-1502 Ext. 40). }} The 16-bit STB adapter provides four buffered
serial ports, each with an independently selectable interrupt and address.
IRQs above 7 are supported for each port. Up to two of these adapters may
be installed in the same system (for up to eight buffered serial ports).
Four six inch 8-pin DIN to DB9 male converter cables are supplied. Fifteen
month manufacturer's warranty and free technical support from STB.

o Creative Labs SoundBlaster. Original (Revision 2.0), Pro, and 16ASP
models are available from many suppliers and provide audio output for OS/2
multimedia applications. The original SoundBlaster ($50; confirm Revision
2.0 or later; speakers $5 extra) and SoundBlaster Pro ($90 with free
speakers) are available from Stata (tel. 510-656-9848 or FAX 510-656-9891).

o IBM M-Audio Adapter. Available in either AT bus or Microchannel models
for the same price. Provides compact disc quality audio reproduction and
recording capabilities under OS/2. Price: $235 from IBM Direct (phone
800-IBM-2YOU). {{ Lower close-out pricing may be available now that the
MWave Windsurfer Communications Adapter, the successor to M-Audio, is
available for both the AT bus and Microchannel. }}

o MediaVision ProAudio Spectrum 16. The PAS 16, as it is known, offers
compact disc quality audio reproduction and recording capabilities and an on
board SCSI port (for CD-ROM drives and other peripherals). Available from
several dealers for about $150. The Logitech SoundMan 16 is identical to
the PAS 16 (and sometimes less expensive), although it does not include a
SCSI port. MediaVision's new ProAudio Studio, a more expensive adapter, is
also supported under OS/2 2.1. All three are AT bus adapters.

Related information:

(2.1) Hardware Requirements
(2.2) SuperVGA Support
(2.4) COM3 and COM4 Support
(2.6) More Than 16 MB RAM
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(2.6) More Than 16 MB RAM

Can I use more than 16 MB of RAM?

OS/2 2.1 will address all the RAM in your system. If the BIOS recognizes
the memory, OS/2 will find it and use it.

However, on certain systems the RAM beyond the 16 MB boundary may be used as
a fast swap area. OS/2 relies on its swap file, SWAPPER.DAT, to hold code
and data which cannot fit into real memory (i.e. to provide virtual
memory). If the swap file (and applications) can only be accessed via a
hard disk adapter which uses 24-bit DMA for disk access (e.g. the Adaptec
154x series), then the system must move code and data below the 16 MB
boundary before it can write it to disk. This "double move" is costly (in
terms of performance), and often OS/2 will merely use all the RAM above the
16 MB boundary as a fast swap area (before writing to disk) to avoid the
problem. It is up to the hard disk adapter driver, however, to decide how
to handle this situation.

Only AT bus adapters are limited to 24-bit DMA. Microchannel, EISA, VESA
LocalBus, and other 32-bit adapters are not so limited. Moreover, only a
select few AT bus hard disk adapters utilize DMA. Nearly all MFM, RLL, and
IDE adapters, and many SCSI adapters, do not use DMA for disk access.

Suffice it to say that, regardless of your present hardware, OS/2 will take
advantage of it as best it can. However, if you are planning new hardware
purchases, you may wish to take this particular hardware design limitation
into account. Specifically, if you plan to install more than 16 MB of RAM
in your system, either choose a 32-bit hard disk adapter (Microchannel or
EISA, for example) or choose an AT bus adapter which does not utilize DMA
for disk access (a standard IDE adapter, an Adaptec 152x series SCSI
adapter, or a Future Domain SCSI adapter, for example). The performance
trade-off is highly system dependent, however. You may find that even DMA
adapters such as the Adaptec 154x series outperform the alternatives in
certain cases.

Related information:

(2.5) Specific Hardware Recommendations

(2.7) Device Driver List

What device drivers are available that aren't included with OS/2?

Here is a list of device drivers (and their common filenames) available from
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources. {{ New and updated OS/2 device
drivers are being released almost every day, so use this list only as a
rough guide. If you do not see the driver you need listed, you may be able
to use one of OS/2's built-in drivers or a "generic" driver (such as the
IBM-produced Mitsumi CD-ROM or S3 video card drivers). NDIS drivers for
network cards are not included in this list.

o Actix Graphics Engine 32: ACTIXS3.ZIP
o Altrix S3 911, 924, 80x, 928: S3ALTRIX.ZIP
o Always IN-2000 SCSI: IN2KADD.ZIP
o ATI Mach8/Mach32 (Ultra and Vantage): ATI32V11.ZIP
o BusLogic SCSI: BT-OS2.ZIP
o Canon CaPSL Printers: CANON38.ZIP
o Cirrus Logic SuperVGA: (various)
o Compaq QVision 1024/E, 1024/I: QVISION.ZIP
o Dell S3 86C805 On-Board Video: S3_DELL.ZIP
o Diamond Stealth VRAM (S3 911): STLOS21.ZIP
o Diamond Viper: VPROS21.ZIP
o Generic SuperVGA 800x600 16 Color: SVGA16.ZIP
o Genoa 7000 Series: GENOA7K.ZIP
o Hercules Dynamite/Tseng ET4000-W32(i): DYNAMITE.ZIP
o Hewlett-Packard HIL Mouse: HPMOUSE.ZIP
o IBM Printers (Older Models): IBMPRINT.ZIP
o LockDrive (Enables HPFS for Magneto-Optical and Similar): LOCKDRV.ZIP
o MediaVision ProAudio Mixer and SCSI Port: MVOS2.ZIP and/or MVPRODD.ZIP
o Mitsumi CD-ROM Drive (Most): MITFX.ZIP
o NCR 77C22/77C22E: NCRVID21.ZIP
o NEC PowerMate 386/25si (Enables Turbo Mode): OS2SPD.ZIP
o Number Nine GXE: NO9OS2.ZIP
o Oak 067 and 077 SuperVGA: 77OS221.ZIP
o Oak 087 ProStar SuperVGA: 87OS221.ZIP
o Orchid F1280(+), 1280-D, VA: FOS221.ZIP
o Orchid P9000: P9KOS2-B.ZIP
o Plus Hardcard IIXL: HRDCD2XL.ZIP
o Rodent (Improved Mouse Driver): RODNT100.ZIP
o S3 Chipset Video Cards (Most): S3.ZIP
o Seagate ST-01/02 SCSI: ST01_102.ZIP
o Sixgraph Wizard 900VL: P9OS2140.ZIP
o Sony CDU-31A CD-ROM Drive: SONY31A.ZIP
o Sony CDU-53x CD-ROM Drive: CDU535.ZIP
o SoundBlaster 16/Pro (Panasonic) CD-ROM Drive: SBCD2.ZIP
o Spea Video7 Mirage: V7MIRAGE.ZIP
o Spider BlackWidow VLB: BWOS2-2M.ZIP
o Standard PC Speaker (MMPM/2): SPEAKER.ZIP
o Summa MM1201 (and compatible) Graphics Tablet: SUMMA.ZIP
o Trantor SCSI: OS2_TSL6.ZIP
o Ultrastor 14F: 14OS22X.ZIP
o Ultrastor 24F: 24F-OS2.ZIP and/or 24OS220.ZIP
o Ultrastor 34F: 34F-OS2.ZIP }}

Related information:

(2.2) SuperVGA Support
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(3.0) Software

The following questions are addressed in this section:

(3.1) What applications are available for OS/2?

(3.2) Where can I obtain OS/2 shareware and freeware?

(3.3) What are the "must have" shareware and freeware titles?

(3.4) Is there a Norton Utilities for OS/2?

(3.5) I would like to set up an OS/2 BBS. What is available?

(3.6) What do I need for OS/2 multimedia applications?

(3.7) Should I worry about viruses when running OS/2 2.1?

(3.8) What networking products are available for OS/2 2.1?

(3.9) What is Extended Services?

(3.10) Are there any special software offers I should know about?

(3.11) What backup software is available?

(3.12) What multiuser extensions and security options are available?

(3.13) What on-the-fly disk compression software is available?

(3.14) Are there any dealers that specialize in OS/2 products?

(3.1) Applications

What applications are available for OS/2?

In addition to the thousands of applications available for DOS and Windows,
there are a couple thousand OS/2-specific applications representing almost
every category imaginable.

The DOS/Windows applications with 16-bit OS/2-specific counterparts include:

o Aldus

- Pagemaker

o AutoDesk

- AutoCAD

o Borland

- Sidekick
- Paradox
- Brief

o Corel Systems

- CorelDraw

o DeScribe

- Word Publisher

o FutureSoft

- DynaComm

o Hilgraeve

- HyperAccess/5


- DisplayWrite
- DisplayWrite Composer

o Informix

- Wingz

o JP Software

- 4OS2 (4DOS for OS/2)

o Lotus Development

- 1-2-3
- Freelance Graphics
- Notes
- cc:Mail

o Micrographx

- Designer

o Microrim

- R:Base

o Microsoft

- Word
- Excel
- Multiplan
- Mail

o New England Software

- Graph-in-the-Box

o Omen

- Pro-YAM

o Oracle

- Database

o SAS Institute


o SemWare

- QEdit

o SPSS Inc.


o Ventura

- Publisher

o WordPerfect Corp.

- WordPerfect

and many others. In some cases DOS and OS/2 versions ship together (e.g.
Microsoft Word 5.5, Lotus 1-2-3 3.0, Wingz).

OS/2 2.1 provides an attractive, 32-bit, Workplace Shell environment for new
applications; many do not have DOS/Windows predecessors. This new class of
32-bit applications will (or does) include:

o BocaSoft

- System Sounds
- WipeOut Screen Saver

o Borland

- ObjectVision
- C++

o Computer Associates

- C++
- CommonView
- Compete!
- Datacom
- dBFast
- Easytrieve Workstation
- QbyX
- Realia COBOL
- Realizer
- Simply Accounting
- SuperProject
- Telon/PWS
- Textor
- Unicenter

o Corel Systems

- CorelDraw

o DeScribe

- Word Publisher

o Fifth Generation Systems

- FastBack Plus

o Hilgraeve

- HyperAccess/PM

o HockWare

- VisPro/REXX


- DB2/2
- C Set ++
- Communications Manager/2
- Person to Person/2
- Personal Application System/2
- PL/1
- Programmer's Toolkit
- Prolog
- Time and Place/2
- Ultimedia Builder/2
- Ultimedia Perfect Image/2
- Ultimedia Workplace/2
- {{ Ultimedia Video IN }}
- (Many others)

o Lotus Development

- 1-2-3
- Freelance Graphics
- Notes
- cc:Mail
- Ami Pro

o Microformatic

- Fax/PM

o Micrographx

- Draw
- Designer

o Microrim

- R:Base

o OneUp

- WindowWasher

o Proportional Software

- DCF/2 (disk compression)

o SofNet

- FaxWorks

o Software Corp. of America

- TalkThru

o Spinnaker

- PFS:Works

o Stac Electronics

- Stacker

o Symantec

- Norton Commander
- Zortech C++

o Vienna Software Publishing

- N/Joy: The World of Objects

o Watcom

- C++
- Fortran

o WordPerfect Corp.

- WordPerfect
- Office
- Presentations

o ZSoft (WordStar)

- Publisher's Paintbrush

and many more. Over 1200 new 32-bit OS/2 2.1 applications have been
released to date.

OS/2-specific versions of popular utilities include ZIP/UNZIP, ARC, LHA, Zoo
2.1, many GNU tools, tens of different file finders, desktop clocks,
calculators, and many more. Programming languages include Ada, APL,
Assembler, BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, Forth, Fortran, Icon, LISP, Modula-2,
Pascal, PL/1, Prolog, REXX (included with every copy of OS/2 2.1),
Smalltalk, and still more, from vendors such as Borland, Clarion, IBM,
Microway, Symantec (through its Zortech subsidiary), Watcom, and many more.
Two free ports of the 32-bit GNU C/C++ compiler, GCC/2 and EMX/GCC, are
available [See (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources]. Fortran to C (f2c)
and Pascal to C (p2c) translators are also available. (See the Programmer's
Edition of this List for more information.)

The IBM PC Company BBS (919-517-0001) provides an online product database of
OS/2-specific software. A directory of OS/2 applications, IBM document
number G362-0029, is published by Graphics Plus (phone 800-READ-OS2). The
OS/2 Development Tools Guide is available free of charge by calling the IBM
Developer Assistance Program at (407) 982-6408. TINF [See (3.2) Shareware
and Freeware Sources] is an applications directory (for use with the OS/2
VIEW facility).

Related information:

(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

Where can I obtain OS/2 shareware and freeware?

See (4.11) OS/2 BBSes for information on bulletin board systems that support

On the Internet, the Usenet conference comp.binaries.os2 carries OS/2
software. And several sites are available via anonymous ftp. (No ftp?
Send a single line message with the word HELP to [email protected] or
[email protected] to learn about ftp mail servers.) Some are (with
Internet node numbers and subdirectories): pub/os2 pub/os2 pub/os2 os2: pub/archives/os2 pub/os2 pub/os2 micros/ibmpc/os2 soft/os2 computing/systems/os2 pub/local/os2 pub/pc/os2 /pub/comp/os/os2

The library is available on CD-ROM from Walnut Creek (phone
510-947-5996). A quarterly subscription is available. Profit Press (phone
800-843-7990) also offers OS/2 shareware and freeware on CD-ROM. EMS (phone
301-924-3594) offers an OS/2 shareware/freeware library on diskette.

Other sources include CompuServe (FIND OS/2) and archive servers (send a
single line message with the word HELP to [email protected] or
[email protected] for more information, or use ftp). TRICKLE
servers are also available outside the United States. For more information
on TRICKLE services, including automatic file subscription procedures, send
a single line message with the word HELP to any one of the following sites
nearest you:

Country Address
Austria [email protected]
Belgium [email protected]
Colombia [email protected]
France [email protected]
Germany [email protected]
Israel [email protected]
Italy [email protected]
Netherlands [email protected]
Sweden [email protected]
Turkey [email protected]
[email protected]

IBM has been releasing freely distributable employee written software (e.g.
Visual REXX) and OS/2 patches to these sites.

Related information:

(3.3) "Must Have" Shareware and Freeware
(3.5) Running a BBS Under OS/2
(3.7) Viruses
(4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes
(4.11) OS/2 BBSes

(3.3) "Must Have" Shareware and Freeware

What are the "must have" shareware and freeware titles?

Here are some of the shareware and freeware selections that have proven
popular among OS/2 users. Where available, an approximate filename is
provided. However, since version numbers are changing frequently, please
bear in mind that some of this information may be dated. Also, please
register any shareware you use -- your support will ensure a continuing
supply of capable OS/2 shareware.

o 4OS2 Version 1.11 (4OS232.ZIP): A replacement command interpreter from JP
Software. A must for command line users.

o BlackHole (BLCKH3.ZIP): A Workplace Shell object that destroys anything
dragged to it.

o BookShelf (BOOKSHLF.ZIP): Utility which presents a coherent menu of all
available INF files on your system.

o BootOS2 (BOOT2X.ZIP): Creates an OS/2 bootable diskette.

o C-Kermit 5A(189) (CK5A189.ZIP): A terminal emulation and modem
communications program featuring the Kermit file transfer protocol.

o CONFIG.SYS Editor (CFGED1B.ZIP): A Presentation Manager utility which
eases CONFIG.SYS editing.

o emTeX (various): Provides professional typesetting and document

o EMX/GCC (various): Powerful C/C++ compiler with programming aids and
enhanced libraries.

o Enhanced Editor Toolkit and Accessories (various): Add-ons to the
Enhanced Editor (EPM) which provide editor macro capabilities,
documentation, and various accessories.

o Extended Attributes Backup (EABK202.ZIP): Saves extended attributes so
that non-EA aware backup software preserves all necessary OS/2 data.

o Galleria (GALLER.ZIP): Graphics manipulation and screen capture utility.
Also try PM Camera for screen capture.

o GhostScript PM (GS252PM.ZIP): Postscript interpreter and viewer.

o GTAK GNU tar (GTAK212B.ZIP): Tape archive (backup and restore) utility.
Supports SCSI tape drives.

o HSwitch (HSWTCH02.ZIP): A task list for full screen sessions.

o IBM Configurator and Pricer (ICPAUSA.ZIP): Prices IBM personal computer
systems and accessories.

o Icon Extractor (ICON_170.ZIP): Converts Windows icons to OS/2 format.
Icons can be extracted from Windows executables. Assigns icons via drag and
drop. Deletes undeleteable objects.

o Icon Programming Language (ICON88.ZIP): A simple yet powerful programming
language for many platforms, including OS/2. Supports graphical

o Info-Zip's UnZip 5.0 (UNZ50X32.EXE): Extract files from ZIP archives.
PKZip 2.x compatible. Supports extended attributes. Companion utility, Zip
1.9, also available.

o INI Maintenance (INIMT21B.ZIP): Edit and maintain your vital OS/2 INI

o McAfee's Virus Scan (OSCN109.ZIP): Detects viruses. Companion Virus
Clean and Net Scan utilities also available.

o Minesweeper (DMINE120.ZIP): A game which requires you to avoid the mines
in a minefield. Several other versions are available.

o Mousey (MOUSEY10.ZIP): Shareware utility which allows you to change the
default mouse pointer to a candy cane, chicken head, or other icon of your

o MR/2 (MR2_151.ZIP): Reader for BBS QWK mail packets.

o Mr. File/PM (MRFILEPM.ZIP): File manager and program launcher.

o OS2Exec (OS2EXEC.ZIP): Start any OS/2 program from any OS/2 DOS session.

o OS2You (OS2YOU27.ZIP): OS/2 remote control over a modem or LAN
connection. Companion program PM2You, for control of graphical
applications, including DOS and Windows, is also available.

o PMComm (PMCOM110.ZIP): As full featured as TE/2, but with a Presentation
Manager interface.

o {{ PMView (PMVIEW86.ZIP): Shareware GIF, JPEG, etc. image viewer with
slideshow and drag-and-drop features. Other image viewers include JoeView,
Image Archiver, and PMJPEG. }}

o PS/2 Assistant (PS2AST.ZIP): Provides information on most of the IBM
personal computer product line, including OS/2.

o psPM (PSPM2.ZIP): Displays a graphical representation of the processes
running on an OS/2 system and allows termination of any or all.

o SIO COM Drivers (SIO120.ZIP): Replacement serial port drivers which offer
enhanced performance.

o StartD (STARTD22.ZIP): Provides the capability to start DOS sessions with
specific, custom DOS Settings from the OS/2 command line.

o TE/2 (TE2_124.ZIP): A full featured terminal emulation and modem
communications program.

o TinyEd (TINYED.ZIP): Text editor, under 10K in size -- perfect for an
emergency boot diskette.

o UUPC/Extended (various): Provides uucp connection for mail, news, and
other services.

o Visual REXX (VREXX2.ZIP): Provides the ability to write REXX programs
which use Presentation Manager windows, scroll bars, menus, and other

o Workplace Shell Backup (WPSBK202.ZIP): Backup the OS/2 desktop.

o Workplace Shell Tools (WPTOOL09.ZIP): Creates or deletes standard
Workplace Shell objects.

o Worldwide OS/2 BBS List ( OS2WORLD.ZIP): List of BBSes around the world
where OS/2 is the predominant area of discussion and where large OS/2
software archives are held.

