Dec 282017
Paper by Charles Simonyi describing Hungarian notation.
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Paper by Charles Simonyi describing Hungarian notation.
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Contents of the NAMECONV.TXT file

Program Identifier Naming Conventions
This monograph is intended to give you the flavor of the major
ideas behind the conventions.
When confronted with the need for a new name in a program, a good
programmer will generally consider the following factors to reach a

1. Mnemonic value - so that the programmer can remember the name.
2. Suggestive value - so that others can read the code.
3. "Consistency" - this is often viewed as an aesthetic idea, yet
it also has to do with the information efficiency of the program text.
Roughly speaking, we want similar names for similar quantities.
4. Speed of the decision - we cannot spend too much time pondering
the name of a single quantity, nor is there time for typing and
editing extremely long variable names.

All in all, name selection can be a frustrating and time consuming
subtask. Often, a name which satisfies some of the above criteria will
contradict the others. Maintaining consistency can be especially

Advantages of the Conventions
The following naming conventions provide a very convenient
framework for generating names that satisfy the above criteria. The
basic idea is to name all quantities by their types. This simple
statement requires considerable elaboration. (What is meant by
"types"? What happens if "types" are not unique?) However, once we can
agree on the framework, the benefits readily follow. The following are

1. The names will be mnemonic in a very specific sense: if someone
remembers the type of a quantity or how it is constructed from other
types, the name will be readily apparent.
2. The names will be suggestive as well: we will be able to map any
name into the type of the quantity, hence obtaining information about
the shape and the use of the quantity.
3. The names will be consistent because they will have been
produced by the same rules.
4. The decision on the name will be mechanical, thus speedy.
5. Expressions in the program can be subjected to consistency
checks that are very similar to the "dimension" checks in physics.

Type Calculus
As suggested above, the concept of "type" in this context is
determined by the set of operations that can be applied to a quantity.
The test for type equivalence is simple: could the same set of
operations be meaningfully applied to the quantities in questions? If
so, the types are thought to be the same. If there are operations
which apply to a quantity in exclusion of others, the type of the
quantity is different.
The concept of "operation" is considered quite generally here;
"being the subscript of array A" or "being the second parameter of
procedure Position" are operations on quantity x (and "A" or
"Position" as well). The point is that "integers" x and y are not of
the same type if Position (x,y) is legal but Position (y,x) is
nonsensical. Here we can also sense how the concepts of type and name
merge: x is so named because it is an x-coordinate, and it seems that
its type is also an x-coordinate. Most programmers probably would have
named such a quantity x. In this instance, the conventions merely
codify and clarify what has been widespread programming practice.
Note that the above definition of type (which, incidentally, is
suggested by languages such as SIMULA and Smalltalk) is a superset of
the more common definition which takes only the quantity's
representation into account. Naturally, if the representations of x
and y are different, there will exist some operations that could be
applied to x but not y, or vice versa.
Let us not forget that we are talking about conventions which are
to be used by humans for the benefit of humans. Capabilities or
restrictions of the programming environment are not at issue here. The
exact determination of what constitutes a "type" is not critical,
either. If a quantity is incorrectly classified, we have style
problem, not a bug.

Naming Rules
My thesis discusses in detail the following specific naming rules:

1. Quantities are named by their type possibly followed by a
qualifier. A convenient (and legal) punctuation is recommended to
separate the type and qualifier part of a name. (In C, we use a
capital initial for the qualifier as in rowFirst: row is the type;
First is the qualifier.)
2. Qualifiers distinguish quantities that are of the same type and
that exist within the same naming context. Note that contexts may
include the whole system, a block, a procedure, or a data structure
(for fields), depending on the programming environment. If one of the
"standard qualifiers" is applicable, it should be used. Otherwise, the
programmer can choose the qualifier. The choice should be simple to
make, because the qualifier needs to be unique only within the type
and within the scope - a set that is expected to be small in most
cases. In rare instances more than one qualifier may appear in a name.
Standard qualifiers and their associated semantics are listed below.
An example is worthwhile: rowLast is a type row value; that is, the
last element in an interval. The definition of "Last" states that the
interval is "closed"; i.e., a loop through the interval should include
rowLast as its last value.
3. Simple types are named by short tags that are chosen by the
programmer. The recommendation that the tags be small is startling to
many programmers. The essential reason for short tags is to make the
implementation of rule 4 realistic. Other reasons are listed below.
4. Names of constructed types should be constructed from the names
of the constituent types. A number of standard schemes for
constructing pointer, array, and different types exist. Other
constructions may be defined as required. For example, the prefix p is
used to construct pointers. ProwLast (prowLast) is then the name of a
particular pointer to a row type value that defines the end of a
closed interval. The standard type constructions are also listed

