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********************************************************
********************************************************

Professional Development Series
Bullets

January 1992
Volume 4, Number 1

********************************************************
********************************************************


********************************************************
********************************************************
Mad's Column
********************************************************
********************************************************

Hello and welcome to the January 1992 issue of Bullets!

You have seen it in writing, you have heard the name, and
you may have even spoken the words: "1-800-SAY-HELP," the
phone number for Novell's Developer Support Hotline.
After some discussion, Novell's technical support site
managers have decided to channel all technical support
calls through a common telephone number, 1-800-NETWARE.
This single number will serve as a clearinghouse for
information on all of Novell's products and services.

What does this mean for you as a developer? A faster
response. 1-800-NETWARE has more incoming lines and more
operators to register your calls. Using one common
telephone number also makes it easier for the individual
Novell support sites to transfer calls between product
lines.

While the old number was fun (and I personally got a few
laughs with it at Novell's Professional Developers'
Forumssm over the years), it is time for one common
Novell support phone number.

In the very near future, 1-800-SAY-HELP will be
disconnected. We hope you have never needed to call for
support, but we always want you to have the current
number to reach us in case you do 1-800-NETWARE!

Happy_Programming!

Mad Poarch

Director
Developer Support/Service

********************************************************
********************************************************
ARTICLES:
Writing NLMs that Call Btrieve
********************************************************
********************************************************

Server-based applications are becoming more and more
widely-used as developers become aware of the benefits of
client-server architecture. Two advantages of running
server-based applications are reduced network traffic and
increased availability of memory at the individual
clients.

This article discusses the procedures involved in
creating server-based Btrieve applications, called
NetWare Loadable Modules (NLMs), for the NetWare 3.x
environment, and discusses some possible problems and
solutions. When any reference to a specific NLM is made,
the ".NLM" extension is used. "Btrieve" refers to the
product as a whole, and not any individual component of
it (such as BTRIEVE.NLM).


Two Types of NLM Requests

Generally, two types of requests are used in server-based
applications. Usually when an application requests that
an operation be performed on a particular file, the
application is running on the server where the file
physically resides. This type of request is called a
local request. Sometimes, an application that is running
on one server will request that some action be taken on
a file residing on another server. This type of request
is called a remote request.

When your NLM issues a local Btrieve request, if
BROUTER.NLM is loaded at the server, the request is
passed to BTRIEVE.NLM via BROUTER.NLM. If BROUTER.NLM is
not loaded, the request goes directly to BTRIEVE.NLM. The
request is processed at the server and the result is
returned to your NLM's workspace. The result is returned
via BROUTER.NLM if it is loaded or directly if
BROUTER.NLM is not loaded.

When a server-based Btrieve application (your NLM) makes
a remote request, BROUTER.NLM must be loaded at the
server on which the request originates. First, your NLM
issues a Btrieve request. The request is trapped by
BROUTER.NLM at your server and sent to BSPXCOM.NLM on the
remote server. BSPXCOM.NLM then relays the request to the
BTRIEVE.NLM on the remote server. Next, the request is
processed at the remote server. Finally, the result is
returned to your NLM's workspace via BSPXCOM.NLM on the
remote server and BROUTER.NLM on the local server.


Single- and Multiple-Client NLMs

Client-server Btrieve applications can be classified into
two categories:

* NLMs that manage calls for a single client, and
* NLMs that manage calls for multiple clients.

The proper method for interfacing with Btrieve depends on
the category of your NLM. If the NLM manages calls for a
single client, the function call is identical to the
Btrieve call used in client applications. If the NLM
simultaneously manages calls for multiple clients, an
additional parameter is required and the NLM uses a
different function call to communicate with BTRIEVE.NLM.
In either case, the functions called are actually symbols
exported by BTRIEVE.NLM. These symbols are accessible by
the NetWare 3.x dynamic link mechanism and can be
imported into your NLM. When you create an NLM to manage
calls for a single client, you should use the btrv() API.
The prototype for this API is shown in Figure 1.

********************************************************
Figure 1: Prototype for the btrv() API

#define WORD unsigned short integer

extern WORD btrv ( WORD operation_code,
void *position_block,
void *data_buffer,
WORD *data_buffer_length,
void *key_buffer,
short key_number
);

{end of Figure 1}
********************************************************

When you create an NLM to simultaneously manage calls for
multiple clients, you will use the btrvID() API which has
an additional parameter, Client_ID. This parameter
contains the unique identification for each client.. The
prototype for the btrvID() API is shown in Figure 2.

********************************************************
Figure 2: Prototype for the btrvID() API

#define WORD unsigned short integer

typedef struct {
char addr[12];
char NLMid[2];
char id[2];
} B_USER;

extern WORD btrvID ( WORD operation_code,
void *position_block,
void *data_buffer,
WORD *data_buffer_length,
void *key_buffer,
short key_number,
B_USER *Client_ID
);

{end of Figure 2}
********************************************************

The Client_ID Parameter

Btrieve reserves the first 12 bytes of the Client_ID
parameter for use in network node identification (the
server's internet address). This portion enables Btrieve
to distinguish the client (the server on which the
request originated) from other clients (other servers) on
the network. The last four bytes are to be used by your
NLM to identify itself and its client within the node.

Of the last four bytes of Client_ID, the first two bytes
should contain a unique two character ASCII identifier
that Btrieve can use to distinguish your NLM. This code
will appear in the menus of utilities provided with
NetWare which monitor network activity. For example,
NetWare SQL, Novell's relational data access system, uses
"NS" to identify itself. Your NLM's two-character
identifier must have a value greater than or equal to
4141h (ASCII equivalent "AA").

Your NLM should fill the last two bytes of Client_ID with
a unique identifier that distinguishes one client from
another. This unique identifier is required to establish
concurrency and for transaction processing purposes.

The first time a request is made by a specific client,
the first 12 bytes of Client_ID should be set to binary
zero. Btrieve will recognize this as a new client and
assign a network node identifier before processing the
request. Subsequent calls for this client should pass
these 12 bytes unchanged to maintain the client's
identity.

