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Contents of the MANUAL.TXT file























The JORF(R) Manual



This manual comes with the JORF Interpreter and Tutorial

Free Shareware Version Free On Disk
Registered Version $85 Printed
Registered w/ Link Libraries $170 Printed
JORF Developer's Kit $TBA Printed

from

The JORF Company
25858 Elwood Road
Colton, OR 97017

(503) 824-5673



Copyright(c) 1992 by The JORF Company.
All Rights Reserved.

JORF(R) is a Registered Trademark of The JORF Company. Other
JORF Company products are trademarks of The JORF Company. Other
brand and product names are trademarks of their respective
holders.



Please print this on recycled paper






















The JORF License Agreement

COPYRIGHT. The JORF Interpreter and JORF Language Tutorial are
owned by The JORF Company and are protected by United States
copyright laws and treaty provisions. By using this software you
are agreeing to be bound by the terms of this license. If you do
not agree with this license, you may return all materials to The
JORF Company for a full refund.

GRANT OF LICENSE. The JORF Company grants you the right to use
one copy of the software for each paid registration. You may
install the software on more than one computer, but you may use
only one copy at a time. You must register each copy of the
software that you use at any one time to create new programs.

TRIAL COPIES. The JORF Interpreter and JORF Language Tutorial
may be copied and distributed on a trial basis. If you use the
software to create programs then trial is over and you must
register your copy with The JORF Company. You may freely give
copies to your friends so they can try it. If they use it to
create new programs they must register it.

RUNTIME MODULE. The JORF Company grants you the royalty free
right to distribute the runtime module JORF.EXE with your
programs provided that; (a) your program does not directly
________
compete with JORF Company products; (b) your program displays a
copyright message that includes the word "Copyright", a "(C)",
the year, your name and the phrase "All Rights Reserved"; and (c)
you agree to indemnify, hold harmless, and defend The JORF
Company from and against any claims or lawsuits, including
attorney's fees, that arise or result from the use or
distribution of your program.

OTHER RESTRICTIONS. Persons or corporations involved with the
production of biological, chemical or nuclear weapons may not use
JORF Company Products. JORF Company Products may not be used in
any type of weapons system.
































LIMITED WARRANTY
LIMITED WARRANTY

LIMITED WARRANTY. The JORF Company warrants that the software
will perform substantially in accordance with the accompanying
written materials for a period of 90 days from the date of
receipt. Any implied warranties on the software are limited to
90 days. Some states do not allow limitations on duration of an
implied warranty, so the above limitation may not apply to you.

CUSTOMER REMEDIES. The JORF Company's entire liability and your
exclusive remedy shall be, at The JORF Company's option, either
(a) return of the price paid or (b) repair or replacement of the
software that does not meet The JORF Company's Limited Warranty
and which is returned to The JORF Company with a copy of your
receipt. This Limited Warranty is void if failure of the
software has resulted from accident, abuse, or misapplication.
Any replacement software will be warranted for the remainder of
the original warranty period or 30 days, whichever is longer.

NO OTHER WARRANTIES. THE JORF COMPANY DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER
_____________________
WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT
LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WITH RESPECT TO THE JORF SOFTWARE AND THE
ACCOMPANYING WRITTEN MATERIALS. THIS LIMITED WARRANTY GIVES YOU
SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS; YOU MAY HAVE OTHERS WHICH VARY FROM STATE
TO STATE.

NO LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
________________________________________
JORF COMPANY OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES
WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, SPECIAL, INDIRECT
INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS
PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF BUSINESS INFORMATION, OR
OTHER PECUNIARY LOSS) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO
USE THIS PRODUCT, EVEN IF THE JORF COMPANY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF
THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. BECAUSE SOME STATES DO NOT
ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL
OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.






























Installation

Description

The JORF Language is a tool for building business applications
for MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows and for learning how to program
in an object oriented environment. The distribution disk
contains two versions of an Interpreter that let you run, edit
and debug programs written in The JORF Language.

One version is JORF.EXE that runs under DOS, and the other is
JORFWIN.EXE that runs under Microsoft Windows. Also on the disk
is a JORF Tutorial, a Help system, and some sample programs to
demonstrates the power of JORF, while teaching the techniques of
Object Oriented Programming.

Requirements

The DOS version of JORF runs on IBM PC style computers including
the XT, AT, 386 and 486. It requires DOS 2.0 or higher with 640K
of RAM and a hard disk.

The Windows version of JORF runs under Windows 3.0 or above using
Standard or 386 Enhanced mode. There must be at least 512 K free
after Windows is running to run JORFWIN.

Installation

The distribution has one 3 " disk, and if you requested you also
have two 5 " disks. To install, create an appropriate
subdirectory, copy all files to that subdirectory, and unpack the
files that are appropriate.

Create a JORF subdirectory: MD \JORF
MD \JORF
Copy files to that subdirectory: COPY A:*.*
COPY A:*.*
Either unpack DOS interpreter: PKUNZIP JORFDOS
PKUNZIP JORFDOS
and/or Windows interpreter: PKUNZIP JORFWIN
PKUNZIP JORFWIN
Always unpack sample files: PKUNZIP JORF
PKUNZIP JORF
Save space by deleting the Zip files: DEL *.ZIP
DEL *.ZIP

(PKUNZIP.EXE is a shareware program produced by PKWare Inc. The
JORF Company has purchased the right to distribute this version
of PKUNZIP.EXE. You should not redistribute this or any
shareware program without registration or permission from the
creators of that program.)








Installation 1















Installation Batch Files

If you can place the installation disk in floppy drive A:, and
A:
you have a hard disk drive C with about 1 Megabyte free, you can
C
use INSTDOS.BAT or INSTWIN.BAT. These files create a directory
INSTDOS.BAT INSTWIN.BAT
called C:\JORF and places the appropriate files in that
C:\JORF
directory.

a. Place the floppy disk in drive A:
b. Type A: to log to drive A.
A:
c. Type INSTDOS to install the DOS version.
INSTDOS
d. Type INSTWIN to install the Windows version.
INSTWIN
e. If installing from 5 " disks, insert Disk 2 when
prompted.


To Run The JORF Interpreter

You can run the DOS version of interpreter by logging to the
appropriate directory and typing JORF. If you used INSTDOS.BAT,
JORF INSTDOS.BAT
log to the JORF directory by typing CD \JORF, then type JORF.
CD \JORF JORF

To run the Windows version of the interpreter, you must add the
JORFWIN application in the Program Manager. From the File menu,
File
select New Application. Type JORF for the name, and
New Application JORF
C:\JORF\JORFWIN.EXE (using the appropriate disk and directory)
C:\JORF\JORFWIN.EXE
for the file to run. Click Done to finish adding the
Done
application.

The first time you run JORF, you should select TUTORIAL.J to load
TUTORIAL.J
and run the JORF Tutorial.

To Exit from The JORF Interpreter

Pressing Alt-X will exit from any JORF program. You can exit
Alt-X
from the current screen by pressing the Esc key.
Esc

The JORF Initialization file

If you have any problems with screen colors or display in the DOS
version, you should turn to Appendix D to adjust your JORF.INI
file. To gain speed on DOS systems, JORF uses direct video
access. Some systems, notably EGA systems and non-standard video
cards may not work properly. To change JORF to use standard
video functions, to turn off the mouse, to set monochrome colors
even on a CGA monitor all require you modify the JORF.INI file.






The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 2














Table of Contents

Installation

Chapter One
Welcome to JORF 1
Who, What, Why 5

Chapter Two
Intro to Object Oriented Programming 7
Classes 9
Methods 10
Encapsulation 10
Inheritance 11
Polymorphism 12

Chapter Three
The JORF Language 13
Program Logic and Flow 14
Class, Method and Variable Names 15
Writing JORF Programs 18
The JORF Debugger 19
Using The JORF Editor 20
Using an Outside Editor 21
Translating JORF Language Programs 21
Indexes 22
Object-Attribute-Value Triplets 23
Probability 24
String Keys 24

Chapter Four
JORF Math 26
Order of Operations 27
Math Functions Reference 28

Chapter Five
Window Manager Reference 42

Chapter Six
Library Functions Reference 56

Appendix
168

Index
182







Installation 3

































Chapter One


Welcome to JORF

JORF is an acronym for Josephine's Recipe Filer. It is an object
JORF Josephine's Recipe Filer
oriented programming language suited to creating data processing
applications. It has artificial intelligence features, such as
an integrated rule based system manager, as well as powerful word
parsing commands you can use to create text translators. This
combination makes JORF an ideal tool to use to learn the
techniques of OOP; to create powerful business applications using
this technique; and to introduce expert systems and artificial
intelligence techniques to standard applications.

JORF Version 2.0 enables you to write "same source same data"
applications for Microsoft Windows and DOS computers. It is one
of the easiest WinApp languages currently available, and the
support of DOS systems is an added bonus. This version also adds
a powerful screen format handler that enables you to program pull
down and pop up menus, radio buttons, check boxes, hypertext and
input fields with ease.

The JORF Language is a data slinging language for business
applications and expert systems. JORF features simplified key
words, functions and punctuation. JORF is not a modified third
generation language like C++ or object oriented Pascal, or a
relational data base manager that stores data in records and
files. It is a simple OOP language with data base and expert
systems capabilities. JORF is tailored for business applications
that use data entry screens, data processing and report
generation. The language is designed to most efficient in


Installation 1














handling large files that contain accounting data, text and
knowledge data bases.

The JORF Language uses a single data type, called a jorf pointer
a single data type jorf pointer
that can hold integers, floating point numbers, strings, and
blocks of text. Object-oriented classes are defined by the
classes
programmer, and may include structures, objects with more than
structures
one element. Structure elements are referenced by name, so
location and order is irrelevant when assigning structure values.

Data Base Manager

The JORF Interpreter is a transparent data base manager. Whenever
transparent data base manager
you index data to be retrieved, the interpreter stores it in a
disk file. The structure definition acts as a record
definition, with the different elements acting as fields. Both
data and indexes are stored together in a single file, and
contain relative pointers so the file name and location may be
changed.

The data base files are not particularly space efficient, but are
speed efficient, especially for very large data bases. The file
size limit is 64 times the 4 Gigabyte limit imposed by current
operating systems and disk drives. A single file may not span
devices, but JORF Language applications can use files on
different devices simultaneously.

Records are expressed as class structures and can contain up to
2024 elements. Each element can also be a structure, so record
linkages can be quite large. Data linkages are stored, instead
of the data, so record size is not particularly relevant. There
is no "white space" stored in the data file.

Rule Based System

The JORF language includes indexing based on
Object-Attribute-Value rule triplets. This system is used for
Object-Attribute-Value
data base indexing and forward and backward chaining rule based
systems. The rules also contain probability and a conditional
probability conditional
pointer for flexibility in expert systems applications. The JORF
pointer
interpreter uses the rule system internally to index all methods,
classes, and inheritance tables.

The efficiency of JORF language data files is different from most
data base products. In general, the system is inefficient with
small data files, and is efficient with large ones. For
instance, paragraph text is automatically compressed and gets an
average 30% space reduction, but storing a single letter or
number takes a minimum of ten bytes. Duplicate strings are
stored only once, so data bases that contain large amounts of
duplicate information, like names, cities and tabled descriptions
are stored efficiently.

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 2















C Language Library Functions

The C Language introduced a new idea to programming languages;
Limited key words supplemented by a standard library. The C
Limited key words standard library
language contains only about 25 key words like "if", "return",
and "int" used in programming. The standard library adds
hundreds of functions that supplement the key words and give the
language full power and flexibility. The simplicity of this
system makes C very easy to use because the key words are easy to
remember.

The JORF language uses a similar system. For machine and
operating system calls, JORF uses standard library functions
standard library functions
written in the C language. These perform tasks like creating
windows on the screen, direct program flow control, and print to
files and output devices. The JORF library contains many
functions that are embedded in other languages. For instance,
the functions If, While and Return are library functions, not
If While Return
embedded commands.

Programmers may add new functions using the C or C++ languages
and The JORF Developer's kit. The Developer's Kit gives you low
level access to a high level language. This allows you to
optimize a particular function, while maintaining the ease-of-use
and versatility of a high level language. The combination of
general high level language abilities with specific low level
language functions makes The JORF Language a powerful programming
tool.

System Speed

In 1951, Grace Murray Hopper conceived of a new type of computer
programming system called "automatic programming". This system
involved a program that scanned ordinary text and mathematical
symbols and converted this into binary code for the computer.
Programmers eschewed it because automatic programming used more
computer time than the existing techniques.

It was seven years later that Captain Hopper's system was became
popular as the Fortran language. By then, the name automatic
automatic
programming had been changed to the name used today. What Grace
programming
proposed is now called a compiler and is an essential tool to
compiler
convert high level languages into binary machine code. Those
high minded programmers wrote binary machine code by hand because
they thought compilers were too slow.

The JORF Language is slow. It is slower than any language I have
ever seen. As this story suggests, you can either code in a
lower level language or decide that perhaps speed isn't
everything. JORF is not a language that draws it's advantage
from being compatible with computer chip architecture. In fact,

Chapter One - Introduction 3














it's advantage is the opposite. JORF is farther from the
computer chip, and therefore must do more to compensate.

Translating to C

The speed of JORF Language programs may be greatly enhanced by
translating the code to C and linking it using the JORF Link Kit
JORF Link Kit
($85 plus registered version). In addition to the kit, you must
also use a Borland compiler to compile the code. If you only
want to compile the DOS version, you can use any version of
Borland Turbo C Turbo C++. To compile for Windows you need
Borland Turbo C++ For windows, or Borland C++.

The translated code is not pretty to look at, nor is it a good
way for you to learn the C language. The single data type and
polymorphism in JORF are handled using special function calls in
The JORF Language, that insure that the JORF Kernel knows what is
going on in the C program stack.

The JORF Developer's Kit (not yet available) gives you the extra
The JORF Developer's Kit
information you need to get down and dirty with directly

connecting C and C++ functions to JORF language commands. This
kit includes source code for many JORF functions, shows how the
system converts the JORF data type to the various C data types,
and how to manage memory so it can be flushed at will. With this
kit, you can program on the JORF level to create functions
quickly, the C level to make them faster, and the assembler level
to make critical functions fly.

Windows Programming

For some reason, the "Powers-That-Be" are using the Microsoft
Windows environment to force use of non-procedural programming
techniques. In Windows you can now click another window and
start a process that is not procedurally related to your original
window. However, this is no reason to replace the ease of
standard procedural techniques with a billowing cloud of free
floating functions.

The Windows implementation of JORF is a subset of the
opportunities available under Microsoft Windows. Windows is so
complicated that not even full time programmers learn every
command and every subsystem. This leaves no time for these
programmers to learn what computer users want from their
application. The legacy of Windows looks like the legacy of
UNIX; expensive techies, weak programs.

JORF Programming in Windows

The JORF Language supports the Windows "Look" while supporting
just a small subset of Windows functions. Complexity is reduced


The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 4














by eliminating complex functions and limiting the look of the
functions available.

The Key to JORF programming under Windows is that it is just like
just like
JORF programming under DOS. There are no new paradigms or
JORF programming under DOS
endless point and click set-ups. The JORF Win:Add function
handles window formats, including pull down and pop up menus,
hypertext prompts, radio buttons, check boxes, data entry fields
and text. The JORF Event system handles keystrokes, but, for an
event driven system it is pretty simple to understand.

Under Microsoft Windows, JORF Programs use the Windows graphics
look, and support moveable and resizable windows with Title Bars
and Minimize and Maximize buttons. When you click another
application, JORF programs run in background until the hit a
prompt, at which time they go to sleep. You can run multiple
JORF Programs at the same time, even ones that read the same data
files.

The same JORF programs runs identically under DOS, with the same
buttons, menus, mouse capability, and data structure. This means
that people who have slower and smaller computers can still run
your programs. Programs run considerably faster under DOS but
are not as pretty.

Who, What, Why

JORF is an acronym for Josephine's Recipe Filer. Josephine is a
Josephine's Recipe Filer
tan pygmy goat who lives at the foot of the Cascade Mountains in
Oregon. She does not file recipes, instead she dances and plays
in the sunshine. Her message is simple; Lighten up, eat, dance,
Baaaah. Jo does not have to work for a living.

People laugh at Recipe Filers. What a stupid use for computers,
they say. But if you spend a minute you realize the joke is on
you. Recipes are trivial everyday items that we all understand
and use. But they lack the structure necessary to file them
using a Relational Data Base. Recipes are not numeric so
Spreadsheets don't work, and they need to be indexed so Word
Processors can't be used. Instead of being trivial, recipes are
an analogy for data that most languages cannot handle.

To effectively file recipes, you need a tool that can handle data
with a loose structure. Something that can index the files in a
variety of ways, and can easily access linked concepts, or
recipes within recipes. This variety of needs can only be met
using an Object Oriented Programming language that is linked to a
Expert System style rule base. This is the basis for the JORF
Language.

The JORF Language was designed by me, Wayland Bruns. In my ten
years of applications programming, I've become disgusted at

Chapter One - Introduction 5














languages created by engineers and mathematicians. Sure you can
create beautiful bubble sorts in C, but my clients pay me for
working applications programs, not beautiful bubble sorts. I
want a language that does my sorting, indexing, file handling and
memory management, and leaves me the job of applications design.
That is my goal for JORF.















































The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 6


































Chapter Two


Intro to Object Oriented Programming

This chapter is a really short introduction to Object Oriented
Programming for non-programmers and non-OOP programmers. It
provides background information for The JORF Language notes in
the next chapter. If you already know about OOP, or just want to
wing it, skip this chapter - see if I care!

The Origins of OOP

In the computer medieval era, when room sized racks held rows of
vacuum tubes, programmers coded programs in machine language.
These pour souls laboriously translated each command into its
binary equivalent, and toggled the binary number into the system.
Computer languages were invented to replace this technique. They
Computer languages
allowed programmers to write computer instructions using words
and phrases instead of machine code digits. This was good.

As computers became faster, programs became bigger. The Second
Law of Thermodynamics took effect. This law states that as
objects grow in complexity, they tend towards increasing entropy,
entropy
or randomness. Large programs have a marked tendency toward
entropy, especially when maintained by more than one programmer.
Entropy in program code grew to crisis proportions, because most
programs were large and maintained by many programmers.

A decade ago, into the darkening cloud of entropy, rode an
innovative technique called Structured Programming. Instead of
Structured Programming
using GOTO statements to transfer control, we started using

Chapter One - Introduction 7














Subroutines. Instead of starting at the top of the program, and
Subroutines
working our way down, we started to plan ahead, and break our
programs into well defined subsystems. The smaller and well
planned routines are less subject to entropy than the big
unstructured programs. Using the technique of structured
programming, we could create even bigger programs, that worked
better and did more things, without having them become too
complex. This was good.

Now, computers are everywhere! Everyone is using them! Worse,
every application developer in the world is competing by adding
more and more features to their programs. Structured techniques
are no match for entropy in programs fragmented by rampant
feature-creep. Large applications still contain dark swamps of
chaotic program code, right in the most critical sections of the
application. Programs are bombing, programmers are quitting and
the operators are saying "I put it in the computer, why can't I
get it back out?"

And now comes Object Oriented Programming, a technique of
Object Oriented Programming
structuring routines according to the data they handle. In OOP,
Subroutines are message passers and package handlers, while the
Data controls how the program flows and what routines will be
used. Subroutines are more strict than structured programs, and
are tied to the data they handle. When you print a piece of
Data, the language will pass control the appropriate print
command for that data. If the data is a number, it will call a
number printing routine, and if it is a text paragraph, it will
call a text printing routine.

The Revolution Continues

Just as Languages replaced binary coding and Structured
Languages Structured
Programming replaced linear programming, Object Oriented
Programming Object Oriented
Programming will soon replace earlier techniques. This is not
Programming
because computer science academics think they can confuse more
students, or because Microsoft thinks it can make $500 every time
you change languages. It is because OOP makes tougher problems
easier to handle. It encourages a standard system of chunking
program complexity. With better chunking, programs become easier
to build and maintain, bugs are easier to find, and you are more
likely to re-use your chunks for your next programming task.