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(3.4) Disk Utilities

Is there a Norton Utilities for OS/2?

Not yet, although Norton Desktop, Norton Utilities, and Norton Commander all
work under OS/2 2.1's DOS/Windows sessions [with limitations; See (1.3) DOS
and Windows Compatibility]. Also, Norton Commander is now available for
OS/2 2.1.

However, the GammaTech Utilities should fill the role. Contact their
publisher, {{ SofTouch Systems, at 405-947-8080 or FAX 405-632-6537. }}
Note that OS/2 2.1 has a built-in UnDelete utility (see the online Command
Reference), and HPFS is resistant to fragmentation [See (1.5) High
Performance File System].

Related information:

(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility
(1.5) High Performance File System

(3.5) BBS Software

I would like to set up an OS/2 BBS. What is available?

OS/2 is an excellent environment for BBS operation (even using DOS/Windows
software), including large multiline facilities. Related software will
enable FidoNet capabilities, gateways to Usenet/UUCP, nodelist processing,
additional file transfer protocols, and more.

Five popular OS/2-specific BBSes are Maximus and Simplex [available from
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources), Omega Point/2 (BBS 404-564-1961),
Magnum (phone 818-706-9800, BBS 818-706-9805), and Multi-Net (phone
503-883-8099, BBS 503-883-8197).

For more information on operating a BBS under OS/2 (with conferences devoted
to the subject) log on to one of the OS/2 BBSes listed in (4.11) OS/2 BBSes.

Related information:

(2.4) COM3 and COM4 Support
(4.11) OS/2 BBSes

(3.6) Multimedia (MMPM/2)

What do I need for OS/2 multimedia applications?

OS/2 2.1 includes both the Win-OS/2 multimedia extensions and MMPM/2, the
OS/2 multimedia extensions, at no extra charge. OS/2 2.1's MMPM/2 includes
software motion video support for both IBM Ultimotion and Intel Indeo files.
Software motion video provides playback of video clips in a window under
OS/2. (Video for Windows will operate correctly under Win-OS/2, but
Ultimotion is far more capable than Video for Windows. Ultimotion supports
higher frame rates, larger image sizes, better synchronization of video and
audio, and, often, simultaneous playback of two or more video clips, even
with background tasks running.) An accelerated display adapter and a fast
processor can help improve the quality of software motion video.

Drivers for the Creative Labs SoundBlaster series, MediaVision ProAudio
series, and IBM M-Audio Capture and Playback Adapter are provided with
MMPM/2. Other drivers should be available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware
Sources, or contact your adapter vendor for information on OS/2 driver
support. (The original SoundBlaster and certain ATI SoundBlaster clones may
require a low cost upgrade from the manufacturer to work with MMPM/2.) A
driver for the PC speaker has been released by IBM, but this driver demands
a huge amount of processor attention and does not provide the fidelity that
audio adapters do.

Note that the MediaVision ProAudio Spectrum Plus operates correctly when
using the built-in MMPM/2 ProAudio Spectrum 16 driver. However, to obtain
full functionality you must change the PARAMSTRING line in the
[ibmwavepas1601] section of the file \MMOS2\MMPM2.INI after installation of
MMPM/2. Using a text editor (like the OS/2 System Editor), change the line
so that BPS=8 instead of BPS=16. This change causes MMPM/2 to default to
8-bit audio (since the ProAudio Spectrum Plus does not support 16-bit

The MMPM/2 driver for the original SoundBlaster supplied with OS/2 2.1
contains a special check which may render it inoperable with SoundBlaster
clones (like the MediaVision Thunderboard). Advanced users may patch the
driver using the following commands:

-e 3fd8 00

MMPM/2 drivers should also be available for Digitan and Omni sound adapters,
directly from their manufacturers. VideoLogic's (phone 617-494-0530)
DVA-4000 supports video capture and video display in OS/2 windows as does
New Media Graphics's (phone 508-663-0666) Super VideoWindows. Tecmar (phone
800-624-8560 or 216-349-1009, or FAX 216-349-0851) offers various OS/2
multimedia products, including the ProSound audio adapter.

REXX programs [see (5.11) REXX] can be used to play, record, and manipulate
MMPM/2 audio and video files. For more information on REXX and MMPM/2,
consult the online Multimedia with REXX document (located in the Multimedia

More information on IBM's OS/2 multimedia extensions (MMPM/2) and tools,
Ultimotion, multimedia hardware, and IBM multimedia titles (e.g.
Illuminated Manuscript) is available through IBM's Multimedia Office (phone
800-426-9402 ext. 150).

To install a Windows sound driver under Win-OS/2, make sure that the line
drivers=mmsystem.dll appears in the file \OS2\MDOS\WINOS2\SYSTEM.INI under
the [boot] section. In some cases an installation bug prevents this line
from being set up properly.

Related information:

(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility
(2.5) Specific Hardware Recommendations
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(4.5) Technical Support
(5.11) REXX

(3.7) Viruses

Should I worry about viruses when running OS/2 2.1?

At present there are no OS/2-specific viruses. However, DOS/Windows viruses
can conceivably infect an OS/2 2.1 system. DOS/Windows antivirus tools are
just as useful in preventing such infection. Also, IBM has an antivirus
package (AntiVirus/2) which runs under OS/2 directly (without DOS/Windows
emulation). To order AntiVirus/2, call 800-551-3579 (800-465-7999 in
Canada). McAfee's OS/2 SCAN and CLEAN have been released, as has Dr.
Solomon's Antivirus Toolkit for OS/2 from Ontrack Systems. Others (Dr.
Cohen, for example) are in development.

But OS/2 2.1 is likely to be much more resistant to viruses because of its
design. Viruses running in one virtual DOS/Windows session are likely to be
confined to that session. Low level disk access is curtailed under OS/2
2.1, thus preventing most virus infection at that level. And when a
DOS/Windows virus does trigger, it is far less likely to disrupt the entire
system. In fact, OS/2 is most vulnerable when it isn't in charge (i.e.
when native DOS is being used). A DOS virus then has free reign to write to
the hard disk and possibly disable OS/2. The greater risk comes from
leaving OS/2.

OS/2 2.1 is by no means virus proof -- no system is. But it should prove
more resistant to virus infection.

Related information:

(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility

(3.8) Networking

What networking products are available for OS/2 2.1?

In addition to DOS/Windows products, OS/2-specific TCP/IP support is
available from IBM (phone 800-IBM-CALL), Essex Systems (phone 508-750-6200
or FAX 508-750-4699), FTP Software (send mail to [email protected]), Wollongong
(phone 415-962-7100 or FAX 415-969-5547), {{ Novell, Ipswitch Inc. (phone
617-942-0621 or mail [email protected]), }} and others. (A freeware SLIP
implementation, PMNOS, is available; see (3.2) Shareware and Freeware
Sources.) {{ Optional add-ons to IBM's TCP/IP package provide X-Window
System server and/or client support. Hummingbird Communications offers the
eXceed X-Window System server for OS/2. }}

The NetWare Workstation Kit 2.01 for OS/2 is available from Novell (phone
800-873-2831) and IBM for a small charge; it is also available free of
charge from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources. Note that NetWare {{ 4.01
}} Server (including all the NLMs) can run alongside OS/2 2.1 at the same
time, making OS/2 2.1 the only operating system providing nondedicated
NetWare {{ 4.01 }} server and client capability (a boon for administration
and dual LAN Server/NetWare servers, for example). The package to enable
NetWare {{ 4.01 }} Server to run alongside OS/2 2.1 is available from IBM
Direct (800-IBM-2-YOU), Part No. 53G5730. IBM also offers both NetWare and
LAN Server 3.0 (Basic and Advanced) with LAN requesters. Microsoft sells
LAN Manager (which comes bundled with OS/2 1.3). An OS/2 2.1 LAN Manager
Requester, part no. 96F8359, is available from IBM; Microsoft offers a
similar requester with LAN Manager 2.1a (or later). DEC sells Pathworks
(Version 2.0b or later) for OS/2. Banyan Vines 5.5 (or later) includes an
OS/2 2.x requester.

OS/2 NDIS MAC drivers for most network adapters are available from (3.2)
Shareware and Freeware Sources, as well as via Internet
anonymous ftp. Drivers for 3Com adapters are available via anonymous ftp
from, from the 3Com Support BBS, or from CompuServe (GO
THREECOM). Drivers for Cabletron adapters are available via anonymous ftp

Peer-to-peer networking under OS/2 2.1 is best accomplished (at the moment)
with either a TCP/IP or APPN product, like IBM's TCP/IP or Communications
Manager/2, respectively. TCP/IP (with NFS) is available for nearly all
platforms, so it is a particularly good choice in a mixed environment.
Artisoft is reportedly working on an OS/2 version of LANtastic; contact the
company for details. Note that LANtastic 5.0 can run in an OS/2 2.1 DOS
session, providing either client or server capability (including access to
HPFS long filenames for DOS clients). IBM may have its own offering in the
near future (a repackaging and upgrade of the peer-to-peer support already
provided in LAN Server 3.0). This support can already interoperate with
Microsoft Windows for Workgroups.

Infoworld recently called OS/2 the best PC operating system for networking
in a mixed environment (i.e. with multiple network protocols and/or
platforms). With IBM's Network Transport Services/2 at the base (i.e. by
working through a single NDIS interface, using ODI "shims" if necessary),
multiple network protocols can share the same network adapter under OS/2,
avoiding contention. OS/2 is equally adept as network client, server,
and/or peer. It is flexible enough to meet the needs of almost any network

Related information:

(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(3.9) Extended Services
(3.12) Multiuser Extensions and Security
(5.9) Specific DOS Sessions

(3.9) Extended Services

What is Extended Services?

Prior to Version 2.0, IBM offered two separate packages with each release of
OS/2: Standard Edition and Extended Edition. Extended Edition included
extra, bundled software products: the Communications Manager (for
communication with IBM mainframes, minicomputers, and other hosts), Database
Manager (a full, network aware, relational database), and LAN Requester.

IBM has now unbundled the Extended Edition features, dropped LAN Requester
from the package (now available separately, with IBM's LAN Server), updated
it for OS/2 2.x, and renamed it Extended Services 1.0. ES, by itself, no
longer includes the base operating system as Extended Edition once did.

This new arrangement makes it easier to update the base operating system
with CSDs [See (4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes]. And now ES 1.0 will run
under OS/2 1.3 Standard Edition as well as OS/2 2.x. Also, ES 1.0, like
OS/2 2.x itself, is designed to operate on both IBM and non-IBM systems [See
(2.1) Hardware Requirements].

While Extended Services will remain available, IBM has decided to further
separate the ES components. DB2/2, a full 32-bit relational database, is
available separately as a replacement for ES's Database Manager.
Communications Manager/2 is now also available by itself. With each
component available "a la carte," you can configure your OS/2 system to your
exact specifications (almost always at a lower cost), and you are free to
substitute similar products from other vendors (so you aren't locked into
IBM's offerings).

To install Extended Services 1.0 under OS/2 2.1, you must replace the
ESSTART.CMD file on ES Diskette 1 with the ESSTART.BAK file found in the
\OS2\INSTALL directory Keep a backup of the old file.

Related information:

(1.2) Differences Between Versions
(2.1) Hardware Requirements
(3.8) Networking Products
(4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes

(3.10) Special Software Offers

Are there any special software offers I should know about?

Here are some of the OS/2 software products that represent particularly good
values. Most prices do not include shipping and handling.

o SQA:Replay Macro Recorder. {{ SQA:Replay, produced by Software Quality
Automation, is a macro recorder and player for OS/2. Use it to record mouse
movements, clicks, and keystrokes for playback at any time. SQA:Replay is
$59 from Programmer's Paradise (phone 800-445-7899, 908-389-8950, or FAX
908-389-9227). }}

o Canadian Bundle. {{ Canadian residents only can purchase four OS/2
software packages and one book for a low price of $349.95 Canadian. The
bundle consists of two choices from Category 1, two from Category 2, and one
from Category 3. Category 1 includes Lotus 1-2-3, Ami Pro, CorelDraw,
DeScribe, Faxworks, Footprint Works, Freelance Graphics, VX-REXX, and
Stacker. Category 2 includes DeskMan/2, IBM AntiVirus/2, Blackjack,
Performance 2.1, and Window Washer. Category 3 consists of the books OS/2
2.1 Complete, OS/2 2.1 Unleashed, and OS/2 for Dummies. To order your
chosen bundle, phone 800-465-7999 Ext. 454 before December 31. }}

o Low Prices on OS/2 2.1. Katy Computer Systems in St. Louis (phone
314-230-8200 or netmail [email protected]) {{ offers some of the lowest prices
in the United States on both OS/2 2.1 and OS/2 for Windows. }}

o Novastor's Novaback Tape Backup Software. This package supports a wide
variety of tape drives, but check ahead to see if yours is supported.
Available for $112 from Programmer's Connection, phone 800-336-1166 or

o Borland C++ for OS/2. Available from Below Zero in Calgary (phone
800-461-2777, 403-547-0669, or FAX 403-547-1018) for about $136 U.S.,
including shipping. Add GST in Canada. Below Zero will export outside
North America. Also available from IBM Direct (800-IBM-2-YOU) for $139.

o IBM TCP/IP 2.0 for OS/2. The universal peer-to-peer networking solution,
now updated to take advantage of OS/2 2.x's special features. In the United
States the base package (IBM Part No. 65G1220) is available for $150 from
IBM (phone 800-IBM-CALL ext. S83) through December 31. Discounts apply for
additional licenses. The Base Services package includes basic server and
client software (finger, ftp, talk, telnet, etc.), an NNTP newsreader
(NR/2), a mailer (LaMail), SLIP support, and much more. Ask about available
TCP/IP add-ons if you need them: X Window System Server, X Window System
Client, NFS, DOS/Windows Access, Programmer's Toolkit, Domain Name Server,
Extended Networking, NetBIOS, OSF/Motif, Asia/Pacific Kit, and MultiMail.

o Lotus Applications. Lotus 1-2-3 2.0, cc:Mail 2.0, {{ Ami Pro 3.0, }} and
Freelance Graphics 2.0 for OS/2 are now available. These 32-bit, Workplace
Shell, and HPFS aware applications are available at the same prices as the
DOS and Windows counterparts. For educational discounts in the United
States contact Douglas Stewart Co. (phone 800-279-2795). {{ All four may
be purchased together in the Lotus SmartSuite which, for a limited time,
includes a free copy of OS/2 2.1. For example, Corporate Software (phone
800-677-4003) is selling the OS/2 SmartSuite for $319 (competitive/upgrade
package; $419 otherwise). And A-Prompt (phone 800-523-9511 Ext. 207) is
offering the SmartSuite to educational purchasers for a mere $159. }}

o Imara ScanTool. Imara Research Corp. is offering its OS/2 ScanTool
software at a special price of $99 with a 30 day money back guarantee.
Works with HP ScanJet, ScanJet Plus, ScanJet IIP, and ScanJet IIC scanners.
Saves files as PCX, raw TIFF, or compressed TIFF. Phone Imara at
416-581-1740 (or FAX 416-581-1605) for more information or to order.

o Conner Backup Exec. Conner, through some recent acquisitions, has
obtained expertise in OS/2 backup software. Backup Exec is the latest
effort, on sale at a special price of $69. Call 800-468-2587 for more
information or to order.

o CorelDraw 2.5. Corel Systems has dropped the price of CorelDraw 2.5 for
OS/2 to just $199 (list). {{ For example, IBM Direct (phone 800-IBM-2-YOU)
is selling CorelDraw for OS/2 for only $139. }}

o Corel SCSI Software. Corel Systems offers a SCSI driver package which
will give you additional support for removeable media (such as
magneto-optical drives) under OS/2 (and DOS). This package is available for
$64.95 from Computability (phone 800-554-9948 or FAX 414-357-7814).

o PFS:Works. Spinnaker has slashed the price of PFS:Works for OS/2, an
integrated software package providing word processing, spreadsheet,
charting, database, and communications functions. Many dealers are carrying
PFS:Works for OS/2 for under $40, including Indelible Blue (phone
800-776-8284 or 919-834-7005, FAX 919-783-8380).

o Relish. Relish is a 32-bit PIM (personal information manager), handling
scheduling and calendar functions. Relish is now available for only $69
directly from Sundial Systems; mention the "OS/2 User Group Special" when
ordering. A demonstration version of Relish is available from (3.2)
Shareware and Freeware Sources.

Related information:

(3.1) Applications
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(3.11) Backup Software

What backup software is available?

