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MAKE4 is an improved version of MAKE. It CAN execute "internal"
DOS commands such as DIR and CD, as well as the "external" commands
as described below. The rest of the documentation is up to date.
This a called 'Make' and is a much simplified version of
the make utility on UNIX (a trademark or something of AT&T)
written using the Lattice C compiler
for the IBM Personal Computer. The Lattice package is
available from Lifeboat Assoc. 1651 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10128 .
'Make' takes a file of dependencies (a 'makefile') and
decides what commands have to be executed to bring the files
up to date. These commands are either executed directly from
'Make' or written to the standard output without executing
- There must be a 'makefile'; you can't take input from the
- The default name of the 'makefile' is 'MAKEFILE' on the
default disk. Different 'makefiles' can be specified using
the '-f' option on the command line. If the '-f' option is
used, the default 'makefile' is not processed.
- Any blank lines in the 'makefile(s)' are ignored.
- A line in a 'makefile' that starts with a tab character is
a 'howto' line and consists of a command name followed by
arguments. The command name must be a file name, e.g.
'cc'. When commands are executed, the PATH environment
variable is used to find the command, in (hopefully) the
same manner as DOS does. 'Howto' lines apply to the most
recently preceding 'dependency' line. It is an error for
a 'howto' line to precede the first 'dependency' line.
- Any other non-blank line is a 'dependency' line. 'Dependency'
lines consist of a filename followed by a (possibly empty) list
of dependent filenames.
make [filename] [-f makefilename] [-i] [-n]
-i means continue even if an error is encountered while
executing a command.
-n means don't execute the commands, just write the ones that
should be executed to the standard output. This is useful
for creating batch files, for example.
-f specifies that the following argument is the name of a makefile
to be used instead of the default (MAKEFILE).
All arguments may be repeated and relative position of the
arguments is not important. If multiple definitions of a file
are found, only the first one is significant.
First, 'Make' reads all of the makefiles. It then proceeds through
all of the filename arguments, 'making' each one in turn. A file
is remade if it is out of date with respect to the files it depends
on or is non-existent. Dependencies are processed in a 'tree' fashion,
so that the lowest-order files are remade first.
'Make' cannot execute DOS built-in commands e.g. 'cd' or 'dir'.
'Make' uses the first 20k or so after the resident portion of DOS.
all definitions and howto's are stored in dynamically allocated struct's.
Any executed commands are loaded above 'Make' in memory.
'Make' REQUIRES DOS 2.0 (or higher?).
The code is a little kludgy in places.
No guarantees or warranties of any kind: I think it works and
I use it.
Any suggestions for improvements gratefully accepted.
I believe that commercial versions exist. I also beleive that they
would be superior to this.
version 2.0 comments:
This program was converted to Lattice 'C' ver 2.11 on 15 jun 84.
This allowed the use of the lattice 'fork' command. The command
will automatically search the path name specified to find the
desired executable image. This also allows the use of image names
with out the extension. ie 'lc1' instead of 'lc1.exe'. All of
the assembler routines have been replaced with lattice dos calls.
The Lattice version uses about 55k bytes less memory than the
Desmet version. This is nice for the systems with already tight
version 3 comments:
The default makefile name is MAKEFILE not MAKEFILE.DAT.
There now is a symbol processor to do substitiutions
in the argument line.
A symbol definition MUST begin with a $.
An example follows.
Fixed a bug-If a dependent file did not exist then make didn't
Checks to see if a command results in a non-zero return code.
If so then aborts unless the -i flag is used.
Any comments on this code should be directed to
Office of Continuing Education
Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50011
or a message on one of the following BBS.
Gene Plantz (312)887-4227
Lynn Long (918)749-0718
Bob Blackwell (319)363-3314
Written by John M Sellens, April, 1984
Modified for Lattice C ver 2.11 by Jeff Spidle jun 15 84
Code is all original except where indicated otherwise.
Until August, 1984:
107 - 180 Brybeck Cres.
After August, 1984:
c/o 1135 Lansdowne Ave. SW
(c) Copyright 1984 John M Sellens
Permission is granted to use, distribute and/or modify this code unless
done for direct commercial profit. If you find these routines useful,
modest contributions (monetary or otherwise) will be gratefully accepted.
Author's name, address and this notice must be included in any copies.
An example: To compile this program the following makefile was used
$CFLAGS -ms -i/code/c/lc/
make.obj make.c /code/c/lc/stdio.h
An explination: make.exe is a dependent file. Is is dependent on
make.obj. make.obj is dependent on make.c and stdio.h. If the
following command is issued:MAKE make.exe then make will
check to see if either make.c or stdio.h has a newer date&time
than make.obj. if so then the 2 compile instructions are issued.
then the link instruction will be issued. If only make.obj is
newer than make.exe then only the link step would be executed.
The symbol substitution will end up having the lc1 call look like
lc1 make -ms -i/code/c/lc/ -i/code/c/lc/s/ -n
Hints: Dependencies can be in any order. Make will resolve them
How to lines must begin with a
Symbol definition lines must start with a $.
Symbols cannot have other symbols in their definition.
A symbol may have a max of 39 characters.
The equate for a symbol may be up to 80 characters.
You may have an unlimited(within reason) number of
A symbol that is not defined will be copied to the
output line. ie
with $TEST not defined will create the command
Symbols are case specific. upper and lower case are significant.
The command line must specify what file you wish to
make. You may have more than one set of file definitions
in a makefile. If you do you may run out of memory. I
haven't run into this yet but I suppose it is possible.
If a command returns an error-code (ERRORLEVEL) not equal
to zero then MAKE thinks that there was an error. MAKE
will abort processing unless the -i (ignore errors) flag
Any suggestions or improvements will be much appreciated. I
am next going to try to put definable symbols for substitution
in a makefile next aka UNIX-MAKE. So we will see what happens.