OOP Terminology

Object Oriented Programming implies a new way of thinking about
programming. To mark this transition, the lingo of OOP contains
some specific expressions for what are now concise ideas. To
make things simple, because I like simple things, I have boiled
OOP down into just a few expressions. These are important words
so -pay close attention. The expressions of OOP are:


The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 8














Class An OOP data type. All data belongs to a class.
Class
Structure (In Smalltalk: Set) A Class w/ multiple elements.
Structure
Method The OOP name for a Function or Subroutine.
Method
Encapsulation A Class and it's Methods can be packaged.
Encapsulation
Object An instance of a Class and it's Methods.
Object
Inheritance Objects can inherit neat stuff from other Objects.
Inheritance
Polymorphism Calling same-name methods in different Objects.
Polymorphism

Classes

Before OOP, languages supplied built-in data definitions. For
instance, the BASIC language supplied data types for Strings,
Integers and Floating point numbers.
These classes are directly related to data types the CPU can
handle.

In Object Oriented languages, these CPU data types are still
available. But you can also invent your own data types. For
instance, you can create a Boolean data type that contains
nothing but True or False. Or maybe a Date data type that
contains valid dates. OOP languages let you define these data
types so they can be handled in a similar way to the original CPU
data types.

Structures
Structures

Computers would not be a viable tool if the CPU did not already
handle an effective range of primitive data types. But Pascal
and C languages, introduced a way to create complex data types
called Structures. A structure is a data type that contains more
Structures
than one primitive type and can even contain other structures.
These elements of the structure are packaged into a single unit.
This is a lot like traveling with suitcases.

When you fly to Boston you must transfer the shirts, shoes and
socks that you require for your trip. If you were check your
shirts, shoes and socks individually, when you arrived you would
have to claim them shirt by shirt, sock by sock in the baggage
claim area.

If everyone did as you did, your chances of picking up a wrong
sock or losing a shirt would be high. Instead, you pack your
shoes, socks and shirt in a suitcase, and check just that one
item when you travel. When you arrive, you need only claim your
suitcase to know that all your shirts shoes and socks have
arrived.

By packaging the data in a structure, only the routines that need
the structure have to deal with the individual items. Other
routines simply pass the structure around, like a baggage handler
loading baggage, without concern for the contents of the
structure.

Chapter Two, Intro To OOP 9














Data base tools use a type of structure called a record. A
record contains individual fields, just like the C language
structure contains individual elements. The fields in a record
must be either atomic data types, or a link field to another
records. The entire culture of Relational data base management
is built on this fundamental limitation.

Object-oriented structures, in particular JORF structures, are
not limited to primitive elements. Any element in a JORF
structure can be another structure, an array, or a multiple line
text. JORF uses a hierarchical style data base, where records
have pointers directly to related records of different classes.
This style cannot be considered relational, because it allows
freer access (an you can hang yourself better) than a relational
data base.

Methods

In traditional structured languages, programs are written in the
form of subroutines or functions. These functions can call other
subroutines functions
functions, which perform a task. When the task is completed, the
subroutine returns, which means it passes control back to the
returns
calling function. In the BASIC language, these are called
GOSUBs, short for GO SUBroutines.

In Object Oriented Languages these subroutines are called Methods
Methods
and they are handled somewhat differently. The Method is not a
primary thing in OOP like a Subroutine is in BASIC. Instead,
every Method is subordinate to the data type, or Class, that it
Class
belongs to. A method cannot be created without identifying the
class that owns it.

Encapsulation

A structure definition in JORF is packaged with the methods that
structure
relate to that structure. The packaging of these together is
called Encapsulation. This is an essential feature of object
Encapsulation
oriented programming.

In the following JORF Language example, the methods are declared
using the class name to identify them. The first parameter in
the method is expected to be an instance of the named class.
Additional parameters may be of any class type.

In JORF, class declarations prefix items and are separated using
a colon. In this example, the class "Dog" is created with the
statement class:dog. This class is a structure with two
class:dog
elements, name and age. These elements do not belong to any
name age
specific class. Unless otherwise indicated, they are assumed to
belong to the default class Jorf.
Jorf



The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 10














The first method shown,
Dog Years in JORF
Dog Years in JORF
Dog:Start has no
Dog:Start
parameters. The second
Class:Dog (Name, Age)
method, Dog:CalcYears
Dog:CalcYears
is called using one
Dog:Start
parameter, which must
New (Dog:D)
be an instance of the
D->Age = 7
class DOG.
Str:Put ("Age={CalcYearsFor(D)}")

The New command is a
New
Dog:CalcYearsFor (DD)
JORF Library command
Return (DD->Age * 7)
that allocates a new
instance of an object.
The first command
allocates a new instance of class Dog named "D",
Dog

When OOP academics get together, they sometimes debate the degree
of encapsulation in an OOP language. Some languages restrict the
object so only methods that belong to the object can see the
elements of the structure. This is called "data hiding". Other
languages, like JORF allow any method to examine the elements of
the structure. Although JORF does not require data be hidden,
it is still a good practice to follow when speed is not an
issue.

Inheritance

Objects may inherit methods from other objects. This is
important because it is common to declare a new class that is
very similar to an existing class. For instance, a Vendor class
Vendor
may share all of its Address fields with an Address class. By
Address
sharing the basic Address methods, you save the time that would
be needed to rewrite routines that print address labels and form
letters.

A class can "inherit" structure elements and methods from another
class. In JORF, this is done simply by declaring the parent
class in the element list of a class definition. Here is a Name
and Address class:

Class:Address ( Name, Addr1, Addr2, City, State, Zip, Tel, FAX )

And here is a class that might inherit from it:

Class:Vendor ( Address:Addr, Description, Products )

The Vendor class inherits address handling fields and methods
from the Address class, and has the additional fields Description
Description
and Products.
Products




Chapter Two, Intro To OOP 11














Note: with the exception of the colon, punctuation is ignored
class definitions. You can also make a multiple line definition
that allows you to add comments. The following two examples work
exactly the same as the Vendor class definition above.

Class:Vendor Address:Addr Description Products

Class:Vendor
Address:Addr | Name, Co, C/S/Z
Description | Distributer/Retail/Dealer or . .
.
Products | Products we buy from this vendor

In JORF, a class can have more than one parent, in which case the
order the parents are declared is significant. This is called
multiple inheritance. When a method is requested, the system
multiple inheritance
will search for the method name in the current class, and if it
is not found, will search in each parent class. If there are
parents in those classes (grandparents) they will be searched
before searching the next parent in the current class.

Polymorphism

Method names take on new importance in OOP. In third generation
Method
languages, functions and subroutines stand alone and are
referenced specifically by name. The names cannot be duplicated
in such a system, because there is no way to decide which name is
the right routine and which is the wrong routine. In the
right wrong
original version of the BASIC language, the subroutines were
referred to by line number, which guaranteed that no method would
be duplicated. In the C Language, the compiler will insure that
only one routine of a given name is compiled into the program.

Object-oriented languages reuse the same name for equivalent
methods in different classes. For instance, in JORF, each object
should have a Show method that the debugger can use when showing
Show
stack values. The stack displays screen takes each variable, and
commands it to show. Polymorphism says that if the variable
belongs to the class Address then the system will call
Address
Address:Show, but if the variable belongs to the Vendor class,
Address:Show Vendor
the system will call Vendor:Show. In The JORF Language, the
Vendor:Show
class for a method is prefixed to the name using a colon. When a
polymorphic method is called, the class of the first parameter of
parameter
the call will be the class for the method name called.

The system of deciding the right method by looking at the class
of a variable is polymorphism. Really polymorphism is a sign of
polymorphism
good OOP technique, and also a sign that you are ready for a
vacation. If you do not understand how this works now, just wait
and start programming. When you need polymorphism you will
suddenly understand how powerful this feature can be. Until
then, why make your life more complex.

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 12



































Chapter Three

The JORF Language

The JORF Data Type
The JORF Data Type

Early computers were intended to be fancy calculators. The
purpose of ENIAC, a computer built in the 1940s, was to perform
calculations for missile trajectories. At that time,
calculations were done by "Computors", people who added and
checked equations using paper and pencil. The scientists working
on ENIAC felt that three such machines could accomplish the
computing tasks for the entire country.

Fifty years later, a $10 calculator is more powerful than ENIAC,
and 10 million personal computers are sold each year in the U.S.
alone. Oddly, the basic design of the computer remains
unchanged. Computers are calculating machines that handle
integers and floating point numbers.

For a data processing tool, a computer is not very good at
handling what we would call data; data entry items and text. In
order to handle these, the computer has to be fooled into
thinking it is handling numbers. That is why ASCII code is used.
The ASCII code is a standard way to turn each letter of the
alphabet into a number. The size of an ASCII letter is one Byte.
So to compare two words to see if they are the same, the computer
must be fooled into thinking it is comparing two sets of bytes:

A computer can't compare Bear to Boo.
Bear Boo


Chapter Two, Intro To OOP 13














Instead it compares 66 101 97 114 to 66 111 111.
66 101 97 114 66 111 111

Most computer languages are oriented to Math, just like the
computers. It is interesting to note, however, that most
personal computers are used for data processing, and not math.
Most notable is the tendency in these languages to stick to the
fundamental data types that the CPU can handle. For instance, in
the overly hyped C++ language, an integer is still a 16 bit
binary number, that will overflow if greater than 65535.

The JORF Language steps away from these machine data types, and
replace them with a single type. The JORF Pointer is the only
data type in JORF, and can hold all the different types that are
available in C++. Having one data type frees you from the
responsibility of declaring a particular type, only to have it
overflow or become corrupted because your data doesn't match your
original declaration. In years past, when I designed a new
application, deciding and assigning data types in my structures
took hours and even days. Now, with JORF, I don't have to waste
this time accommodating the math oriented CPU. Instead, I just
assign JORF Pointers, and let the JORF Interpreter handle storing
my data in the most efficient way.

The JORF Pointer can represent an integer value, a floating point
integer value floating point
number, a string, a structure, an array, and a multiple line
number string structure array multiple line
block of text. It is the responsibility of The JORF Interpreter
block of text
to decide which form is the best for a given piece of data. The
interpreter does all the bounds checking necessary to insure that
a number is not truncated because it is too large, and that a
string value is properly assigned to null.

JORF pointers are temporary until they are written to file, or
become linked to a Rule. The rule system is equivalent to an
"Index" in a data base. When a JORF Pointer is linked to a Rule,
by being a member of the Rule, it is automatically written to
file for permanent storage.

When a JORF Pointer is saved, it is written in the current data
file. Any number of files may be declared, using the Jorf:File
function. These files are not "Opened" and the data is not
"Read". Instead, you give the file name using Jorf:File and the
interpreter will open and use that file. There is no distinction
between program and data in the file, and indexes are stored with
the data that is indexed. Internal pointers are relative, and
files are self sufficient, so linked files may be freely moved
and mixed without integrity problems.

Program Logic and Flow

There are three key words in The JORF Language; Class, Parent,
Class Parent
and Jorf. These key words are supplemented with Standard Library
Jorf Standard Library
Functions written in the C language and compiled into The JORF
Functions

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 14














Interpreter. This is how If, While, Win:Add, and Move:To are
If While Win:Add Move:To
implemented. The library functions are much like key words in
that they are a fixed part of the system. But they are not key
words because programmers with The JORF Developer's Kit can
change and augment these functions.

JORF is a data slinging language. Its strength lies in its
ability to automatically handle complex data structures and
implied indexes to those structures. Its weakness is in this
same accomplishment. In order to handle these structures, JORF
is disk based, and therefore slower than memory based languages.


Spaces and Indentation

Most computer languages have indentation customs that are not
enforced. In JORF, indentation actually controls program flow,
so it is required. This eliminates any need for bracket
punctuation or "END" statements.

Both Pascal and C use specific punctuation characters to direct
program flow even though indentation is also customary. This
program fragment, written in the C Language, shows a common
problem with indentation.
Although the rules of the
language say the else statement
else Misleading indentation
belongs to the preceding if
if In the C language
statement, the indentation
indicates that the else belongs
else if (a > b)
to the first if statement. Even
if if (b > c)
experienced C programmers get a=c;
frustrated by this type of else a=b;
problem because they look at
spacing and not the semicolon
positions of the various
statements.

The rules on spacing in JORF replace the end of line characters
that make C and Pascal difficult to read. In addition, good
program structure and is required for the program to run
properly. JORF generally ignores punctuation characters like the
semi-colons used in the C Language, so the program sample above
would run just fine in JORF. But, because JORF uses the
indentation to direct program flow, the else command is the
else
alternate to the first if command and not the second.
if


Class, Method and Variable Names

JORF labels are not case sensitive. "Rose" is a "rose" is a
"RoSe". This applies to methods, classes and variable names. It
is not legal to use punctuation characters in Method or Class

Chapter Three - The JORF Data Type 15














names. These names must begin with a letter, but may include
numbers. The underscore character _ is treated like a letter.
_

Legal Names Illegal Names

Move_Disk Move-Disk
Jorf:A Jorf:
Integer:_1 Integer:21
_Special:Say *Special:Say

Variable names may not be the same as any Method names. Nor may
they use the names of any C library functions. Method names may
not be quoted except for method declarations.

Methods that have parameters, must have the parameter list
enclosed in parentheses. If there are no parentheses, a method
will be called without parameters, even though valid fields
follow the method call.

(Parentheses)

Remember in Math class how Parentheses were used to change the
order of operations. Say you have an equation like:

4 + 6 * 2

If you think of it as 4 + 6, which is 10, times 2, you get the
answer 20. But if you think of it as 4, plus 6 * 2 (which is
12), you get 16. So which is it, 20 or 16? My teacher thought
that "Order of Operations" was more important than going left to
right. But I think that going left to right is more consistent
and intuitive. (Why do mathematicians make things needlessly
complex?) Anyway, the teacher and I agreed that you can make
this very clear by adding parentheses:

(4 + 6) * 2 is always 20
4 + (6 * 2) is always 16

Parentheses put items together to avoid any confusion about the
order in which to do things. Computer programming languages,
including JORF, use this system because it is clear and easy.
Parentheses are used to group elements of a command to avoid any
confusion.

Parentheses are also used to enclose the parameter list for a
method. If there are no parentheses, the function is assumed to
have no parameters. Many JORF function are commonly called
without parameters, because the default values are appropriate.

Event:Add (Null,'Key',Here) | Set a null event (To block
lower events)
Event:Add | Same thing, because of the defaults

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 16














Str:PutLine (Null) | Put a null line (to print cr-lf)
Str:PutLine | Same thing



Structure Pointers

Since Objects can be packaged into structures, it is important to
be able to Unpackage them when needed. The way to do this is to
Unpackage
use the structure pointer operator ->. This operator is created
->
using a minus sign and a right angle bracket to make a pointer.
Although this looks pretty silly when printed in the manual, it
looks good on the screen.

You pronounce the structure pointer like the possessive 's in
's
english. So "Bear->Sire->Name" is read as Bear's Sire's Name.

Class:Dog Name Age Dog:Sire Dog:Dame

Dog->Name="Bear"
Dog->Age=2

The class dog has four elements, name, age, sire and dame (mother
and father). The sire and dame are also dogs. Think of "dog" as
a package, usually, you can pass it around without knowing the
elements. But when you do want the elements, use the Structure
Pointer to name the element that you want.

Arrays

Arrays are referenced using [square brackets]. Inside the square
brackets must be a number that indicates an offset in an array.

Goat[1] = "Festus"
Goat[2] = "Josephine"

JORF arrays are not declared, and have no scope. The array is
created just by using it. The index must be a long integer.
Arrays are held in memory in blocks of 16 elements. Unlike other
languages, Arrays in JORF are not limited by available memory.


Parameters

Parameters are passed by value for single values and constants,
by value
and by reference for structures. Methods can use the Return
by reference Return
function to return a value or structure. Multiple values can be
returned by passing a structure to the method.

When parameters are missing, they are passed to the called method
as null. It is never an error in JORF to omit parameters, and


Chapter Three - The JORF Data Type 17














it is typical for methods to have default values for any missing
values. Parameter lists must be enclosed in parentheses.
Casting Method Names

In JORF, it is customary to put a class prefix on almost all
method calls. Without the prefix, a method name will be
considered to be polymorphic, and the class of the first
parameter decides which class method to use.


Writing JORF Programs

The JORF Source Level Debugger is the easiest way to edit methods
and create programs. The debugger lets you trace through
programs, examine stack values, and change methods on-the-fly.
on-the-fly
The editor includes a class browser that makes it easy to find a
class browser
method by selecting it off the browse lists. Both the debugger
and the editor are written in The JORF Language, so they are
living proof of the potential for JORF language programming.

You also can use an outside editor to edit a class file, then
read that file back into the interpreter. Since you use the
editor of your choice, you have word processing commands that
suit your own style. When you have finished editing, just start
the interpreter with the file name, and your changes are
automatically loaded.


JORF Project Files

JORF does not use program source files directly. Instead, it
reads them, parses the data and stores them in project files.
These files usually have a ".JRF" extension. For instance, JORF
is distributed, the project file TUTORIAL.JRF contains all class
TUTORIAL.JRF
definitions and methods used by the Tutorial system. Another
project file, HELP.JRF holds text screens specific to the help
HELP.JRF
system. These files may be erased when you are done with the
tutorial without affecting the functionality of the program
editing system.

While the interpreter runs, it creates a temporary project called
SWAPFILE.JRF that holds items flushed out of memory. The system
SWAPFILE.JRF
automatically erases this file when you finish. If your computer
locks up or is reset while running JORF, the next CHKDSK will
uncover this file and give it a different name. Just erase it,
the swap file is only valid for the current run of the
interpreter.






The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 18














The JORF Debugger

The source level debugger is a JORF language program that lets
you watch your program run, examine variable values, and edit
methods on-the-fly. Most debuggers just let you look at your
program run, but JORF lets you change it as it goes along. The
JORF Debugger is a true source level debugger, that doesn't
revert to ugly assembler or hexadecimal notation.

Starting the Debugger
Starting the Debugger

To start the debugger, press Ctrl-Break at any time. (Hold down
Ctrl-Break
the control key, while hitting the Break key. On an XT keyboard,
Break
the break key may be labeled Scroll Lock Break or Scroll Lock and
Scroll Lock Break Scroll Lock
is usually located next to the Num Lock key above the number
Num Lock
pad.) On an AT keyboard, it is also labeled Pause. The debugger
Pause
uses a second screen and automatically swaps just like T.V.
football where they switch between the commentator and the
action. The debugger has a series of options to allow you to
edit the program, examine the stack, or trace through the code.
Break points are set using the edit function.

The debugger is menu driven, and the menu remembers whatever you
last chose. So if you were last in Trace mode, then the debugger
starts back in trace mode. Trace mode goes from line to line as
Trace mode
the interpreter runs them. To trace into a particular line,
choose Do Line. To step over a line that may contain a method
Do Line
call, choose Next Line. You also can view the Other Screen and
Next Line Other Screen
the view stack using Show Stack. Pressing Escape is the same as
Show Stack
Continue, which exits the debugger.
Continue

Break points are set using the editor. To set a break point,
Break points
position the cursor on a line, and press F2. The line will be
F2
highlighted. If the breakpoint is already set, then it will be
released. After a break point is set, you can exit the debugger.
When that line is encountered, the debugger will started just as
if you hit Ctrl-Break on that line.
Ctrl-Break

So how come a toy programming
language has a source level debugger?

While most languages have external debuggers added on, the JORF
language is designed to have one integrated into the language.
JORF internal functions are aware of the debugger, like the line
input command that automatically checks and highlights
breakpoints and stack pointer positions.