Generally DOS backup programs will work under OS/2 2.1, but they may not
capture some OS/2 data (especially extended attributes) on the hard disk
without the assistance of utilities such as EABackup [See (3.2) Shareware
and Freeware Sources].

OS/2 backup tools are available, notably:

Software Title Company Telephone

PMTape and PS2Tape IBM (800) IBM-CALL

Sytos Plus Sytron (508) 898-0100
BBS (508) 898-2608

EZTape and Backup Exec Irwin (Conner) (800) 821-8782

DMS/Intelligent Backup Sterling (916) 635-5535

FileSafe Mountain (800) 458-0300

Back in a Flash! CCT Inc. (612) 339-5870

NovaBack NovaStor (818) 707-9900

OBackup ? See (3.2) Shareware and
Freeware Sources

BackMaster MSR Development (409) 564-1862

MaynStream Maynard (407) 263-3500

BakupWiz PCX (619) 259-9797

The OS/2 BACKUP utility is best used from an OS/2 diskette boot [See (4.4)
Starting OS/2 from Diskette].

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(4.4) Starting OS/2 from Diskette

(3.12) Multiuser Extensions and Security

What multiuser extensions and security options are available?

As shipped, OS/2 does not support multiuser operation, although third
parties have grafted multiuser capabilities onto the base operating system.
These products include:

Software Title Company Telephone

Remote-OS Software Lifeline (407) 994-4466

OS2You Ridax Sweden 031-196074

Citrix Citrix Systems (305) 755-0559

PolyMod2 MemSoft (407) 997-6655


PC/DACS (Pyramid, phone 203-257-4223) offers security (for multiple users,
one at a time, in a lab setting for example). IBM LAN Server provides local
security (as well as LAN-oriented multiuser features).

Related information:

(3.8) Networking Products

(3.13) Disk Compression

What on-the-fly disk compression software is available?

Stacker {{ 1.1 }} for OS/2 and DOS (Stac Electronics, {{ phone 619-431-7474
}}) and DCF/2 (Proportional Software, phone 303-484-2665) are available for

Stacker provides on-the-fly disk compression for FAT drives only. {{ The
product provides compression for both DOS and OS/2 in the same package, and
it will convert MS-DOS DoubleSpace and PC-DOS SuperStor/DS disk compression
into Stacker format. }} Early purchasers of the product {{ (Version 1.01 or
earlier) }} should download a patch available from CompuServe to address
problems with the handling of extended attributes.

DCF/2 compresses both FAT and HPFS drives. The DCF/2 container file can
even be located on other devices besides hard disks. However, many users
have not been satisfied with the product's performance.

Related information:

(0.2) Recent Developments
(4.7) Online Services

(3.14) OS/2 Software Dealers

Are there any dealers that specialize in OS/2 products?

The following software dealers are either totally or predominantly geared to
OS/2 customers:

o Below Zero (800-461-2777, 403-547-0669, or FAX 403-547-1018). Based in
Calgary. Will export to the United States and other countries.

o The Corner Store (800-I-BUY-OS2 or 203-567-3463). The world's first
OS/2-only store. Located in Litchfield, Connecticut.

o Indelible Blue (800-776-8284, 919-834-7005 or FAX 919-783-8380). Offers a
huge selection of OS/2 software at reasonable prices. Based in Raleigh,
North Carolina, and will export.

o International OS/2 User Group (44-285-641175 or FAX 44-285-640181).
Primarily for European OS/2 users, but will export elsewhere. Offers some
OS/2 titles available no where else. Located in Gloucestershire, England.
Discounts available to members.

Related information:

(3.10) Special Software Offers

(4.0) Installation, Maintenance, and Support

The following questions are addressed in this section:

(4.1) I am having trouble installing OS/2 2.1. What should I do?

(4.2) I can't install OS/2 from Drive B. What's wrong?

(4.3) What is the best way to partition my hard disk for OS/2?

(4.4) How do I access HPFS partitions on my hard drive without booting
from the hard drive? I'm getting error messages now -- how do I
"repair" my hard disk?

(4.5) How can I get answers to my OS/2 questions?

(4.6) What are CSDs, how do I tell which I have, and where do I get them?

(4.7) Which online services support OS/2, and how do I join?

(4.8) Are there any OS/2 user groups?

(4.9) What OS/2 books and magazines are available?

(4.10) How do I report an OS/2 problem to IBM?

(4.11) What OS/2 BBSes can I dial?

(4.12) IBM has so many telephone numbers. Which one do I use?

(4.1) Installation

I am having trouble installing OS/2 2.1. What should I do?

First consult the Installation Guide and other materials accompanying OS/2
2.1. Make sure your PC meets the system requirements in (2.1) Hardware

And if the following instructions do not help, fall back on IBM's toll free
technical support (phone 800-992-4777 in the United States) and/or consult
IBM's Tips and Techniques file [See (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources].

o Midway through installation of OS/2 2.1 from CD-ROM, do not place a check
mark in the box next to the CD-ROM Device Support option on the System
Configuration screen. Do not attempt to view or change this CD-ROM drive

o When installing OS/2 2.1 from a CD-ROM drive that requires a driver not
supplied by IBM, copy the OS/2 .ADD driver file to a copy of Diskette 1 and
add the line:


to the end of the diskette's CONFIG.SYS file. After installation, if your
CD-ROM drive is not functioning correctly, follow these steps (changing "C:"
if necessary):

1. Copy the files OS2CDROM.DMD and CDFS.IFS from Diskette 1 to directory

2. Edit CONFIG.SYS and add the following lines to the end of the file:


3. Reboot.

4. Start Selective Install from the System Setup folder. Check the CD-ROM
Device Support checkbox on the System Configuration screen. Click OK to
display the list of CD-ROM drives. Select the appropriate choice (usually
OTHER) and click OK.

5. Continue the Selective Install procedure until complete, then reboot.

o If you have formatted any of your hard drives with HPFS under OS/2 2.0,
and you have upgraded to OS/2 2.1, go to an OS/2 command line (window or
full screen) and type:


where x is the drive letter. Repeat for all HPFS drives on your system. If
you see the error SYS0551 you should immediately contact IBM for the
"OS2DASD Fix," {{ usually filename 21DISK.ZIP }} (or download it from (3.2)
Shareware and Freeware Sources).

o Some PCs have trouble printing under OS/2 2.1. This problem can often be
traced to an interrupt conflict, a substandard cable, an interfering
software security "dongle," or a faulty printer adapter. LPT1 uses IRQ 7,
and LPT2, if installed, uses IRQ 5. Interrupts should not be shared on AT
bus machines. The SoundBlaster, for example, comes set to IRQ 7. Reset it
to an unused interrupt.

o Make sure adapters with onboard ROMs are not conflicting with other
adapters. For example, many SuperVGA adapters use large segments of upper
memory, and many hard disk adapters have onboard ROMs which can be mapped
into the same areas. Adapters must not share address space or interrupts.
Check your product manuals for more help. {{ To resolve conflicts, try
writing down the DMA channel(s), interrupt (IRQ) level(s), I/O or port
addresses, and ROM or upper memory addresses used by every device in your
system. Conflicts should then be readily apparent. }}

o Be sure adequate free disk space is available before installing, including
space for a swap file. Drives compressed using Stacker, DoubleSpace, or
similar utilities should be uncompressed before installing (unless access to
these drives from OS/2 is not needed). [A DoubleSpace {{ converting, }}
OS/2 version of Stacker is available, as is Proportional Software's (phone
303-484-2665) DCF/2 on-the-fly disk compression package.]

o Do not select HPFS when installing if your machine has 6 MB of RAM or
less, or diminished performance will likely result. Change the IFS=...HPFS
line in your CONFIG.SYS to REM IFS=... if necessary.

o Be sure your CMOS setup parameters are set correctly, especially those
relating to floppy drives. RAM should be given sufficient wait states and
precharge cycles. Test with cache memory and/or shadow RAM disabled if
necessary. The AT bus should run at 8 MHz. For best performance, make sure
all your RAM is set to be cacheable.

o If you are using the IBMINT13.I13 driver to access an MFM, RLL, or ESDI
hard drive, and the hard drive has more than 1024 cylinders, be certain your
hard disk adapter's sector translation mode is enabled. Regardless of the
driver you use, make sure your boot partition is completely inside the first
1024 cylinders.

o Older Adaptec SCSI adapters may require a free BIOS upgrade to recognize
hard disks larger than 1 GB. Adaptec can be reached at 800-442-7274 or
408-945-8600. Some Quantum LPS105AT IDE hard disks require a free ROM
update (to Version 2.6) from the manufacturer to work with OS/2.

o If your AMI keyboard BIOS is below Revision F you may need an update.
Contact Washburn & Assoc. (phone 716-248-3627) for an inexpensive

o Check to make sure keyboard DIP switches are set correctly. For example,
if the keyboard is attached to a system with an AT bus it should typically
be switched to "AT" mode.

o "Autoswitching" on non-IBM EGA adapters should be disabled (usually with a
DIP switch or jumper setting). In rare cases it may be necessary to switch
third party VGA/SuperVGA adapters into 8-bit mode and/or disable
"autosense." See (2.2) SuperVGA Support.

o OS/2 is particularly sensitive to bad RAM or cache memory (often reflected
in TRAP 0002 error messages). Use a thorough RAM testing utility, and try
not to mix 9-chip and 3-chip SIMM/SIPP memory modules. When upgrading,
avoid adding RAM which is not rated (in nanoseconds) at least as fast (i.e.
with an equal or lower number) as the RAM already in the system.

o Allow several minutes for OS/2 2.1 to build your desktop (and display
icons) at the end of installation -- take the Tutorial offered to you in the
meantime. Avail yourself of the "Start Here" icon, the other online help,
and the README file located in the root directory. They will help in
getting started with the Workplace Shell and in properly configuring your

o When installing over a beta version of OS/2 be sure to reformat.

o To install the Upgrade Edition of OS/2 2.1, DOS or OS/2 must already
reside on the hard disk. If Diskette 1 is not write protected then the
installation program will record a file indicating that upgrade terms have
been satisfied and, in the future, will not require DOS or OS/2 on the hard
disk to install.

o OS/2 uses the same diskette format as DOS, so use DISKCOPY to backup the
installation diskettes and verify that none have been corrupted.

o Owners of IBM PS/2s should make sure that any applicable ECAs (engineering
changes) have been performed and that the most recent Reference Diskette is
in use. Reference Diskettes are available from the IBM PC Co. BBS (modem

o Try disconnecting any tape backup device if "Cannot find COUNTRY.SYS"
messages are encountered when booting OS/2. {{ This error message may also
indicate that OS/2 cannot find its boot drive, usually because of an
improperly loaded or omitted hard disk .ADD device driver. }}

o An Always IN-2000 SCSI adapter with BIOS 3.06A or 3.20 requires an updated
version from the manufacturer. A companion 8-pin serial PROM chip may also
need to be updated. Contact Always at 818-597-9595. Also ask about
non-IBMINT13.I13 driver support.

o The TI TM4000 notebook may require a BIOS update to run OS/2 2.1; phone
817-771-5856 for help. Also ask about an OS/2 driver for the QuickPort
trackball. Before installing OS/2 on this machine, be sure to set Advanced
OS Power off and HDD Motor Timeout Always On in the second page of the
machine's setup screen.

o For the technically advanced user, the following list of TRAP error codes
may help you in addressing OS/2 problems. Report any such TRAPs to IBM
using the (4.10) Problem Report Form.

Code Description
0000 Divide by zero error
0001 Debug exception
0002 Non Maskable Interrupt (usually memory parity error)
0003 Breakpoint (one byte INT 3 instruction)
0004 Overflow
0005 Bounds check (BOUND instruction)
0006 Invalid opcode
0007 Coprocessor not available
0008 Double fault
0009 (Reserved)
000A Invalid TSS
000B Segment not present
000C Stack exception
000D General protection
000E Page fault
000F (Reserved)
0010 Coprocessor error
0011-001F (Reserved)
0020-00FF Available for external interrupts via INTR pin

o For the technically advanced user who wishes to install a secondary
diskette controller (provided it uses a separate DMA channel, IRQ, and I/O
address), the following parameters are available for the

Parameter Description
/MCA Load on Microchannel machine
/A:x Adapter ID (where x is 0 or 1)
/IRQ:x Interrupt level (where x is a number)
/DMA:x DMA channel (where x is a number)
/P:hhhh Controller I/O address (hhhh)
/U:x Drive number (where x is 0 to 3)
/F:ccc Drive capacity (where ccc is 360KB to 2.88MB)
/CL:tttt Changeline type (where tttt is NONE, AT, or PS2)
/SPEC:hh Controller specify bytes (hh)


BASEDEV=IBM1FLPY.ADD /A:0 /DMA:3 /IRQ:10 /P:370 /U:0 /F:360KB

Related information:

(2.1) Hardware Requirements
(2.2) SuperVGA Support
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes
(4.10) Problem Report Form

(4.2) Installing from Drive B

I can't install OS/2 2.1 from Drive B. What's wrong?

IBM OS/2 2.1 can only be installed starting from Drive A, like DOS (unless
your BIOS supports booting from Drive B). After booting from Drive A, OS/2
can then be copied from CD-ROM or across a network. (For more information
on installation across a network, see Remote Installation and Maintenance,
IBM Publication No. GG24-3780. Related publications include Automated
Installation for CID Enabled OS/2 2.0, IBM Pub. No. GG24-3783, and
Automated Installation for CID Enabled Extended Services, LAN Server 3.0 and
Network Transport Services/2, IBM Pub. No. GG24-3781.) If you have the
wrong disk size go back to your dealer and obtain the correct media.
Otherwise you could open your machine and swap floppy drive cable
connectors, use your system's setup utility to set the new CMOS parameters,
and then install OS/2 from the "new" Drive A. Sometimes the floppy drive
cable connectors will not be the same. If so you can obtain an adapter

You may also use IBM's twin "bootstrap" diskette images [See (3.2) Shareware
and Freeware Sources and download INS21L.ZIP if your diskette labels are
blue or INS21M.ZIP if your diskette labels are salmon] to boot from a 5.25
inch Drive A and install using 3.5 inch OS/2 diskettes inserted into Drive
B. This procedure should only be used if absolutely necessary.

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(4.1) Installation

(4.3) Hard Disk Partitioning

What is the best way to partition my hard disk for OS/2?

There is no single best way to partition your hard disk for OS/2. For some
advice on the subject you should consult the IBM OS/2 Installation and
Planning Guide, available for download from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware
Sources, and the OS/2 Installation Guide in the OS/2 package.

It can be useful to place OS/2 by itself in a separate partition of about 40
or 50 MB. If you then elect to experiment with beta releases of OS/2, you
can reformat that particular partition quite easily to erase all old code.
The swap file can be placed on another partition; its location is determined
by the SWAPPATH line in CONFIG.SYS.

Partitioning should be performed by booting the OS/2 Installation Disk.
Executing FDISK from the command line will not allow certain functions to be

Related information:

(1.5) High Performance File System
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(4.4) Starting OS/2 from Diskette (and CHKDSK)

How do I access HPFS partitions on my hard drive without booting from the
hard drive? I'm getting error messages now -- how do I "repair" my hard

With IBM OS/2 2.1, insert the Installation Diskette, Shutdown (if
necessary), and reboot. When prompted insert Diskette 1 and press ENTER.
When prompted, press ESC. You will be given an OS/2 command line prompt.
From there you can make necessary changes to your hard disk -- an OS/2
character mode text editor on diskette is handy for such changes. (Make
sure you backup CONFIG.SYS before making any changes so that you can easily
revert to the old version should things go wrong.)

You may use this diskette boot method to run CHKDSK on your FAT or HPFS
volumes. After you reach the command line, insert Diskette 2. Do not log to
another drive. Type CHKDSK X: /F to repair most kinds of damage to your
hard disk, replacing X with the appropriate drive letter. OS/2 CHKDSK will
also mark your hard disk as accessible, if possible, should OS/2 "lock it
out" for some reason. It will also allow Workplace Shell drive objects to
open properly if they are not functioning correctly. Repeat twice for each
drive letter you wish to check and/or repair.

"Errors" may be reported by CHKDSK if OS/2 was booted from the hard disk.
These "errors" are normal. Since the hard drive is in use by OS/2 itself
(and files are open) CHKDSK is unable to accurately report errors.

The best way to avoid the need to perform CHKDSK is to always select Refresh
then Shutdown. Click on the Workplace Shell desktop background using mouse
button two to bring up the appropriate menu. Also, avoid manipulating
OS/2-related files when using native DOS. Finally, enable autochecking for
all your hard disk volumes. For HPFS volumes use the /AUTOCHECK parameter
in the IFS=...HPFS line in your CONFIG.SYS. For FAT volumes use the AC
parameter in the DISKCACHE line of your CONFIG.SYS. See the online Command
Reference for details.

Several utilities [including BOOTOS2; See (3.2) Shareware and Freeware
Sources] can create a single, bootable OS/2 diskette (as a convenience).
Preloaded versions of OS/2 2.0 can create a bootable diskette pair from the
Welcome folder. (This step, along with a full BACKUP after a diskette boot,
should be performed immediately upon receipt of any IBM preloaded OS/2 2.0

Related information:

(1.5) High Performance File System
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(4.5) Technical Support

How can I get answers to my OS/2 questions?

If your question is not answered in this List, post a note to the
appropriate Usenet conference: comp.os.os2.apps carries discussions related
to finding or using any application running under OS/2,
comp.os.os2.networking looks at networking issues, comp.os.os2.advocacy
deals with opinions and speculation, comp.os.os2.programmer.porting helps
programmers move applications over to OS/2 from other operating systems and
environments, comp.os.os2.programmer.misc addresses anything else related to
OS/2 programming, comp.os.os2.beta explores beta releases of OS/2,
comp.os.os2.ver1x supports all releases of OS/2 prior to Version 2.0,
comp.os.os2.announce carries important OS/2 announcements, comp.os.os2.bugs
discusses possible bugs found in released versions of the operating system,
comp.os.os2.multimedia fosters conversation about OS/2 multimedia (including
MMPM/2), comp.os.os2.setup offers a place to talk about setup and
installation issues, and comp.os.os2.misc is for any other OS/2-related
discussion. These groups are watched closely by OS/2 experts from IBM.
Also, comp.lang.rexx discusses REXX programming.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) has a dedicated channel (#os/2) which provides
round-the-clock, real time OS/2 support and information thanks to the
efforts of several volunteers. If you are not familiar with IRC, ask your
system administrator for help.