When creating a multiple-client NLM, carefully decide
what value you will assign to the last four bytes of the
Client_ID parameter. The first two bytes can be anything
meaningful, and can be reserved by calling Novell Austin.
Using a unique ID that is registered with Novell Austin
ensures no two NLMs will use the same identifier.

Setting the last two bytes of Client_ID to the connection
ID for the connection between the client and the server
ensures the uniqueness of each Client_ID parameter.
However, using the connection ID can cause other
problems. Btrieve establishes a session whenever a unique
ID is passed in the last two bytes of Client_ID. If the
current connection is reset and a new connection is
established, the new connection ID may be different from
the original. If so, a new Btrieve session will be
established, causing a status 96 (Communications
Environment Error) to be returned to the application by
Btrieve.

Suppose that BSPXCOM.NLM is loaded with the "s" parameter
set to 15. The maximum number of concurrent Btrieve SPX
sessions allowed is now 15. Also, the maximum number of
Btrieve sessions allowed is 30, since Btrieve determines
the (default) maximum number of sessions to be twice the
maximum number of concurrent sessions. After 30 connects
and disconnects, a status 96 (Communications Environment
Error) is returned. Btrieve thinks there are 30 active
sessions. The current documentation for status 96 states
that SPX should be reloaded. In fact, you have two
options:

* For a temporary solution, unload Btrieve and reload
it with a higher value for the BSPXCOM.NLM "s"
parameter.

* For a more permanent solution, instruct your NLM to
perform a Btrieve Reset (28) operation before
terminating. This operation resets all the resources
for the current client and also resets the Btrieve
session. All NLMs communicating with BTRIEVE.NLM,
should perform this Reset operation. (Manuals
discussing creating server-based Btrieve
applications are currently being updated to include
this procedure.)

With single-client NLMs, a unique identity based on the
client identification number is generated for the NLM.
Since there is only one client, the status 96 situation
will not occur.

If you are using NetWare Btrieve (NLM) v5.10a (which
shipped with NetWare v3.10a) and creating a
multiple-client application, you may notice however that
the first 12 bytes of Client_ID are not filled by
BTRIEVE.NLM. In this version of Btrieve, BROUTER.NLM
assigns a value to these 12 bytes. However, if
BROUTER.NLM is not loaded, then Btrieve will be unable to
communicate with Btrieve at another server.

In NetWare Btrieve v5.15 (for NetWare v3.11), both
BTRIEVE.NLM and BROUTER.NLM can assign a value to the
first 12 bytes of Client_ID. If BROUTER.NLM is not
loaded, the 12 bytes will still be assigned a value, but
again, the application will not be able to communicate
with Btrieve at another server (because BROUTER.NLM is
not loaded).


A Sample NLM

The code example in Figure 3 is a utility NLM that
creates a file called "HOME.BTR" in the \TEMP
subdirectory off the root level of the SYS volume. (The
\TEMP subdirectory must exist for the code to work.) It
should be possible to port a client-based application to
the server-based environment, but there could be a few
subtleties involved. For example, in 16-bit architecture,
when creating applications in C language, integers (int)
are usually two bytes. If you try to port an application
that uses integers to run as a server-based application
with 32-bit architecture, you can receive Btrieve errors,
depending on the circumstances, because, in this
environment, integers are four bytes. If you require
integers to be two bytes, then your application should
declare them as short integers (short int).

********************************************************
Figure 3: A Sample NLM

/* This utility NLM illustrates how to make Btrieve */
/* calls. It creates a file called "home.btr" in */
/* the "\temp" subdirectory off the root level of */
/* SYS volume. For NetWare 3.x environment only. */

#include
#include
#include
#include

typedef unsigned short WORD;

WORD Status;
WORD Op_Code;
char Position_Block[128];
WORD Data_Buffer_Length;
char Key_Buffer[500];
short Key_Number;

extern WORD btrv (WORD, void *, void *,
WORD *, void *, short);

#define B_Create 14
#define BZSTRING 11
#define NO_FILE_FLAGS 0
#define DUPLICATES 1
#define MODIFIABLE 2
#define SEGMENTED 16
#define EXTENDED_TYPE 256

struct Key_Spec_Type
{
WORD Key_Position;
WORD Key_Length;
WORD Key_Flags;
char Not_Used[4];
char Extended_Key_Type;
char Null_Value;
char Reserved[4];
};

struct File_Spec_Type
{
WORD Fixed_Record_Length;
WORD Page_Size;
WORD Number_Of_Indexes;
char Not_Used[4];
WORD File_Flags;
char Reserved_Word[2];
WORD Allocation;
struct Key_Spec_Type Key_Specs[3];
};

struct File_Spec_Type File_Specs;

struct Record_Type
{
char Name_Of_Apartments[25];
char Street_Address[25];
char City[15];
char State[2];
char ZIP[5];
char Phone1[12];
char Phone2[12];
char Contact_Person[25];
float Price1;
short Area1;
char Rooms1[6];
float Price2;
short Area2;
char Rooms2[6];
} Data_Buffer;

struct Entered_Data_Type
{
char Name_Of_Apartments[26];
char Street_Address[26];
char City[16];
char State[3];
char ZIP[6];
char Phone1[13];
char Phone2[13];
char Contact_Person[26];
float Price1;
short Area1;
char Rooms1[7];
float Price2;
short Area2;
char Rooms2[7];
};
main ()
{
create_file ();
}

create_file ()
{
WORD i;

File_Specs.Fixed_Record_Length = 145;
File_Specs.Page_Size = 4096;
File_Specs.Number_Of_Indexes = 2;
File_Specs.File_Flags = 0;
File_Specs.Allocation = 0;

File_Specs.Key_Specs[0].Key_Position = 1;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[0].Key_Length = 25;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[0].Key_Flags =
MODIFIABLE + EXTENDED_TYPE;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[0].Extended_Key_Type = BZSTRING;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[0].Null_Value = 0;

File_Specs.Key_Specs[1].Key_Position = 68;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[1].Key_Length = 5;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[1].Key_Flags =
DUPLICATES + MODIFIABLE + SEGMENTED + EXTENDED_TYPE;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[1].Extended_Key_Type = BZSTRING;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[1].Null_Value = 0;