Each JORF program stack level is a JORF structure. The first
element has the class Method and is the current line of the
Method
current method. If this element is changed, the program stack
pointer is changed. This is what allows the debugger to Back Up
Back Up
the current line pointer. The second element has the class From
From

Chapter Three - The JORF Data Type 19














and is the previous stack level. The next elements are the
parameters that were passed to the stack, and finally any
temporary values of the stack. If you examine the Show Stack
Show Stack
method of the debugger, you will quickly see that the stack,
class definitions, and structures are all stored using the same
internal mechanism.

Someday, someone important will realize how really nice it is
that a simple programming language allows such twisty access to
its own operating parameters. Not only can JORF methods read and
write themselves, they can examine and change their own stack and
calling parameters. Although Smalltalk can come close to this
ability, to program Smalltalk on the multiple processor level is
quite complicated. The JORF Language is so simple that the
entire debugger takes less than 25K of Source Code!

Using The JORF Editor

The JORF Editor is contained within the debugger and you can use
the options to Add Method, Edit Method, and Method Browse to edit
Add Method Edit Method Method Browse
a method. Whenever you are in the editor, you can press F10 to
get available keystrokes, and Alt-F10 to get help for the
Debugger Alt keys. Remember the Alt keys! They allow you to
Remember the Alt keys!
browse and call up another method, even as you edit the current
one. When you get used to debugging from a live editing screen,
and editing in a live debugger, you will find the old
Edit-Compile-Link-Debug sequence has two steps too many.
Edit-Compile-Link-Debug

The editor uses both WordStar(R) and WordPerfect(R) editing keys.
The WordStar keys are all control sequences that are known and
loved by programmers and hated by everyone else. The advantage
of WordStar keys is that you can move the cursor and do all
editing without moving your hands from the home row in the
keyboard.

WordPerfect keys simply do the functions that are marked on the
IBM PC keyboard. (Up arrow for Up, PgDn for Page Down, etc.)
Although this seems more intuitive, WordPerfect keys tend to get
rather obscure for functions that are not clearly marked, like
Home-PgUp for "Top of Form", and Control-Right arrow for "next
word". Anyway, these keys are sufficient to type and edit
methods which is why we are here.

To test this out, try adding the following method. It is really
a repeat of the first program in the Tutorial, but it will give
you some experience adding a new method to the system. From the
DOS prompt, start JORF. When prompted for a project name, type
Test. When at the Debugger Menu, select Add Method and add the
Test Add Method
following text:




The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 20














Test:Start
Msg:Add
Hello !
Welcome to JORF
Return

Fill your name where is says . Finish the new method

and run it by pressing F9 on the debugger menu. When the program
F9
is done, you will be returned to the debugger.
Edit Methods

The Edit Method menu option lets you edit the top method
Edit Method
currently being displayed. Editing a method is just the same as
adding it. Simply make your changes and when you are done, exit
and save the method. Your changes take effect immediately.

The Browser

The Browser is a really neat way of finding a method even when
you don't know the name. It works by displaying a browse list of
available classes, and when you select a class, it lists methods
for that class. Note that these browse menus scroll, so be sure
to use the page down key to see all the elements. The browser
system must build each list the first time you see it, but this
is not repeated.

Using an Outside Editor

To use an outside editor, you must write the source code as an
ASCII file, edit it, and the reload it appropriate .JRF file. To
write the source code, use Alt-W or the Write Classes option from
Alt-W Write Classes
the Debugger menu.

When you exit from JORF, you will find the source file nicely
waiting on your JORF directory. The file names will have ".J"
extensions. So the Haiku class will be in "HAIKU.J". When you
Haiku
return to the interpreter and start the file, the interpreter
will see that the time has changed on the file and will reload
it.

Translating JORF Language Programs

The JORF to C language translator is in the JORF.EXE interpreter.
There is a button option to create stand-alone files, and you
can also translate using the command line option /T.
JORF /THAIKU | Creates Haiku.C
JORF /THAIKU

Translated programs that are to be library files needs a C flag
C
set, and another delimiter so that the flags and name are
separated. "C" was chosen because most C compilers use this flag
to indicate a library compile.


Chapter Three - The JORF Data Type 21














JORF /TC/DEBUGGER
JORF /TC/DEBUGGER

If you compile a small JORF language program, the finished EXE
file will still be quite large. The Hello.J file that displays
one window compiles to be a 240K exe file. Most of this overhead
is used by the interpreter and JORF stack functions, screen
handling system, file handling and caching system, and editor
support functions. To put this another way, the JORF kernel is
about 230K, and small programs add only marginally to this.

Indexes

The JORF language features automatic indexing based on the
structure definition, and also features a rule based system you
can use to create forward and backward chaining indexes required
by expert system applications

The easiest way to index records is to use the Index key word in
Index
a structure definition. The JORF interpreter will automatically
add, delete and change the indexes whenever you change the
fields. This allows you to write complete applications without
any other reference to indexes. The following class definition
has three automatic indexes:

Class:Address
Index:Name
Addr1
Addr2
Index:City
State
Index:Zip

The three indexes will be Name, City, and Zip. The three indexes
Name City Zip
are maintained in the same file as the address, so no additional
files are needed. Indexes in the JORF language are case
insensitive, so upper and lower case do not matter. When defined
in a structure like this, indexes are automatically updated when
the record is saved. No entry is made for an index is
completely blank.

Although you cannot define a multiple field index, you can use
JORF commands to put multiple field values into a special index
field. By indexing on this composite field, you get the same
effect as if you had a true multiple field index.

There is currently a limit of 20 significant characters for a
structure definition index. If two records have identical
indexes for the first 20 characters, but differ in the 21st
character, they may appear in the wrong order.

For a detailed example of structure indexes, look at the
CONTACT.J sample file. This file uses five indexes to store

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 22














contacts by first name, last name, company name, work phone, and
zip code.


Object-Attribute-Value Triplets

JORF also contains indexes are based on a MYCIN style rule based
system. MYCIN was an expert system research project at Stanford
University in the 1970s. One result of the project was the
codification of a generalized format for logic oriented
knowledge. Logical statements are parsed into
Object-Attribute-Value triplets, that can be used for forward and
backward rule chaining. The Object-Attribute-Value Triplet is
the basis of all JORF index operations.

The names "Object", "Attribute", and "Value" are meaningless in
JORF. Originally they had various meanings, but in JORF they are
simply a way to avoid saying "Thingy One", "Thingy Two", and
"Thingy Three". It is unfortunate that the Rule "Object" and the
OOP "Object" are different things. This comes from combining two
different technologies in one product, and I don't see a way
around it.

The effectiveness of an index system is based on the number of
partial key searches that can be performed, and how those
searches can be used. The OAV Rule system allows great
flexibility in partial key searches.

The JORF "Triplet" actually has more than just
Object-Attribute-Value. The complete Rule also includes a Type,
a Probability, and a Pointer.

Type | A Number Indicates Type
Obj | JORF Pointer Object
Att | JORF Pointer Attribute
Prob | A Number For AI Probability Calculations
Val | JORF Pointer Value
Ptr | JORF Pointer A Pointer to Data

The Type is a number between 1 and 120 that indicates an index
type. Using one index files for different purposes creates data
conflicts. This Type indicator allows rules for different
purposes to be kept separate to avoid any conflicts. Types 121
through 127 are used internally by JORF, and the eighth bit (128-
255) is automatically added to String Keys.

The Object, Attribute, Value and Pointer, are simply JORF
pointers. They may be integers, floating point numbers, strings,
or blocks of text. JORF Pointers that are integers, or strings
less than 8 bytes long are stored in ascending sequential order.
This is because they are stored within the JORF pointer and are
entirely held in the Rule. Strings 8 characters or more,

Chapter Three - The JORF Data Type 23














floating point numbers, and blocks of text, must be stored in a
different location, and the JORF pointer holds a reference.
Reference values have no particular order.

Probability

I included a Probability byte in my rule structure without any
particular dogma on how it is used. There are many ways to use
and calculate probability factors and you must build your own
system using The JORF Language.

The Probability field must be a number from 127 to -127. I
suggest that you only use a factor between 1 and 100, indicating
a percent. Probability can be searched by using full values in
the Type, Object and Attribute fields, and leaving Probability
and Value blank. The system will return the Highest probability
Highest
entry with the matching fields, and if looping through the next
function, the next lower probability will be found.

You cannot search for a full rule with the Probability set to
zero. However, you can search for a partial, and then compare
Value to obtain a full key with a partial probability. This
technique is outlined in the next section String Keys.
String Keys

Generally, I always set a probability of 100 to indicate 100%. I
assume that people who wish to use probability factors will set
up their own system for searching and calculating these factors.

String Keys

Partial strings can be searched, if they are seven characters or
less. Often, Keys that need partial string searches have one or
more element that is a string truncated to the seventh character.
To retain the integrity of the item, the full string is also
stored, thus wasting an element of the rule.

One alternative is to use the String Key system. This is simply
String Key
an adaptation of the Rule system where the Attribute, Probability
and Value is replaced by String.

Type | A Number Indicates Type
Obj | JORF Pointer Object
Str | A String Value
Ptr | JORF Pointer A Pointer to Data

The Type is still a number between 1 and 120. (JORF automatically
adds the eight bit to differentiate String Keys from normal
Rules.) The String element is automatically truncated at 21
characters. Key searches are useless beyond these lengths.




The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 24














Now before you howl about your databases that have names that are
thirty characters or longer that must be indexed, let me explain
how to get around the seeming rigidity of this structure.

Say you have an address database with a class structure like
this:

Class:Address Name Address City State Zip

And you need to index the records to allow searching by Name.
Saving the Rule is quite straight forward:

Address:Save (Address)
New Rule:Rule
Rule->Type = 1
Rule->Obj = "My DataBase"
Rule->Str = Address->Name
Rule->Ptr = Address
Rule:Add (Rule)


The problem is getting the data back. The solution is to not
only search for the String value, but to check it against the
value in the database, and go next through the file until the
right one is found:

Address:Find (Name)
New Rule:Rule Address:Address
Rule->Type = 1
Rule->Obj = "My DataBase"
Rule->Str = Name
Rule:Find (Rule)
While (Rule->Fnd)
If (Rule->Str=Name)
| Found it!
Return (Rule:Ptr)
| Otherwise, try next one
Rule:Next (Rule)

One feature that is built in the Next Rule system is the ability
to look for a change in the key being searched. If the next Rule
does not match the key length of the original, then Rule->Fnd is
Rule->Fnd
will be set to False.











Chapter Three - The JORF Data Type 25


































Chapter Four


JORF Math

Many Object Oriented Languages treat math operators as Method
Calls. This is really cute when you use "+" to concatenate a
structures, and "=" to assign them. However, this is not easy to
implement and leads to a host of problems. For instance, to
implement "+", you have to create a language syntax between
between
operators. This is the reason Smalltalk program lines are
scrambled, and C++ has an involved "Friend" system.

When this is all done, it is hard to figure out how to handle a
"+" between different types of objects. You can create a method
for Dog + Dog, but what about Dog + Penguin? Is that a Doguin or
Dog + Dog Dog + Penguin Doguin
a Pog? And you have slowed down all regular math processing just
Pog
to implement this difficult to use feature.

For about two months, JORF used this math technique. But there
were so many kludges to make the syntax work, keep order of
operations, and enhance speed that the entire system was not
simple and intuitive. So, I dumped the concept and went to a
stack oriented math system like that in BASIC, PASCAL and C
language.

The JORF system solves math operations automatically as the
programming line is executed. The line is executed from Right to
Right to
Left (the opposite of how you read). As each Method or Function
Left
is called, any adjacent Math expressions are completed.



The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 26














Win:Add (To:Caps(Title), LastRow+2, LastColumn+5, 0, 0,
Here)

JORF first performs Here. Then it reads the line back to the
Here
To:Caps function. Before performing it, it evaluates the math
To:Caps
expressions LastRow+2 and LastColumn+5 even though they are
LastRow+2 LastColumn+5
unrelated to To:Caps. Until JORF calls a function it doesn't
To:Caps
know how many parameters that function takes. To:Caps Title will
To:Caps Title
return the contents of Title capitalized. Finally, the Win:Add
Win:Add
function is called.

Order of Operations

Mathematic operations are handled in the following order. This
is essentially the same as the C language:

-> Pointer References
[] Array References
- ! ~ ++ -- Unary operations
* / % Multiplication
+ - Addition
< > <= >= Evaluation
== != Equality
& ^ ? Bitwise operators
&& ?? And Or Logical AND and OR
= Assignment



























Chapter Four - JORF Math 27
















Math Functions Reference


Addition (+)



Symbol +

Purpose Add numbers, concatenate strings.

Notes The plus sign adds numbers if both sides are numbers,
and if one or both operands are strings then they are
concatenated. Although it would make sense, multiple
line Texts are not concatenated, and are handle only as
the current line of text. Also structures and arrays
are not concatenated.

Examples
1 + 5 = 6
2 + 78.8 = 80.8
5 + "A" = 5A
To:Str(3) + To:Str(3) = "33"
65535 + 1 = 65536


Assignment (=)



Symbol =

Purpose Assign a value to a variable.

Notes Assigns the value of the right operand to the left
operand. Usually, only the value is assigned and not
the class. If the destination has no declared class,
and the source does, the destination will take on both
the class and value of the source.

Assignment may be made to structure elements and
arrays. You cannot assign "To" a constant value.
Single data items are assigned by value, but structures
and text are assigned by reference.

Examples

A = 6 | A is now equal to 6
Addr->Addr1="2343 Main Street" | Sets the Addr1 element of Addr
Addr[4] = Addr | Sets the fourth array element

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 28














"Three" = 2 | Nonsense! Three is a constant
Three = 2 | If three is a variable, O.K.



Bitwise AND (&)



Symbol &

Purpose AND the bits of two integers.

Notes You have to be into Bitwise arithmetic to use this
command. And you have to understand how numbers are
handled in hexadecimal. Basically, two numbers are
tested bit by bit to see if the same bit is set. If it
is, then it remains in the result. If not, it is
eliminated from the result.

A common use of this command is to test whether two
logical values are true. For this test, I recommend
using the Logical AND, and not the Bitwise AND.

Floating point numbers are converted to integers.
Strings like "55" are converted to their numeric value
before testing.

Examples
4 & 7 = 4 | Binary 0100 Anded to 0111 is 0100
9 & 7 = 1 | Binary 1001 Anded to 0111 is 0001



Bitwise OR (?)



Symbol ?

Purpose OR the bits of two integers.

Notes Ok, I assume by now you are sadistic and like working
with bits. You should use the Logical OR if you are
testing logical values (True/False). Floating point
numbers are converted to integers. Strings like "55"
are converted to their numeric value before testing.

While most math symbols are from the C language, the |
symbol is used to demark comments in JORF. So the
question mark ? is used for "Or".


Chapter Four - JORF Math 29














Examples
4 ? 7 = 7 | Binary 0100 Ored to 0111 is 0111
9 ? 7 = 15 | Binary 1001 Ored to 0111 is 1111



Bitwise XOR (^)



Symbol ^

Purpose Exclusive OR of two integer values.

Notes The uses of XOR are specialized, and you know who you
are. Bits are set here if they are set in Either of
the source operands, but not both.

Oddly, Exclusive OR is commonly used for bitmap images.
When you XOR an image once it is displayed, and the
second time erases it. Other than in graphics, and
deep CPU processes, I have not seen XOR used in any
"Real" programming.

I am a consistency buff, and since I gave you AND, I
have to give you OR and XOR. That is all.

Examples
4 ^ 7 = 3 | Binary 0100 Xored to 0111 is 0011
9 ^ 7 = 14 | Binary 1001 Xored to 0111 is 1110



Decrement (--)



Symbol --

Purpose Subtract one from a number.

Notes It is a common operation in programs to have loop
counters that count up by one, or down by one. These
are so common in assembler that there are real assembly
instructions to do just these operations.

I'm afraid the JORF Translate and compile system is not
efficient enough to compile to the assembler decrement
instruction, but it is still a good concept and a
logical part of the language.



The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 30














The Decrement operator must be IN FRONT of the operand,
and not behind as allowed in the C language. This
operator simply subtracts one from the operand.

Examples
Num = Num - 1 | Normal Decrementing
--Num | But -- is shorter, easier.

Decr:Start
New Num
Win:Add ("Showing Decrement", 4,4,12,30, Here)
Num = 10
While (Num > 0) | Loop until zero
Str:PutLine("Number = " + Num) | Put 'Number = 10'
--Num
Str:PutLine ("Done")
Win:Pause
Return


Division (/)



Symbol /

Purpose Divide two numbers.

Notes You remember how to do long division don't you? Well
the computer does, and this is what you need to do it.

The JORF language is unusual in that it does the type
conversions necessary when division yields a fractional
result. Most languages truncate the result of integer
division. You should be especially careful when using
division to calculate screen position, because the
fractional result is not the same as the truncated
result:

Move:To (2, (30-Str:Len "Hi Jo")/2)
becomes Move:To (2, (30-5)/2)
becomes Move:To (2, 25/2)
becomes Move:To (2, 12.5)
becomes Move:To (2, 13)
Not Move:To (2, 12) as it would in C or Pascal.

Examples
12 / 2 = 5
60000 / 100 = 600
12.5 / .5 = 25



Chapter Four - JORF Math 31















Equality (= or ==)



Symbol = or ==

Purpose Check to see if two numbers, strings or structures are
equal. Checks text only for the current line, not the
whole text.

Notes Returns TRUE if the left operand is equal to the right
operand.

When I was a BASIC programmer, I could never discern
the difference between checking for Equality, and
assigning a value. To me, the both were "Equals".

The C language not only warns of this ambiguity, but
does not work correctly at all if you ignore the
warnings. It does exactly what you tell it, assigns or
checks, and not what you want it to do.

So JORF treads the line. For BASIC programmers, the =
sign can be used for both equality checking and also
for assignment. For C programmers, use == for
equality, and = for assignment. In all examples, I
will use == because it is more robust.

Examples
A = 1 | Assignment of 1 to A
If (A == 2) | Check equality, is A equal to 2?
Str:PutLine ("A is 2")
Else
Str:PutLine ("A is Not 2") | Will print this line




Increment (++)



Symbol ++

Purpose Add one to a counter.

Notes It is a common operation in programs to have loop
counters that count up by one, or down by one. These
are so common in assembler that there are real assembly
instructions to do just these operations.


The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 32














I'm afraid the JORF Translate and compile system is not
efficient enough to compile to the assembler decrement
instruction, but it is still a good concept and a
logical part of the language.

The Increment operator must be IN FRONT of the operand,
and not behind as allowed in the C language. This
operator simply adds one to operand.


Examples
Num = Num + 1 | Normal Decrementing
++Num | But -- is shorter, easier.

Incr:Start
New Num
Win:Add ("Showing Increment", 4,4,12,30, Here)
Num = 0
While (Num < 10) | Loop until zero
++Num
Str:PutLine ("Number = "+Num) | Put 'Number = 1'
Str:PutLine ("Done")
Win:Pause
Return


Inequality (!= or <>)


Symbol != or <>

Purpose Test to see if two numbers are not equal.

Notes I could never decide whether I like the BASIC <> or the
C language != better. I know that I hate the Clipper
ambiguity where they are slightly different. So, in
JORF they are exactly the same, but you can use either
symbol. Since learning C brings higher salaries than
learning BASIC, I usually use the != (! means Not, =
Means Equals; Not-Equals) in my examples.


Examples
A = 1 | Assignment of 1 to A
If (A != 2) | Check equality, is A equal to 2?
Str:PutLine ("A is not 2") | Will print this line







Chapter Four - JORF Math 33















Greater Than (>)



Symbol >

Purpose Test to see if the first operand is greater than the
second.

Notes Returns True if the First operand is greater than the
second. Type conversion is the same as assignment.
Numbers are compared numerically, and strings are
compared as strings. String comparison is not case
sensitive.

Examples
1 > 5 False
"B" > "A" True
"B" > "a" True
"B" > 1 True because 1 is converted to "1"
"33" > 111 True because "33" is converted to 33



Greater Than or Equal To (>=)



Symbol >=

Purpose Test to see if the first operand is greater or equal to
the second.