In principle, the conventions can be enriched by new type
construction schemes. However, the standard constructions proved to be
sufficient in years of use. It is worth noting that the types for data
structures are generally not constructed from the tags of their
fields. First of all, constructions with over two components would be
unwieldy. More importantly, the invariant property of data structure,
the set of operations in which they participate, seems to be largely
independent of the fields of the structure that determine only the
representation. We all have had numerous experiences with changes in
data structures that left the operations (but not the implementation
of the operations) unchanged. Consequently, I recommend the use of a
new tag for every new data structure. The tag with some punctuation
(upper case initial or all upper case) should also be used as the
structure name in the program. New tags should also be used if the
constructions accumulate to the point where readability suffers.
In my experience, tags are more difficult to choose than
qualifiers. When a new tag is needed, the first impulse is to use a
short descriptive common generic English term as the type name. This
is almost always a mistake. One should not preempt the most useful
English phrases for the provincial purposes of any given version of a
given program. Chances are that the same generic term could be equally
applicable to many more types in the same program. How will we know
which is the one with the pretty "logical" name, and which have the
more arbitrary variants typically obtained by omitting various vowels
or by other disfigurement? Also, in communicating with the programmer,
how do we distinguish the generic use of the common term from the
reserved technical usage? By inflection? In the long run, an acronym
that is not an English worked may work out the best for tags. Related
types may then share some of the letters of the acronym. In speech,
the acronym may be spelled out, or a pronounceable nickname may be
used. When hearing the special names, the informed listener will know
that the special technical meaning should be understood. Generic terms
should remain free for generic use.
For example, a color graphics program may have a set of internal
values that denote colors. What should one call the manifest value for
the color red? The obvious choice (which is "wrong" here) is RED. The
problem with RED is that it does not identify its type. Is it a label
or a procedure that turns objects RED? Even if we know that it is a
constant (because it is spelled all caps, for example), there might be
several color-related types. Of which one is RED an instance? If I see
a procedure defined as paint(color), may I call it RED as an argument?
Has the word RED been used for any other purpose within the program?
So we decide to find a tag for the color type and use the word Red as
a qualifier.
Note that the obvious choice for the qualifier is in fact that the
"correct" one! This is because the use of qualifiers are not hampered
by any of the above difficulties. Qualifiers are not "exclusive" (or
rather they are exclusive only within a smaller set) so we essentially
need not take into account the possibility of other uses of the term
"Red." The technical use of the term will be clear to everyone when
the qualifier is paired up with an obviously technical type tag. Since
qualifiers (usually) do not participate in type construction, there is
no inherent reason why they would need to be especially short.
Conversely, the tag for the type of the color value should not be
"color." Just consider all the other color related types that may
appear in the graphics program (or in a future variant): hardware
encoding of color, color map entry number, absolute pointer to color
map entry, color values in alternate color mapping mode,
hue-brightness-saturation triples, other color values in external
interfaces; printers, plotters, interacting external software, etc.
Furthermore, the tag will have to appear in names with constructed
types and qualifiers.
A typical arbitrary choice could be "co" (pronounced see-oh). Or,
if "co" was already taken, "cv", "cl", "kl", and so on. Note that the
mnemonic value of the tags is just about average: not too bad, but not
too good either. The conventions cannot help with creating names that
are inherently mnemonic, instead they identify, compress, and contain
those parts of the program that are truly individual, thus arbitrary.
The lack of inherent meaning should be compensated by ample comments
whenever a new tag is introduced. This is a reasonable suggestion
since the number of basic tags remains very small even in a large
In conclusion, the name of our quantity would be "coRed", provided
that the color type "co" is properly documented. The value of the name
will show later in program segments such as the following:

if co == coRed then *mpcopx[coRed]+=dx ...

At a glance we can see that the variable co is compared with a
quantity of its own kind; coRed is also used as a subscript to an
array whose domain is of the correct type. Furthermore, as we will
see, the color is mapped into a pointer to "x", which is de-referenced
(by the *operator in this example) to yield an x type value, which is
then incremented by a "delta x" type value. Such "dimensional
analysis" does not guarantee that the program is completely free from
bugs, but it does help to eliminate the most common kinds. It also
lends a certain rhythm to the writing of the code: "Let's see, I have
a co in hand and I need an x; do I have a mpcox? No, but there is a
mpcopx that will give me a px; *px will get me the x...", and so on.