The latest IBM AIX, RS/6000, and OS/2 related product announcements are now
available via Internet anonymous ftp from
( in directory /pub/announcements.

A LISTSERVer distributes its own OS/2 conference by mail; send a single line
message with the word HELP to [email protected] for full
instructions; or send the same message to [email protected] for
information on an unedited mailing list. To subscribe to the Multimedia
Presentation Manager/2 [See (3.6) Multimedia] mailing list, send a single
line message with the phrase SUBSCRIBE MMOS2-L (Your Name) to
[email protected]

Your local FidoNet BBS may carry OS/2 echo conferences and/or OS2NET. If
not, ask your system operator to join them. CompuServe (FIND OS/2),
Smartnet (an international network of PCBoard BBSes), and Prodigy {{ (JUMP
OS/2 CLUB) }} are also excellent resources.

The IBM PC Co. BBS 's (modem 919-517-0001) message areas, product database,
and PS/2 Assistant file(s) are invaluable resources. Information on the IBM
OS/2 BBS is included in the OS/2 2.1 package. In the United States IBM has
toll free technical support (phone 800-992-4777), an OS/2 Hotline (general
information, orders, upgrades, phone 800-3-IBM-OS2; ask about OS/2
videotapes, T-shirts, and other accessories), the HelpWare Center (phone
800-PS2-2227), a software order line (phone 800-IBM-CALL), and two FAX
information services (phone 800-IBM-4FAX and/or 800-IBM-3395). In Canada
phone IBM Personal Systems Software at 800-465-1234.

OS/2 2.1 developers should contact the IBM Developer Assistance Program
(phone 407-982-6408); membership is free. (You may also join on CompuServe
with GO OS2DAP. {{ IBM's DAP can also be reached by Internet mail at
[email protected]) }} The OS/2 Developer's Connection CD-ROM, containing
a wide selection of development tools and code, is available from IBM (phone
{{ 800-6-DEVCON to order in the United States; in Canada, phone
800-561-5293; in Europe, phone 45-3-252-6588 or FAX 45-3-252-8203;
elsewhere, phone 61-2-354-7684 or FAX 61-2-354-7766.) }} The OS/2 Device
Driver Source Kit CD-ROM is also now available from IBM, Part No. 71G3703.
To order phone 1-407-982-4239 (FAX 1-407-982-4218) in North America and
Europe, 61-2-354-7684 (FAX 61-2-354-7766) in most of the Far East and
Pacific Rim, 81-3-5563-5897 (FAX 81-3-5563-4957) in Japan, 81-2-528-1548
(FAX 82-2-528-1414) in Korea, or 52-627-1846 (FAX 52-395-7812) in Latin

IBM offers classes worldwide to help in using and programming OS/2 2.1;
phone your local IBM branch office (or the OS/2 Hotline) for more
information. Or contact one of these third party providers of classes and
training materials:

Company Telephone
Acumen People and Productivity 61-3-853-6662
Adaptive Research and Design 305-889-0070
Adar International 212-750-5820
Allied Computer Service Singapore 2948741
AOSI 415-586-3454
Applied Learning 708-369-3000
ATI 310-823-1129
Ron Beauchemin 203-285-5896
Bell and Associates 61-2-953-7619
Broadway and Seymour 800-274-9287
Chapman and Associates 714-831-4442
Charles Hatvany and Associates 617-648-4100
CIE 800-882-3981
Computer Information Associates 708-766-4677
Computer Training Center 901-753-9706
CompuTrainers 212-984-0522
Comsell 404-872-2500
Creative Systems Programming 609-234-1500
David Bernstein Company 206-282-8711
Denenfeld Systems Design 519-396-8088
Descriptor Systems 319-362-3906
Development Technologies 803-790-1234
Edutrends 201-838-6700
Chris Eldridge Pty Ltd. 61-2-016-289-093
Electronic Directions 212-213-6500
Fermier Consulting and Education 817-481-4966
Future Enterprises 202-662-7676
Gateway Technologies Corp. 203-693-1097
Hailey Griffin Corp. 416-475-4200
Huffman and Associates 805-461-1053
Iconisys 805-522-8863
InfoLink Solutions 404-876-1512
Infotec Training Institute 800-282-7990
Instruction Set 617-890-4930
Instructional Systems Co. 212-477-8800
Instructware 800-267-0101
iQ Training Systems 44-71-613-5771
IS International 407-994-4373
JRT Information Services 407-547-0178
Jensen Enterprises 616-429-9599
Kee Systems 301-880-0880
Kemtex Services 212-661-5770
Knowhow Solutions 61-2-955-9592
Dr. Michael S. Kogan 904-246-8341
Logical Operations 716-482-7700
Management Technology Education 61-2-261-5555
Mannix Enterprises 914-229-8109
Mentor Technologies 614-265-3170
Microtransfer 44-869-50340
Minasi and Company 703-276-8940
Object Management Laboratory 818-879-9620
One on One Computer Training 708-628-0500
One Up Corp. 214-620-1123
PC Dialogs 212-663-3459
PC Etcetera 212-736-5870
PCLC 212-953-9800
Professional Development Assoc. Singapore 2272883
Pinnacle Technology 918-455-2520
Productivity Point International 800-848-0980
Productivity Solutions 215-631-5685
Professional Development Assoc. 44-71-706-3744
Progressive Software Technologies 303-932-2051
QED Information Sciences 800-343-4848
Rockey and Assoc. 215-640-4880
SCS Computer Consulting 718-321-1572
Kenneth E. Sanger 914-948-8496
SE International 407-241-3428
Sims Software Technology 415-731-2222
Software Education Corp. 908-946-0606
Software Paradise 44-222-887521
Soza & Company 703-560-9477
Stratemm Pacific Ltd. New Zealand 07-578-5100
Testek 207-539-8825
Touchstone Systems Group 312-263-1444
User View 612-331-7212
ViaGrafix U.S. 918-825-6700
VisGrafix Australia 61-9-417-3178
Wave Technologies Training 214-650-9283
William H. Zack & Assoc. 203-255-2979
Worthman & Assoc. 303-290-9700

For a free copy of the IBM IV League catalog (with OS/2 books, videotapes,
and other support materials), phone 800-342-6672. For more information on
the IBM IV (Independent Vendor) League, an organization of individuals and
companies who develop and market products and services that support OS/2,
call 203-262-3769 or 203-262-3776. You may also dial the IV League BBS at

If you need to reach any individual at IBM, but you do not know that
person's direct telephone number, call the IBM Switchboard at 800-IBM-3333.
If you need to send electronic mail to any IBM employee who is reachable via
the Internet, but you do not know that employee's address, try sending a
message to [email protected] with a Subject line that reads whois Smith, John
(replacing Smith, John with the last name and first name of the person you
are trying to reach). Leave the body of the message empty.

See (4.9) Books and Magazines for information on OS/2 publications. Any of
the regular DOS or Windows resources (e.g. books, magazines,
shareware/freeware sources) will be useful since both environments come with
OS/2 2.1.

Related information:

(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(3.6) Multimedia
(4.8) User Groups
(4.9) Books and Magazines
(4.10) Problem Report Form

(4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes

What are CSDs, how do I tell which I have, and where do I get them?

CSDs are Corrective Service Diskettes, or bug fixes (Service Paks),
periodically issued by IBM. The OS/2 CSD level number may be obtained using
the command SYSLEVEL from an OS/2 command line prompt. CSDs are cumulative,
i.e. only the most recent CSD is required to bring a system up from any
previous CSD level. However, CSDs only apply within a major version number.
For example, an upgrade, not a CSD, would bring OS/2 Version 2.0 up to
Version 2.1. Note also that each national language (e.g. French, U.K.
English) uses a distinct CSD.

{{ CSDs may be ordered by phoning 800-494-3044. Customers with IBM customer
numbers (usually large sites) should order through IBMLink. }} Outside the
United States, ask an authorized IBM dealer or representative for the CSD.
CSDs may also be downloaded from the IBM PC Co. BBS (modem 919-517-0001),
CompuServe (FIND OS/2), or from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources. And
CSDs may be ordered through IBM's OS/2 BBS.

The latest, current OS/2 2.1 CSD level will be listed in this List and in
the PS/2 Assistant files. At present there is no Service Pak for OS/2 2.1.
{{ A second Service Pak, Level XR06100, has been released for OS/2 2.0. }}

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(4.7) Online Services

Which online services support OS/2, and how do I join?

IBM's official non-IBM online service for OS/2 user and developer support is
CompuServe (FIND OS/2). In the United States you can obtain a free
introductory CompuServe membership by calling 800-524-3388 and asking for
Representative 239.

IBM maintains an unofficial presence on many other networks. For
information on the Internet consult one of the many books describing the
network. One example: The Whole Internet by Ed Krol, O'Reilly & Associates
(phone 707-829-0515), ISBN 1-56592-025-2. Once you start using the Internet
you should peruse the information files posted to the news.answers newsgroup
to familiarize yourself with Internet resources.

The OS/2 Roundtable (Page 1400, Keyword OS2) has opened on GEnie. To
subscribe to GEnie, set your communications software to half duplex and
either 1200 or 2400 bps then have your modem dial 800-638-8369 (800-387-8330
in Canada). Upon connection, type HHH and press RETURN. At the U#= prompt
type SIGNUP and press RETURN, then follow the directions given.

{{ Delphi not only provides full access to the Internet (GO INT), but there
is also a dedicated OS/2 forum (GO CUS 41) available on the service. The
base rate is only $20 for 20 hours of access per month. To sign up for
Delphi's five hour free trial and save the $19 signup fee (if you end up
joining permanently), (1) call 800-695-4002 with your modem; (2) at the
CONNECT message press ENTER a couple times; (3) at the USERNAME prompt type
JOINDELPHI and press ENTER; (4) at the PASSWORD prompt type CUSTOM41 and
press ENTER; (5) follow the instructions to sign up for the service. (Your
five free hours expire at the end of the calendar month you sign up for
Delphi, so you probably will not want to sign up at the end of the month
unless you use the free time right away.) }}

See (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources, (4.5) Technical Support, and
(4.11) OS/2 BBSes for information on other online services with high OS/2

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(4.5) Technical Support
(4.11) OS/2 BBSes

(4.8) User Groups

Are there any OS/2 user groups?

The following OS/2 user groups meet regularly:

Northeast Ohio (Akron) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Garey Smiley (phone 216-630-3565)

{{ Alaska Computer Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: P.O. Box 240945, Anchorage, AK, 99524 }}

{{ Fox Valley (Appleton, Wisconsin) Tech. Clg. PCUG, OS/2 SIG
Contact: 1825 N. Bluemound Dr., Appleton, WI, 54913 }}

{{ OS/2 User Group for Northern Arizona
Contact: Keith Wood (1448 E. Maricopa, Cottonwood, AZ, 86326) }}

Atlanta OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Robert Cannon (phone 404-908-2121)

{{ Central Texas (Austin) PCUG, OS/2 SIG
Contact: John Dierdorf (8109 Greenslope, Austin, TX, 78759) }}

{{ Styrian OS/2 User Group (Austria)
Contact: Vogelweiderstrasse 6, Graz, 8010 }}

Spanish OS/2 User Group (Barcelona)
Contact: Miguel Cruz (phone 34-1-683-33-75)

Baton Rouge OS/2 Users Group
Contact: David Arbour (phone 504-753-9637)

{{ Bay Area (California) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Guy Scharf (Software Architects, 2163 Jardin Dr., Mountain
View, CA, 94040) }}

{{ Central Jersey (Bayville) PCUG, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Peter Cohen (306 Ryan Ave., Bayville, NJ, 08721) }}

{{ Golden Triangle PC Club, OS/2 SIG (Beaumont, Texas)
Contact: Ira Wilsker (5770 Clint Ln., Beaumont, TX, 77713) }}

{{ Boston Computer Society, OS/2 Users' Group
Contact: Marcia Gulesian (1073 Main St., Concord, MA, 01742) }}

{{ OS/2 Working Group GUIDE (Belgium)
Contact: Karel Van der Haegen, KU Leuven - DTEW, Dekenstraat,
2, Leuven, B-3000 }}

{{ South Florida (Boca Raton) OS/2 User's Group
Contact: Doug Azzarito (2399 NW 30th Rd., Boca Raton, FL, 33431) }}

{{ MIT OS/2 Technical Users' Group (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
Contact: MIT Room 38-591, 77 Mass. Ave., Cambridge, MA, 02139 }}

{{ Champaign-Urbana (Illinois) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Sean Chou (phone 217-367-3424) }}

{{ Channel Islands (California) PC Users' Group, OS/2 Corner
Contact: P.O. Box 1213, Camarillo, CA, 93011 }}

Charlotte (North Carolina) OS/2 Users Group
{{ Contact: Steve Riley (phone 919-469-7261) }}

{{ Chattanooga (Tennessee) OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Steve Harris (TVA MP 3B-C, 1101 Market St.,
Chattanooga, TN, 37401) }}

{{ Assoc. of PC Professionals, OS/2 SIG (Cherry Hill, New Jersey)
Contact: Nick Cvetkovic (808 Richard Rd., Cherry Hill, NJ, 08034) }}

North Suburban Chicago OS/2 User's Group
Contact: James Schmidt (phone 708-317-7405)

Greater Chicago OS/2 User Group
Contact: Lisa Der Mateosian (phone 312-245-6418)

West Suburban Chicago OS/2 User Group
Contact: Dwight Cannon (phone 708-742-0700 ext. 2170)

{{ Christchurch (New Zealand) OS/2 User Group
Contact: P.O. Box 3712, Christchurch, 8001 }}

{{ Team OS/2 Cincinnati Users Group
Contact:Kevin Royalty (11460 Mill Rd., Cincinnati, OH, 45240) }}

{{ Inland Empire OS/2 Users Group (Claremont, California)
Contact: Scot Gould (Keck Sci. Ctr., 925 N. Mills Ave.,
Claremont, CA, 91711) }}

{{ Gateway/2 OS/2 Users Group (Clayton, Missouri)
Contact: John Kelley (P.O. Box 11583, Clayton, MO, 63105) }}

{{ Pinellas IBM PC Users Group, OS/2 SIG (Clearwater, Florida)
Contact: Michael Grogg (1510 Barry St. #J2, Clearwater, FL, 34616) }}

{{ Greater Cleveland PC Users Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Charlie Sweet (Society Nat'l Bank, 127 Public Sq.,
Cleveland, OH, 44114) }}

{{ CWRU (Cleveland) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Douglas Bell (2585 Euclid Heights Blvd. #1, Cleveland,
OH, 44104) }}

{{ Space Coast PC Users Group, OS/2 SIG (Cocoa, Florida)
Contact: P.O. Box 369, Cocoa, FL, 32923 }}

{{ Texas A&M OS/2 Users Group (College Sta., Texas)
Contact: Christopher Menegay (Dept. Computer Sci., Texas A&M Univ.,
College Sta., TX, 77843) }}

Old (Colorado Springs) Colorado Inf. Svcs. OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Robert Woeger (phone 719-471-8306)

Mid Missouri (Columbia) OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Woody Sturges (BBS 314-446-0016)

{{ Central Maryland (Columbia) Micro Users Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: 9337 Angelina Circle, Columbia, MD, 21045 }}

{{ Palmetto PC Club, OS/2 User Group (Columbia, South Carolina)
Contact: Paul Beverly (P.O. Box 10, Columbia, SC, 29202) }}

{{ Columbus (Ohio) Computer Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: David Jackson (IBM Corp., 140 E. Town St., Columbus,
OH, 43216) }}

Copenhagen OS/2 User Group
Contact: Erik Maaloe (phone 45-33-91-68-06, FAX 45-33-32-03-84)

{{ Dallas/Ft. Worth OS/2 User's Group
Contact: Toby Pennycuff (1211 Wilshire Blvd., Arlington, TX, 76012) }}

{{ Danbury (Connecticut) Area Computer Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: 12 Noteworthy Dr., Danbury, CT, 06810 }}

{{ Dayton (Ohio) Microcomputer Assoc., OS/2 SIG
Contact: Donald Purnhagen (4030 Backview Ct., Dayton, OH, 45424) }}

Denver OS/2 User's Group
Contact: Ronald Van Iwaarden (BBS 303-744-0373)

{{ Des Moines (Iowa) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Bob Wruck (12824 NW 127th Ct., Des Moines, IA, 50325) }}

{{ Pennsylvania (Dresher) Computer Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Bill Wolff (836 Redgate Rd., Dresher, PA, 19025) }}

{{ Southwest Int'l PC Club, OS/2 SIG (El Paso, Texas)
Contact: Andrew Gnoza (P.O. Box 10125, El Paso, TX, 79992) }}

Computer Users of Erie (Pennsylvania) OS/2 SIG
Contact: Tom Kuklinski (phone 814-866-5396)

{{ Delta DOS User's Group, OS/2 SIG (Escanaba, Michigan)
Contact: Dr. John Faughnan (Clg. of Human Med., 2500 7th Ave.
South #120, Escanaba, MI, 49829) }}

{{ Fort Lauderdale (Flordia) Computer Users' Group, SIG-32
Contact: Steve Matus (8461 NW 31st Pl., Sunrise, FL, 33351) }}

Fort Wayne OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Stephen Gutknecht (phone 219-484-0062)

{{ Fresno PC Users Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: P.O. Box 5987, Fresno, CA, 93755 }}