Notes Returns True if the First operand is greater than or
equal to the second. Type conversion is the same as
assignment. Numbers are compared numerically, and
strings are compared as strings. String comparison is
not case sensitive.

Reversing the symbols to be => has no meaning in JORF.

Examples
1 >= 5 False
"B" >= "A" True
"B" >= "b" True
"B" >= 1 True because 1 is converted to "1"
"33" >= 33 True because "33" is converted to 33





The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 34















Less Than (<)



Symbol <

Purpose Test to see if the first operand is less than the
second.

Notes Returns True if the First operand is less than the
second. Type conversion is the same as assignment.
Numbers are compared numerically, and strings are
compared as strings. String comparison is not case
sensitive.

Examples
1 < 5 True
"B" < "A" False
"B" < "a" False
"B" < 1 False because 1 is converted to "1"
"33" < 111 False because "33" is converted to 33



Less Than or Equal To (<=)



Symbol <=

Purpose Test to see if the first operand is less than or equal
to the second.

Notes Returns True if the First operand is less than or equal
to the second. Type conversion is the same as
assignment. Numbers are compared numerically, and
strings are compared as strings. String comparison is
not case sensitive.

Reversing the symbol has no meaning in the current
version. There is no =< operation.

Examples
1 <= 5 True
"B" <= "A" False
"B" <= "b" True
"B" <= 1 False because 1 is converted to "1"
"33" > 111 False because "33" is converted to 33




Chapter Four - JORF Math 35















Logical AND (&&)



Symbol && or And

Purpose Test whether two logical values are both True.

Notes An If statement uses the Logical And to make two tests
at once. Each operand may be a test for equality, or
may be a test for null. In JORF, Null, FALSE and Zero
are exactly the same.

The word "And" may now be used as a synonym for &&. It
looks better, but gives And a funny status as kinda-a-
key-word.

The AND statement always evaluates both sides, without
shortcuts as in the C language.

Example

AndTest:Start
New A, B
A = 4
B = 2
Win:Add ("And Test", 0, 0, 10, 60, Here)
If (A And B)
Str:PutLine ("Test 1, Both A and B have values")
If (A & B)
Str:PutLine ("Test 2, Logical And/Bitwise & are different")
If (A < 5 And B > 4)
Str:PutLine ("Test 3, Use And to connect compound tests")
Win:Pause
Return



Logical NEGATION (!)



Symbol ! or Not

Purpose Test whether a logical values is not true.

Notes You can reverse a logical statement using the logical
NOT. It is usually more desirable to reverse the
logical test, especially if mixing Not, And and OR.
Returns true if the operand is FALSE, Null or Zero.


The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 36














The word "Not" may now be used as a synonym for !. It
looks better, but gives And a funny status as kinda-a-
key-word.

Example
NotTest:Start
New A, B
A = 4
B = 0
Win:Add ("Not Test", 0, 0, 10, 60, Here)
If (Not A)
Str:PutLine ("Test 1, A is not 'True'")
If (Not A And Not B)
Str:PutLine ("Test 2, Not can be ambiguous")
If Not (A < 5 And B < 5)
Str:PutLine ("Test 3, Use Not to reverse a test")
Win:Pause
Return



Logical OR (??)



Symbol ?? or Or

Purpose Test whether one or the other of two logical values are
True.

Notes An If statement uses the Logical Or to make two
tests at once. Each operand may be a test for
equality, or may be a test for null. In JORF,
Null, FALSE and Zero are exactly the same.

The word "Or" may now be used as a synonym for ??. It
looks better, but gives And a funny status as kinda-a-
key-word.

You should be careful mixing And and Or in the same
expression. Doing so can make the statement ambiguous.
To avoid this, use parentheses so that each test
contains just one And or one Or.

Example

OrTest:Start
New A, B, C
A = 4
B = 0
C = 6
Win:Add ("Or Test", 0, 0, 10, 60, Here)

Chapter Four - JORF Math 37














If (A Or B)
Str:PutLine ("Test 1, One of A or B has a values")
If (A Or B And C)
Str:PutLine ("Test 2, Mixing can be ambiguous")
If ((A Or B) And C)
Str:PutLine ("Test 3, But Parentheses makes it clear")
Win:Pause
Return



Modulus (%)



Symbol %

Purpose Return the Integer remainder of Integer division.

Notes The Modulus operator is used in conjunction with
counters to create cycles. A cycle is a set of values
that loop. To turn a numeric counter into the cycle 0,
1, 2, 3, 4, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 you use the
modulus of 5.

0 % 5 = 0 7 % 5 = 2 14 % 5 = 4
1 % 5 = 1 8 % 5 = 3 15 % 5 = 0
2 % 5 = 2 9 % 5 = 4 16 % 5 = 1
3 % 5 = 3 10 % 5 = 0 17 % 5 = 2
4 % 5 = 4 11 % 5 = 1 18 % 5 = 3

5 % 5 = 0 12 % 5 = 2 19 % 5 = 4
6 % 5 = 1 13 % 5 = 3 20 % 5 = 0

Examples My favorite is the use of modulus in the ASCII.J file.
This program uses modulus start a new line every 16th
character.

Ascii:Start
New Char
Win:Add("ASCII TABLE", 4, 4, 19, 74, Here)

For (Char = 0 Thru 15)
Move:To(1,(Char*4)+10)
Str:Put(To:Str(Char))
Move:To(Char+3,1)
Str:Put(To:Str(Char*16))

Move:To(2,1)
Win:Attr("Lo")
For (Char = 0 Thru 255)
If (Char % 16) == 0
Move:By(1,0)

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 38














Move:To(0,10)
Char:Put(Char)
Move:By(0,3)
Win:Msg("Press Enter to Continue")
Win:Pause
Return



Multiplication (*)


Symbol *

Purpose Multiply numbers.

Notes Two numbers are multiplied. If the numbers are
integers, and the result is very large, it may be
converted to floating point. Multiplication of
floating point numbers can result in an integer
result.

Examples
20 * 55.5 = 1110
22.4 * 4 = 89.2


Negation (-)



Symbol -

Purpose Negates a number.

Notes Unary negation is done by preceding any expression
with a minus sign. This symbol negates the value.
Parentheses are recommended to avoid ambiguity
with the subtraction operation.

The most common use is to pass a negative number to a
function. Negative numbers.

Examples The Windows program displays a few windows. Positive
Row and Column positions are offsets from the top left
corner. Negative Row and Column positions are offsets
from the bottom right corner. No matter how big or
small the screen, these boxes will be placed in the
same relative positions.

Windows:Start
Win:Add ("Big", 2, 2, -2, -2)

Chapter Four - JORF Math 39














Win:Add ("Top Right", 3, 3, 3, 15)
Win:Add ("Bottom Right",-3, 3, 3, 15)
Win:Add ("Bottom Left", -3, -3, 3, 15)
Win:Add ("Top Left", 3, -3, 3, 15)
Win:Add ("Tall", 3, 45, -4, 10)
Win:Add ("Wide", 10, 3, 3, -4)
Win:Pause
Return Ok



One's Complement (~)

Symbol ~

Purpose Turn all on-bits off, and off-bits on.

Notes This is the last of the Bit Twiddling functions,
that goes with the other bitwise functions. The
use for this symbol is to create a negative mask,
used to unset a bit. In a high level language
like JORF, this use is not common.

Floating point numbers are converted to integers.
Strings like "55" are converted to their numeric value
before testing.

Examples

7 | Binary 0111
~7 | Binary 1000
14 &~ 4 = 10 | Binary 1110 Anded to 1011 is 1010
9 &~ 7 = 1 | Binary 1001 Anded to 1000 is 1000


Subtraction (-)



Symbol -

Purpose Subtract two numbers.

Notes The plus sign adds numbers if both sides are
numbers, and if one or both operands are strings
then they are concatenated. Although it would
make sense, multiple line Texts are not
concatenated, and are handle only as the current
line of text. Also structures and arrays are not
concatenated.

Examples

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 40














1 - 5 = -4
78.8 - 2 = 76.8
65536 - 1 = 65535


















































Chapter Four - JORF Math 41




































Chapter Five


Window Manager Reference

The biggest change in Version 2.0 of JORF was the introduction of
a Window Management system for handling pull down and pop up
menus, hypertext prompts, radio buttons, check boxes, and data
entry fields.

Like many other features in the JORF language, there is no
prototype for the syntax of this system in any other language.
Instead, it has been born out of six months of evolution and
development. Even as it is now released, this system is subject
to change.

The impetus for this system is simple. The sample programs that
had any real data entry were much to large to be viable programs
for novices. And even experts should resent the time it takes in
any language to do a redundant task like handle a menu or a data
entry prompt. The addition of more complex menu types, buttons
and check boxes in Microsoft Windows only serve to complicate
this task.

The JORF window management system is handled entirely within the
Win:Add function. The syntax of the JORF window management
system uses one command line for each data entry feature on the
screen. Command lines start with a command word and a quoted
prompt string. Various values can be added on the same line, or
on indented lines below the command. Different commands use

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 42














different values. Data entry will be in the order of the
command lines.

Event:Add ("EditKey")
Win:Add ("Title", Row, Col, Len, Wid, Level)
Command:"Prompt", Option:"value", Option:"value"
Option:"More Values can be Indented"
Option:"For as many lines as necessary"
Command:"Prompt", Option:"value", Option:"value"
Command:"Prompt", Option:"value", Option:"value"
You can also place a text paragraph at the bottom. The
system looks for the keyword and colon (:) character and
if they are absent will print the rest of the indented
screen definition as a text paragraph.

You can embed commands within text by enclosing some
commands in {Command:"Curly brackets, Option:"value"}.
This can be used for hypertext prompts and buttons that
are embedded in the text.
Return

You can see in the above example, there are a number of complex
rules for declaring comments.

Indented Text is subordinate to the Win:Add command. There
Indented Text
can be additional indentations, but the window definition
ends at the end of the function or the next unindented
command.

The Command section is always the first section in a window
Command section
definition. It continues as long as there is a Colon in the
Colon
first expression of the line. If the expression is not a
valid command word an error is displayed.


The Text Section begins on the first line where there is No
Text Section No
Colon. Some commands, notably the Prompt command that is
Colon
used for hypertext, can be included in the text section if
it is surrounded by Curly Brackets.
Curly Brackets

Commands are denoted with colon characters, but they are
unrelated to class definitions found elsewhere in the JORF
language. After months of experimentation with other characters,
it was decided that you are probably used to seeing colons, and
they maintain a normal "look" in this language. Prompts and
commands are handled as JORF language values. They are quoted if
they are strings, but not if they are numeric. If they are
unquoted, they are assumed to be stack values.

The following is a summary of command values:

Array:"" An array pick list
Button:"Prompt" A button

Chapter Five - Window Manager Reference 43














ChBox:"Prompt" A check box
Group:"Prompt" A group box (single line box)
Input:"Prompt" A data entry field
List:"" A record pick list
Menu:"Prompt" A menu bar option
MLine:"Prompt" A menu line option
Prompt:"Prompt" A hypertext prompt
Radio:"Prompt" A radio button
String:"String to Display" A string (no data entry)
Text:"" A data entry field

Keystroke handling is done by a combination of event system and
automatic commands. Every keystroke is first passed through the
even handling system. There is an event class called EditKey
EditKey
built into the interpreter that is the default key handler. For
your window to operate properly, you must set the Editkey class
Editkey
using the Event:Add command.
Event:Add

Event:Add ("EditKey")

This handler takes care of all letters and numbers, handles
WordStar style control key functions, handles WordPerfect style
Home, End and Page keys, and handles Arrow Keys. This handler
also calls Jorf:Help when you hit F1, and finishes the screen
when you hit F10. Finally, the handler passes all Alt keys back
Alt
to JORF so they can be handled automatically.

You can create a substitute handler for some or all keys. The
advantage of the Event handling system is that you can layer key
definitions, allowing you to change defaults for a few keys
without having to redefine an entirely new handler. You might
make a handler that makes the F7 key save the screen, instead of
F10. To use it you simply create a new class and define the
routines.

MyKeys:F7_Key
Return (EditKey:FinishEdit ("Save"))| Execute Finish and Return

MyKeys:F10_Key
Return ('F10_Key') | Block F10 from further processing

The first method does what F10 would normally do, execute the
FinishEdit function to save the data. (The alternative is
FinishEdit "Quit" which is called by the Escape key.) The second
method simply blocks the F10 key from further processing.
Keystrokes continue processing through event methods as long as
they return Null, even if they did take other actions. As soon
as an event returns a value, even if it is the same value as the
original key, event processing is completed.




The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 44














The above definition is a complete event class that redefines to
keystrokes. To use this class, layered above the normal Editkey
class, means you use the Event:Add function twice:
Event:Add

Event:Add ("EditKey") | Normal Key Processing
Event:Add ("MyKey") | Substitute for F7, F10
Win:Add ("Title", . . .)
...
Return

You can use this system to trap and change any keystroke. This
layering allows you to add new functionality to any key, above

what is already defined. This is especially useful for defining
special Function keys that do application specific functions.

The complete EditKey class is given in source code form with the
JORF Link Libraries. Having this code gives you the source code
you need to create your own word processing system. This source
code is written in the JORF language, and is translated and
compiled to the C language.

Windows Function keys
Windows Function keys

Handling of keystrokes between fields conforms basically to the
CUA standard supported by Microsoft Windows. That means there
are pre-defined keys that you should use in your programs. Here
is a list of keys built into JORF.


Key Function Who does it

F1 Help You program this.
F10 Menu Bar Automatic
F3 "Save" Automatic (Editkey)
Tab Next Input or Button Automatic (Editkey)
Back-Tab Previ Input or Button Automatic
Alt-Keys Jump to menu/button Automatic
Arrow Keys Up and Down Automatic (Editkey)
Enter Key on Button Executes Button Automatic
Enter Key on Field Goes to next field Automatic (Editkey)
Space bar on radio Toggles button Automatic
Escape Key Exits Window Automatic (Editkey)
Ctrl-F4 Key Exits Window Automatic (Hotkey)
Alt-X Exits Application Automatic (Hotkey)
Alt-F4 Key Exits Application Automatic (Hotkey)

Items marked "Editkey" and "Hotkey" have methods in the editkey
and hotkey classes. You can create another keystroke handling
class that redefines these keys. Those labeled Automatic are
hard-coded in the system and you cannot change them. As
mentioned above, you can use the event system to change the


Chapter Five - Window Manager Reference 45














actions of these keys to conform to the standard, or to create
your own system.



Windows Alt Keys
Windows Alt Keys

You can include an ampersand (&) character within any prompt to
create an Alt key accelerator. In the JORF language, these are
handled automatically by the window management system. Under
DOS, Alt keys are highlighted, and in Windows programs they are
underlined when in menus, and highlighted when in screens.

Windows programmers may note that under windows, JORF uses the
Windows menu handling system. However, the dialog box system was
not flexible enough to match to the DOS system, so JORF handles
data entry fields without using the Default windows system.
Radio Buttons and Check boxes are a weird hybrid, where the
buttons are defined as child windows, but the prompts and Alt
keys are handled entirely by JORF and not by Windows.

In addition to highlighted prompts, you can create keyboard
Accelerators. These are simply extra keystroke prompts in menus
Accelerators
that perform functions without invoking the menu. In the
debugger, most of the debugger commands have accelerators like F8
to step to the next line, instead of Alt-D, Alt-S that you would
Alt-D Alt-S
have to use to invoke the menu option.

To define an accelerator, you must use a key handler class
layered above the normal Editkey class. For the debugger, there
is a debugger class that contains a Debugger:F8_Key method just
Debugger:F8_Key
for handling the "Step" option. To define an accelerator in a
menu, you must have at least two spaces between the prompt and
the notation for the accelerator and you should right align your
accelerator prompts by hand.

Alt Keys within Data Entry Windows
Alt Keys within Data Entry Windows

You can highlight Alt key prompts for every data entry field,
Alt
group box, or radio button on a screen. As a person who has
designed such screens for almost 10 years, this ability is
provides greatest ease of access I have ever experienced.

Any screen that grows larger than 8 prompts gets to be a pain to
change. Most programs start your cursor on the top, and you have
to arrow down through the fields to get to the one you want to
change. In the last two years, I have done some contracted
modifications to a program that has more than 18 fields on the
first screen, and the most common to change are often the last
seven. Every time an operator needs to change this one field,
they must press the down arrow at least 10 times!


The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 46














If you use your Alt keys and group boxes, you can make this
Alt
cursor movement unnecessary. Pressing Alt and the highlighted
Alt
letter of an input prompt will bring you immediately to that
prompt. If there are too many prompts, group similar ones using
group boxes that themselves have a highlighted letter. You can
see an example of that in the contact manager program CONTACT.J



Array


Command Array:""

Purpose A pick list of array elements.

Options Row:10 Set Row
Col:10 Set Column
Wid:10 Set Width of List
Len:3 Set Length of List
After:"Expr" Expression is executed after list..
Before:"Expr" Expression is executed. If false cannot
pick from list.
Field:"Fldname" Command to execute for Next Record
Choice:"Field" Command to execute for Prev Record

Defaults Row One row below previous command. If the
previous command is a Group Box, then Row,
Col, Wid and Len default to the inside
dimensions of the box.
Col Same column as previous command.
Wid 30
Len 1

Highlight Arrays are highlighted like menus. No cursor is
displayed, even when the array has focus.

See Also List.

Notes This command works like List, but operates only on
arrays and is much faster. The fact that it works on
arrays limits the size of the data you can edit, but
this is a good vehicle for pick lists up to a thousand
elements.

Example See the File Open routine in CONTACT.J
CONTACT.J







Chapter Five - Window Manager Reference 47















ChBox



Command ChBox:"&Prompt"

Purpose A Check Box.

Options Row:10 Set row.
Col:10 Set column.
Wid:20 Set width of highlighted prompt.
Check:"Expr" Box is checked if Expression is True.
Action:"Expr" Expression is executed when box is
selected.
Before:"Expr" Expression is executed. If false box
cannot be selected.

Defaults Row One row below previous command.
Col Same column as previous command. If previous
command as Group, column is incremented to be
inside of the group box.
Wid Prompt width

Highlight Prompt is highlighted when box is selected. Pressing
Enter will check the box. Pressing the space bar will
advance the cursor without checking the box.

See Also Radio

Notes Check boxes are boxes that contain an X if selected,
and are empty if not selected. They are commonly used
for selections that are cumulative. Radio buttons
should be used when selections are mutually exclusive.


Default Row is the row below the previous command.
Default column is the same as the pre



Button



Command Button:"&Prompt"

Purpose A Button.

Options Row:10 Set Row
Col:10 Set Column
Wid:10 Set Width of Button

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 48














Len:3 Set Length of Button
Action:"Expr" Expression is executed when box is
selected.
Before:"Expr" Expression is executed. If false box
cannot be selected.

Defaults Row One row below previous command.
Col Same column as previous command. If previous
command as Group, column is incremented to be
inside of the group box.
Wid Prompt width plus two spaces on each side.
Len 3.

Highlight In the DOS version, the button is highlighted.
Pressing Enter will select the button. Pressing the
space bar will advance the cursor without selecting the
button. I have not yet discovered how to highlight the
Windows Button.

Notes Buttons are used to complete screens or to select major
options. They are not generally used for data entry
purposes. The minimum length for a button in JORF is 3
lines. You cannot create "little" buttons.



Group



Command Group:"&Prompt"

Purpose A Group Box.

Options Row:10 Set Row
Col:10 Set Column
Wid:40 Set Width of Box
Len:6 Set Length of Box

Defaults Row One row below previous command.
Col Same column as previous command. If previous
command as Group, column is incremented to be
inside of the group box.

Highlight Group boxes can never be selected, and are never
highlighted. If a group box has an Alt key letter, and
Alt
that key is pressed, the first field within the group
box is highlighted.

Notes A Group box is a single line box that surrounds one or
more data entry fields. They are commonly used for


Chapter Five - Window Manager Reference 49














surrounding related fields, and for surrounding
multiple line text fields.