File_Specs.Key_Specs[2].Key_Position = 1;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[2].Key_Length = 25;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[2].Key_Flags =
DUPLICATES + MODIFIABLE + EXTENDED_TYPE;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[2].Extended_Key_Type = BZSTRING;
File_Specs.Key_Specs[2].Null_Value = 0;

Data_Buffer_Length = sizeof(File_Specs);
strcpy (Key_Buffer, "sys:temp\\home.btr ");
Key_Number = 0;
Op_Code = B_Create;
Status = btrv(Op_Code, Position_Block, &File_Specs,
&Data_Buffer_Length, Key_Buffer, Key_Number);

if (Status != 0)
printf ("Error creating file. Status = %d\n",
Status);
else
printf ("Successful CREATE operation\n");

printf ("\n");
}

{end of Figure 3}
********************************************************

For more information on writing NLMs that call Btrieve,
consult the documentation provided with the Network C for
NLMs SDK or the NetWare Btrieve (NLM) Installation and
Operation Manual.



********************************************************
********************************************************
TECHNICAL INSIGHTS:
Documentation Update
[Network C for NLMs v2.0b]
********************************************************
********************************************************

The documentation for the Network C for NLMs SDK
incorrectly states that the trusteePathName returned by
the ScanBinderyObjectTrusteePaths API will contain a
maximum of 255 bytes. Up to 318 bytes are actually
returned by this API, which is used to identify the file
server name, volume name, and full path. The character
array for the trusteePathName should always be defined as
318 bytes to prevent overwriting data past byte 256 and
possibly causing server abends and hangs.


********************************************************
********************************************************
TECHNICAL INSIGHTS:
Btrieve, TTS & Large Environments
[NetWare Btrieve (NLM) v5.15]
********************************************************
********************************************************

In very large environments, Btrieve may respond slowly
due to cache buffer/TTS conflicts. Customer sites that
have reported this situation had Btrieve files flagged as
"transactional" and were running very fast servers with
large drives. For example, one of the sites was running
an EISA-based server. Another site was running a server
using a microchannel bus with fast network interface
cards installed. In each case, the operatiing system's
dirty cache was filling up. The term "dirty cache" refers
to cache buffers whose information has been changed and
needs to be written out to disk.

When dirty cache fills up, the cache is flushed, but
during the write to disk, no transactions may take place,
the Btrieve application is halted, and network
communications can slow down. Cache buffers can fill up
if the server is overloaded with TTS requests submitted
by a large number of Btrieve NLM threads.

Btrieve may exhibit erratic behavior when the TTS
back-out file, the file used by NetWare TTS to track
updates to transactional files, grows large enough to
fill the SYS volume. This situation occurs when the
server is busy processing TTS requests and does not
truncate the TTS back-out file. The default maximum
truncation wait time is 59 minutes and 19.2 seconds. This
can be too long in some environments. If a server is
busy, it will wait the default period before truncating
the back-out file. If a large number of transactions from
multiple stations take place and the SYS volume is small,
the back-out file grows until it exhausts all available
space. At this time, Btrieve may return a status 14
(Pre-image Open Error) for each file in the transaction.

The system disk block size defined when the volum e is
created during the INSTALL (rather than the record size)
contributes to the size of the TTS back-out file. TTS
writes to the back-out file on a block-by-block basis.
For example, consider a system using 16k disk block sizes
and records of 20 to 120 bytes in length. Each write to
these records will consume 16k of the TTS back-out file.
To avoid these situations:

* Use the console "Set TTS Back-out File Truncation
Time" command to lower the maximum truncation wait
time,

* Use a smaller NetWare disk block size or

* Use Btrieve's pre-imaging instead of TTS.


********************************************************
********************************************************
TECHNICAL INSIGHTS:
NetWire Update
********************************************************
********************************************************

Novell's NetWire forum on CompuServe will undergo some
changes this January as Novell reorganizes its libraries.
In the past, users were required to search two separate
libraries to find a file. These areas were in forum NOVA
and NDD. In January, all library files will be moved to
a new library called NOVLIB. The new NOVLIB forum will be
the only library area and it will be used exclusively for
library purposes. The one message section in this forum
will be reserved for library-related questions only. New
uploads will reside in Data Library 1 for 30 days. After
30 days, files will be moved to their respective
locations. Figure 4 shows the layout of the new NOVLIB
forum.

********************************************************
Figure 4: New NOVLIB Forum Layout

|======================|===============================|
| NOVLIB MESSAGES | CONTENTS |
|======================|===============================|
| 1) Library questions | Customer message area for |
| ONLY! | questions on files |
|======================|===============================|

|======================|===============================|
| NOVLIB LIBRARIES | CONTENTS |
|======================|===============================|
| 1) Novell new uploads| Files uploaded by Novell Inc. |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
| 2) General Novell | General info, Education, |
| Information | Press releases |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
| 3) NetWare 2.x | Files pertaining to |
| Specific Info | NetWare 2.x |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
| 4) NetWare 3.x | Files pertaining to |
| Specific Info | NetWare 3.x |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
| 5) Client/Shell | Workstation shells, drivers, |
| Drivers | Windows files, etc. |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
| 6) NetWare | Utilities that pertain to |
| Utilities | NetWare 2.x and 3.x |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
| 7) Btrieve/Xtrieve/ | Development Division Products |
| NetWare SQL/XQL | Btrieve, Xtrieve PLUS, XQL |
| | and NetWare SQL |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
| 8) Macintosh/UNIX | Files for Macintosh, UNIX |
| LANalyzer | and LANalyzer |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
| | |
| 9) Communications | Novell's Communications |
| Products | Products Division |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
|10) NetWare Lite | NetWare Lite-specific files |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
|11) TechInfo, IMSPs | Technical Bulletins, FYIs, |
| | IMSPs, Application Notes |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
|12) CLOSED | |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
|13) Other Patches | Third-party patches and |
| | drivers |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
|14) Independent | Third-party code examples |
| Development | including NTJ code |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
|15) Shareware/Demo | Shareware and Demo files |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
|16) Public Domain | Public domain software |
| and Text | and message threads |
|----------------------|-------------------------------|
|17) Other New Uploads | Third-party new uploads |
|======================|===============================|