{{ OS/2 User Group Deutschland
Contact: Heide Davis (PC & PR GmbH, Kolner Strasse 51,
Mechernich-Kommern, D-5353) }}

{{ Hagerstown (Maryland) Computer Club, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Eric Erickson (12 W. Magnolia Ave., Hagerstown, MD, 21742) }}

{{ Atlantic OS/2 Users Group (Halifax)
Contact: Omkar Atwal (IBM Canada Ltd., 1969 Upper Water St.,
11th Flr., Purdy's Wharf II, Halifax, NS, B3J 3R7) }}

{{ Hilton Head Island Computer Club, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Harry Skevington (16 Forest Dr., Hilton Head Island,
SC, 29928) }}

{{ Holland User Group OS/2 (HUGO)
Contact: Paul Van Keep (Lange Kerkdam 113, Wassenaar, BT, 2242) }}

{{ Houston Area League of PC Users, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Odis Wooten (1200 Post Oak #106, Houston, TX, 77056) }}

Indianapolis OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Jay Schultz (phone 317-634-8080)

{{ Kansas City (Missouri) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Dan Cox (phone 913-829-7300) }}

{{ East Tennessee (Knoxville) PC Users Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Arnold Sprague (808 Fairfield Dr., Knoxville, TN, 37919) }}

{{ NEPA/2 (Lake Ariel, Pennsylvania)
Contact: R.L. Frank (RR 6, Box 779, Lake Ariel, PA, 18436) }}

{{ Users' PC Organization, OS/2 SIG (Lansing, Michigan)
Contact: P.O. Box 80086, Lansing, MI, 48908 }}

Las Vegas OS/2 User Group
Contact: Karu Karunaratne (phone 702-435-0018, BBS 702-433-5535)

{{ Lincoln (Nebraska) OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Robert Peinado (IBM Corp., 1111 Lincoln Mall, 4th Flr.,
Lincoln, NE, 68508) }}

{{ London (Ontario) OS/2 Users Group
Contact: John Roesner (c/o Links Custom, 1000 Pond Mills Rd., London,
ON, N6N 1A2) }}

{{ Long Beach (California) IBM Users Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: 4176 Woodruff Ave., Suite 517, Long Beach, CA, 90713 }}

Long Island OS/2 User's Group
Contact: Jeffrey Altman (phone 516-466-5495)

Los Angeles OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Paul Duncanson (phone 805-584-6721)

{{ Greater South Bay PCUG, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Fred Zimble (355 S. Grand Ave., 22nd Flr., Los Angeles,
CA, 90071) }}

{{ Kentucky-Indiana PCUG, OS/2 SIG (Louisville)
Contact: P.O. Box 3564, Louisville, KY, 40201 }}

{{ Madison (Wisconsin) PC User's Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: P.O. Box 2598, Madison, WI, 53701 }}

{{ Central Florida (Maitland) Computer Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: P.O. Box 948019, Maitland, FL, 32794 }}

{{ New Hampshire (Marlow) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Frank Richards (P.O. Box 71, Marlow, NH, 03456) }}

{{ Melbourne PC User Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: 66 Albert Road, 2nd Floor, S. Melbourne, Victoria, 3205 }}

{{ Memphis PC Users Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: P.O. Box 241756, Memphis, TN, 38124 }}

{{ Miami OS/2 Users Group
Contact: 8780 SW 82nd St., Miami, FL, 33173 }}

{{ Milwaukee Area IBM PCUG, OS/2 SIG
Contact: P.O. Box 2121, Milwaukee, WI, 53201 }}

Minnesota OS/2 User Group
Contact: Marcus Krumpholz (phone 612-869-7956, BBS 612-379-8272)

Montreal OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Gilbert Daigle (phone 514-923-9964)

{{ Music City (Nashville) PC User Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Alan Ashendorf (488 Saddle Dr., Nashville, TN, 37221) }}

New England OS/2 User Group
Contact: Dave Pinard (phone 203-954-1872)

{{ Oklahoma City PC Users Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: P.O. Box 12027, Oklahoma City, OK, 73157 }}

{{ Omaha (Nebraska) OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Finis Cook (IBM Corp., 450 Regency Pkwy., Omaha, NE,
68114) }}

{{ Orange County IBM PCUG, OS/2 SIG
Contact: P.O. Box 1779, Brea, CA, 92622 }}

{{ North Orange County (California) Computer Club, OS/2 SIG
Contact: P.O. Box 3616, Orange, CA, 92665 }}

{{ Central Florida (Orlando) Computer Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Bill Vermillion (mail [email protected]) }}

{{ Ottawa (Ontario) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Evan Champion (phone 613-523-6844) }}

{{ Kawartha Computer Club (Peterborough, Ontario), OS/2 SIG
Contact: Neil Eaton (1304 Clonsilla Ave., Peterborough, ON,
K9J 5Z2) }}

{{ Philadelphia Area Computer Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Larry Lavins (phone 215-878-9608) }}

{{ Delaware Valley (Philadelphia) OS/2 User Group
Contact: P.O. Box 784, Philadelphia, PA, 19105 }}

Phoenix PC Users' Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Bill Schindler (phone 602-222-8511)

{{ Pittsburgh OS/2 User Group
Contact: Nick Vucich (IBM Corp., 4 Allegheny Ctr., 6th Flr.,
Pittsburgh, PA, 15212) }}

{{ Central Wisconsin (Plover) Computer Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Joe Mangal (3440 Evergreen Dr. #4, Plover, WI, 54467) }}

{{ Portland (Oregon) PC Users Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: 921 SW Morrison, Suite 545, Portland, OR, 97205 }}

{{ Utah Valley (Provo) PC User Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Neil Wagstaff (P.O. Box 233, Provo, UT, 84606) }}

Triangle (Raleigh, North Carolina) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Steve Gallagher (phone 919-254-5637)

Regina OS/2 User Group
Contact: P. Takis Skagos (3438 Keohan Cr., Regina, SK, S4V 1J5) }}

{{ Richmond (Virginia) PC User's Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: P.O. Box 17068, Richmond, VA, 23226 }}

{{ Frog Computer Society, OS/2 SIG (Rochester, New York)
Contact: Nick Francesco (321 Executive Office Bldg., Rochester,
NY, 14614) }}

{{ Rockland (New York) PC Users Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: H. Stanley Smith (9 Chestnut Grove Court, New City, NY,
10956) }}

{{ Russian OS/2 User Group (ROSUG)
Contact: Dr. Levon K. Amdilyan (Proyezd Serova, 4, Znanie Bldg.,
Moscow, 101813) }}

Sacramento OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Charlie Kotan (phone 916-641-4007)

{{ Utah (Salt Lake City) Computer Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Bill Harris (P.O. Box 510811, Salt Lake City, UT, 84151) }}

{{ Alamo PC Organization, OS/2 SIG (San Antonio, Texas)
Contact: P.O. Box 65180, San Antonio, TX, 78265 }}

San Diego OS/2 User Group
Contact: Craig Swanson (BBS 619-558-9475)

Bay Area (San Francisco) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Sanford Rockowitz (phone 415-755-3124)

{{ San Jose IBM PC Club, OS/2 SIG
Contact:Chris Martin (F63/099, IBM AdStaR, 555 Bailey Ave., San
Jose, CA, 95141) }}

{{ San Leandro (California) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Gerald Brown (World Savings & Loan, 794 Davis St.,
San Leandro, CA, 94577) }}

{{ Groupe des Utilisateurs d'OS/2 de l'Estrie
Contact: Francois Menard (P.O. Box 142, Sherbrooke, Quebec,
J1H 5H8) }}

{{ Sierra Vista (Arizona) IBM PC UG, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Kevin McCrory (4931 Loma Loop, Sierra Vista, AZ, 85635) }}

Singapore (NUS) OS/2 User Group
Contact: N. Sriram (Internet: [email protected])

{{ Central Illinois OS/2 Users Group (Springfield)
Contact: Britt Hagen (IHCCCC, 516 E. Monroe, Suite 200, Springfield,
IL, 62701) }}

{{ Sydney PC Users Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: P.O. Box E162, St. James, Sydney, NSW, 2000 }}

{{ Central New York (Syracuse) PC Users Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Stewart Davis (4760 Broad Rd., Syracuse, NY, 13215) }}

Tampa Bay OS/2 User Group
Contact: Paul Wylie (phone 813-786-4567)

{{ Usuarios de OS/2
Contact: Tulio Enrique Tercero (GBM de Honduras, APDO 310,
Tegucigalpa) }}

{{ Toronto OS/2 Sysops (TorontOS/2)
Contact: John Chamberlain (126 Celest Dr., Scarborough, ON,
M1E 2V1) }}

{{ OS/2 Corporate Focus Group (Toronto)
Contact: George Oliver (Royal Bank of Canada, 315 Front St.
West, Toronto, ON, M5V 3A4) }}

{{ Tucson Computer Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: John Aucott (P.O. Box 1489, Tucson, AZ, 85702) }}

{{ Tulsa (Oklahoma) Computer Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Don Singleton (3311 S. 127 E. Pl., Tulsa, OK, 74146) }}

International OS/2 User Group (based in the U.K.)
Contact: Mike Gove (phone +44(0)285-641175 or FAX +44(0)285-640181)

{{ Kharkov (Ukraine) OS/2 User Group
Contact: 47 Lenin Ave., Inst. for Low Temp. Physics & Engineering,
Kharkov, 310164 }}

{{ Vancouver PC Users' Society, OS/2 SIG
Contact: Jonathan Story (P.O. Box 12, Vancouver, BC, V6C 2L8) }}

{{ Victoria ( British Columbia) OS/2 LAN Users Group
Contact: Tracey Kerr (IBM Canada Ltd., 1803 Douglas St., 2nd Flr.,
Victoria, BC, V8T 5C3) }}

{{ Greater Victoria (British Columbia) PC User's Assoc.,
Multitasking SIG
Contact: P.O. Box 5309, Station B, Victoria, BC, V8R 6S4 }}

{{ Mid-Atlantic OS/2 User Group (Virginia Beach, Virginia)
Contact:1478 Petite Court, Virginia Beach, VA, 23451 }}

{{ Capital (Washington, DC) PC User Group, OS/2 SIG
Contact: 51 Monroe St., Plaza East 2, Rockville, MD, 20850 }}

{{ Waterloo (Ontario) OS/2 User's Group
Contact: Ian Johnston (mail [email protected] }}

Wellington (New Zealand) OS/2 Users' Group
Contact: Andrew McMillian (phone 801-4764 days, 233-9123 evenings)

Westchester (New York) OS/2 User Group
Contact: Patrick Pearce (phone 914-762-8950)

{{ Winnipeg OS/2 User Group
Contact: Paul Marcino (P.O. Box 2914, Winnipeg, MB, R3C 4B5) }}

{{ Winston-Salem (North Carolina) OS/2 Users Group
Contact: Steve Gallagher (phone 919-254-2238) }}

[OS/2 user groups: please send information on your group to the author.
See (0.0) Introduction and Credits.] See (6.1) Promoting OS/2 for
information on IBM assistance to OS/2 user groups.

Related information:

(0.0) Introduction and Credits
(4.5) Technical Support
(6.1) Promoting OS/2

(4.9) Books and Magazines

What OS/2 books and magazines are available?

OS/2 has its own magazines: OS/2 Developer Magazine (phone 800-WANT-OS2 or
708-647-5960, FAX 708-647-0537), OS/2 Monthly (mail
[email protected] or phone 800-365-2642), Inside OS/2 (phone
502-491-1900), OS/2 Professional (phone 301-770-7302), {{ OS/2 Magazine
(Miller-Freeman; write 600 Harrison St., San Francisco, CA, 94104, U.S.A.),
}} and the OS/2 Newsletter (phone 714-495-3757).

Many OS/2 2.x books can be ordered by calling IBM Fulfillment Headquarters
at 800-342-6672. Or you may obtain OS/2 books through most computer book

Here are just a few of the OS/2 2.x books available, with ISBN and IBM
Publication Number, if available:

o Designing OS/2 Applications, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-58889-X, IBM
Publication No. SC28-2701.

o Easy OS/2, QUE, ISBN 1-56529-145-X.

o The Little Book of OS/2: 2.1 Edition, Peachpit Press.

o Micro Focus COBOL/2 Workbench for the Application Developer, QED.

o OS/2 for Non-Nerds, New Riders, ISBN 1-56205-153-9, IBM Pub. No.

o OS/2 Inside & Out (2.1), Osborne McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-881871-0.

o OS/2 2.x Notebook: The Best of OS/2 Developer Magazine, Van Nostrand
Reinhold, ISBN 0-442-01522-4, IBM Pub. No. G362-0015.

o OS/2 2.1 Complete, Abacus.

o OS/2 2.1 Programming, Osborne McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-881910-5.

o OS/2 2.1 Unleashed, Sams, ISBN 0-672-30240-3, IBM Pub. No. SR28-4318.

o The Shell Collection: OS/2 2.1 Utilities, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

o Stepping Up to OS/2 2.1, Abacus, ISBN 1-55755-185-5.

o Ten-Minute Guide to OS/2 2.1, Alpha, ISBN 1-56761-185-0, IBM Pub. No.

o Using OS/2 2.1: Special Edition, QUE, ISBN 1-56529-118-2, IBM Pub. No.

o Your OS/2 Consultant, Sams, ISBN 0-672-30317-5.

o Advanced OS/2 for Programming Managers, John Wiley & Sons.

o Dvorak's Guide to OS/2, Random House.

o OS/2 for Dummies (2.1), IDG, ISBN 1-878058-76-2.

o OS/2 Instant Reference Book, Sybex.

o The OS/2 2.1 User's Bible, Abacus.

o OS/2 2.1 Power User's Guide, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

o Real-World Programming for OS/2, Sams.

o Learn OS/2 in a Day, Wordware Publishing.

o Micro Focus CICS Option: Developing CICS Applications on the PC, QED.

o OS/2: The Workplace Shell, A User's Guide & Tutorial for Release 2.1,
Computer Information Associates.

o PC Learning Labs Teaches OS/2, Ziff-Davis Press.

o Quick Reference Guide for OS/2 2.1, DDC.

o Van Wolverton's Guide to OS/2, Random House.

IBM's OS/2 "redbooks" (power user guides) are IBM Publication No.
GBOF-2254. (To order these and other IBM publications phone your local IBM
office and ask for the Librarian or phone 800-765-4IBM.) These redbooks are
also available in electronic form [See (3.2) Shareware and Freeware
Sources]. Other OS/2 publications, such as the OS/2 Technical Library, IBM
Part No. 10G3356, are available by calling IBM Technical Books at

IBM also offers the OS/2 Online Book Collection CD-ROM, Part No. 53G2166.
This CD-ROM provides nearly all of the OS/2 publications produced by IBM in
electronic form. The CD-ROM includes the following titles:

o IBM C Set ++ Version 2.0

- IBM WorkFrame/2 Introduction
- IBM C/C++ Tools: Browser Introduction
- Collection Class Library Reference
- IBM C/C++ Tools C Library Reference
- IBM C/C++ Tools: C Language Reference
- IBM C/C++ Tools: C++ Language Reference
- IBM C/C++ Tools: Debugger Introduction
- IBM C/C++ Tools: Programming Guide
- IBM C/C++ Tools: Standard Class Library Reference
- User Interface Class Library Guide
- User Interface Class Library Reference
- IBM C/C++ Tools: EXTRA Introduction

o IBM International Technical Support Center (Red Books)