A feature of the group boxes in JORF is to be able to
use an Alt key to move to the first field of the box.
Alt



Input



Command Input:"&Prompt"

Purpose An Input Field.

Options Row:10 Set Row
Col:10 Set Column
Wid:10 Set Width of Data Entry
Len:3 Set Length of Data Entry
After:"Expr" Expression is executed after input..
Before:"Expr" Expression is executed. If false input
is skipped.
Field:"Value" Field Value to be entered.

Defaults Row One row below previous command.
Col Same column as previous command. If previous
command as Group, column is incremented to be
inside of the group box.
Wid 30
Len 1

Highlight Input fields are highlighted with attribute 4 when not
active, and attribute 5 when they are being edited.
Also, the cursor is displayed when they are being
edited. The prompt is never highlighted.

See Also Text.

Notes Input is used to enter single line prompts and small
multi line prompts. Data entry fields are highlighted
both during entry and when displayed on the screen.











The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 50















List


Command List:""

Purpose A pick list of records.

Options Row:10 Set Row
Col:10 Set Column
Wid:10 Set Width of List
Len:3 Set Length of List
After:"Expr" Expression is executed after list..
Before:"Expr" Expression is executed. If false cannot
pick from list.
Next:"Expr" Command to execute for Next Record
Prev:"Expr" Command to execute for Prev Record
Show:"Expr" Command to execute to display entry


Defaults Row One row below previous command. If the
previous command is a Group Box, then Row,
Col, Wid and Len default to the inside
dimensions of the box.
Col Same column as previous command.
Wid 30
Len 1

Highlight Lists are highlighted like menus. When the list
position is changed using the mouse or arrow keys, the
screen is automatically redisplayed. No cursor is
displayed, even when the list has focus.

See Also Array.

Notes This has got to be my favorite window feature. This
command is used to display information that is
contained in different records, where an Array list can
only display arrays. Since you control the next and
prev functions, it is easy to make the list indexed, to
filter it, and to format the displayed text.

Lists are relatively slow, since it takes several
record reads to display several records. For this
reason, you should keep your lists as short as you can,
since this limits the number of records required for a
display operation.

Example See CONTACT.J, especially what happens when you change
CONTACT.J
your index to the Zip code index.



Chapter Five - Window Manager Reference 51















Menu



Command Menu:"&Prompt"

Purpose A Menu Bar or Menu Line.

Options Action:"Expr" Expression to execute when
selected.
Menu:"&Prompt" (Indented) SubMenu Options

See Also MLine.

Notes The Menu command is used for Menu bars and associated
pull down menu boxes. Each menu command contains
either an Action, or it has indented sub-menu commands
below. A menu option cannot have both.

The top level menu is assumed to be a menu bar on the
top of the current window. To force top level menu to
be menu lines, use MLine. All indented sub-menu
commands are menu lines, even when declared using the
Menu command.



MLine



Command MLine:"&Prompt"

Purpose A Menu Line.

Options Action:"Expr" Expression to execute when
selected.
Menu:"&Prompt" (Indented) SubMenu Options

See Also Menu.

Notes The MLine command is used to force a menu to use menu
lines, even when it is a top level menu. For Menu
bars, use Menu.








The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 52















Prompt



Command Prompt:"&Prompt"

Purpose A Highlightable Prompt.

Options Row:10 Set Row
Col:10 Set Column
Wid:30 Set Width of highlight area.
Action:"Expr" Executes Expression when selected.
Before:"Expr" Executes Expression, If false prompt
cannot be selected.

Defaults Row One row below previous command. If used in
brackets in text, defaults to current text
position.
Col Same column as previous command. If previous
command as Group, column is incremented to be
inside of the group box. If used in brackets
in text, defaults to current text position.

Highlight Prompts are highlighted when they are active. Pressing
Enter when highlighted will select the prompt.
Pressing the space bar will move the cursor downward.

See Also String.

Notes Prompts are used primarily for Hypertext. In this
case, they are commonly defined within the text in
curly brackets. For prompts that are never
highlighted, like screen subtitles or text, see String.

Prompts may also be aligned in a row, producing a menu
bar menu in the middle of a text screen. You can see
an example of this usage in the opening screen of The
JORF Tutorial, where the last six options are a "Prompt
Menu"



Radio



Command Radio:"&Prompt"

Purpose A Radio Button.

Options Row:10 Set row.

Chapter Five - Window Manager Reference 53














Col:10 Set column.
Wid:20 Set width of highlighted prompt.
Check:"Expr" Box is checked if Expression is True.
Action:"Expr" Expression is executed when box is
selected.
Before:"Expr" Expression is executed. If false box
cannot be selected.

Defaults Row One row below previous command.
Col Same column as previous command. If previous
command as Group, column is incremented to be
inside of the group box.
Wid Prompt width

Highlight Prompt is highlighted when box is selected. Pressing
Enter will check the box. Pressing the space bar will
advance the cursor without checking the box.

See Also ChBox

Notes Radio buttons are circular boxes that contain a dot if
selected and are empty if not selected. They are
commonly used for selections that are exclusive. Use
Check boxes for selections that are cumulative.



String



Command String:"&Prompt"

Purpose An unhighlited prompt.

Options Row:10 Set Row
Col:10 Set Column

Defaults Row One row below previous command. If used in
brackets in text, defaults to current text
position.
Col Same column as previous command. If previous
command as Group, column is incremented to be
inside of the group box. If used in brackets
in text, defaults to current text position.

Highlight Strings are never highlighted. If they contain an Alt
Alt
key selection, and that key is pressed, the next
following entry item is highlighted.

See Also Prompt.


The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 54














Notes Strings are used to place plain text at certain row and
column positions on data entry screens. Strings are
never highlighted.


Text



Command Text:""

Purpose A text input area.

Options Row:10 Set Row
Col:10 Set Column
Wid:60 Set Width of Data Entry
Len:6 Set Length of Data Entry
After:"Expr" Expression is executed after input..
Before:"Expr" Expression is executed. If false input
is skipped.
Field:"Value" Field Value to be entered.

Defaults Row One row below previous command.
Col Same column as previous command. If previous
command as Group, column is incremented to be
inside of the group box.
Wid If previous command was a group box, width is
set to the inside width of the group box.
Len If previous command was a group box, length
is set to the inside length of the group box.

Highlight Text fields are not highlighted like input fields.
They remain the normal background color, even during
data entry. The cursor is displayed when a text box is
being edited. It is not common to prompt Text input
fields.

See Also Input.

Notes Text fields are similar to input fields, except for the
highlighting. Word processing is usually easier using
the normal screen color, instead of the field highlight
color. Text input uses the screen color.










Chapter Five - Window Manager Reference 55

































Chapter Six

Library Functions Reference

In JORF, as in all object oriented languages, a Method for one
object often invokes a method for another object. This process
continues until finally, a low level object invokes a library
routine. For example the command Print integer:A invokes the
Integer:Print Method that may then invoke the Number:Print Method
that invokes the Jorf:Print Method. At some point, control is
passed to the underlying system that prints the data.

The JORF Function library is implemented in the C language. This
library is not object oriented nor is it interpreted so there is
no ability for polymorphism or inheritance on this level. JORF
Library calls are made without any regard to class or
inheritance. All parameters passed into C language calls are
treated as generic JORF pointers, and return values take on the
class of the first parameter that was passed in.

Originally, JORF followed the Smalltalk model where functions
were numbered, and direct calls to the functions were
discouraged. Instead of calling functions directly, each
function was aliased by creating a method that called the
function. Instead of using numbers, I assigned all functions to
the class Function. In the prototype version of JORF, to add a
Function
window, you used Function:WindowAdd.
Function:WindowAdd

The indirect function access in the Smalltalk model gives a minor
advantage of flexibility, for a major cost in speed. To enhance
speed, I changed the system to encourage direct calls to
functions, and dropped the "Function" class. By the first
general release of JORF, the command to add a window had become

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 56














WindowAdd. Methods, JORF language subroutines, had a different
WindowAdd
syntax because they are still tied to classes. For instance,
TextWindow:Add is the add routine for objects of the TextWindow
TextWindow:Add
class.

The JORF to C language translator has changed the nature of this
distinction. The C language routines like WindowAdd are part of
WindowAdd
the standard library, and not an embedded part of JORF. In a
way, they are semi-embedded, because they are a standard feature
of the language, and any developer who replaces the functions
will supply functions of the same purpose. Like the C language
strlen( ) command, developers can change it, but it would be
strlen( )
silly to something other than return the length of a string. (My
version of strlen returns 0 if passed a null pointer.)

When JORF Methods are translated to C and compiled, they become C
language functions just like the standard library. Although the
call remains the same, TextWindow:Add can call a translated C
TextWindow:Add
language function. There is no longer any reason for the
distinction between a call to a JORF Language method and a call
to a C language function. It is natural for the WindowAdd
WindowAdd
function to be changed to "Method" syntax and become Window:Add.
Window:Add


Function names in JORF have also been shortened. Function names
were originally designed to make programs readable by
discouraging abbreviations. But readability is a relative
factor, and programmers can easily recognize standard
constructions made of "unreadably" terse bits of code.

I have been especially annoyed with the WindowStructure command,
WindowStructure
which is commonly used in keystroke handling routines to obtain
information about the editing window. It just takes to long to
type this command, and it makes program lines really long.

Since functions were going to be renamed to make them consistent
with compiled methods, I have taken the opportunity to abbreviate
the commands. The old WindowAdd command is now Win:Add. Where
WindowAdd Win:Add
there is a JORF and a C language function that do the same thing,
the JORF function follows the C convention, so StringLength is
StringLength
now Str:Len and corresponds to the C language strlen( ).
Str:Len strlen( )

Function name evolution in JORF
Function name evolution in JORF

Version A New Window Length of a String

Version 0.1 Function:WindowAdd Function:StringLength
Version 0.2 WindowAdd StringLength
Not Released Window:Add String:Length
Version 1.2 Win:Add Str:Len
Version 2.0 Win:Add Str:Len


Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 57
















Arr:Del



Function Arr:Del ( Array, Position, Count )
_____ ________ _____

Purpose Delete Count elements from Array, starting with the
indicated Position.

Returns Array.

See Also Arr:Ins

Notes Array handling is usually done by referencing
individual array items. Arrays do not need to be
declared, and are created simply by setting values to
their elements. Arr functions are used to change the
Arr
whole array, without reference to the elements.

The Arr:Del command may be used to delete one or more
elements in the middle of an array. It automatically
decrements succeeding elements so the array shrinks in
size by the number of elements deleted.



Arr:Dir



Function Arr:Dir ( WildCard, Ext_Exclusion_List )

Purpose Return an Array of files on the current directory that
match the designated WildCard but are not in the
Extension Exclusion List.
Returns Array.

See Also Arr:Sort, Arr:Pick, File:ChgDir.

Notes The easiest way to get and display a list of files on
the current directory. Arr:Dir with no parameters will
get a list of all files on the current directory.

Files may be read according to the designated wildcard.
This may be any valid DOS wildcard symbol, just as you
would use from DOS. The following command makes a list
of all the text files on a directory:

Arr:Dir "*.TXT"


The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 58














Files with certain extensions can be excluded by
including them in the extension exclusion list. This
list is a string with a list of extensions separated by
commas. Two commas together indicate files without
extensions. The following command will collect a list
of all files except those with .BAK, .OBJ, .INI or no
extension.

Arr:Dir "*.*", "BAK,OBJ,INI,,"

The Arr:Del command may be used to delete one or more
elements in the middle of an array. It automatically
decrements succeeding elements so the array shrinks in
size by the number of elements deleted.

If the WildCard has the value "Subdir", then the file
list will be a list of subdirectories. Otherwise, it
will only contain files.

Example

TextEdit:About
Msg:Add ("About TextEdit", "Ok")
Josephine's Text Editor is a sample program &
included with the JORF Interpreter. It &
provides many of the functions as other &
text editors, and is written in only 100 &
lines of program code.

Version 1.0 August 25, 1991
Copyright (C) 1991 by The JORF Company
Return Ok

TextEdit:Load
New (Array, Pos, Name Text)
Win:Add ('Reading')
Reading and Sorting directory
Array = Arr:Sort (Arr:Dir ("*.*","EXE,COM,BAK,OBJ,LIB,,JRF"))
Win:Del
Event:Add
While (Name=Null)
Pos = Arr:Pick (Array,Null,"Files", 0, 0, 10, 1)
If (Pos='Esc_Key')
Return (Null)
Name = Str:At (Array[Pos], 1, Str:In (Array[Pos] " "))
If (Name)
EditKey:FinishEdit
Jorf:Del (Win:Ptr->Edit)
Win:Ptr->Name = Name
Win:Ptr->Edit = TextEdit:Read (Name)
Return Text


Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 59














TextEdit:Read (FileName)
If (FileName)
If (File:Access (FileName))
Win:Add ('Reading')
Loading file "{FileName}"
Return (File:Load (FileName))
Else
Msg:Add ('Error', 'Ok')
Cannot Access File "{FileName}"
Return (Text:Add)

TextEdit:Save
TextEdit:Write (Win:Ptr->Name, Win:Ptr->Edit)
Jorf:Del (Win:Ptr->Copy)
Return Ok

TextEdit:ReName
New Key, FileName

FileName = Win:Ptr->Name
Win:Add ('File Name')
Input:'File Name to Save ', Wid:30, Field:'FileName'
Wnd:Del
If (Key:Got != 'Esc_Key' And FileName != Null)
If (File:Access (FileName) != 0)
Key=Msg:Add ('File Already Exists' 'No')
File "{FileName}" Already Exists!
Do you want to overwrite it?
If (Key:Got==Null)
FileName=Null
If (FileName)
Win:Ptr->Name = FileName
Return Ok

TextEdit:Start FileName
New Win
Win->Name = FileName
Win->Edit = TextEdit:Read (FileName)
Win->Title = "Josephine's Tex& Editor"
Win->Magic = False
Win->FLRCO = "Off"
Win->Idle = "Editkey:Message"
Win->After = "Editkey:FinishEdit"
Win->Save = "TextEdit:Write (Win:Ptr->Name, Win:Ptr->Edit)"
Win->Text = Text:Ptr
Menu:'&About' Action:'TextEdit:About'
Menu:'&Load' Action:'TextEdit:Load'
Menu:'&Save' Action:'TextEdit:Save'
Menu:'&Rename' Action:'TextEdit:ReName'
Menu:'&Key Help' Action:'Editkey:Ctrl_F1_Key'
Menu:'&DOS Shell' Action:'Jorf:System'
Menu:'E&xit' Action:'Return "Esc_Key"'

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 60














Text:'Notes', Field:'Win:Ptr->Edit'
Event:Add ('Editkey','Key',Here)
Win:Add (Win, 1, 1, -1, -1, Here)
Jorf:Exit

TextEdit:Write (FileName, Text)
If (FileName And Text)
Win:Add ('Writing')
Saving file "{FileName}"
File:Save (FileName, Text)
Return Ok



Arr:Ins



Function Arr:Ins ( Array, Position, Count )
_____ ________ _____

Purpose Insert Count elements into Array, starting with the
indicated Position.
Returns Array.

See Also Arr:Del

Notes Array handling is usually done by referencing
individual array items. Arrays do not need to be
declared, and are created simply by setting values to
their elements. Arr functions are used to change the
Arr
whole array, without reference to the elements.

The Arr:Ins command may be used to insert one or more
elements in the middle of an array. It automatically
increments succeeding elements so the array grows in
size by the number of elements inserted.


Arr:Len



Function Arr:Len ( Array )
_____

Purpose Returns the highest offset in the array.

Returns Integer Offset.

See Also Word:Len

Notes Returns the length of an array. Actually, returns the
offset of the highest element of the array, which is

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 61














also the length if the first element is element number
1.

Arrays may contain element 0, and also negative
elements. If this is the case, the actual length may
be longer than the value of this command.

Example

Dump:Start
New WildCard, FileList, Choice
New FileName, Char, Length, Pos, Col

While (Ok)
| First get a wildcard for dir command
Win:Add ("Dump a File")
Input:"Directory WildCard: ", Field:"WildCard"
If (Key:Got = 'Esc_Key')
Return

| Read the directory
Win:Add("Reading Directory")
One Moment Please . . .
FileList = Arr:Dir(WildCard)
If Arr:Len(FileList) < 1
Msg:Add
No Files match the WildCard!
Else
| Sort the list
Win:Add ("Sorting Directory")
One Moment Please . . .
FileList = Arr:Sort(FileList)

While FileList != Null
| And ask to pick a file
Choice= Arr:Pick(FileList,Null,"Dump File",0,0,0, Choice)
If Key:Got = 'Esc_Key'
Break

| Got a file name!
FileName = FileList[Choice]
FileName = Str:At (FileName 1, Str:In(FileName," "))
Length = File:Len (FileName)
Pos = 0

Win:Add (FileName, 2, 8, (Length/16)+2, 78, Here)

While (Pos < Length)
Col = (Pos % 16) | Set column position
If (Col == 0) | If beginning new line
If (Pos > 0) | If after first line
Move:By (1,0) | Start a new line

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 62














Move:To (0,1) |
Str:Put (To:Str(Pos,"0000:0000",16))
++Pos
| Read One Character
Char = File:Read (FileName Here 1 Pos)
| And Display It . . .
Move:To (0,13+(Col*3))
Str:Put (To:Str(To:Ascii(Char),'00',16))
Move:To (0,62+Col)
Char:Put (To:Ascii(Char))
If Key:Hit | If key hit
Char = Key:Get | See What it is
If Char = "Esc_Key"| If Escape
Break | Break
Win:Pause | Pause
Str:PutLine | One more line
Str:PutLine | One more line
Win:Msg("End of File") | Done!
Win:Pause | Wait
Win:Del | Delete window
Win:Del
Win:Del
Win:Del
Return | Exit



Arr:Pick



Function Arr:Pick ( Array Command Title Row Column Length
_____
Default )

Purpose Display a browser menu of array items with Title, at
Row and Column, no longer than Length and highlighting
Default.

Returns Integer offset of selection or "Esc_Key".

See Also Arr:Sort

Notes One of the more powerful JORF command, this is what
displays the file list when you start the JORF
interpreter, and also what displays the debugger Alt-B
Alt-B
browser lists.

This command returns Null, if Array is blank or not an
array. All other parameters may be omitted.

The Length is only the maximum to display. If the
array is shorter, then the menu length will be the

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 63














length of the array. If the array is longer, then it
will scroll automatically.

The Array pick does not set or block keystroke events,
and existing events often interfere with array
selection. To prevent this, it is typical to include
do Event:Add with no parameters, prior to calling
Arr:Pick. Adding a null keystroke event blocks
processing from searching down the stack to process
lower level keystroke events.

Menu options are displayed as strings. Both Arr:Pick
and Arr:Sort make use of a polymorphic Command to get
the value of these strings. If command is Null, the
normal string value is used. For structures, you can
set up a method that returns a string that represents
that structure. for instance, the Address structure
may show Name, City and State:

Class:Address, Name, Addr1, Addr2, City, State, Zip

Address:Show(Addr)
Return (Str:Pad(Addr->Name,30)+" "+Addr->City+","+Addr->Zip)

Example


TextEdit:About
Msg:Add ("About TextEdit", "Ok")
Josephine's Text Editor is a sample program &
included with the JORF Interpreter. It &
provides many of the functions as other &
text editors, and is written in only 100 &
lines of program code.