Naming for "Writability"
A good yardstick for choosing a name is to try to imagine that
there is an extraordinary reward for two programmers if they can
independently come up with the same program text for the same problem.
Both programmers know the reward, but cannot otherwise communicate.
Such an experiment would be futile, of course, for any sizable
problem, but it is a neat goal. The reward of real life is that a
program written by someone else, which is identical to what one's own
program would have been, is extremely readable and modifiable. By the
proper use of the conventions, the idea can be approached very
closely, give or take a relatively few tags and possibly some
qualifiers. The leverage of the tags is enormous. If they are
communicated, or are agreed on beforehand, or come from a common
source, the goal becomes reachable and the reward may be reaped. This
makes the documentation of the tags all the more important.
An example of such a consideration is the discretionary use of
qualifiers in small scopes where a quantity's type is likely to be
unique, for example in small procedures with a few parameters and
locals or in data structures which typically have only a few fields.
One might prefer to attach a qualifier even to a quantity with a
unique type of "writability", the ability for someone else to come up
with the name without hesitation. As many textbooks point out, the
"someone else" can be the same programmer sometime in the future
revisiting the long forgotten code. Conclusion: do not use qualifiers
when not needed, even if they seem valuable.

Naming Rules for Procedures
Unfortunately, the simple notion of qualified typed tags does not
work well for procedure names. Some procedures do not take parameters
or do not return values. The scopes of procedure names tend to be
large. The following set of special rules for procedures has worked
quite satisfactorily:

1. Distinguish procedure names from other names by punctuation, for
example by always starting with a capital letter (typed tags of other
quantities are in lower case). This alleviates the problem caused by
the large scope.
2. Start the name with the tag of the value that is returned, if any.
3. Express the action of the procedure in one or two words,
typically transitive verbs. The words should be punctuated for easy
parsing by the reader (a common legal method of punctuation is the use
of capital initials for every word).
4. Append the list of tags of some or all of the formal parameters
if it seems appropriate to do so.

The last point is contrary to the earlier remarks on data structure
naming. When the parameters to a procedure are changed, typically all
uses of the procedure will have to be updated. There is an opportunity
during the update to change the name as well, in fact the name change
can serve as a useful check that all occurrences have been found. With
data structures, the addition or change of a field will not have an
effect on all uses of the changed structure type. Typically, if a
procedure has only one or two parameters, the inclusion of the
parameter tags will really simplify the choice of procedure name.
Some examples for procedure names are the following:

InitSy: Takes an sy as its argument and initializes it.
OpenFn: fn is the argument. The procedure will "open" the fn.
No value is returned.
FcFromBnRn: Returns the fc corresponding to the bn,rn,pair given.
(The names cannot tell us what the types sy, fn, fc,
etc., are.)

The following is a list of standard type constructions. (X and Y
stand for arbitrary tags. According to standard punctuation the actual
tags are lowercase.)

pX pointer to X
dX difference between two instances of type X. X + dX
is of type X.
cX count of instances of type X.
mpXY an array of Y's indexed by X. Read as "map from X to Y."
rgX an array of X's. read as "range X." The indices of the array
are called:
iX indent of the array rgX.
dnX (rare) an array indexed by type X. The elements of the array
are called:
eX (rare) element of the array dnX.
grpX a group of X's stored one after another in storage. Used when
the X elements are of variable size and standard array indexing
would not apply. Elements of the group must be referenced by
means other then direct indexing. A storage allocation zone,
for example, is a grp of blocks.
bX relative offset to a type X. This is used for field
displacements in a data structure with variable size fields.
The offset may be given in terms of bytes or words, depending
on the base pointer from which the offset is measured.

Where it matters, quantities named mp, rg, dn, or grp are actually
pointers to the structures described above.

cbX size of instances of X in bytes
CwX Size of instances of X in words

One obvious problem with the constructions is that they make the
parsing of the types ambiguous. Is pfc a tag of its own or is it a
pointer to an fc? Such questions (just as many others) can be answered
only if one is familiar with the specific tags that are used in a
The following are standard qualifiers. (The letter X stands for any
type tag. Actual type tags are in lowercase.)

XFirst the first element in an ordered set (interval) of X values.
XLast the last element in an ordered set of X values. XLast is the
upper limit of a closed interval, hence the loop continuation
condition should be: x<=xLast
XLim the strict upper limit of an ordered set of X values. Loop
continuation should be: xXMax strict upper limit for all X values (excepting Max, Mac,
and Nil) for all other x: x x=0, xMax is equal to the number of different x values.
The allocated length of a dnx vector, for example, will be
typically xMax.
XMac the Current (as opposed to constant or allocated) upper limit
for all x values. If x values start with 0, xMac is the
current number of X values. To iterate through a dnx array,
for example:
for x=0 step 1 to xMac-1 do ... dnx[x] ...

for ix=0 step 1 to ixMac-1 do ... rgx[ix] ...
XNil a distinguished Nil value of type X. The value may or may not
be 0 or -1.
XT temporary X. An easy way to qualify the second quantity of a
given type in a scope.


f flag (boolean, logical). If qualifier is used, it should describe the
true state of the flag. Exception: the constants fTrue and fFalse.
w word with arbitrary contents.
ch character, usually in ASCII text.
b byte, not necessarily holding a coded character, more akin to w.
Distinguished from the b constrictor by the capital letter of the
qualifier in immediately following.
sz pointer to first character of a zero terminated string.
st pointer to a string. First byte is the count of characters cch.
h pp (in heap).