- OS/2 V2.0 Vol 1: Control Program (ITSC)
- OS/2 V2.0 Vol 2: DOS and Windows Environment (ITSC)
- OS/2 V2.0 Vol 3: PM and Workplace Shell (ITSC)
- OS/2 V2.0 Vol 4: Application Development (ITSC)
- OS/2 V2.0 Vol 5: Print Subsystem (ITSC)
- OS/2 2.1 Technical Update

o OS/2 LAN Server Version 2.0

- OS/2 LAN Server Migration Handbook
- Problem Determination Reference Volume 1: Problem Determination Guide
- Network Administrator Reference Volume 2: Performance Tuning
- DOS LAN Requester User's Quick Reference
- LAN Server User's Quick Reference
- Problem Determination Reference Volume 3: LAN Error Messages
- LAN Support Program User's Guide
- Network Administrator Reference Volume 1: Planning and Installation
- Network Administrator Reference Volume 3: Network Administrator's
- Problem Determination Reference Volume 2: LAN Alerts
- DOS LAN Requester Windows User's Guide
- OS/2 LAN Server Productivity Aids
- Network Administrator Reference Supplement for OS/2 2.0

o OS/2 LAN Server Version 3.0

- PC LAN Program Migration Guide
- Problem Determination Reference Volume 1: Problem Determination Guide
- Network Administrator Reference Volume 2: Performance Tuning
- DLR and DLR Windows User's Quick Reference
- OS/2 LAN Requester User's Quick Reference
- Problem Determination Reference Volume 3: LAN Error Messages
- IBM LAN Support Program User's Guide
- Network Administrator Reference Volume 1: Planning and Installation
- Network Administrator Reference Volume 3: Network Administrators
- Problem Determination Reference Volume 2: LAN Alerts
- OS/2 LAN Server Productivity Aids
- LAN Adapter and Protocol Support Configuration Guide
- IBM Network Transport Services/2 Redirected Installation and
Configuration Guide
- Messages and Problem Determination Guide

o Multimedia Presentation Manager/2 Version 1.1

- MMPM/2 Application Programming Guide
- MMPM Toolkit/2
- CUA Guide to Multimedia User Interface Design
- MMPM/2 Programming Reference
- OS/2 Multimedia Advantage

o Network Transport Services/2 Version 1.0

- LAN Adapter and Protocol Support Configuration Guide
- IBM Network Transport Services/2 Redirected Installation and
Configuration Guide
- Messages and Problem Determination Guide

o OS/2 2.0

- OS/2 2.0 Information and Planning Guide
- Getting Started with Workplace Shell (White Paper)
- Upgrading to OS/2 2.0 (White Paper)
- IBM OS/2 2.0 Getting Started
- OS/2 2.0 Installation Guide
- OS/2 2.0 Quick Reference
- OS/2 2.0 Command Reference
- IBM OS/2 2.0 Migrating to the OS/2 Workplace Shell
- OS/2 2.0 Using the Operating System
- Tips and Techniques
- OS/2 2.0 Adobe Type Manager for WIN-OS/2
- OS/2 2.0 Compatibility Information
- OS/2 2.0 Using Bidirectional Support

o OS/2 2.1

- OS/2 2.0 Information and Planning Guide
- Getting Started with Workplace Shell (White Paper)
- Upgrading to OS/2 2.0 (White Paper)
- OS/2 2.1 Using the Operating System
- OS/2 2.1 Book Catalog
- OS/2 2.1 Installation Guide
- OS/2 2.1 Quick Reference
- OS/2 2.1 Command Reference
- OS/2 2.0 Using Bidirectional Support
- OS/2 2.1 Performance Tuning for End Users (White Paper)
- OS/2 2.1 Performance Improvements (White Paper)

o Operating System/2 2.0 Technical Library

- OEM DASD and SCSI Device Driver Support
- OS/2 2.0 Programming Guide: Volume III
- Getting Started: OS/2 2.1 Toolkit
- Getting Started: Toolkit
- Information Presentation Facility
- Physical Device Driver Reference
- Presentation Manager Programming Reference: Volume I
- Presentation Manager Programming Reference: Volume II
- Presentation Manager Programming Reference: Volume III
- Application Design Guide
- Procedures Language 2/REXX User's Guide
- Presentation Driver Reference
- Virtual Device Driver Reference
- System Object Model Guide and Reference
- OS/2 2.0 Programming Guide: Volume I
- OS/2 Programming Guide: Volume II
- Bidirectional National Language Support
- Control Program Programming Reference
- OS/2 2.1 PM Programming Reference: Volume I
- OS/2 2.1 PM Programming Reference: Volume II
- OS/2 2.1 PM Programming Reference: Volume III
- OS/2 2.1 CP Programming Reference
- Procedures Language 2/REXX Reference
- SAA CUA Advanced Interface Design Reference
- SAA CUA Guide to User Interface Design

o PL/I Package/2 Version 1.1

- PL/I Package/2 Programming Guide
- PL/I Package/2 Language Environment Run-Time Messages
- PL/I Package/2 Installation
- PL/I Package/2 Language Reference
- PL/I Package/2 Reference Summary
- PL/I Package/2 Fact Sheet

o SAA Common User Access Controls Library/2 Version 1.0

- Common User Access Controls Library/2 Programming Guide
- Common User Access Controls Library/2 PM Reference
- Common User Access Controls Library/2 Windows Reference

o Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Version 1.2 for OS/2

- IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2 for OS/2: User's Guide
- IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2 for OS/2: Installation and Maintenance
- IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2 for OS/2: Programmer's Reference
- IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2 for OS/2: Quick Reference Guide

o Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Version 1.2.1 for OS/2

- IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2.1 for OS/2: User's Guide
- IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2.1 for OS/2: LAN Adapter and Protocol Support
- IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2.1 for OS/2: Installation and Maintenance
- IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2.1 for OS/2: Programmer's Reference
- IBM TCP/IP Version 1.2.1 for OS/2: Quick Reference Guide

Related information:

(4.5) Technical Support

(4.10) Problem Report Form

How do I report an OS/2 problem to IBM?

If you would like to send an OS/2 bug report to IBM, you may phone IBM at
800-992-4777 (in the U.S.) or you may fill in the OS/2 Problem Report Form
and mail it to IBM via CompuServe or the Internet.

The Problem Report Form helps IBM solve your problem more quickly,
especially if you include all the relevant details. IBM then has to ask
fewer questions in order to determine the problem.

To use the Problem Report Form, follow these steps:

1. If you are reading the INF version of this List, press CTRL-F. This
panel will then be saved to a file named TEXT.TMP.

2. Using a text editor (like the OS/2 System Editor), open either TEXT.TMP
or the plain text version of this List.

3. Delete all the extra lines in the file so that only the OS/2 Problem
Report Form remains.

4. Fill in all the requested information using your text editor.

5. Save the Form to disk (as file name OS2PROB.TXT for example).

6. Upload the file to CompuServe Mail or the Internet, and send the Form to
IBM. (The exact procedure will depend on the service and the software you

You may use the Problem Report Form as many times as you need to, but please
include only one problem per copy. If you wish, you can use the Defect
Report Form found on Page 493 of the OS/2 2.1 Using the Operating System
manual instead of this form.

------ Submit an OS/2 Problem Report ------


Customers should use this form to report a suspected OS/2 DEFECT to
IBM support.

IBM employees should refer to the OS2DFECT FORUM in IBMPC for instructions on
how to report an OS/2 defect.

If you have How-to or other questions about OS/2, please refer to these

- The OS/2 on-line help and README.
- If you have a CompuServe ID, you may submit an item to the
appropriate section within the forums under IBMOS2 (GO IBMOS2).
- Many bulletin board systems contain user forums where OS/2 users
share information and ideas on OS/2.

Please provide as much information as possible on your problem. Feel free to
add additional space, or remove sections of the form that are not relevant to
your problem.

CONTACT PERSON: __________________________________

PHONE NUMBER: (___) ___-____ x____ Phone number where you can be
FAX NUMBER: (___) ___-____ x____ contacted between 8-5, M-F.

Note: Support will normally be handled electronically through
CompuServe mail. IBM may contact you via telephone if it
appears it will expedite resolution to the problem.

Would you rather be contacted by phone? Y _ N _


DETAILED PROBLEM DESCRIPTION - If possible, provide step-by-step recreation
scenario. Also, please include any fixes or workarounds you may have already

Enter any error messages that occur: ________________________________

Select the appropriate answers by placing an "X" in the space indicated.
Can you recreate the problem? Y _ N _
Has the problem occurred on more than one system? Y _ N _

OS/2 for Windows .........: _ CSD Level: _______
OS/2 Version 2.1 .........: _ CSD Level: _______
OS/2 Version 2.0 .........: _ CSD Level: _______
OS/2 1.3 Standard Edition : _ CSD Level: _______
OS/2 1.3 Extended Edition : _ CSD Level: _______

NOTE - CSD = Corrective Service Diskette.
Use the SYSLEVEL command to determine, if unknown.

HARDWARE CONFIGURATION (provide as much as possible):
Brand and model of PC: ____________________________________
Microprocessor: Intel _ Other (specify) _______________
Type: 286 _ 386SX _ 386 _ 486SX _ 486 _ Pentium _
Speed: __ MHz
Total RAM ....: __ MB
Disk drive ...: ____ MB
File System: FAT _ HPFS _
Manufacturer: ___________________ Model # _______
Type: IDE _ SCSI _ MFM _ RLL _ Unknown _
Manufacturer and model # of disk controller: ______________________
Manufacturer, revision #, and date of System BIOS: __________________
Manufacturer and model # of video adapter: __________________________
Manufacturer and model # of display: ________________________________
Memory installed on video adapter: _____ EGA _ VGA _ SVGA _ XGA _
Diskette Drive A: 3 1/2" _ 5 1/4" _
Diskette Drive B: 3 1/2" _ 5 1/4" _
List other adapters installed: _____________________

TRAP INFORMATION - If a TRAP occurs and results in the 16 bit trap display
similar to the following, enter any of the register values that you recorded:

SESSION TITLE: __________________________________________________
AX=____ BX=____ CX=____ DX=____ BP= ____ SI=____ DI=____
DS=____ ES=____ FLG=____ CS=____ IP=____ SS=____ SP=____
MSW=____ CSLIM=____ SSLIM=___ DSLIM=___ ESLIM=____ CSACC=__

If a TRAP occurs and results in the 32 bit trap display similar to the
following, enter any of the register values that you recorded:

TRAP ____
ERRCD=____ ERACC=____ ERLIM=________ EAC=________ EBX=________
ECX=________ EDX=________ ESI=________ EDI=________ EBP=________
FLG=________ CS:EIP=____:________ CSACC=____ CSLIM=________
SS:ESP=____:________ SSACC=____ SSLIM=________ DS=____ DSACC=____
DSLIM=________ CR0=________ ES=____ ESACC=____ ESLIM=________
CR2=________ FS=____ FSACC=____ FSLIM=________ GS=____ GSACC=____

ERROR AT LOCATION ##____:________ - ____:____. _____, ____ ________
INTERNAL REVISION _.___, __/__/__

PRINTER - If this is a printer problem, please provide the following:
Printer Vendor: __________________ Model ....: ________________
Driver Name ..: __________________ Port Used : ________________
Printer is attached to: Local _ LAN Server _ Host _

COMMUNICATIONS MANAGER - If this is a problem with Communications Manager,
please provide answers in this section:

OS/2 Extended Services ............: _ CSD Level: _______
OS/2 EE Communications Manager 1.3 : _ CSD Level: _______
Describe your Communications Manager configuration (DFT, T-R, etc):

LOCAL AREA NETWORK - If this is a local area network problem, please enter
information about the LAN involved:

LAN SERVER: OS/2 LAN Server Version 1.3 : _ CSD Level: ________
OS/2 LAN Server 2.0 Entry ..: _ CSD Level: ________
OS/2 LAN Server 2.0 Advanced: _ CSD Level: ________
OS/2 LAN Server 3.0 Entry ..: _ CSD Level: ________
OS/2 LAN Server 3.0 Advanced: _ CSD Level: ________

LAN Server 3.0 Requester....: _ CSD Level: ________
LAN Server 2.0 Requester....: _ CSD Level: ________
OS/2 1.3 Requester..........: _ CSD Level: ________

LS 3.0 Requester ...........: _ CSD Level: ________
LS 2.0 Requester ...........: _ CSD Level: ________
OS/2 1.3 Requester .........: _ CSD Level: ________
DOS Version: ____ DOS Vendor: _________________

Is the failing system a Domain Controller? Y _ N _
Is the failing system an additional server? Y _ N _

DATABASE MANAGER - If this is an OS/2 DATABASE MANAGER problem, please enter
information about the DataBase Manager problem below.

SQL Error Code ....: ________
Secondary Return Code: ________
Error occurs when database is being accessed as:
Stand Alone ......: Y _ N _
Requester (Client): Y _ N _
Database Server ..: Y _ N _
Using RDS ........: Y _ N _
Using LAN ........: Y _ N _
If the error is occurring at a requester, can the problem be recreated
at the server? .....: Y _ N _
Error occurs in which application?
Query Manager.....: _
LI ..............: _ (Command Line Interface)
User Application..: _
If a trap has occurred, provide the SQLABEND results:

ready to send this OS/2 Problem Report, send the form via CISMAIL
to ---

Base problems - Base Support, 76711,610
ES/LS problems - ES/LS Support, 76711,611
(ES = IBM Extended Services, LS = IBM LAN Server)

(To send from the Internet use address [email protected]
or [email protected], as appropriate.)

Related information:

(4.5) Technical Support
(4.7) Online Services

(4.11) OS/2 BBSes

What OS/2 BBSes can I dial?

The following BBSes hold large OS/2 libraries:

Fernwood (203) 483-0348

The Bin BBS (206) 451-1905

OS/2 Source BBS (303) 744-0373

Denver OS/2 BBS (303) 755-6859

Inside Technologies BBS (313) 283-1151

OS/2 Woodmeister (314) 446-0016

Pyramid/2 (415) 494-7497

Gateway/2 (314) 554-9313

Bay Area OS/2 (510) 657-7948

OS/2 San Diego (619) 558-9475

OS/2 Las Vegas (702) 433-5535

OS/2 Shareware (703) 385-4325

Greater Chicago Online (708) 895-4042

OS/2 Exchange BBS (904) 739-2445

Abaforum (Barcelona) 34-3-589.38.88

IBM UK 44-256-336655

OS/2 UK 44-454-633197

IBM Denmark 45-42-88-72-22

Copenhagen UG BBS 45-48-24-45-80

OS/2 Norway 47-22-38-09-49

IBM Norway 47-66-99-94-50

IBM Germany 049-7034-15-2160

OS/2 Australia 61-2-241-2466

Soft/2 Shareware 61-8-370-7339

(The monthly Worldwide OS/2 BBS Listing, available from these BBSes, lists
others.) The IBM PC Company BBS (modem 919-517-0001) has some
shareware/freeware as well, along with CSDs [See (4.6) Corrective Service
Diskettes] and the PS/2 Assistant (an invaluable resource for locating
almost any sort of information on OS/2). For information on IBM's OS/2 BBS
phone 800-547-1283. IBM Canada maintains several support BBSes:

(416) 946-4244
(416) 946-4255
(514) 938-3022
(604) 664-6464
{{ (604) 380-5441 }}

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes

(4.12) IBM Telephone Directory

IBM has so many telephone numbers. Which do I use?

Here are some of the telephone numbers at IBM that are of particular
importance to OS/2 users. The list is by no means complete, and future
releases of the OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions List will add more.

o IBM Help Center (800-756-4IBM). The "800 number for all 800 numbers" in
the United States. If you're not sure which number to call, start here.
The operator will stay on the line until you're satisfied you've reached the
right party.

o IBM Information Center (800-IBM-3333). IBM's United States "switchboard"
-- can be used to reach any IBM employee.

o IBM OS/2 Hotline (800-3-IBM-OS2). Accepts orders for OS/2, certain OS/2
software titles, OS/2 video cassettes, t-shirts, mouse pads, computer
furniture, and other OS/2-related items. For United States residents.

o IBM OS/2 Technical Support (800-992-4777). The product support line for
OS/2 in the United States. Look in the inside front cover of your OS/2
Using the Operating System manual for support information.

o IBM PC Technical Books (800-765-4IBM). Accepts orders for most IBM
publications from anyone in the United States.

o IBM Personal Systems Software Canada (800-465-1234). For general
inquiries and orders from Canadian residents for any OS/2-related product.

o IBM Publications Canada (416-474-7000). Accepts orders for any IBM
publication, including the OS/2 Online Book Collection, shipped to any
Canadian address.

o IBM Publications U.S. (800-879-2755 opt. 1). Accepts orders for any IBM
publication shipped to any address in the United States.

Related information:

(4.5) Technical Support

(5.0) Using OS/2

The following questions are addressed in this section:

(5.1) I'm a Unix wizard. How do I make OS/2 resemble Unix?

(5.2) I prefer Windows. How do I make OS/2 2.1 resemble Windows
(or OS/2 1.3)?

(5.3) Sometimes OS/2 2.1 will freeze when I run an application. What
do I do?

(5.4) How do I start a background process from the OS/2 command line?

(5.5) How do I add new Adobe Type Manager Typefaces?

(5.6) How do I tweak OS/2 2.1 for maximum performance?

(5.7) How do I measure OS/2 performance and memory usage?

(5.8) My background bitmap does not display correctly. What's wrong?

(5.9) How do I boot a real version of DOS from within OS/2 2.1?

(5.10) Are there any clever tricks that apply to OS/2 2.1?

(5.11) How do I use REXX? What does it do?

(5.12) What ANSI escape sequences can be used?

(5.1) Making OS/2 Resemble Unix

I'm a Unix wizard. How do I make OS/2 resemble Unix?

A great number of GNU and Unix utilities have been ported to OS/2 native
mode and are available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources. A uucp
package, UUPC/Extended, is available via anonymous ftp from, directory /pub/uupc; mail [email protected] with questions.

In addition, the Hamilton C Shell is available from Hamilton Labs (phone
508-358-5715 or mail [email protected]). The Thompson Toolkit, a
Bourne-like shell, and awk are published by Thompson Automation (phone
206-224-1639). MKS (phone 519-884-2251 or mail [email protected]) publishes a
number of standard Unix utilities for OS/2. Hippix (Hippo Software, phone
801-531-1004) provides a set of low cost Unix-like command utilities (such
as grep, awk, sh, and vi) along with a POSIX programming library. An OS/2
version of lint is available from Gimpel Software (phone 215-584-4261). For
OS/2-specific X Windows server support, IBM provides an optional package
available with its TCP/IP 2.0 for OS/2. The TCP/IP 2.0 base package
includes a multithreaded news reader as well.

DOS and Windows based utilities and aids still work fine under OS/2 2.1.

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(3.8) Networking Products

(5.2) Making OS/2 Resemble Windows

I prefer Windows. How do I make OS/2 2.1 resemble Windows (or OS/2 1.3)?

Spend some time with the Workplace Shell first. Browse the online Tutorial,
Master Help Index, and Start Here facilties. Consult the Unofficial Guide
to the Workplace Shell, available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources.

If you still prefer Windows-like behavior, follow the instructions beginning
on Page 401 in the OS/2 2.1 Using the Operating System manual.

Note that you can run the Win-OS/2 Program Manager "seamlessly" on your OS/2
desktop, and you can use it to launch DOS, Windows, and OS/2 applications.
Using the Program Manager in this way can make even hard core Windows users
more comfortable.

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(5.3) Recovering from Crashed Sessions

Sometimes OS/2 2.1 will freeze when I run an application. What do I do?

Before rebooting with CTRL-ALT-DEL, try CTRL-ESC. Do not hit additional
keys, do not move the mouse. Wait up to a minute. Either the Window List
or an error message should pop up. You may close the offending application
at that point; allow some time for it to close. (Try ALT-ESC if you have
disabled CTRL-ESC in that application's DOS Settings. If you do not get any
response, press CTRL-ESC or ALT-ESC repeatedly until the dialog appears.)
Note that the Workplace Shell can recycle, independent of running
applications, if it crashes.

If the system is badly disabled, sometimes pressing CTRL-ALT-NUMLOCK twice
will result in a prompt to create a dump diskette. You may do so (the
online Command Reference describes dump diskettes), or at that point you may
reboot with CTRL-ALT-DEL.