Version 1.0 August 25, 1991
Copyright (C) 1991 by The JORF Company
Return Ok

TextEdit:Load
New (Array, Pos, Name Text)
Win:Add ('Reading')
Reading and Sorting directory
Array = Arr:Sort (Arr:Dir ("*.*","EXE,COM,BAK,OBJ,LIB,,JRF"))
Win:Del
Event:Add
While (Name=Null)
Pos = Arr:Pick (Array,Null,"Files", 0, 0, 10, 1)
If (Pos='Esc_Key')
Return (Null)
Name = Str:At (Array[Pos], 1, Str:In (Array[Pos] " "))
If (Name)

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 64














EditKey:FinishEdit
Jorf:Del (Win:Ptr->Edit)
Win:Ptr->Name = Name
Win:Ptr->Edit = TextEdit:Read (Name)
Return Text

TextEdit:Read (FileName)
If (FileName)
If (File:Access (FileName))
Win:Add ('Reading')
Loading file "{FileName}"
Return (File:Load (FileName))
Else
Msg:Add ('Error', 'Ok')
Cannot Access File "{FileName}"
Return (Text:Add)

TextEdit:Save
TextEdit:Write (Win:Ptr->Name, Win:Ptr->Edit)
Jorf:Del (Win:Ptr->Copy)
Return Ok

TextEdit:ReName
New Key, FileName

FileName = Win:Ptr->Name
Win:Add ('File Name')
Input:'File Name to Save ', Wid:30, Field:'FileName'
Wnd:Del
If (Key:Got != 'Esc_Key' And FileName != Null)
If (File:Access (FileName) != 0)
Key=Msg:Add ('File Already Exists' 'No')
File "{FileName}" Already Exists!
Do you want to overwrite it?
If (Key:Got==Null)
FileName=Null
If (FileName)
Win:Ptr->Name = FileName
Return Ok

TextEdit:Start FileName
New Win
Win->Name = FileName
Win->Edit = TextEdit:Read (FileName)
Win->Title = "Josephine's Text Editor"
Win->Magic = False
Win->FLRCO = "Off"
Win->Idle = "Editkey:Message"
Win->After = "Editkey:FinishEdit"
Win->Save = "TextEdit:Write (Win:Ptr->Name, Win:Ptr->Edit)"
Win->Text = Text:Ptr
Menu:'&About' Action:'TextEdit:About'

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 65














Menu:'&Load' Action:'TextEdit:Load'
Menu:'&Save' Action:'TextEdit:Save'
Menu:'&Rename' Action:'TextEdit:ReName'
Menu:'&Key Help' Action:'Editkey:Ctrl_F1_Key'
Menu:'&DOS Shell' Action:'Jorf:System'
Menu:'E&xit' Action:'Return "Esc_Key"'
Text:'Notes', Field:'Win:Ptr->Edit'
Event:Add ('Editkey','Key',Here)
Win:Add (Win, 1, 1, -1, -1, Here)
Jorf:Exit

TextEdit:Write (FileName, Text)
If (FileName And Text)
Win:Add ('Writing')
Saving file "{FileName}"
File:Save (FileName, Text)
Return Ok



Arr:Printers



Function Arr:Printers

Purpose Return an Array of available printers.
Returns Array.

See Also Arr:Pick, Jorf:Printer and JORF.INI documentation in
Appendix D.
Appendix D

Notes This command reads the printers listed in your JORF.INI
or JORFWIN.INI file and creates an array. You can use
this array on a data entry screen or with the Arr:Pick
function.

Each entry can be assumed to be a string that contains
a description, and a printer designation. The printer
is assumed to be the last word of the command.

Example

Jorf:Printer
New (PrintList,PrintChoice,Dest)

Event:Add()
PrintList = Arr:Printers()
Win:Add("Select Printer")
Group:"&Printers", Row:1 Col:1 Len:6 Wid:22
Array:"" Field:"PrintList" Choice:"PrintChoice"


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Button:" &Go " Row:1 Col:32
Action:"Dest=PrintList[PrintChoice]"
Button:" &Cancel " Row:4 Col:32 Action:"Return ('Esc_Key')"
If (Dest='Esc_Key' Or Kbd:Got='Esc_Key')
Dest=Null
Return(Dest)



Arr:Sort



Function Arr:Sort ( Array Command Direction )
_____

Purpose Sort the elements of an array.

Returns Array.

Notes The only sort command in the JORF language. Normally
sorts elements in ascending order. You can sort
descending by specifying a Direction of "Down" or
"Descending" (or anything that begins with the letter
'D').

Arr:Sort makes use of a polymorphic Command to get the
string value of the array element. If this is Null
then the string value is used. For structures, you
should set up a method that returns a string to sort
by.

Class:Address, Name, Addr1, Addr2, City, State, Zip

Address:SortString(Addr)
Return (Addr->Name)



Example See Arr:Sort.



Char:Del



Function Char:Del ( Count )
_____

Purpose Delete Count characters in the current window at the
current cursor position.

Returns None.

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 67














See Also Char:Ins

Notes This command does two specific things; 1) it deletes
Count characters at the current location in the current
window, and 2) it deletes Count characters in the line
currently being edited. The line edit buffer is
separate from the screen, although they usually reflect
the same data.

The line and paragraph may rewrap if the window Magic
is True and the window FLRCO is not "Off".

Example


CharEx:Start
New Count, Str1, Str2
Str1="This Text will Disappear"
Str2="This Text will Appear"
Win:Add ("Char Example", 10, 25, 30, 2, Here)
Str:Put (Str1) | Show Str1
Win:Pause (20) | And pause for Effect
Count = Str:Len (Str1) | Set Counter
While (Count > 0) | While GT Zero
Move:To (1,1) | First line
Char:Del (1) | Take 1 Away
Move:To (2,1) | Second line
Char:Ins (1) | Add one, Add char
Char:Put (To:Ascii (Str:At (Str2, Count, 1)))
--Count | Decrement Count
Win:Pause(5) | Pause 5/100 seconds
Win:Pause | Done!
Return | Bye



Char:Get



Function Char:Get

Purpose Gets a character displayed on the current window.

Returns ASCII decimal value of the character.

See Also Char:Put.

Notes It is atypical for a JORF Language function to return
the value of a character, rather than a string
containing the character. However, this is done here
to maintain symmetry with Char:Put.

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Char:Ins



Function Char:Ins ( Count )
_____

Purpose Insert Count spaces in the current window at the
current cursor position.

Returns None.

See Also Char:Del

Notes This command does two specific things; 1) it inserts
Count spaces at the current location in the current
window, and 2) it inserts Count spaces in the line
currently being edited. The line edit buffer is
separate from the screen, although they usually reflect
the same data.

If the line length exceeds the window boundary, and
window is in one of the wrap modes, the line and
paragraph will be reformatted. This formatting takes
place only on the screen, and not in the edit buffer.

Example See Char:Del.




Char:Put



Function Char:Put ( Value )
_____

Purpose Put an ASCII character on the current window at the
current cursor location.

Returns None.

See Also Char:Get, Str:Put.

Notes It is atypical for a JORF Language function to use
ASCII values for characters. Usually, characters are
strings and are displayed using Str:Put. However, some
graphics characters are easier to display as numbers
because they have no letter equivalent.


Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 69














Example


Ascii:Start
New Char
Win:Add("ASCII TABLE", 4, 4, 19, 74, Here)

For (Char = 0 Thru 15)
Move:To(1,(Char*4)+10)
Str:Put(To:Str(Char))
Move:To(Char+3,1)
Str:Put(To:Str(Char*16))

Move:To(2,1)
Win:Attr("Lo")
For (Char = 0 Thru 255)
If ((Char % 16) == 0)
Move:By(1,0)
Move:To(0,10)
Char:Put(Char)
Move:By(0,3)
Win:Msg("Press Enter to Continue")
Win:Pause



Class:At


Function Class:At ( Structure Position )
_________ ________

Purpose Returns class of word in parsed command line, or label
of a structure member.

Returns Class.

See Also Class:AtPut, Word:At.

Notes Structures, Arrays, the JORF stack, and lines of text
are all stored as arrays of Class:Word pairs. The
number of words in the array can be obtained using
Word:Len.

Structures
Structures

Normally, you access structure elements using the
pointer operator (->). However, you can also use this
command to referencing the elements directly.

Stack
Stack



The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 70














Each level of the stack (each method call) creates a
new structure. The first element has the class Method
Method
and is the current program line. The second element
has the class From and is the previous level of the
From
stack. The next elements are the parameters in the
order they were passed. Then, any New variables with
New
the variable name standing for the class name.

New Values
New Values

New values that are structures contain a pointer to the
class definition in the first element. Subsequent
elements are various values in the order that they were
referenced.

Arrays
Arrays

Array elements are normally accessed using square
brackets []. But if you find reason, you can use
Word:At to get the element. Unlike Structures, array
Word:At
elements have no label, so the class will always be
null. Using Class:At is legal, but will always return
Class:At
null unless you used Class:AtPut to put a value there.
null Class:AtPut

Text
Text

Text lines may be examined to obtain the class and
values of items on that line. The line is
automatically parsed when Class:At is used. The parse
will automatically separate all words and punctuation
characters. Each punctuation character is treated as a
separate word. If the parsed line contains JORF-like
Class:Word pairs, then the class values will be set for
Class:At.
Class:At




Class:AtPut


Function Class:AtPut ( Structure, Position, Class )
_________ ________ _____

Purpose Changes the class of a word in a member of a structure.


Returns None.

See Also Class:At, Word:AtPut.

Notes Structures, Arrays, the JORF Stack and text lines are
all stored as an array of Class:Word pairs. The number

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 71














of words can be obtained using Word:Len. Although
Class:At works for both text and structures,
Class:AtPut works only on structures, not text lines.
To change a text line, you must use the String
functions.

Class:AtPut can be used to change an element name in a
structure, or a variable name in the stack.




Class:In


Function Class:In ( Structure, Class )
_________ _____

Purpose Searches for the existence of Class in a structure, and
returns the position if it is found. Returns zero if
Class is not found.

Returns Position of Class or zero if not found.

See Also Class:At, Word:In.

Notes Both structures and text lines are stored as an array
of Class:Word pairs. The number of words can be
obtained using Word:Len. ClassIn can be used to see if
a member exists in a structure, without using the
structure pointer operator.



Class:Read


Function Class:Read ( Name )
____

Purpose Read class information from Name.

Returns None.

See Also Class:Write.

Notes In large applications that you are editing outside the
JORF editor, it may be necessary to load several files.
Instead of using a big command line, you can use this
function to load class files.

The class name and the file name must be the same. The
source file must have a ".J" extension.


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Class:Write


Function Class:Write ( ClassName, FileName )

Purpose Writes a class to file. If ClassName is omitted or is
Null, and FileName is available, all classes will be
written to FileName.

Returns None.

See Also Class:Read, Class:Check.

Notes Class:Write displays an "Action" window. This window
displays the method names as they are written.

Each file is backed up to a ".BAK" extension before
writing. Because of the eight character name
limitation in DOS, classes that start with the same
eight letters will end up in the same file.



Event:Add


Function Event:Add ( Class, Type, Level )

Purpose Add an Event Class.

Returns None.

See Also Event:Do, Event:Del.

Notes The Event system is a way of performing a method in
Event
response to an event that occurs during normal
processing. This is a way of saying "If such and such
happens while this program runs, then do this to take
care of it".

Three types of events set up in the JORF system are the
key, trace and error events. Key events occur whenever
key trace error
the operator enters a keystroke. This allows the
system to evaluate the key and to respond
appropriately. Trace events are used for trace mode
Trace
debugging, and will be executed at particular times
during while a method is begin interpreted. Error
Error
events occurs when is an error. It is automatically
called, in hopes that error recovery is possible. Of
these, Key events are by far the most common.


Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 73














Event:Add adds a new Class name to the event stack for
event Type tied to the current program Level. The
event classes form a stack so that the new entry is
simply the top one of many that might be used. The
level lets the system know what method is declaring the
new class, and will automatically clear this entry when

that method is completed.

The types Error and Key are already used by JORF for
Error Key
error and keystroke handling. Other types may be any
name later used by Event:Do.

When events are performed, the event stack is searched
from top (most recent) to bottom. When a valid method
is found, it is executed. If the method returns any
If the method returns any
value, the search is completed. If the method returns
value If the method returns
null, the search is continued down the event stack. A
null
null class can be used to block the search function
from going any lower on the event stack.

If this is not complicated enough, there is a "Hot"
event system. If you declare an event with a Level of
zero, then you create a hot event. Once declared, Hot
events are permanent. Normal events are cleared when
the method that declared them is ended. Hot events are
checked after the first event level, but before the
"Else" clause is checked. Hot events give a way to set
default key values, like Alt-X for exit in the
Alt-X
debugger.

The Level value should always be Here.


Example


EditIni:About
Msg:Add ("About EditIni", "Ok")
EditIni is a program designed to allow &
you to change the JORF.INI initialization &
file. This program is a sample program &
included with the JORF Interpreter.

Version 1.0 December 6, 1991
Copyright (C) 1991 by The JORF Company
Return

EditIni:Start
New FileName,Text
FileName = Str:At(Mem:Ptr->Args,1,Str:In(Mem:Ptr->Args, '.'))
FileName = FileName + 'INI'
If (File:Access (FileName))

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Text = File:Load (FileName)
Else
Msg:Add ('Error', 'Ok')
Cannot Access File "{FileName}"
Return

Win:Add ('Editing "{To:Ucs(FileName)}"',2,6,-2,-6,Here)
Menu:'&About' Action:'EditIni:About'
Menu:'&Edit Keys' Action:'EditKey:Ctrl_F1_Key'
Menu:'E&xit' Action:'Return "Esc_Key"'

Event:Add ('Editkey','Key',Here)
Win:Ptr->Magic = False
Win:Ptr->FLRCO = "Off"
Win:Ptr->Save = "EditIni:Write (FileName)"
Win:Ptr->Idle = "Editkey:Message"
Win:Ptr->After = "Editkey:FinishEdit('Save')"
Win:Ptr->Text = Text
Line:Inp ("Win:Ptr->Text", 1, 1, Win:Ptr->Len-1, Win:Ptr->Wid)
Return Ok

EditIni:Write (FileName)
If (File:Backup (FileName))
File:Save (FileName,Win:Ptr->Text)
Return




Event:Del


Function Event:Del ( Type )

Purpose Deletes the last event Class for event function of
designated Type.

Returns None.

See Also Event:Add, Event:Do.

Notes This function is rarely used because usually the Event
Classes are deleted automatically when the method that
creates them is ended. The sole use of this command is
to try to circumvent that system. You should try to
work with the automatic delete system, because it is
more robust. However, if you insist, this function
will delete the last event class entry with this Type.





Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 75















Event:Do


Function Event:Do ( Method, Type )
______

Purpose Performs an event.

Returns If an event method is found, executed and returns a
value, then that value is returned by Event:Do.

See Also Event:Add, Event:Del.

Notes The most confusing thing here is to figure out how the
system is creating the method name to call when an
event is performed. The inclination is to look at this
command and assume that the method will perform
Type:Method. Instead, the type is used to down the
Type:Method
event stack for the appropriate Class that was set
using Event:Add. It is this class used to do
Class:Method.
Class:Method

Each class of the correct type is attempted. If that
fails, then the system looks for an Else method for
that class. The Else methods are a default method for
the event type. If this is not found, the system looks
down the event stack to the next lower class of the
correct Type.

This system allows a layering of event actions. It was
designed primarily for keystroke handling, where a
certain screen may need to reassign only four keys,
while maintaining the functions of other keys. Many
key handling systems remap all keys. This is unwieldy
if only four keys have different definition. But, for
events other than keystrokes, this overlay ability may
be too complicated and unnecessary. Liberal use of the
Else method is recommended to avoid the stack search
and resulting confusion.

Special Notes for Key Events
Special Notes for Key Events

For text entry, data entry and menu selection,
keystrokes from the operator are translated by the
system using the KeyClass stack. The names in the
stack interpret the current keystroke. The keystroke
is converted to a string value and the method called
that corresponds to the appropriate class and value.
For instance, pressing the Escape key with a KeyClass
of "MenuKey" will invoke the method MenuKey:Escape_Key.



The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 76














Normal letters have "_Key" appended, so hitting B will
return "B_Key". Alternate and Control keys have a
prefix appended to create "Alt_B_Key" and "Ctrl_B_Key".
Special keys return special values like "Home_Key",
"F1_Key" and "Ctrl_Right_Arrow_Key". A list of special
key values is in Appendix B.
Appendix B

Special notes for Error Events
Special notes for Error Events

Error events are called like the key events using the
error number as the method name. If the called method
needs more information, it may call Jorf:Ptr to fill a
structure with the error values.

Fatal errors do not call the event system. Usually
these errors show that something has happened that will
not allow further action in The JORF Language
interpreter, and the program must halt immediately
before data integrity can be lost.

Special notes for Trace Events
Special notes for Trace Events

When trace mode is on, the interpreter stops just
before executing a line, and invokes the Trace Do
Trace Do
event. Typically, this event switches program stacks
to the debugger stack, and starts up the debugger.
Trace mode is turned off as soon as the Trace event is
Trace
called. If you want to continue tracing you must
execute Trace:On before you return from the Trace
Trace
event. So trace mode doesn't "stay on" like most
debuggers. Instead, it must be continually reset by
the debugger for the next programming line.



False


Function False

Purpose Used to test for Logical False.

Returns Null.

See Also True.

Notes Most programming language express results of logical
equations as zero to indicate False, and one to
indicate True. These values are called Boolean values.




Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 77














This function was created in the interest of program
clarity. It simply returns Null. Due to the automatic
type conversions inherent to Jorf Pointers, this is
exactly the same as the integer zero.



File:Access


Function File:Access ( FileName Command )
________

Purpose Checks file existence, read permission or write
permission.

Returns True or False.

See Also Other File functions.

Notes This function is the JORF language equivalent to the
UNIX C language access() function. Command may be Null
access()
or "Exist" to check for existence.

Command may be "Read" or "Write" to check for network
read and write access to the file.

Example See Event:Add.


File:Backup


Function File:Backup ( FileName )
________

Purpose Renames FileName to have an extension of .BAK.

Returns None.

See Also Other File functions.

Notes This function makes a backup of a file, presumably
before calling a command that might overwrite the file
like File:Save.

Example See Arr:Pick.








The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 78















File:ChDir


Function File:ChDir ( NewDir )

Purpose Change current directory or Return current directory.

Returns If NewDir is Null, returns current Directory. If
present, returns Ok if successful, False if not.

See Also Other File functions.

Notes This function is the equivalent of the DOS ChDir or CD
command. Like ChDir, it can be used two ways. By
itself, it simply returns the disk and path of the
current working directory. If followed by a new path,
it changes to that path.

Unlike DOS ChDir, File:ChDir will change drives too,
simply by specifying the file to change to.


File:Del


Function File:Del ( Name )
____

Purpose Delete a file from disk.

Returns Ok if file is deleted, Null if not.

See Also Other File functions.

Notes All information in the file will be destroyed. If the
file is currently opened, it will be closed. Does not
give an error if the file is absent.


File:Len


Function File:Len ( Name )
____

Purpose Get Length of file on disk.

Returns Length of file in Bytes.

See Also Other File functions.




Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 79














Notes Returns the current length of the file in bytes. If
the file is not found, the length will be 0, the same
as if the file is empty.

Example See File:Read


File:Load


Function File:Load ( Name )
____

Purpose Load a text file into a text pointer.

Returns Text pointer.

See Also File:Save, File:Read.

Notes Loads a text file wholesale into swap storage, which is
much faster than trying to read it line-by-line and
adding the lines using Text:Add. Use this for text
file editors like the JORF.INI editor.

Example See Event:Add.



File:Map


Function File:Map ( Name, Level, Type, Class, Map )
____ _____ ____ _____ ___

Purpose Map a file in a foreign format for reading and writing.

Returns None.

See Also File:Read, File:Write.

Notes Map a file for use with File:Read and File:Write. When
you map a file you map structures and fields to write
different file types.

The parameter name is sets the file name. Once mapped,
all reads and writes to that file will be influenced by
the mapping.

The parameter type sets the type of the file to be
mapped. Available types are DLM, SDF, FIXED, and
DBASE.

DLM stands for comma delimited. This is the most
common type. Fields are quoted and separated by

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 80














commas. There is a fixed number of fields per records.
Records end in a carriage return line feed pair.

FIXED stands for fixed length record format. This is
the most common proprietary format.