{end of Figure 4}
********************************************************


********************************************************
********************************************************
TECHNICAL INSIGHTS:
GetDiskUtilization API
[NetWare C Interface for DOS v1.2]
********************************************************
********************************************************

With NetWare 3.x, the GetDiskUtilization API returns an
incorrect "usedblocks" value. To prevent this, perform a
WORD swap on the LONG value that is returned, as shown
below:

usedblocks = (usedblocks >> 16) | (usedblocks << 16);


********************************************************
********************************************************
TECHNICAL INSIGHTS:
Brequest & VIPX.386
[NetWare Btrieve (NLM) v5.1x]
********************************************************
********************************************************

In Windows 3.0 enhanced mode using versions of VIPX
before v1.1, Brequest can hang in a DOS box. If you use
the new version, VIPX.386 v1.1, with IPX.COM v3.10,
Brequest will function properly in a Windows DOS box.
VIPX.386 and IPX.COM v3.10 are available on NetWire in
NOVLIB, Data Library 5.

To use VIPX.386, first generate a new IPX. Then, modify
the SYSTEM.INI file under the heading, [386enh], by
adding "VIPX.386" as follows:

[386enh]
network=vnetware.386,vipx.386

With this modification, the driver will load when Windows
3.0 loads.


********************************************************
********************************************************
TECHNICAL INSIGHTS:
PATCH311, sopen() & Binary Mode
[Network C for NLMs v2.0b]
********************************************************
********************************************************

If PATCH311.NLM is loaded on your file server, files are
opened in binary mode, even if you specify a different
mode. The O_BINARY flag is hard coded in the underlying
CLib open API.

When calling a function like sopen(), if you pass the
O_TEXT flag, it will be ignored because the O_BINARY is
set for you automatically. If you use the same file
handle that you received from sopen() and pass it to
fdopen(), specify that the file be opened in binary mode.
Otherwise, fdopen() will try to open the file in TEXT
mode, in conflict with the mode in which the file was
originally opened.

Currently, you cannot use fdopen() to open a file
descriptor in TEXT mode. If you want to open files in
TEXT mode, use "fopen("file","r+t")" instead.


********************************************************
********************************************************
TECHNICAL INSIGHTS:
Xtrieve PLUS & Lotus 1-2-3
[Xtrieve PLUS v4.10]
********************************************************
********************************************************

If you attempt to import dates into Lotus 1-2-3 using a
file created by Xtrieve PLUS v4.10 with the "Translate to
DIF" option, the dates will be off by one. This situation
occurs because Xtrieve PLUS considers the date 01/01/1900
as "day zero," whereas Lotus 1-2-3 considers the same
date as "day one." Use a formula to subtract one from the
date in Lotus 1-2-3 to convert the date properly.


********************************************************
********************************************************
TECHNICAL INSIGHTS:
DOS Shell v3.22a Update
[NetWare System Calls for DOS v1.2]
********************************************************
********************************************************

The DOS shell v3.22a contains an error that allows more
than twenty file handles to be inherited by a child
process. DOS restricts child processes to inheriting only
twenty files. If a child process inherits more than
twenty file handles, the DOS file handle table can be
corrupted. File handles inherited by a child process may
not be closed when the parent process eventually closes
them, but no error will be returned.

Do not increase the size of the file handle table when
spawning a child process. The next version of the shell
will correct this situation.


********************************************************
********************************************************
TECHNICAL INSIGHTS:
ARTIC Board/Port Problems
[Network C for NLMs v2.0b]
********************************************************
********************************************************

At present, there are two ways to place an ARTIC board in
a state where it cannot be reloaded until the PC is
powered off and on, thus resetting the ARTIC board
hardware.

Incorrect Memory Addresses

The default MEM= value for the 8KB memory window
used by the AIOARTIC driver to access the ARTIC
board is set to C0000. This memory address is
acceptable for PS/2s, but often incompatible with
other kinds of PCs. On many PCs, this address is the
location of the EGA or VGA BIOS ROM code. Reusing
these addresses can cause conflicts with the
hardware on the ARTIC board.

If you load AIOARTIC.NLM with no parameters or use
the MEM=C0000 parameter value, the ARTIC board can
lock up. Further attempts to load AIOARTIC.NLM with
correct parameters may not succeed.

To remedy this situation, find out which memory
address ranges in high memory are free for use by
new hardware. Use a utility like Manifest (from
QuarterDeck) to locate the "holes" in high
addresses. You must supply the correct addresses in
the MEM= parameters.

Parity and Framing Errors

An ARTIC port or board can also be disabled after
receiving an input character which has a parity
error or framing error. Problems with ports and
boards can also be caused by simply changing data
rates while input characters are being received. At
the very least, the port becomes unusable, and about
50% of the time the whole board locks up. This
condition persists until the PC is powered off and
then rebooted, completely resetting and reloading
the code for the ARTIC board itself.

To correct these situations and prevent errors,
change the A745th byte of AIOARTIC.NLM from EE to EA
(DEBUG offsets have 100 hex added to them). The
temporary patch shown Figure 5 can be applied using
DEBUG. Apply the patch only to AIOARTIC.NLM v1.01
(dated 9/18/91).

********************************************************
Figure 5: Patch for AIOARTIC.NLM v1.01 (dated 9/18/91)

DEBUG AIOARTIC.NLM must be version dated 9/18/91
eA845 should display the byte value EE
EA type in EA, then hit enter
w write the modified file
q DEBUG

{end of Figure 5}
********************************************************


********************************************************
********************************************************
TECHNICAL INSIGHTS:
Btrieve Extended Operations
[Btrieve for DOS v5.10,
NetWare Btrieve (NLM, VAP) v5.15]
********************************************************
********************************************************

When using extended operations, Btrieve returns a status
62 (Invalid Descriptor) after the first extended
operation performs successfully. Since the descriptor
information is stored as a union in C or a redefinition
in COBOL, this data gets overwritten by the output data
buffer when the first extended call is issued. Therefore,
you must update the descriptor information before each
extended operation.