To prevent applications from automatically restarting see (5.10) Clever
Tricks. To restore the desktop to "factory defaults," use ALT-F1 when OS/2
2.1 starts. See Appendix C of the OS/2 2.1 Using the Operating System
manual for details. Note that if you have installed an OS/2 Service Pak
[See (4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes] the ALT-F1 sequence will restore
your desktop to the state it was found in just before installation of the
Service Pak.

Related information:

(4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes
(5.10) Clever Tricks

(5.4) Starting Background Processes

How do I start a background process from the OS/2 command line?

Look up the START and DETACH commands in the online Command Reference.

If you wish to start a DOS session with nondefault settings, use a utility
such as STARTD. If you wish to start an OS/2 session from a DOS session,
try OS2EXEC. Both (and several others) are available from (3.2) Shareware
and Freeware Sources.

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(5.5) Adobe Type Manager

How do I add new Adobe Type Manager typefaces?

OS/2 2.1 comes with built-in Adobe Type Manager (ATM) for OS/2 and Win-OS/2.
A basic set of typefaces (Courier, Helvetica, and Times New Roman) comes
with OS/2 2.1 and is installed (if selected) for use under both OS/2's and
Win-OS/2's ATM.

Each typeface you install under OS/2 and/or Win-OS/2 should come with at
least two separate files with PFB and AFM extensions. To install a typeface
for use under Win-OS/2, use the ATM Control Panel. The Win-OS/2 ATM Control
Panel will then build a PFM file from the AFM file if a PFM file is not
already included. To install a typeface for use with OS/2-specific
applications, select OS/2 System -> System Setup -> Font Palette -> Edit
Font -> Add.

PFM files may converted to AFM files using the PFM2AFM utility, available
from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources. (However, these converted AFM
files sometimes produce unusual results.) AFM files for Adobe commercial
typefaces are available via Internet anonymous ftp from;
the PFB files are available for purchase from Adobe. Many public domain
typefaces for OS/2's ATM are available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware
Sources. Atech Software's (phone 800-786-FONT) AllType and Ares Software's
(phone 415-578-9090) FontMonger convert between TrueType and Adobe Type 1
formats (as does the popular Fontographer utility).

Typeface files may be shared by OS/2 ATM and Win-OS/2 ATM. To do so,
install the typefaces using both the Font Palette and Win-OS/2 ATM Control
Panel, specifying the same target path each time (most conveniently

Note that IOPL=YES should appear in CONFIG.SYS; the modules WPPWNDRV,
BVHSVGA, and PMATM are marked as requiring I/O privilege.

Related information

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(5.6) Performance Tuning

How do I tweak OS/2 2.1 for maximum performance?

For OS/2 overall, the CONFIG.SYS parameters MAXWAIT, TIMESLICE, PRIORITY,
PRIORITY_DISK_IO, PROTECTONLY, and cache settings (in the DISKCACHE line,
for FAT; or IFS line, for HPFS) can be tweaked. The swap file should be
placed on the most used partition on the least used hard disk, and its
location is controlled by the SWAPPATH line. See the online Command
Reference for details.

FAT partitions should be periodically defragmented. A shareware
defragmenter for DOS called DOG (Disk OrGanizer) works well, as do many
others. (You can boot DOS from a floppy disk to run such a utility.)

For the Workplace Shell, drag shadows of most often used items to the
desktop or to folders closer to the "surface" -- opening folders takes time.
Drag shadows of program objects you use often (e.g. the Win-OS/2 full
screen Program Manager) to the Startup folder. Disable animation (go to
OS/2 System -> System Setup -> System -> Window). Use the faster Details
View when opening drive and folder objects; to set Details View as the
default, open the settings notebook for the object, select the Menu tab,
click on ~Open, then the Settings button, then select the Default Action.

Try reducing the number of on screen colors or dropping down in screen
resolution to enhance speed. Close (not just minimize; check the Window
List) unnecessary objects and applications. Use the Monochrome scheme from
the Scheme Palette -- it provides marginally faster screen updates.
Consider adding more RAM.

For DOS programs, run full screen instead of windowed if speed is important.
In DOS Settings for each application: reduce conventional, XMS, DPMI, and
EMS memory allocations to the bare minimums required for maximum
performance; turn off VIDEO_RETRACE_EMULATION unless necessary; adjust
the HW_TIMER setting (particularly for games); enable VIDEO_FASTPASTE if
possible; turn on HW_ROM_TO_RAM. Communications programs should use
hardware handshaking where possible (use OS/2's MODE COMx command if
necessary), and a buffered UART can prove helpful. (DOS programs running
under OS/2 will not be aware of a buffered 16550AF UART. OS/2 virtualizes
the serial port and manages the buffer itself.) For faster printing set the
DOS program's output port to LPTx.OS2 (where x is the printer port number)
-- use a "print to file" option if necessary. Disable any DOS print
spoolers; rely on OS/2's spooler instead. Increase CONFIG.SYS's
PRINTMONBUFSIZE values. Other, standard steps to enhance DOS performance
(e.g. increasing BUFFERS in CONFIG.SYS) of course apply.

For Windows programs, run using a full screen desktop if speed is vital.
The Win-OS/2 Full Screen icon set up by the installation program has poor
Settings. For better performance perform some of the same steps outlined in
the preceding paragraph, including VIDEO_RETRACE_EMULATION off. The same
printer output advice also applies. Consider disabling the Public setting
in the Clipboard. If available, set VIDEO_8514A_XGA_IOTRAP to off. If
mouse control is lost when switching to/from the Win-OS/2 session, try

Related information:

(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility
(5.7) Measuring Performance and Memory Usage

(5.7) Measuring Performance and Memory Usage

How do I measure OS/2 performance and memory usage?

OS/2 does not treat system resources like DOS. Memory is treated as a
virtual resource, used intelligently. For example, OS/2 will retain unused,
"dormant" code in memory if that memory is not otherwise required, on the
assumption that that code may be used again. Also, all but a small portion
of OS/2 (and most applications, no matter how many are running) may be paged
to disk should a large amount of physical memory be required. Utilities
which display "free" memory, then, are only useful for rough, relative
measurements. (Such utilities also often fail for another reason: many
only report the largest contiguous block of free physical RAM. And a few
will never report more than 16 MB of RAM because they were designed for OS/2

Similarly, utilities which purport to measure system load (e.g. Pulse)
should not be relied upon for definitive performance measurement.
Subjective assessments are often much more reliable. Pulse (and similar
utilities) rely on a measurement of processor time allocated to a thread
running at OS/2's lowest priority. This method is sometimes subject to
erroneous results.

That said, more rigorous system performance optimization and monitoring
tools include System Performance Monitor/2 (IBM Program No. 5871-3415),
BenchTech (Synetik, phone 303-241-1718), OR/SysMon (International OS/2 User
Group, phone 44-285-641175 or FAX 44-285-640181), CPU Monitor (Bon Ami), and
Performance 2.1 (Clear & Simple, phone 203-658-1204).

Note that OS/2's swap file is designed to behave with hysteresis. It will
not shrink in size as easily as it grows, under the assumption that swap
space needed once may be needed again. It should shrink given enough time
and continued, less intense system loads.

Related information:

(5.6) Performance Tuning

(5.8) Displaying Background Bitmaps

My background bitmap does not display correctly. What's wrong?

Color bitmap images used for the Workplace Shell screen or folder
backgrounds may not display correctly (may have distorted or missing colors)
due to incorrect matching with OS/2's default palette. Unlike Windows, OS/2
does not adjust the palette to accommodate background bitmaps (to keep the
rest of the desktop from experiencing color distortions). (Palette control
is now available to applications running under the 32-bit graphics engine
with an appropriate display driver, however.)

To remedy the problem you may use the numerous background images which have
been specifically prepared for the Workplace Shell [available from (3.2)
Shareware and Freeware Sources] or you may use an image editing/conversion
utility which can create a proper, system palette-matched bitmap file. For
example, JoeView [available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources] may
be used to import noninterlaced GIF, Windows BMP, and PCX files and save
them as palette-matched OS/2 BMP files.

Note that background bitmap images impose some additional overhead, taking
up RAM and disk resources. You should probably use them sparingly. Also,
if you have set a Win-OS/2 background bitmap you may experience desktop
color distortions when running Windows programs "seamlessly." Disable the
Win-OS/2 background bitmap to remedy the problem.

Related information:

(2.2) SuperVGA Support
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources

(5.9) Specific DOS Sessions

How do I boot a real version of DOS from within OS/2 2.1?

Booting a real version of DOS under OS/2 provides certain features that the
OS/2 emulated DOS sessions cannot. For example, a specific DOS session can
provide access to devices (like CD-ROM drives) and networks for which there
are only DOS device drivers. A specific DOS session can also help get DOS
applications which generate spurious "divide by zero" errors running again.

You will be able to run one such session per hardware device. So, for
example, if you have your DOS networking software loaded in one specific DOS
session, you may not start another, similar session.

Specific DOS sessions are discussed in the online Command Reference (under
VMDISK), the Master Help Index, and the printed Installation Guide (Appendix
E). You should consult those resources first. However, if you are still
unsure how to configure your system to run specific DOS sessions, follow
these steps:

1. Create a bootable DOS diskette. Insert your DOS system diskette into
Drive A and reboot. When you arrive at the "A>" prompt, type FORMAT A: /S
and press ENTER. (Note that you may wish to format the diskette for the
smallest capacity possible, to save hard disk space later on. For example,
a 5.25 inch double density -- not high density -- diskette may be formatted
to just 160K by adding the /1 /N:8 parameters to the FORMAT command.) When
prompted, insert a blank diskette into Drive A and press ENTER. When the
FORMAT operation is complete, remove the diskette and restart OS/2.

2. Copy FSFILTER.SYS to the diskette. Double click on OS/2 System ->
Command Prompts -> OS/2 Window. Insert the diskette you just formatted into
Drive A. Copy the following file to your startable diskette:

3. Set up CONFIG.SYS. Using a text editor (like the OS/2 System Editor)
create the file A:\CONFIG.SYS with the following lines at the top:


Change the "C:" drive letter if OS/2 is installed on another drive. Add
any other lines as required for your application (like CD-ROM or
networking), but do not include any XMS, EMS, mouse, or memory management
device drivers. Make sure that everything is referenced with a drive letter
and path, as above.

4. Set up AUTOEXEC.BAT. Likewise, create a file named A:\AUTOEXEC.BAT and
make sure that the first line reads:


changing "C:" if necessary. Add any additional lines (like PATH, SET
PROMPT, and so on) as required by your application. {{ Make sure that
\OS2\MDOS is referenced in the PATH. }}

5. Test your DOS diskette. Once you have configured the CONFIG.SYS and
AUTOEXEC.BAT files as you wish, double click on OS/2 System -> Command
Prompts -> DOS from Drive A:. A DOS session should start. Test for the
functionality you need (like access to your CD-ROM reader or network). If
the session is not working properly, press CTRL-ESC and shut down the
session, edit CONFIG.SYS and/or AUTOEXEC.BAT as required, and repeat the

6. Create the diskette image. When you are satisfied that your specific DOS
session diskette functions properly, go back to the OS/2 Window and type
VMDISK A: C:\DOS.IMG to create a diskette image file. (If you want the
file to be located on another drive or in another directory, change "C:\"

7. Create a program object for your specific DOS session. Drag a program
object from your Templates folder to any target folder. When the notebook
opens, enter a single asterisk (*) in the Program Name field, then click on
the right arrow in the lower right. Select either DOS Window or DOS Full
Screen for the session type, as desired. Click on the DOS Settings button,
and scroll down until you find the DOS_STARTUP_DRIVE property. Enter
C:\DOS.IMG in the field at the upper right. (If your image file is not
located on Drive C in the root directory, make the necessary changes.)
Change any other DOS Settings if necessary. Click on the Save button, then
click on the General tab. Give your program object a name. Then close up
the notebook.

You should now be able to double click on your new program object to start
your specific DOS session. If you require access to your diskette drive
(Drive A), use the FSACCESS command. See the online Command Reference for

When formatting your bootable DOS diskette, you may wish to use additional
command line parameters to create a diskette with a reduced capacity. The
"smaller" the diskette, the less room the diskette image file created by
VMDISK will take on your hard disk. See your DOS manual for details, or use
the example given above.

Related information:

(1.3) DOS and Windows Compatibility

(5.10) Clever Tricks

Are there any clever tricks that apply to OS/2 2.1?

o To force DIR to display your directories in alphabetical order, with the
subdirectories listed first, add the line


to CONFIG.SYS; and, if you wish the same for your DOS command line sessions,
add the same line to AUTOEXEC.BAT. You may also wish to run DOSKEY to
enable the command history feature. (Shutdown and reboot for changes to
CONFIG.SYS to take effect.)

o Hold down SHIFT while resizing text windows to make size changes

o If you want to configure your printer port(s) for shared access (so that
DOS programs like LapLink, for example, can use them directly), go to your
printer object, click on it with mouse button two, select Open -> Settings,
select the Output tab, then double click on the port you wish to share.
Check the appropriate box.

o While running a DOS graphics program in a window, use the graphics cut and
paste feature to clip a picture and paste it into the Icon Editor. You can
then quickly and easily create custom icons for your applications.

o To disable the automatic application restart feature, create a STARTUP.CMD
file in the root directory of your OS/2 boot drive with the following REXX

/* */
call RxFuncadd 'SysLoadFuncs', 'RexxUtil', 'SysLoadFuncs'
call SysLoadFuncs
call SysIni 'USER', 'PM_WorkPlace:Restart', 'DELETE:'

or add the line


to your CONFIG.SYS. To manually disable automatic application restart when
booting OS/2, hold down the left CTRL, left SHIFT, and F1 keys
simultaneously from the time the mouse pointer appears until icons are
displayed on the desktop.

o Use the Alarms applet to automatically start programs at specified times.

To start the Alarms applet minimized, put /I in the Optional Parameters
section of its program object settings.

o If you wish to dispense with the Workplace Shell (and its overhead),
particularly on low memory systems, change the line SET RUNWORKPLACE... in
necessary, with a different drive letter). In fact any program with job
control (e.g. Enhanced Editor, HyperAccess/5) can be used as the shell. [A
character mode alternative to the Workplace Shell, MenuMaster, is now
available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources.]

o To implement a small scroll back buffer for your OS/2 command line
windows, use the command MODE CO80,102. This procedure may be automated by
adding /K MODE CO80,102 in the Optional Parameters section of the OS/2
Window program object settings.

o If you do not want any command line parameters passed to a program object
that you start (for example, if you customize the desktop menu so that it
has an additional option which starts a command line prompt) place a lone %
in the Optional Parameters section of the program object settings. If you
do wish to pass parameters, but you want the extraneous information that the
Workplace Shell passes to the object to be ignored, try putting && REM % in
the Optional Parameters section after the parameters you wish passed.

o If you want to move an icon a small distance, "grab" it from the edge
nearest the direction you want to move the icon.

o A clever way to manipulate files that are locked when the Workplace Shell
is running (e.g. display drivers) is to add the line CALL=CMD.EXE at the
end of CONFIG.SYS. Then Shutdown and reboot. The system will restart with
an OS/2 command line prompt. Type EXIT to proceed into the Workplace Shell.
Using CALL is also a convenient way to configure OS/2's serial ports using
the MODE command. For example:


configures COM2 for high speed RTS handshaking and buffered I/O. [Moreover,
the MODE command can be used to determine whether your system has a buffered
UART (National Semiconductor 16550A or equivalent), nearly essential for
high speed communications. Use the command:


(where x is the communications port number) from an OS/2 command line. If
you see anything but "BUFFER = N/A" then you have a buffered UART for that

You can use either CDDBOC or SHIFTRUN instead of CALL; both utilities are
available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources.

Another way, which works well with display drivers, is to copy the new
DLL(s) to its(their) own directory (say, C:\NEW), then place that directory
name first in LIBPATH in CONFIG.SYS. Shutdown and reboot. OS/2 will use
that(those) DLL(s) before it attempts to use the one(s) located in \OS2\DLL.
[This method is required when using a 16-bit OS/2 2.0 display driver with
OS/2 2.0 CSD Level 06055 or later. See (4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes.]
To switch back to the old driver, edit CONFIG.SYS and remove C:\NEW from
LIBPATH, then Shutdown and reboot.

o To shutdown without a mouse, press CTRL-ESC, select the Desktop, then
press the spacebar (to deselect any icons, if necessary), SHIFT-F10, and
select Shutdown.

o If your video driver does not support "seamless" Windows, try running the
Win-OS/2 Program Manager in a DOS window.

o Selective Install should be used with caution when changing mouse or
display drivers. Verify that proper changes have been made to CONFIG.SYS.

o If your settings notebooks (or PM Sticky Pads) do not display but are
listed in the Window List, click on the name of the settings notebook in the
Window List (brought up with CTRL-ESC) with mouse button two and select

o If your \OS2\*.INI files have grown large, use the CopyINI or WPSBackup
utilities to shrink them. Both are available from (3.2) Shareware and
Freeware Sources.

o To restart the Workplace Shell (without saving desktop settings, perhaps
after an accidental Arrange), use a utility such as psPM [available from
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources] to terminate PMSHELL.

o To get rid of a WPS object that cannot be deleted, try one of the

- Insert a blank diskette in Drive A, click on the stubborn object with
mouse button two, select Move, select the Path page, enter A:\, press ENTER,
then format the diskette;

- Use the WPSTools or Black Hole, available from (3.2) Shareware and
Freeware Sources. (The WPSTools can also recreate desktop objects that have
been lost.)

o To load a device driver into high memory in a particular DOS session
change the DOS_DEVICE setting for the session and add SIZE=0 before the path
and filename for the device driver. For example, the following DOS_DEVICE


loads the ANSI.SYS device driver into high memory in that particular

o If you wish to create diskettes from MAKEDSKF (.DSK) image files, such as
those contained on the CD-ROM version of OS/2, and you do not wish to use
the DOS and OS/2 utility LOADDSKF, you may use a workstation. For example,
on an IBM RS/6000 or Sun workstation you may use the command:

dd if=(input filename) of=/dev/rfd0 ibs=1b obs=60b conv=sync

o To reboot the machine from the command line, use:


Change the last letter (C) if you want to boot from another drive. {{ Disk
buffers will be flushed, but Workplace Shell settings will not be saved. }}

o The settings notebooks now support drag and drop operations for assigning
icons and for changing menus.