SDF stands for system data format. This type is very
close to FIXED but records in an SDF file must end in a
carriage return-line feed pair.

DBASE stands for DBASE III format files. Currently
(March 1992) this format is not fully supported and
separate DBT files are not supported. This support
should be added soon, as well as DBASE IV format.
Until then, it is best if you dump your dBase files as
DLM files and use the DLM type to read the data.

The last parameter is usually an indented section that
contains the field mapping. Each line of this section
relates to a single field in the mapping. You must map
every field, even if you don't want the data. You can
map several fields into one so if you create a field
that is called "junk" and put all extra fields into it
you will fulfil the mapping requirement.

The simplest mapping is for a delimited file, where you
merely have to list the field names.

Contact:CvtDlm
New (Contact:Contact,FName,Counter)
FName="MyFile.Dat"

| Add a window to show what is happening
Win:Add ("Reading {FName}", 0, 0, 10, 76, Here)
File:Map (Fname,Here,"DLM","Contact")
Company
Addr1
Addr2
Addr3
Junk
FullName
Zip
Junk
While (File:Ok(Fname))
Contact=File:Read(Fname,Here)
++Counter
If (Contact->FullName==Null)
Contact->FullName = Contact->Company
| Put record stuff in window
Str:Put (Str:Pad(Counter,4))
Str:Put (Str:Pad(Contact->Company,30))
Str:Put (Str:Pad(Contact->FullName,30))

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 81














Str:PutLine
Jorf:Write(Contact)
Return Ok

The next simplest is for a FIXED or SDF file. These
formats are very similar because they are both fixed
length format. The only difference is that you must
include the record length when you read a FIXED length
file. You don't need a record length when you read a
DLM file. If you map wrong, your fields will be split.
If you really map wrong, excess fields are ignored and
not enough fields will result in blank fields in the
JORF structure.

In a fixed length format, you must specify the length
of each field.

Contact:CvtFIXED
New (Contact:Contact,FName,Counter)
FName="MyFile.Dat"
| Add a window to show what is happening
Win:Add ("Reading {FName}", 0, 0, 10, 76, Here)
File:Map (Fname,Here,"FIXED","Contact")
Company Len:40
Addr1 Len:40
Addr2 Len:40
Addr3 Len:40
Junk Len:20
FullName Len:40
Zip Len:10
Junk Len:2
While (File:Ok(Fname))
Contact=File:Read(Fname,Here,232) | Rec len is 232
++Counter
If (Contact->FullName==Null)
Contact->FullName = Contact->Company
| Put record stuff in window
Str:Put (Str:Pad(Counter,4))
Str:Put (Str:Pad(Contact->Company,30))
Str:Put (Str:Pad(Contact->FullName,30))
Str:PutLine
Jorf:Write(Contact)
Return Ok

The last format is for dBase files. If all you want to
do is read a dBASE file, you only need to map fields.
If you want to write, you must also include the length
and dBase data type for the fields. When you map the
fields to read the order of the fields is not necessary
because the fields are also defined in the header of
the dBASE file. Memo fields are handled as JORF text
fields.

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 82














It is generally best to define the Len, dName (the name
of the field in the dBase file). You can also define
the Dec for decimal point, and dtype for the dBase
field type. If you do not define these the decimal
places will default to zero, and the dType will default
to 'C' for the dBase Character type.


Contact:CvtDBASE
New (Contact:Contact,FName,Counter)
FName="MyFile.Dat"
| Add a window to show what is happening
Win:Add ("Reading {FName}", 0, 0, 10, 76, Here)
File:Map (Fname,Here,"DBASE","Contact")
Company Len:40 dName:COMPANY
Addr1 Len:40 dName:ADDR1
Addr2 Len:40 dName:ADDR2
Addr3 Len:40 dName:CITSTZ
Junk Len:20 dName:CODES
FullName Len:40 dName:CONTACT
Zip Len:10 dName:ZIP
While (File:Ok(Fname))
Contact=File:Read(Fname,Here) | No record length
++Counter
If (Contact->FullName==Null)
Contact->FullName = Contact->Company
| Put record stuff in window
Str:Put (Str:Pad(Counter,4))
Str:Put (Str:Pad(Contact->Company,30))
Str:Put (Str:Pad(Contact->FullName,30))
Str:PutLine
Jorf:Write(Contact)
Return Ok

One can write a whole book on reading and writing files
in various formats. In fact, I have one on order that
is to be published in May of 1992 that I hope will
disclose the changes for dBASE IV. I haven't begun to
address Paradox and other formats, or the index formats
for NDX and NTX files. More work will be done here,
and if you have any problems please give a call.
Perhaps I have an update that has stronger processing
of these file formats.










Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 83















File:MoveTo


Function File:MoveTo ( Name, Level, Position )
____ _____ ________

Purpose Go to the front or back of a file.

Returns None.

See Also File:Read.

Notes Can be used to "Rewind" a file to the beginning, or to
"Append" after rewinding. Position must be the string
value "Beginning" or "End". Only the first letter is
used, but three letters are recommended for clarity.



File:Ok


Function File:Ok

Purpose Check for End of File while reading.

Returns False if End of File has been reached while reading,
otherwise True.

See Also File:Read, File:Len.

Notes This command is used in conjunction with File:Read to
create a loop that ends when the last line or record of
the file has been read. This test is the opposite of
the normal C function eof(), because I like testing "If
Ok" rather than "If Not EOF".

Example See File:Map.


File:Print



Function File:Print ( File Printer )
____ _______

Purpose Print a File on a printer.

Returns None.

See Also Arr:Printers


The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 84














Notes Printer output is always a chore, and never gets any
easier. Even after IBM creates the great parallel
interface, that is standard and needs no set up,
companies like Hewlett Packard create printers like the
original Laserjet that only support serial output.

The adjustment to MS-Windows has caused the Str:Print
and Char:Print commands to be eliminated, and this
command put in their place. Support for character-by-
character output to printers was just too slow to be
tolerable.

This command prints File to the designated printer.
The printer is usually the output from the Jorf:Printer
function. The file can also be SCREEN, FILE, PRN, AUX,
SCREEN, FILE, PRN AUX
LPT1, LPT2, COM1, or COM2 indicate screen, print to
LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2
file, default printer, auxiliary, line printer one and
two and serial printer one and two respectively. The
different printing mechanisms are distinct.

The of the printer options, the easiest and most robust
is to print to PRN, the default printer. To test to
PRN
see if your printer is working, use the DOS PRINT
PRINT
command to print a small file. If it prints normally,
you should have no problems using Str:Print "PRN"
String. DOS lets you redirect PRN to any printer,
PRN
including serial printers.

The next most robust is LPT1 and LPT2. These use a
LPT1 LPT2
different BIOS call than PRN so they may not work even
PRN
when PRN works just fine. These commands send output
PRN
to parallel printers. Parallel printers may be
identified by having a thick cable and a
bigger-than-normal connector on the printer end of the
cable.

The most difficult type of printer to use is the serial
printer. Serial ports COM1 and COM2 are general
COM1 COM2
communications ports, and the RS232 standard is not as
standard as I would like. As always, try to get your
printer to work using the DOS Print command, and not
with the JORF interpreter. If you cannot print from
DOS, I guarantee that you will not print from JORF.

You cannot set the speed of the port in the JORF
interpreter. Instead, use the DOS MODE command. Most
printers default to 9600 baud, 8 bits, no parity, one
stop bit, that can be set with the following command:

C>Mode Com1:9600,n,8,1,p



Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 85














If this works, put it in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file so it
sets the port up every time the computer starts. If
this doesn't work, check your printer manual to see
that the printer and the serial port mode agree.

In theory, the File:Print supports COM1 to COM9 and
COM1 COM9
LPT1 to LPT9. However, DOS and Windows your BIOS
LPT1 LPT9
probably don't. Windows is especially notorious for
not handling COM3 and COM4 correctly, even when they
work under DOS.

JORF does not yet support any printer control codes,
any
even under windows. Your file will be printed using
the default font on your printer. Page breaks are
respected, and even if your document does not end with
a page break, a formfeed will be added.

This command is still pretty basic, so expect some
refinements soon.

Example

Contact:MergeLetter
New (Dest,Letter,CurrContact)
Time:Get(Mem:Ptr)

Letter=File:Load(Contact:GetLetter)
If (Letter!=Null)
Dest=Jorf:Printer()
If (Dest)
CurrContact=Mem:Ptr->Contact
Mem:Ptr->Contact=Null
Win:Add("Printing")
Printing . . .
Rep:Add ("Merge Letter", 5, 5, 60, 75,Here)
Header:"" Row:1
Next:"Contact:NextRecord('Next')"
Text:"Letter"
File:Print("JREPORT.LST",Dest)
Mem:Ptr->Contact=CurrContact
Return (Ok)












The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 86















File:Read


Function File:Read ( Name, Level, Size, Offset )
____ _____

Purpose Read a line of text or a record from a disk file.

Returns The line or record that was read.

See Also Other File Functions.

Notes The File:Read and File:Write commands handle both ASCII
and binary files without making any distinction between
them. Name is required. Normally this command reads
the next line of input terminated by the line feed
character. The line feed character is eliminated from
the input text.

If Size is specified then the a binary file read will
take place where the record is Size bytes. Offset is
specified then read will take place at that position
offset. If not specified, the current file position
will be used.

You can return to the beginning of the file using
File:MoveTo and can go to a byte position using
File:Read with a record size of 1.

Reading a file in comma delimited, fixed length and
dBase format may be influenced by using the File:Map
function.

Example See Arr:Sort



File:Save


Function File:Save ( Name, Text )
____ ____

Purpose Save text to a file.

Returns None.

See Also File:Load, File:Backup.

Notes Saves a text file wholesale from swap storage, which is
much faster than trying to write it line-by-line. Does
not automatically make a backup so if you want one, use
File:Backup.

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File:Write


Function File:Write ( Name, Level, Line, Size, Offset )
____ _____ ____

Purpose Write a Record to a disk file.

Returns None.

See Also Other File Commands.

Notes Writes to the file for sequential or binary output.
Name is required. The file is always opened for update
and append. If you want to create a file, use File:Del
to insure that the file is new.

If Size is specified then Line will be null padded or
truncated to the length specified then written to file.
If Offset is specified then write will take place at
that position offset. If not specified, a line feed
character is appended and the line is written in
sequential mode.

You can move to any byte position in a file by using
File:Read with a record size of 1. You can move to the
front or back of a file using File:MoveTo.

Reading a file in comma delimited, fixed length and
dBase format may be influenced by using the File:Map
function.



For/Thru/Step


Function For/Thru/Step

Purpose A counting loop.

Returns None.

See Also While.

Notes A specialized loop based on a numeric counter. Based
on the BASIC For/Next loop, there is no need for a
"Next" here because indentation makes the loop
structure clear.


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For ( Value = 1 Thru 10 Step 2 )
_____
Lines to do

The BASIC key word "To" has been changed to "Thru" for
the sake of accuracy. If computers are literal, the
commands must also be literal. (The BASIC loop uses
"To" but actually goes "Through" the value.)

You can use Break to break out of a For loop, or
Continue to continue the loop, just like a While loop.

Example For loops always replace While loops as this example
shows:

For Loop While loop equivalent.

OnetoTen:Start OnetoTen:Start
New Num New Num
Win:Add ("One to Ten") Win:Add ("One to Ten")
| Num = 1
For (Num = 1 thru 10) While (Num <= 10)
Str:PutLine (Num) Str:PutLine (Num)
| ++Num

In this case, the first time the loop is entered, Num
is initialized to 1. It is the incremented by one,
until it is greater than 10. The loop then continues.
reaches 10.

You can see in the above example that the initializer
and ending condition are in a single line, and the
incrementer is implied, so the For loop is contained in
a single line. The while loop takes the usual three
lines to specify the initializer, ending condition and
incrementer.

There is one variation on the For loop, and that is to
have it increment by something other than 1. For
instance, maybe we want to count by threes, or count
backwards from 10 to 1. To do this, simply add a
"Step" command to the For loop:


For Loop While loop equivalent.

ByTwos:Start ByTwos:Start
New Num New Num
Win:Add ("One to Ten") Win:Add ("One to Ten")
| Num = 1
For (Num = 1 thru 10 Step 2) While (Num <= 10)
Str:PutLine (Num) Str:PutLine (Num)
| Num = Num + 2

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 89














Return Return

For Loop While loop equivalent.
TentoOne:Start TentoOne:Start
New Num New Num
Win:Add ("One to Ten") Win:Add ("One to Ten")
| Num = 10
For (Num = 1 thru 10 Step -1) While (Num >= 1)
Str:PutLine (Num) Str:PutLine (Num)
| --Num
Return Return



Here


Function Here

Purpose Return the current method location.

Returns The current method location.

See Also Win:Add, Event:Add.

Notes Returns the current stack position as an unsigned
integer. When the interpreter is started, this value
is 1, and each nested method increases the level by
one. The highest stack level that can be expressed
this way is 65,535 (Hexadecimal ffff). This command
provides a simple way of marking windows, files, and
events so The JORF Interpreter can automatically delete
them when you are done.

The complete display method for a window may be nested
several levels deep. Usually, the call to the method
uses Here, and the various methods pass that value as a
parameter called Level.

It is not kosher to manipulate this value by adding or
subtracting from it. Doing so will confuse the
automatic clearing mechanism, which may clear too
little or too much.

Example See Jorf:Write.








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If/Else


Function If/Else

Purpose A conditional branch.

Returns None.

See Also Switch, While.

Notes Tests the value of a parameter and executes indented
code sections based on that value.

If ( TestValue )
_________
Lines to do if True
Else
Lines to do if False

Else is optional.

The If function tests a condition and branches based on
If
that condition. If the condition is true, then the
indented section is performed. If the condition is not
true, then program flow skips to the Else command. If
Else
there is an Else command on the same indentation level,
Else
then the indented section under that command will be
performed.

If (A=2)
B=4
Else
B=6

The condition does not have to be a logical comparison.
A single variable may be used instead, in which case it
will be True if it has any value, and False if it is
null.

If (Word)
Str:Put (Word)
Else
Str:Put ("(Null)")

The condition may be a complex comparison involving
both logical and value elements

If (Counter > 3 && Word)
Str:Put ("Counter too large for {Word}")
Else
++Counter

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 91














Parentheses around the If test is optional. I tend to
If
include them, but this is a holdover from my C language
days.



Jorf:Cls


Function Jorf:Cls

Purpose Clear the DOS Screen. Does nothing under Windows.

Returns None.

Both the DOS and the Windows versions of JORF place
windows on the previous screen contents. Although this
is traditional for Windows programs, most DOS programs
clear the screen instead. To allow you to follow this
custom, this command will clear the screen in the DOS
version of JORF.

If you clear the screen while some windows have been
displayed, you will get some really weird results when
those windows are later "erased". Be sure there are
no windows displayed when you clear the screen.



Jorf:Del


Function Jorf:Del ( Item )
____

Purpose Deletes data.

Returns None.

See Also Jorf:Add.

Notes Deletes the data associated with Item. This may be a
Structure or block of text. To delete a method use
Method:Del.

The system automatically saves data when it is indexed
to the Rule system, and when you use the Jorf:Copy and
Jorf:Add commands. The Data is a permanent part of the
data file until it is deleted with this function.

There is no harm in doing a precautionary delete for
item that has not been saved.


The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 92














Example

TextEdit:About
Msg:Add ("About TextEdit", "Ok")
Josephine's Text Editor is a sample program &
included with the JORF Interpreter. It &
provides many of the functions as other &
text editors, and is written in only 100 &
lines of program code.

Version 1.0 August 25, 1991
Copyright (C) 1991 by The JORF Company
Return Ok

TextEdit:Load
New (Array, Pos, Name Text)
Win:Add ('Reading')
Reading and Sorting directory
Array = Arr:Sort (Arr:Dir ("*.*","EXE,COM,BAK,OBJ,LIB,,JRF"))
Win:Del
Event:Add
While (Name=Null)
Pos = Arr:Pick (Array,Null,"Files", 0, 0, 10, 1)
If (Pos='Esc_Key')
Return (Null)
Name = Str:At (Array[Pos], 1, Str:In (Array[Pos] " "))
If (Name)
EditKey:FinishEdit
Jorf:Del (Win:Ptr->Edit)
Win:Ptr->Name = Name
Win:Ptr->Edit = TextEdit:Read (Name)
Return Text

TextEdit:Read (FileName)
If (FileName)
If (File:Access (FileName))
Win:Add ('Reading')
Loading file "{FileName}"
Return (File:Load (FileName))
Else
Msg:Add ('Error', 'Ok')
Cannot Access File "{FileName}"
Return (Text:Add)

TextEdit:Save
TextEdit:Write (Win:Ptr->Name, Win:Ptr->Edit)
Jorf:Del (Win:Ptr->Copy)
Return Ok

TextEdit:ReName
New Key, FileName


Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 93














FileName = Win:Ptr->Name
Win:Add ('File Name')
Input:'File Name to Save ', Wid:30, Field:'FileName'
Wnd:Del
If (Key:Got != 'Esc_Key' And FileName != Null)
If (File:Access (FileName) != 0)
Key=Msg:Add ('File Already Exists' 'No')
File "{FileName}" Already Exists!
Do you want to overwrite it?
If (Key:Got==Null)
FileName=Null
If (FileName)
Win:Ptr->Name = FileName
Return Ok

TextEdit:Start FileName
New Win
Win->Name = FileName
Win->Edit = TextEdit:Read (FileName)
Win->Title = "Josephine's Text Editor"
Win->Magic = False
Win->FLRCO = "Off"
Win->Idle = "Editkey:Message"
Win->After = "Editkey:FinishEdit"
Win->Save = "TextEdit:Write (Win:Ptr->Name, Win:Ptr->Edit)"
Win->Text = Text:Ptr
Menu:'&About' Action:'TextEdit:About'
Menu:'&Load' Action:'TextEdit:Load'
Menu:'&Save' Action:'TextEdit:Save'
Menu:'&Rename' Action:'TextEdit:ReName'
Menu:'&Key Help' Action:'Editkey:Ctrl_F1_Key'
Menu:'&DOS Shell' Action:'Jorf:System'
Menu:'E&xit' Action:'Return "Esc_Key"'
Text:'Notes', Field:'Win:Ptr->Edit'
Event:Add ('Editkey','Key',Here)
Win:Add (Win, 1, 1, -1, -1, Here)
Jorf:Exit

TextEdit:Write (FileName, Text)
If (FileName And Text)
Win:Add ('Writing')
Saving file "{FileName}"
File:Save (FileName, Text)
Return Ok









The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 94















Jorf:Do


Function Jorf:Do ( MethodName )
__________

Purpose Interpret a string as a command.

Returns Return value of command.

See Also Event:Do.

Notes Interprets a string as if it were a command. This is
used to execute a command that has been assembled using
string values. This ability allows the assembly and
execution of new commands and methods by a program
which then immediately calls them.

Example




Jorf:Dup


Function Jorf:Dup ( Item )
____

Purpose Make a copy of a Text or Structure.

Returns A duplicate copy of Item.

See Also Jorf:Del.

Notes This command is used to create a duplicate copy of Item
so you can change it without affecting the original.
This command will automatically write both copies to
the current project file, so if they are temporary,
they must be deleted using Jorf:Del.

Example See Jorf:Del.


Jorf:Exit


Function Jorf:Exit ( Status, Message, Command )

Purpose Exit from The JORF Interpreter.

Returns Does not return.


Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 95














See Also Jorf:System.

Notes Flushes disk caches and memory items, closes all files
and windows, exits to the operating system. This
function is called involuntarily when a fatal error
occurs.

If Status has a value, this is returned to the
operating system.

Message and Command may only be used in the DOS
version. If Message has a value, it is displayed after
the original screen is restored. Generally, Message is
used only to report fatal errors.