********************************************************
********************************************************
NIBBLES & BITS
Fast Answers to Common Questions
********************************************************
********************************************************

General Questions

Tip: When loading the server operating system, you can
avoid loading the AUTOEXEC.NCF file by using the
"SERVER NA" option. This procedure can save you a
lot of time and trouble if your AUTOEXEC.NCF file is
damaged in some way.

********************************************************

Btrieve

Q: Should I flag my Btrieve files as "sharable" to
NetWare?

A: No. Doing so disables Btrieve's ability to detect
when other applications (including backup packages
and different versions of Btrieve used to access the
same data file simultaneously) are accessing Btrieve
files, and it can result in file corruption.

Q: Does Btrieve for Windows work with Windows 3.1?

A: Yes, in all modes except REAL.

********************************************************

NetWare SQL/XQL

Q: What embedded SQL preprocessor should I use if I am
writing an application with Microsoft C or Turbo C?

A: WCSQLPP.EXE is the preprocessor provided by WATCOM
and shipped with XQL for DOS v2.11 that can be used
to preprocess Microsoft C or Turbo C applications
containing embedded SQL statements. Separate
libraries for each compiler are also provided with
XQL. These libraries must be linked in when
compiling the preprocessed code

********************************************************

Xtrieve PLUS

Q: What is the difference between the "Finished - Don't
Create" option and the "Finished - Create" option
when I am defining or reorganizing the dictionary
definitions in Xtrieve PLUS?

A: Both options store your dictionary definitions.
"Finished - Create" will make a new Btrieve file in
the specified location which matches the specified
fields and indexes. The new Btrieve file will also
overwrite any existing data file. "Finished - Don't
Create" will not create a new file or overwrite an
existing file.

********************************************************

Communications Tools

Q: What is involved in converting a standalone
communications package to using NASI?

A: NASI is a TSR run at the workstation where the
communications program is running. NASI is not a
redirector that is, will not trap calls targeted
for a COM port and redirect them to a modem pool.
The application to be converted must be rewritten to
use function calls which are interpreted by the NASI
TSR.

********************************************************

Network C for NLMs v2.x

Q: From an NLM, how can I tell if a particular module
is loaded on the server?

A: Use the function, FindNLMHandle() (provided with
v2.0a and greater). If the function returns a
non-zero value, the module is loaded; otherwise, the
module is not loaded.

********************************************************

NetWare System Calls for DOS

Q: Why do the Save/Restore Directory Handle APIs return
0xFB on a NetWare 3.x server?

A: The Save and Restore Directory Handle APIs are not
supported in NetWare 3.x. The NetWare C Interface
documents this fact, but it is undocumented in the
NetWare System Calls for DOS manual. Developers
using the Save/Restore Directory Handle APIs to
"remember" drive mappings on a given workstation
must remember the entire path in order to have both
a NetWare 2.x and 3.x solution.

Q: Is it necessary to pack structures used in the
NetWare C Interface for DOS and the NetWare System
Calls for DOS API functions?

A: Yes. When data is returned from function calls, the
data is written from the starting address of the
structure in contiguous bytes. If you do not pack
structures, the optimizing compiler may add
additional bytes to the structure to align variables
on even word boundaries which would misrepresent the
data being returned.

Q: How do I obtain the file server serial number with
an API call?

A: See Figure 6.

********************************************************
Figure 6: Server Serial Number API

ON ENTRY:

Register Content
AH E3h
DS:SI Request Buffer Address
ES:DI Reply Buffer Address

ON RETURN:

Register Content
AL Completion Code

REQUEST BUFFER:
|==========|============|============|============|
| Offset | Content | Type | Order |
|==========|============|============|============|
| 0 | 1 | WORD | lo-hi |
|----------|------------|------------|------------|
| 2 | 12h | BYTE | |
|----------|------------|------------|------------|

REPLY BUFFER:
|==========|============|============|============|
| Offset | Content | Type | Order |
|==========|============|============|============|
| 0 | 6 | WORD | lo-hi |
|----------|------------|------------|------------|
| 2 | serial no. | BCD[4] | |
|----------|------------|------------|------------|
| 6 | appl. no. | BCD[2] | |
|----------|------------|------------|------------|

{end of Figure 6}
********************************************************


********************************************************
********************************************************
PATCH LISTINGS:
Btrieve v5.10 Patches
********************************************************
********************************************************

Patches can be downloaded from NetWire, or obtained from
the Developer Support Group at no charge. (See
"Contacting Novell Austin" at the end of this issue). For
a description of patches 1 through 110, refer to earlier
issues of Bullets.

111. Btrieve (DOS, Windows, OS/2, VAP)
During insertion and update operations, this patch
prevents unnecessary key pages being recorded in the
.PRE file.

112. Btrieve (DOS, Windows, OS/2, VAP)
This patch prevents file corruption on files opened
in accelerated mode that return status 5s (Duplicate
Key Value) during an update operation. Damaged files
may not display obvious symptoms of the corruption.
(In the reported case, a key was lost from the
B-tree.)

113. Btrieve (DOS, Windows, OS/2, VAP)
The patch corrects the following problems with the
Get Direct operation:

* Performing a Get Direct operation after deletion of
the record by another application returns a status
2 (I/O Error) instead of a status 8 (Lost Position).

* If a file contains records with duplicate values, a
Get Next operation performed after a Get Direct
returns a status 9 (End of File) instead of the next
record.

* The status codes returned by a Get Direct operation
following a Delete operation are inconsistent

* In certain cases, after deletion of the last record,
Get Direct operations do not return a status code on
the record just deleted.

114. Btrieve (DOS, Windows)
When performing an End Transaction operation with
logging enabled, sometimes an open Btrieve file may
open again and remain open after the application
terminates. This patch ensures that the file is
closed properly.