The following partial example of an actual symbol table routine
illustrates the use of the conventions in a "real life" situation. The
purpose of this example is not to make any claims about the code
itself, but to show how the conventions can help us learn about the
code. In fact, some of the names in this routine are standard.

1 #include "sy.h"
2 Extern int *rgwDic;
3 extern int bsyMac;
4 struct SY *PsySz(sz)
5 char sz[];
6 {
7 char *pch;
8 int cch;
9 struct SY *psy, *PsyCreate();
10 int *pbsy;
11 int cwSz;
12 unsigned wHash=0;
13 pch=sz;
14 while (*pch!=0
15 wHash=(wHash<<5)+(wHash>>11+*pch++;
16 cch=pch-sz;
17 pbsy=&rgbsyHash[(wHash&077777)%cwHash];
18 for (; *pbsy!=0; pbsy = &psy->bsyNext)
19 {
20 char *szSy;
21 szSy= (psy=(struct SY *)&rgwDic[*pbsy])->sz;
22 pch=sz;
23 while (*pch==*szSy++)
24 {
25 if (*pch++==0)
26 return (psy);
27 {
28 }
29 cwSz=0;
30 if (cch>=2)
31 cwSz=(cch-2/sizeof(int)+1;
32 *pbsy=(int *)(psy=PsyCreate(cwSY+cwSz))-rgwDic;
33 Zero((int *)psy,cwSY);
34 bltbyte(sz, psy->sz, cch+1);
35 return(psy);
36 }

The tag SY is the only product specific type in this routine. The
definition of SY is found in the include file sy.h (fair enough). The
type name itself is in all capitals, a common convention.
Line 2 - says that there is an array of words, which is called
Dic(tionary). Remember that since Dic is a qualifier, it is named
Line 3 - is the offset pointing beyond the last sy (see b constructor
+ Mac standard qualifier.) One has to guess at this time that this is
used for allocating new sy's. The "base" of the offset would also have
to be guessed to be rgwDic. Actually, the name grpsy would have been
better instead of rgwDic, from this local perspective. In the real
program, the rgwDic area is used for a number of different purposes,
hence the "neutral" name.
Line 4 - is a procedure declaration. Procedure returns a pointer to
an SY as the result. The parameter must be a zero terminated string.
Lines 7-12 - declare quantities. The usages should be clear from the
names. For example, cwSz is the number of words in some string
(probably the argument), pbsy is a pointer to an offset of an sy (p
constructor + b constructor). The only qualifier used here is in wHash
- the hash code.
Line 13 - pch will be a pointer to the first character of sz.
Line 16 - cch is the count of characters (c constructor) ostensibly,
in sz.
Line 17 - cwHash is the number of words in the hash table (I would
have called it ibsyMax). In a way, the qualifier on rgbsyHash could be
omitted, but it helps identifying the hash table in external contexts.
Lines 17-18 - note the opportunities for dimensional checking:

pbsy = rgbsy[...] follows from pX = &rgX[...]
pbsy = psy->bsy Next follows from pX=&pY->X; or pX = &Y.X

So even the use of -> instead of . follows from local context. The
p on the left hand side signals the need for the & on the right.
Line 20 - introduces a new sz, qualified to distinguish it from the
argument. The qualifier, very appropriately, is the source of the
datum, Sy.
Line 23 - given the use of szSy in this line, the name pchSy would
have been a little more appropriate. No harm done, however.
Lines 29-31 - this strange code has to do with the fact that the
declaration of SY includes 2 bytes of sz, so that cwSz is really the
number of words in the sz-2 bytes! This should deserve a comment or at
least a qualifier M2 (minus 2) or the like. cwSY is the length of the
SY structure in words. The all caps qualifier is not strictly
standard, but it helps to associate the quantity with the declaration
of SY, rather than with any random sy instance.
PsyCreate is a good procedure name; PsyCreateCw would have been
even better. In line 32 we can also see an example of dimensional
checking: while we have a psy inside the parenthesis, we need a bsy
for the left side (*pbsy =bsy!) so we subtract the "base" of the bsy
from the psy

bX + base = pX; hence: bX = pX - base.

In closing, it is evident that the conventions participated in
making the code more correct, easier to write and easier to read.
Naming conventions cannot guarantee "good" code however, only the
skill of the programmer can.

Charles Simonyi Microsoft Corporation

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