To change the icon for an object, first open the settings notebook (click on
the object with the secondary mouse button, then select Open -> Settings).
Click on the General tab. Then drag any other object to the icon located on
the General page of the settings notebook. The object's icon will change to
match. If you want to restore it to its former state, click on the Undo

To assign actions to menus, open the settings notebook, then click on the
Menu tab. Click on any of the items in the Available menus section (or
Create another). To add an Action, drag the desired program object to the
Actions on menu section.

o To quickly maximize a window, double click on its title bar. To restore
the window to its former size, double click on the title bar again.

o Select the Flowed setting (on the View page of the settings notebook) for
fastest display when opening folders.

o If you have UNDELETE enabled, but you want to delete an occasional file
without the overhead incurred by having UNDELETE capability, use the /F
parameter with the DEL command. Using this parameter (in either a DOS or
OS/2 Window) will bypass the routine which moves the file(s) to the
directory specified by the DELDIR environment variable. The file(s) is(are)
deleted faster, but you will not be able to undelete it(them). The /N
parameter will prevent prompting ("Are you sure?").

o OS/2 2.1 now includes the ability to set a power on password. However, if
you have forgotten your password, and you cannot unlock your desktop when
you turn your machine on, try the following. Start OS/2 from a diskette
boot [see (4.4) Starting OS/2 from Diskette] to get a command line prompt.
At the prompt, enter the following commands:


(assuming OS/2 is installed on Drive C; change if necessary)


o If you are using a 1024x768 display driver (such as 8514/A), but you do
not want the icons scaled up in size from 32x32 to 40x40, patch the display
driver file (e.g. \OS2\DLL\8514_32.DLL) using DEBUG or a similar utility.
Search for the hexadecimal byte sequence 28 00 28 00 20 00 20 00 and replace
the two 28 values with 20. Reboot for the change to take effect, and be
sure to keep a backup copy of the original file.

o To hide your entire desktop, single click on any icon on the desktop,
press CTRL-ESC, then press CTRL-SHIFT-ESC. To return the desktop to normal,
press CTRL-ESC then double click on Desktop.

o If you would like to have a Presentation Manager application start up
minimized, first set up a program object for it by dragging a Program
template from the Templates folder. Then, on the first page of the
notebook, enter the full path and filename of the PM program, but
deliberately misspell it. Click on the arrow in the lower right to turn the
page, then check the Start minimized checkbox. Click on the left arrow to
turn the page back, then correct the misspelling. Fill in any other
information, as desired, then close up the notebook. The program object is
now ready to start your PM application minimized.

o To get approximately 730K free in your DOS sessions, change
VIDEO_MODE_RESTRICTION in the session's settings to CGA (unless your
application requires more than CGA graphics capabilities). Note that you
may have to place the line:


in your CONFIG.SYS file to get this much free memory.

o {{ In a full screen, character mode OS/2 session it is normally impossible
to copy text from the screen to the Clipboard. To get around the problem,
try setting your printer object to hold all print jobs, press the
PrintScreen key while the full screen OS/2 session is active, return to the
printer object and double click on the print job icon for the PrintScreen,
then cut and paste from the editor. }}

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(4.4) Starting OS/2 from Diskette
(4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes

(5.11) REXX

How do I use REXX? What does it do?

REXX is built into every copy of OS/2 (where it is also known as Procedures
Language/2). It is a general purpose, interpreted programming language
which was first released on IBM mainframes over a decade ago. REXX is
extremely easy to learn and use. It is particularly strong at string
manipulation, and it has features which are difficult to implement in
compiled languages (like the ability to read its own source code or execute
a string as a command).

OS/2 applications can use REXX as a common scripting language, which means
that users need not learn separate macro or script languages for each
application. For example, the OS/2 versions of Lotus 1-2-3 and Borland
ObjectVision will interface with REXX. OS/2's multimedia extensions
(MMPM/2) contain a REXX interface, so REXX programs can play, record, and
manipulate sound and video files. And REXX can be used to create complex
batch files (with interactive prompting), since it is integrated so tightly
into OS/2's command processor. Moreover, A pair of REXX visual builders
(programming tools which help create even complex REXX applications quickly
and easily using simple, drag and drop manipulation of on screen objects),
HockWare's VisPro/REXX and Watcom's VX REXX, are now available.

For more information on OS/2's REXX interpreter, see the REXX Information
online documentation located in the Information folder. For more
information on REXX generally, consult the REXX Frequently Asked Questions
List [available from (3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources].

Here are some REXX hints and tips:

o If you wish to place program output in the REXX queue (for processing by a
REXX program), try


as an example. (In other words, pipe the program output to RXQUEUE.) To
use this program output in your REXX program, try

/* Sample */

o To execute REXX commands interactively from the command line, use the
REXXTRY command. For example:


Related information:

(0.2) Recent Developments
(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(3.6) Multimedia (MMPM/2)

(5.12) ANSI Escape Sequences

What ANSI escape sequences can be used?

ANSI escape sequences provide cursor and screen control in OS/2 character
mode sessions. By default ANSI support is turned ON (although it may be
turned off with the command ANSI OFF). ANSI support is also available in
DOS sessions if the device driver ANSI.SYS is loaded. See the online
Command Reference for details.

The following ANSI escape sequences are available:

ESC Refers to ASCII code 27 (i.e. the Escape key)
# Replace with the appropriate number
.... Replace with additional attributes, if desired

Escape Code Sequence Function
Cursor Controls
ESC[#;#H or ESC[#;#f Moves cursor to line #, column #
ESC[#A Moves cursor up # lines
ESC[#B Moves cursor down # lines
ESC[#C Moves cursor forward # spaces
ESC[#D Moves cursor back # spaces
ESC[#;#R Reports current cursor line and column
ESC[s Saves cursor position for recall later
ESC[u Return to saved cursor position
Erase Functions
ESC[2J Clear screen and home cursor
ESC[K Clear to end of line
Set Graphics Rendition
ESC[#;#;....;#m Set display attributes where # is
0 for normal display
1 bold on
4 underline (mono only)
5 blink on
7 reverse video on
8 nondisplayed (invisible)
30 black foreground
31 red foreground
32 green foreground
33 yellow foreground
34 blue foreground
35 magenta foreground
36 cyan foreground
37 white foreground
40 black background
41 red background
42 green background
43 yellow background
44 blue background
45 magenta background
46 cyan background
47 white background
ESC[=#;7h Put screen in indicated mode where # is
0 for 40x25 black and white
1 40x25 color
2 80x25 black and white
3 80x25 color
4 320x200 color graphics
5 320x200 black and white graphics
6 640x200 black and white graphics
7 to wrap at end of line
ESC[=#;7l Resets mode # set with above command
Keyboard Reassignments
ESC[#;#;....#p The first ASCII code defines what is
to be changed; the remaining codes define
what it is to be changed to; strings are
permitted. Examples:
ESC[65;81p - A becomes Q
ESC[81;65p - Q becomes A
ESC[0;68;"dir";13p - Assign the F10 key
to a DIR command.
The 0;68 portion is the extended ASCII
code for the F10 key and 13 is the ASCII
code for a carriage return.
Other function key codes: F1=59, F2=60,
F3=61, ... F10=68.

You can use ANSI escape sequences in the PROMPT environment variable to
create complex command line prompts. See the online Command Reference
(under PROMPT) for details.

For example, if you have a color monitor, try editing your CONFIG.SYS file
so that

SET PROMPT=$e[32;40m$e[1m[$P]$e[0m

to obtain a more colorful OS/2 command line prompt. (Case is significant in
the example given.) You can do the same for your DOS sessions if you edit
PROMPT in AUTOEXEC.BAT, assuming you have ANSI.SYS loaded. Note that the $i
portion of your PROMPT will enable the help line at the top of the window or
screen. It is not included in the example above.

To change the background color of your OS/2 command line sessions, modify
your CONFIG.SYS file so that this line is changed as shown:


changing the drive letter, if necessary. Then create a file named
BLUESCR.CMD which contains the following lines:


Save the file to a directory that is named in the SET PATH line of your
CONFIG.SYS file. Reboot. Then, when you start an OS/2 command line, the
background color will be different. You can change the numbers in the first
PROMPT line to obtain different colors.

If you are using JP Software's 32-bit 4OS2, and you would like the name of
the current working directory to appear in the title bar, try using the
following command:

PROMPT `%@exec[window"%_cwd"]$h[$p]`

Related information:

(5.10) Clever Tricks

(6.0) Miscellaneous

The following questions are addressed in this section:

(6.1) What can I do to promote OS/2?

(6.2) How can I create INF files?

(6.1) Promoting OS/2

What can I do to promote OS/2?

OS/2 is selling well, but there are steps you can take to assure that
hardware devices and software will be available for OS/2 in the future.
Customer requests do matter.

o Politely, firmly, and repeatedly request driver support from printer,
video adapter, and other hardware manufacturers.

o When you receive a mailing for DOS/Windows software with a postpaid
envelope, return the order form marked "Please send information on your OS/2

o Start a user group at your location. Contact Gene Barlow (phone
214-402-6456) {{ or Kathy Fanning }} at IBM or mail [email protected] for
assistance. Think about how you can publicize your user group. For
instance, most local newspapers and television stations will print/broadcast
meeting announcements for free. Your local cable television company will be
happy to broadcast a videotape of your meeting on the public access channel.

o Correspond with members of the computer trade press. Ask for reviews of
OS/2 software, hardware compatibility testing with OS/2, OS/2 benchmarking,
etc. Respond politely but forcefully to press you think unfair; praise good

o When you purchase a new system, ask the vendor to install OS/2 2.1, and to
offer credit for dropping DOS and Windows. If the vendor refuses, you may
wish to take your business elsewhere. Compaq, Everex, AST, Northgate, ALR,
Unisys, Dell, Tangent, IBM, and Ariel Design all offer systems with OS/2 2.1

o Make sure your company (or yourself) specifies OS/2 compatibility when
purchasing new products.

o Demonstrate OS/2 to friends, relatives, and associates.

o Ask your computer store to stock OS/2 software titles, have OS/2
demonstration machines, etc.

o Pass along useful OS/2 shareware and freeware to your local BBS. Be sure
to register OS/2 shareware.

o Write an outstanding piece of shareware or freeware [See (4.5) Technical
Support for details on joining DAP]. IBM has been known to recognize such
work with rewards. Also, ask authors of DOS/Windows shareware and freeware
if they would port to OS/2, or volunteer.

o Recommend products that work well under OS/2; dissuade people from
purchasing products that do not.

o Wear OS/2 pins, shirts, buttons, and other souvenirs. Contact the
Lees/Keystone OS/2 Merchandise Center (phone 914-273-6755 or FAX
914-273-9187) or the IBM OS/2 Hotline (phone 800-3-IBM-OS2) to order such

o Join Team OS/2, an international organization of volunteers who are OS/2
enthusiasts and are actively sharing their knowledge and enthusiasm with
others. These activities include supporting OS/2 user groups, running OS/2
BBSes and online conferences, demonstrating OS/2 at retail stores and other
public places, encouraging and helping others to install OS/2, answering
OS/2 questions, and much more. Membership is not limited to IBM employees.
For information on Team OS/2 events you should monitor the TEAMOS2 echomail
conference on your local FidoNet BBS. If your local BBS does not carry
TEAMOS2, ask your system operator to get it. See (4.11) OS/2 BBSes for the
names and numbers of several BBSes which carry TEAMOS2. To join Team OS/2,
send your name, address(es), and telephone number to Vicci Conway (netmail
[email protected] or FAX 407-982-1229). Include information on your
activities to date and a one line description of yourself for the public
Team OS/2 list.

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(4.5) Technical Support
(4.11) OS/2 BBSes

(6.1) Creating INF Files

How can I create INF files?

Creating INF files (like the OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions List) is
remarkably straightforward. All you need is the Information Presentation
Facility Compiler (IPFC), part of the IBM Developer's Toolkit for OS/2 2.1
(available separately as IBM Part No. 61G1416 or as part of many
development environments such as Borland C++ for OS/2), and a text editor
(like the Enhanced Editor included with OS/2).

Online IPFC documentation is included with the Toolkit, but you may also
wish to order the printed Information Presentation Facility Guide and
Reference, IBM Publication No. S10G-6262. See (4.9) Books and Magazines
for ordering instructions. Note that the Toolkit is part of the low cost
OS/2 Developer's Connection CD-ROM. See (4.5) Technical Support for

If you wish to include illustrations in your INF file you can use any
graphics software which can generate OS/2 bitmaps and/or metafiles. (For
example, you may create your illustration in PM Chart, paste the
illustration into Picture Viewer, then save the illustration as a metafile.
Both PM Chart and Picture Viewer are included with OS/2 2.1.) A screen
capture utility [like PM Camera or Galleria, available from (3.2) Shareware
and Freeware Sources] can also prove useful.

Related information:

(3.2) Shareware and Freeware Sources
(4.5) Technical Support
(4.9) Books and Magazines

(7.0) Glossary

{{ The following terms are often used in conjunction with OS/2:

Term Definition

APAR A bug fix which has been (or will be) created by IBM to
address a very specific problem.
(Example: "Please send me APAR 09761.")

CID "Configuration/Installation/Distribution": a term
usually used to refer to the ability to install an
operating system or application remotely, over a
network. (Example: "IBM TCP/IP 2.0 for OS/2
is now CID-enabled.") See (4.2) Installing from Drive

CSD "Corrective Service Diskette(s)": see (4.6) Corrective
Service Diskettes.

DASD "Direct Access Storage Device": disk space (most
commonly a hard disk drive). (Example: "I do
not have enough DASD for this new application.")

DMA "Direct Memory Access": circuitry provided on all PCs
to allow peripherals (such as disk controllers) to
transfer data to memory directly, without the assistance
of the computer's processor. Appropriate use of DMA can
often help to improve overall system performance.

EA "Extended Attribute": up to 64K of assorted data stored
with any file under OS/2. Such data may include file
type (e.g. "Plain Text"), icons, comments, and other
information which is best left outside the file itself.
Only OS/2 applications can create and modify extended

ES "Extended Services": see (3.9) Extended Services.

FAT "File Allocation Table": the disk format introduced by

GA "General Availability": available for purchase as a
shrinkwrapped product from IBM and its dealers.

HPFS "High Performance File System": see (1.5) High
Performance File System.

IPL "Initial Program Load": starting a PC's operating system
(i.e. booting or rebooting). (Example: "Please IPL
your system now.") See also RIPL.

LA "Limited Availability": available only from IBM to
certain customers.

multitasking Running two or more applications "simultaneously,"
dividing the computer processor's attention among them.
(In fact, the two or more applications only appear to
run simultaneously because the processor switches
between them rapidly.) Cooperative multitasking, such
as that found in Microsoft Windows and Macintosh System
7, requires that each application be written so as to
"surrender" the computer's processor at regular
intervals so that it can devote attention to other
running applications. If one application for some
reason refuses to yield the processor, all other
applications stop running. Preemptive multitasking, as
found in OS/2 and Unix, for example, leaves the
operating system in charge of delegating processor time
to each running application. The amount of attention
given depends the operating system's scheduler, the
logic which assesses (and perhaps adjusts) the
priorities of various tasks and assigns processor
attention accordingly.

multithreading An operating system's ability to manage what are
sometimes called lightweight processes, namely subtasks
which are spawned by applications. For example, a word
processor may be written so that any printing operation
is put in a separate thread. This thread is then run
alongside the word processor itself, in the background,
so that control returns immediately to the user of the
word processor. See multitasking.

PM "Presentation Manager": the underlying services used by
programmers and the Workplace Shell (see WPS) to provide
windows, scroll bars, dialog boxes, and other essential
interface elements.

PMR "Problem Management Record": a number assigned by IBM
to track a customer-reported problem. (Example: "I have
opened PMR Number 9X534; please reference this number if
you call again.")

RIPL "Remote Initial Program Load": the capability to boot
(start) a PC (load its operating system) over a network.
See IPL.

seamless Refers to the ability to run Windows applications
alongside OS/2 and DOS applications on the Workplace
Shell (see WPS) desktop as opposed to the full screen
Win-OS/2 desktop. (Example: "Will this video driver
support seamless Windows?")

SMP "Symmetric Multiprocessing": a set of technologies in
which two or more computer processors (CPUs) are managed
by one operating system to provide greater computing
power to applications. With SMP, processors are treated
more or less equally (with applications able to run on
any or perhaps all processors in the system,
interchangeably, at the operating system's discretion).
Simple MP usually involves assigning each processor to a
fixed task (such as managing the file system), reserving
the single main CPU for general tasks. OS/2 currently
supports so-called HMP (Hybrid Multiprocessing), a
version of MP which provides some elements of SMP, using
add-on IBM software called MP/2. OS/2 SMP is slated for
release in late 1993.

SP "Service Pak": see CSD. Sometimes numbered (e.g. "SP
2") to refer to a particular Service Pak.

Win-OS/2 IBM's customized version of Windows, based on
Microsoft's own source code, which provides
compatibility with Windows applications under OS/2.

WPS "Workplace Shell": OS/2's most commonly used user
interface which provides icons, folders, drag-and-drop
configuration, settings notebooks, and other features
necessary for user interaction with the operating system
and its applications.

Related information:

(1.5) High Performance File System (HPFS)
(3.9) Extended Services
(4.2) Installing from Drive B
(4.6) Corrective Service Diskettes

 December 30, 2017  Add comments

Leave a Reply