********************************************************
********************************************************
PATCH LISTINGS:
NetWare Btrieve (VAP, NLM) v5.15 Patches
********************************************************
********************************************************

Patches can be downloaded from NetWire, or obtained from
the Developer Support Group at no charge. (See
"Contacting Novell Austin" at the end of this issue). For
a description of patches 1 through 36, refer to earlier
issues of Bullets.

37. (BTRIEVE.NLM v5.15)
When an extended Get operation following a key-only
operation returns a status 9 (End of File), the data
buffer may be unchanged or contain garbage. This
patch completes the handling of extended operations
after key-only operations.

38. (BREQUEST.EXE v5.16, BROUTER.NLM v5.15)
When you perform an Insert operation when the data
buffer is big enough to contain the fixed-portion of
the record but too small for the whole record, a
status 22 (Data Buffer Length) is returned and the
record is not inserted. However, the key buffer may
be incorrectly altered. This patch ensures that the
key buffer is not altered during unsuccessful
Insert, Insert Extended, and Update operations.

39. (BTRIEVE.NLM v5.15)
When a large (32+K) pre-image file is produced, as
in a large transaction, a value greater than 32k may
be erroneously treated as "signed" and is
sign-extended with FFs. This is later interpreted as
an extremely large unsigned value when it is passed
to the operating system, causing a GPI. This patch
ensures that conversions are performed without
sign-extension.

40. Not yet ready for release.

41. (BTRIEVE.NLM v5.15)
This patch causes a status 19 (Unrecoverable Error)
to be returned when Btrieve attempts to read or
update a corrupted file.

42. (BTRIEVE.NLM v5.15)
This patch ensures that the correct position is
reached when performing a Get Next (6) or Get
Previous (7) operation following a Delete (4)
operation on a file which contains a supplemental
index with duplicates values.

43. (BTRIEVE.NLM v5.15)
If a Btrieve transaction file exists at the time
BTRIEVE.NLM is loaded and is not flagged
transactional, when the NLM is unloaded, BTRIEVE.TRN
will not be erased. This patch ensures that the
transaction file is always erased when BTRIEVE.NLM
is unloaded.

44. Not yet ready for release.

45. (BTRIEVE.NLM v5.15)
See Btrieve v5.10 Patches, #112.

46. (BTRIEVE.NLM v5.15)
See Btrieve v5.10 Patches, #113.


********************************************************
********************************************************
PATCH LISTINGS:
NetWare SQL/XQL v2.11 Patches
********************************************************
********************************************************

Patches can be downloaded from NetWire, or obtained from
the Developer Support Group at no charge. (See
"Contacting Novell Austin" at the end of this issue). For
a description of patches 1 through 59, refer to earlier
issues of Bullets.

60. XQLUTIL (DOS)
This patch ensures that the buffer length is correct
for a call to XQLMask. Without this patch, XQLUtil
may return an incorrect status on the load or copy
options when fields are defined to the view which
use a default mask.

61. XQL (OS/2)
This patch prevents segmentation violations
occurring on an xInsert call when the file name is
20 characters in length.

62. NWSQL (NLM)
This patch will return a status 228 for xInsert
operations with a data length that is less than
zero.

63. NWSQL (NLM)
This patch will return a status 228 for xUpdate
operations with a data length that is less than
zero.

64. XQL (DOS) NWSQL (NLM)
If a restriction on a view is in the format:

"field = 'value' OR field = 'value' OR..."

when "field" is an index on the base file and no
sort is defined, then the xFetch/XQLFetch CURRENT
operation will skip the current record and return
the next record which meets the restriction. This
patch ensures that the current record is returned if
it meets the restriction.

65. NWSQL (NLM)
This patch prevents situations that can cause the
server to abend on an UPDATE statement.
66. NWSQL (NLM, VAP), XQL (DOS, OS/2)
This patch prevents server abends when the following
sequence occurs:

1) Tables are defined,

2) A view is created on the tables,

3) The tables are altered,

4) An attempt is made to execute a query against the
view which is no longer applicable.


********************************************************
********************************************************
PATCH LISTINGS:
Xtrieve PLUS v4.10 Patches
********************************************************
********************************************************

Patches can be downloaded from NetWire, or obtained from
the Developer Support Group at no charge. (See
"Contacting Novell Austin" at the end of this issue). For
a description of patches 1 through 4, refer to earlier
issues of Bullets.

5. When a report contains nested groups and the outer
group fields are modified, if the outer group has no
fields, or the last field is removed, the machine
locks. This patch allows the modification and
prevents locking.

6. This patch ensures that when you have security
installed on your dictionary files and you are using
NSREQ to access your files, you are able to access
the file or field level rights for a user profile.

7. This patch ensures that correct results are printed
in reports when a line of output in the report is
exactly the width of the page, and it is not the
last line on the page.

8. This patch corrects the offset display of the BIT
fields when you print file definitions.

9. This patch prevents the following situation from
occuring in 25-line mode on a VGA monitor (after
exiting Xtrieve PLUS):

* The screen goes blank, but characters can still be
entered at keyboard.

* Keyboard character are displayed as different
characters on the screen.


********************************************************
********************************************************
NOVELL EDUCATION:
Upcoming Classes
********************************************************
********************************************************

Novell Education offers classes for many of the
Development Products including Btrieve, XQL/NetWare SQL,
Xtrieve PLUS and the NetWare Client APIs. These classes
are designed to introduce participants to the powerful
features of Novell's development tools, database
products, and services. Nearly 50% of class time is
devoted to hands-on activities.

901 - Programming with NetWare Client APIs

March 16-18 Austin, TX
April 8-10 Washington, DC

905 - Programming with Btrieve

February 11-13 Chicago, IL

906 - Programming with Btrieve: Advanced Features

March 10-12 Chicago, IL

907 - Xtrieve PLUS

March 17-18 Washington, DC

910 - Programming with XQL

February 18-20 Austin, TX
April 14-16 Chicago, IL

920 - Programming with Network Communication Services

February 19-20 Dallas, TX
March 19-20 Austin, TX
April 13-14 Washington, DC

930 - Developing NetWare Loadable Modules (NLMs)

February 11-13 Austin, TX
March 10-12 Austin, TX
April 14-16 Austin, TX

To register or obtain information on pricing, location
and course content for classes held in the US, call
1-800-233-3382, 1-801-429-5508 or 1-800-NETWARE. All
courses scheduled are subject to cancellation or
rescheduling within two weeks of the scheduled date,
depending on enrollment.

International customers should call 1-801-537-8850. For
information on availability, location, and prices of
international classes, contact your local Novell office.


********************************************************
********************************************************
FUN & FACTS
********************************************************
********************************************************

Test your "developing" skills with the various
Professional Development Series products by taking our
Fun & Facts quiz. Have fun and good luck! (See the end of
this issue for answers.)

1. What command boots the server without executing the
AUTOEXEC.NCF file?

A. SERVER noauto
B. SERVER -na
C. SERVER -n

2. What is the name of the file that includes all the
public symbols made available by CLIB.NLM?

A. CLIB.IMP
B. CLIB.PUB
C. CLIB.SYM

3. Windows 3.0 can operate in three different modes.
What are they?

A. Real, Protected, Enhanced
B. Real, Standard, Enhanced
C. Standard, Protected, Real

4. In which programming languages can NLMs be written?

A. C
B. C and Assembly
C. C and COBOL

5. What console command shows the name of the file
server?

A. NAME
B. WHOAMI
C. SHOWNAME

6. Name the three debug server applications that come
with WATCOM WVIDEO Debugger for NLMs?

A. NOVSERV.NLM, SERSERV.NLM, PARSERV.NLM
B. WATSERV.NLM, NOVSERV.NLM, NETSERV.NLM

7. What is the Btrieve operation code for a Get
Previous with a Multiple NoWait Lock?

A. 407
B. 207
C. 107

8. What is the maximum length of any Btrieve key?

A. 512 bytes
B. 255 bytes
C. 100 bytes

9. What symbol is used to identify a substitution
variable in a SQL statement?

A. '='
B. '@'
C. '*'

10. What SQL keyword is used to restrict data in a view?

A. WHERE
B. RESTRICT
C. LIMIT

11. What is the result of using the XQL LENGTH scalar
function on a field of type TIME?

A. 8
B. 4
C. 1

12. In Xtrieve PLUS, what is the environment variable
that specifies the directory and filename for the
Xtrieve PLUS message file?

A. XTRSGN
B. XTRMGF
C. XTRMSG

13. Which DDF contains the compiled structure
information for stored SQL statements?

A. PROC.DDF
B. STORED.DDF
C. SQL.DDF
D. SQLSTRUC.DDF


********************************************************
********************************************************
CONTACTING NOVELL AUSTIN
********************************************************
********************************************************

To obtain technical support, call 1-800-NETWARE
(1-800-638-9273), or 1-801-429-5588. Be prepared to give
the support operator your Direct Connect authorization
number or open incident reference number. Technical
support questions may also be sent by FAX to
1-512-794-1775. A wide range of support contracts are
provided to meet your needs.

If you have purchased a new Novell Development Product,
you are eligible for 30 days of free telephone support.
Please be prepared to give the support operator the
product's serial number.

Many international distributors provide technical
support. Please contact your distributor or local Novell
office (see list on back cover) for more information on
international support options.

Software patches may be obtained from the NetWire forum
on CompuServe, or by contacting the Developer Support
Group and specifying the name of the product for which
you need patches.

For more information on the Professional Developers'
Program, Novell Development Products, and Direct Connect
Support Contracts, call 1-800-RED-WORD (1-800-733-9673),
or 1-512-794-1796, FAX 1-512-794-1770, or contact the
nearest Novell office.

Novell Development Products can be obtained through
Novell Authorized Resellers, or by calling 1-800-RED-WORD
(1-800-733-9673) or 1-512-794-1796.

Software Developer's Kits (SDKs) are available only
through Novell's Professional Developers' Program. Call
1-800-RED-WORD (1-800-733-9673) or 1-512-794-1796.


********************************************************
********************************************************
CURRENT VERSIONS OF NOVELL PRODUCTS
********************************************************
********************************************************

---------------------------------------------------
NetWare
---------------------------------------------------
NetWare 3.x 3.11
NetWare 2.x 2.2
NetWare Lite 1.0
NetWare for VMS 2.1
---------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------
NetWare Services
---------------------------------------------------
NetWare for Macintosh 3.01
NetWare NFS 1.2
NetWare FTAM 1.2
NetWare for SAA 1.1
NetWare RMS
NetWare NNS
---------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------
Communication Toolkits
---------------------------------------------------
LAN WorkPlace Toolkit for DOS 4.0
---------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------
NetWare System Interfaces
---------------------------------------------------
NetWare C Interface for DOS 1.2
NetWare System Calls for DOS 1.0
NetWare System Interface
Technical Overview 1.2

---------------------------------------------------
Software Developer's Kits
---------------------------------------------------
OS/2 Developer's Kit 1.3a
NetWare C Interface for Windows 1.22
NetWare C Interface for Macintosh 1.3
NetWare Network Management Toolkit 1.0
TCPort Developer's Kit 2.2
LAN WorkPlace Toolkit for OS/2 2.0
Network C for NLMs 2.0b
NetWare TIRPC 1.0
NetWare AppleTalk Interface for NLMs 1.0
NetWare LU6.2 Toolkit 1.2
NetWare 3270 Toolkit 1.6
---------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------
NetWare RPC
---------------------------------------------------
NetWare RPC for DOS 1.1
NetWare RPC 386 1.1
---------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------
Compiler Toolkits
---------------------------------------------------
Network C for DOS 2.0
---------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------
XQL
---------------------------------------------------
XQL for DOS 2.11
XQL for OS/2 2.11
---------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------
NetWare SQL
---------------------------------------------------
NetWare SQL (NLM) 2.11a
NetWare SQL (VAP) 2.11
---------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------
Btrieve
---------------------------------------------------
NetWare Btrieve (NLM) 5.15
NetWare Btrieve (VAP) 5.15
Btrieve for DOS 5.10a
Btrieve for OS/2 5.10
Btrieve for Windows 5.10
---------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------
Xtrieve PLUS
---------------------------------------------------
Xtrieve PLUS for DOS 4.10
Xtrieve PLUS for OS/2 4.01
---------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------
Report Executive
---------------------------------------------------
Report Executive for DOS 4.01a
Report Executive for OS/2 4.01a
---------------------------------------------------

For a complete list of the Novell product line contact
Novell Austin or your local Novell Authorized dealer.




********************************************************
********************************************************
CURRENT REQUESTER VERSIONS
********************************************************
********************************************************

---------------------------------------------------
NetWare Btrieve v5.15
---------------------------------------------------
Requester for DOS 5.16
Requester for OS/2 5.17a
Requester Interface for Windows 3.0 5.16
---------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------
NetWare SQL v2.11
---------------------------------------------------
Requester for DOS 2.12a
Requester for OS/2 2.11
Requester Interface for Windows 3.0 2.13
---------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------
NetWare Shells and Requesters
-----------------------------------------------------
DOS Shell 3.22a
IPX (DOS) 3.10
VIPX.386 1.10
NetWare Requester for OS/2 1.3
NETWARE.DRV (Windows) 1.03.7
VNETWARE.386 (Windows) 1.03.2
-----------------------------------------------------


********************************************************
********************************************************
FUN & FACTS ANSWERS
********************************************************
********************************************************

1. B
2. A
3. B
4. B
5. A
6. A
7. A
8. B
9. B
10. A
11. B
12. C
13. A


********************************************************
********************************************************
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
********************************************************
********************************************************

Publisher: Mad Poarch

Editor: Kirk R. Humphries
Design: Creative Services, Provo

Contributing Authors: Gaurang Amin
Vitek Boruvka
Michael Eisa
Laura Heater
Sudz Khawaja
Clint McVey
Jose Pruneda
Aslam Tejani
Maggie Walczynski

********************************************************
Special thanks to the Developer Support, Development,
Developer Relations, Product Marketing, and Marketing
Communications staff who contributed time and valuable
input.
********************************************************


Novell, the N design, NetWare, Btrieve, XQL and LAN
WorkPlace are registered trademarks, NetWare System Calls
for DOS, NetWare Loadable Module (NLM), NetWare SQL,
NetWare Btrieve, Xtrieve PLUS, NetWare C Interface for
DOS, NetWare System Interface Technical Overview, NetWare
RPC, NetWare RPC 386, TCPort, NetWare LU6.2, Report
Executive, and Professional Development Series (PDS) are
trademarks, and Professional Developers' Forum (PDF),
NetWire, Direct Connect and Professional Developers'
Program (PDP) are servicemarks of Novell, Inc. Apple,
Macintosh and AppleTalk are registered trademarks of
Apple Computer, Inc. CompuServe is registered trademark
of CompuServe Corporation. Microsoft is a registered
trademark, and Windows, Microsoft QuickBasic, and
Microsoft Visual Basic are trademarks of Microsoft, Inc.
IBM and OS/2 are registered trademarks, and NetBIOS and
SAA are trademarks of International Business Machines
Corporation. Sun Microsystems and NFS are registered
trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. WATCOM is a
trademark of WATCOM Systems, Inc.

********************************************************
Professional Development Series Bullets
(c) 1991 Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.
********************************************************

Developer Support/Direct Connect:
1-800-SAY-HELP (1-800-729-4357)
Tel. (512) 346-8380
Fax (512) 794-1775

International Customers please contact your local Novell
authorized dealer or nearest Novell office.

********************************************************
********************************************************

Novell, Inc.
Corporate Headquarters
122 East 1700 South
P.O. Box 5900
Provo, Utah 84606
USA
Tel. (801) 429-7000

********************************************************

Novell International Operations
& Novell Latin America
890 Ross Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
USA
Tel. (408) 747-4000
FAX (408) 747-4033

********************************************************

Novell Australia
Level 2
2 Help Street
Chatswood NSW 2067
Australia
Tel. 61 (2) 413-3077
FAX 61 (2) 413-3116

********************************************************

Novell Benelux
Excelsiorlaan 13
1930 Zaventem
Belgium
Tel. 32 (2) 725-02-00
FAX 32 (2) 725-03-11

********************************************************

Novell France
Tour Anjou
33, Quai De Dion-Bouton
92814 Puteaux Cedex
France
Tel. 33 (1) 47.75.09.09
FAX 33 (1) 47.78.94.72

********************************************************

Novell Germany
Willsttter Strasse 13
4000 Dsseldorf 11
Germany
Tel. 49 (211) 5973-0
FAX 49 (211) 5973-250

********************************************************

Novell Hong Kong
12/F New Town Tower
8-18 Pak Hok Ting Street
Shatin, New Territories
Hong Kong
Tel. 852 6012123
FAX 852 6940818

********************************************************

Novell Italy
Via San Vittore 40
20123 Milan
Italy
Tel. 39-2-4801 3554
FAX 39-2-4801 3594

********************************************************

Novell Japan
Toei Mishuku Bldg.3F
1-13-1 Mishuku
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154
Japan
Tel. 81 (3) 5481-1161
FAX 81 (3) 5481-1855

********************************************************

Novell Spain
Lexington. S.a.
Paseo Castellana, 141
Planta 18
28046 Madrid
Spain
Tel. 34 (1) 572-0360
FAX 34 (1) 570-7199

********************************************************

Novell Sweden
Kottbyjatan 7
16475 Kista
Sweden
Tel. 46 (8)-7032350
FAX 46 (8)-7039434

********************************************************

Novell Switzerland
Bahnstrasse 102
8105 Regensdorf
Switzerland
Tel. 41 (1) 870-0650
FAX 41 (1) 870-0628

********************************************************

Novell United Kingdom
Avon House, Sweetwell Road
Bracknell, Berkshire
RG12 1HH
United Kingdom
Tel. 44 (344) 860 400
FAX 44 (344) 860 353

********************************************************
********************************************************
********************************************************
********************************************************
********************************************************
********************************************************
********************************************************
********************************************************
********************************************************
{END OF FILE}


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