The Command may be used to chain to other programs. I
have had difficulty making this work consistently with
all files because various versions of DOS are a little
quirky. In general, you can chain to any batch file,
.COM file or .EXE file, and can pass up to 10
parameters (or 110 bytes whichever is longer) to that
file. Programmers may note that I prefix your command
with "Command " to invoke a DOS shell and preserve path
"Command "
and batch file capabilities.

Example

MsgBoxes:YesNo
New Result
Result=Msg:Add ("Yes/No", "Yes")
This is a yes-No Box!
If (Result)
Msg:Add
you picked yes
else
Msg:Add
you picked no
Return Ok

MsgBoxes:NoYes
New Result
Result=Msg:Add ("No/Yes", "No")
This is a No-Yes Box!
If (Result)
Msg:Add
you picked yes
else
Msg:Add
you picked no
Return Ok

MsgBoxes:OkBox

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 96














New Result
Result=Msg:Add ("Ok", "Ok")
This is an Ok Box!
If (Result)
Msg:Add
You picked Ok
else
Msg:Add
You hit the escape key.
Return Ok


MsgBoxes:Cancel
New Result
Result=Msg:Add ("Cancel", "Cancel")
This is an Cancel Box!
If (Result)
Msg:Add
You picked Ok
else
Msg:Add
You Canceled
Return Ok

MsgBoxes:Start
Win:Add ("Message Test")
MLine:"&Yes", Action:"MsgBoxes:YesNo"
MLine:"&No", Action:"MsgBoxes:NoYes"
MLine:"&Cancel",Action:"MsgBoxes:Cancel"
MLine:"&Ok", Action:"MsgBoxes:OkBox"
MLine:"&Exit", Action:"Jorf:Exit"





Jorf:File


Function Jorf:File ( Name Level )

Purpose Declares a project file, gets the name of existing
project file.

Returns Previous project file name.

Notes Project files hold indexes and data, classes and
methods. All of a JORF language application can run
out of a single project file. However, it is
advantageous to split various types of information
into various files. Jorf:File declares a new file to
be used by the interpreter.

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 97














The new file is tied to the stack using Level, which
must be the value of Here from the calling method. If
the name and level are absent, this function just
returns the current file. If they are present, the new
file is used by the interpreter.

Methods are searched in the current file, and then in
the base project METHODS.JRF. The system also
allocates a project called SWAPFILE.JRF for memory
swapping. Indexed data is searched only in the current
file.

I created this use of files without precedent or
experience. It much looser than any file definition I
have ever seen in a computer system. However, it
works, and it has some redeeming features. For one,
the files are established in relative positions, and
may be freely moved or renamed without compromising the
data in those files. A file may even be shipped to
another system, and used without any further set up.
This works because the interpreter insures that the
data and indexes in a given project file are always
synchronized.

The other redeeming feature is the simplicity of the
scheme. You don't really open the file, allocate it,
expand it or close it. This command basically says
"Use this file for a while" and the interpreter does.

Also Note When creating a program in the debugger, the
interpreter automatically does a Jorf:File for the file
Jorf:File
you are working on. For instance, when you load the
Haiku.J source file, the interpreter executes Jorf:File
Haiku.J Jorf:File
"Haiku.Jrf" Here before it runs the program. However,
"Haiku.Jrf" Here
if you translate your program to the C language, and
compile it, the interpreter is no longer available, and
you must open the file yourself.

The best explanation of how this system works comes
from running the interpreter with the Memory Info=Yes
Memory Info=Yes
flag set in the JORF.INI file. This creates a display
of memory usage and current file information.

If you run the tutorial, you can watch the system
switch to the tutorial file, and the help file, when
you enter those menus.

Example See Jorf:Write.





The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 98















Jorf:Flush


Function Jorf:Flush ( Size )

Purpose Flushes memory to disk.

Returns None.

Notes If Size is present and not zero, checks to see if that
much memory (in kilobytes) is available. If so, then
does nothing. If not, then flushes memory to obtain
space. Always flushes if Size is zero or absent. This
command may be used to insure that a particular
procedure, like obtaining entry from a data input
screen, can be completed without unnecessary delays due
to memory flushes.

Items that are flushed generally fall into two
categories; items that are needed again, and items that
are not. Those which are needed again will be read
from disk resulting in spectacular performance
degradation. Those which are not will stay on disk
where they belong.

JORF uses this command internally whenever it runs out
of memory. It is supplied here as a Function because
some Methods may see improved performance if memory is
checked and flushed before or after they are invoked.



Jorf:Pack


Function Jorf:Pack

Purpose Packs a JORF file.

Returns None.

See Also Jorf:Rebuild.

Notes Converts the current JORF file to a special ASCII file
format. This format retains all data, but omits any
indexes. It also contains offsets to recursive
structures and sparse structures such as large arrays.
Packed files have the extension JPK.

Because the packed format does not contain indexes, it
is usually half the size of the .JRF file. This file

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 99














can be used to rebuild a .JRF file. The file must be
rebuilt with the appropriate class definitions, so that
indexes are added properly.



Jorf:Printer



Function Jorf:Printer

Purpose Displays a preprogrammed printer selection box.
]
Returns None.

See Also Arr:Printers, File:Print

Notes This command displays a standard pre-programmed printer
selection box to save you the time of creating one. It
is really a JORF language routine, translated and
compiled into the JORF interpreter. The example below
shows the actual code for this routine.

Example

Jorf:Printer
New (PrintList,PrintChoice,Dest)

Event:Add()
PrintList = Arr:Printers()
Win:Add("Select Printer")
Group:"&Printers", Row:1 Col:1 Len:6 Wid:22
Array:"" Field:"PrintList" Choice:"PrintChoice"

Button:" &Go " Row:1 Col:32
Action:"Dest=PrintList[PrintChoice]"
Button:" &Cancel " Row:4 Col:32 Action:"Return ('Esc_Key')"
If (Dest='Esc_Key' Or Kbd:Got='Esc_Key')
Dest=Null
Return(Dest)












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Jorf:Ptr


Function Jorf:Ptr

Purpose Get Stack top and last error information.

Returns None.

See Also Mem:Ptr, Win:Ptr.

Notes Returns Mem:Ptr with various elements reset to current
values. This function is a catchall to pass some
quirky internal values to JORF language programs.

Values returned are:

Jorf:Ptr->NumFiles | Number of files open
Jorf:Ptr->MemFree | Current free memory
Jorf:Ptr->StackLevel | Current stack nesting level
Jorf:Ptr->StackTop | Top of stack
Jorf:Ptr->WinTop | Top Window Structure

| In an error event, the following values are set
Jorf:Ptr->ErrNum | Error Number
Jorf:Ptr->ErrMsg | Error Message
Jorf:Ptr->ErrLine | Line in interpreter at Last Error




Jorf:Rebuild


Function Jorf:Rebuild

Purpose Packs and rebuilds a JORF file.

Returns None.

See Also Jorf:Pack.

Notes Rebuilds a .JRF file by copying data to an ASCII
format, erasing the original, and reading the ASCII
data back in. Indexes are not copied, and are re-
created after the data is read.

To rebuild a file, you must not be using any methods or
data in that file. The rebuild will tell you if you
have any live pointers, and you will not be able to
rebuild.

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 101














You can rebuild from the command line using the -R
-R
option. You must first specify the file that contains
the class definitions, and then -R and then the file(s)
-R
you want rebuilt.

JORF Contact -R Contact.Dat Rebuilds the contact file.
JORF Contact -R Contact.Dat





Jorf:Sound


Function Jorf:Sound ( Frequency, Duration )

Purpose Make beautiful music together.

Returns None.

Notes The built in sound capability in the IBM PC style
computer is very primitive. You cannot control volume
at all, and the system uses a square wave that sounds
real mechanical.

This command makes a sound at the specified Frequency
for at least the specified Duration (in 18ths of a
second). The sound must end when the duration ends,
and on many speakers this produces an audible click.

Example

Boing:Sound
Jorf:Sound(220, 16)
Jorf:Sound(180, 10)
Return

Boing:start
New Row, Col, Len, Wid, Char, RowDir, ColDir
Win:Add ("Boing", 0, 0, 10, 50, Here)
Char = 1
RowDir = Num:Rand (-1, 1)
ColDir = Num:Rand (-1, 1)
Row = 10
Col = 40
Len = Win:Ptr->Len
Wid = Win:Ptr->Wid
Move:To (Len,1)
Str:PutLine ("Press any key to Re-Boing. Press Escape to
Exit")
While Ok
If Key:Hit

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If Key:Get == 'Esc_Key'
Break
RowDir = Num:Rand (-1,1)
ColDir = Num:Rand (-1,1)
Boing:Sound
Move:To (Row, Col)
Char:Put (' ')
Row = Row + RowDir
Col = Col + ColDir
Move:To(Row,Col)
Char:Put(Char)
Move:To (Len,1)
Switch
Case (Row >= Len-1)
Boing:Sound
RowDir = (-1)
Case (Row < 2)
Boing:Sound
RowDir = 1
Switch
Case (Col >= Wid)
Boing:Sound
ColDir = (-1)
Case (Col < 2)
Boing:Sound
ColDir = 1
Return







Jorf:System


Function Jorf:System ( Command )

Purpose Execute DOS shell or DOS command.

Returns None.

See Also Jorf:Exit.

Notes Under DOS, this command executes the DOS shell. In the
Windows version, this command does nothing. I guess
Microsoft wants you to click other windows to get to
the shell, rather than letting programmers like me
arrange it for you.



Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 103














If Command is not used or is Null then the operator
will be transferred to an operating system shell and
must type EXIT to return to JORF. To obtain as much
memory as possible, the system automatically calls
Jorf:Flush before executing this call. You usually
have about 200K in the shell.



Jorf:Write


Function Jorf:Write ( Item )
____

Purpose Write an item to current Data file.

Returns None.

See Also Jorf:Del.

Notes Writes Item to the current project file. Normally, the
interpreter saves data when it is indexed using the
rule system. However, there are times when it is
advantageous to "permanize" an item by hand.

In particular, Arrays are considered temporary if they
are based on a temporary item. When the method that
creates the array ends, the array is cleaned by the
interpreter unless it is permanized. You can make the
array permanent using Jorf:Write to write it to file.
In doing so, you are taking responsibility for later
deleting it.

Example

Class:Haiku Text Arts Adjs Nouns Verbs Preps

Haiku:Array (Text)
| Text may be multiple lines of comma delimited words
| Need to create an array with these words, write it, and
| return it.
New Line, CurWord, Word, WordCount, Arr, ArrCount
New Spaces
Line = Text
Spaces = Str:Ind(Line)
While (Line)
WordCount = 0
While (WordCount <= Word:Len (Line))
++WordCount
CurWord = Word:At (Line, WordCount)
If (CurWord = ',' Or Curword = Null)
++ArrCount

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 104














Arr[ArrCount]=Word
Word=Null
Else
If (Word)
Word = Word + " "
Word = Word + CurWord
Line = Text:Next (Line)
If (Str:Ind(Line) < Spaces)
Break
Jorf:Add (Arr)
Return Arr

Haiku:Display (Haiku, Level, Text)
New Spaces CurLine CurWord Pos
New NewWord NewLine NewText
New TextWin:Win
Spaces = Str:Ind (Text)
While Text
Pos = Word:Len (Text)
While Pos > 0
CurWord = Word:At (Text, Pos)
Switch CurWord
Case 'Art'
NewWord = Haiku:Word (Haiku->Arts)
If NewWord = "a"
If (Str:Aft (NewLine,"aeiou") < 2)
NewWord = "an"
Case 'Noun'
NewWord = Haiku:Word (Haiku->Nouns)
Case 'Adj'
NewWord = Haiku:Word (Haiku->Adjs)
Case 'Verb'
NewWord = Haiku:Word (Haiku->Verbs)
Case 'Prep'
NewWord = Haiku:Word (Haiku->Preps)
Else
NewWord = CurWord
If Pos = 1
NewWord = To:Caps (NewWord)
NewLine = NewWord + NewLine
--Pos
NewText = Text:Add (NewLine, NewText)
NewLine = Null
Text = Text:Next (Text)
If (Spaces > Str:Ind (Text))
Break
Win->Level = Level
Win->Text = Text:Top (NewText)
Win:Add (Win)

Haiku:Else (Key)
Return (Key)

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 105














Haiku:Ini
New Rule:Rule Haiku:Haiku
Rule->Type = 1
Rule->Obj = 'Haiku'
Rule:Find (Rule)
If (Rule->Fnd)
Haiku=Rule->Ptr
Else
Haiku->Arts = Haiku:Array
a, the
Haiku->Adjs = Haiku:Array
autumn, hidden, bitter, misty, silent, empty
dry, dark, sighing, delicate, quiet
white, cool, frigid, winter, dappled
twilight, afternoon, crimson, wispy, azure
blue, billowing, broken, cold, damp, falling
frosty, tawny, long, late, lingering
little, morning, leafy, billowing
still, small, sparkling, cloudy
wandering, withered, wild, black, young
Haiku->Nouns = Haiku:Array
waterfall, mist, breeze, moon
rain, wind, sea, morning, snow, glitter, forest
Josephine, cloud, meadow, sun, glade, bird, brook
butterfly, tove, dew, savannah, meadow
flower, firefly, feather, grass, haze, mountain
night, goat, shade, snowflake
silence, lily, sky, shape, surf, thunder
violet, water, wildflower, wave
Haiku->Verbs = Haiku:Array
drifts, has stopped, blusters, raps
shlepped over, races, did gyre and gimble, stretches
flutters, has risen, is drifting, is trickling
murmers, is floating, twas brilling
Haiku->Preps = Haiku:Array
on, in, beneath, over, near, of
Jorf:Add (Haiku)
Jorf:Global->Haiku = Haiku
Rule->Ptr=Haiku
Rule:Add (Rule)
Return (Haiku)

Haiku:Start
New Haiku:Haiku Count
Event:Add ("Haiku", "Key", Here)
Jorf:File ("Haiku", Here)
Haiku=Haiku:Ini
While (Ok)
While Count < 10
Switch Num:Rand (1, 4)
Case 1
Haiku:Display (Haiku, Here)

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 106














Art Adj Noun . . .
Art noun verb prep art noun
Adj Adj Noun
Case 2
Haiku:Display (Haiku, Here)
Noun Prep Art Noun
Art Adj Noun Prep Art Noun
Adj Noun
Case 3
Haiku:Display (Haiku, Here)
Art Adj Noun
Art Adj Noun
Art Noun Verb
Case 4
Haiku:Display (Haiku, Here)
Art Adj Noun Verb
Art Adj Noun
Prep Art Adj Noun
If (Key:Hit)
If (Key:Get = "Esc_Key")
Jorf:Exit
++Count
While (Win:Ptr)
Win:Del
Count = 0
Jorf:Exit

Haiku:Word (Arr)
New Word Off
Off = Num:Rand (1, Word:Len (Arr))
Word = Arr[Off]
Return Word + " "



Kbd:Bye


Function Kbd:Bye

Purpose Clear keyboard stream.

Returns None.

See Also Kbd:Get.

Notes Kbd:Bye does not read or process the keys, it just gets
rid of them.





Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 107















Kbd:Get


Function Kbd:Get ( CursorSize )

Purpose Get a Keystroke from the Keyboard.

Returns Keystroke value.

See Also Kbd:Hit, Kbd:Got, Kbd:Put, Line:Inp.

Notes Waits until the operator hits a key and returns the
value of that character. If CursorSize is "None", no
cursor is displayed. If it is "Little", then the
cursor will be a blinking line, and if it is "Big", the
cursor will be a blinking block. Only the first letter
is significant. If it is absent or null, "Little" is
assumed.

The return value is always a string indicating the key
that was hit. This is a departure from most language
that returns an integer value. The key values are
outlined in Appendix C.
Appendix C

The Event System processes keystrokes using Event:Do
Value "Key". This processing may change the value of
the key, display a message, or move the cursor
location. It is especially important during field
input and text input to remember that the cursor
location may change during a Key:Get.

Example

WhatKey:Start
| Sample for: Key:Get, Event:Add
New Key
Win:Add ("What Key?", 5, 15, 10, 50)
Win:Msg ("Press Alt-X to Quit")

While (Ok)
Str:Put ("Press a Key: ")
Key = Kbd:Get ("Big")
Str:PutLine ('That was the "' + Key + '".')
Jorf:Exit








The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 108















Kbd:Got


Function Kbd:Got

Purpose Find out what the last Keystroke was.

Returns Keystroke value.

See Also Kbd:Hit, Kbd:Get, Line:Inp.

Notes Returns the value of the last keystroke. Always
returns the key value, even if the event system may
have caused Kbd:Get to return a different key value.
Kbd:Get

The return value is always a string indicating the key
that was hit. The key values are outlined in Appendix
Appendix
C.
C



Kbd:Hit


Function Kbd:Hit

Purpose Check to see if a key has been hit.

Returns True if a key has been hit. Otherwise False.

See Also Kbd:Get.

Notes Kbd:Hit does not read or process the keystroke in any
way. To find out what key was hit, use Kbd:Get.


Kbd:Put


Function Kbd:Put ( Value )
_____

Purpose Stuff the keyboard buffer with keys.

Returns None.

See Also Kbd:Get.

Notes This function allows you to stuff any keys, including
mouse keys, into the input buffer. There are two basic
formats you can use:


Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 109














1. An individual keystroke command.
2. A string of characters to stuff.

It is common to mix these two formats. For instance,
to stuff the keyboard to fill three data entry fields,
you might use the following six commands:

Kbd:Put ("This goes into Field 1")
Kbd:Put ("Enter_Key")
Kbd:Put ("This goes into Field 2")
Kbd:Put ("Enter_Key")
Kbd:Put ("This goes into Field 3")
Kbd:Put ("F10_Key")

After keys are stuffed, the JORF language cannot tell
them from keys that are input. The keyboard handling
system as a dynamically reallocating buffer, that is
limited only by the size of your near memory. You can
generally stuff more than 1000 keystrokes without
running out of memory.

You can use this facility to run programs that read
entry from batch files. Just create a way to specify
the file name, and then read the file into the keyboard
buffer.



Key:Add


Function Key:Add ( RuleStructure )
_____________

Purpose Add a String Key to the data base.

Returns None.

See Also Rule:Add.

Notes RuleStructure must be a compound structure with the
elements Type, Obj, Str, Ptr, Fnd (found), and KLen
(Key Length). The last two elements are used by Key
"Find" to get next key in a series. The elements Att
and Val used by Rule:Find are replaced here by Str.

Key:Add adds a new string key valued Obj and Str, with
the associated data in Ptr. Probability cannot be
added as with the Rule:Add function. The key may be
found again by specifying the correct Obj, and by doing
a partial or whole key search on the Str value.



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Key:Del


Function Key:Del ( RuleStructure )
_____________

Purpose Deletes an existing string key.

Returns None. RuleStructure->Fnd will be True if key was found
and deleted.

See Also Key:Find.

Notes Deletes an existing string key. This command may be
called with a partial key value, in which case it will
delete the first entry by that value.

After an entry is deleted, you are still able to go the
"next" entry.
Example See Key:Add.



Key:Find


Function Key:Find ( RuleStructure )
_____________

Purpose Find a key.

Returns None.

See Also Rule:Find, Key:Next.

Notes In this function, parameters may be empty, in which
case the first matching index entry will be returned.
Parameters must be empty from left to right, that is,
if Str has a value then Obj also must have a value. If
a "hole" is left, then nothing will ever be found.

When a key is found, the structure will be filled with
the values of that key and Fnd will be set to True. If
Key:Next is called with these values set, then the next
next
key value is returned. This process may be continued
until the value of the current key does not match the
value of the original partial key. This length is put
original partial key
in KLen after every successful search and may be
modified.

Although this process appears quirky, in practice it is
easy and intuitive. Generally, string keys have a
"type" in Obj. Commonly, the first key of that type is

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 111














searched, and then all subsequent keys displayed since
they have the same type. When the type changes in the
index, the list has been completed.

Efficiency Notes for Technical People
Efficiency Notes for Technical People

I use a B-Tree algorithm with a branching factor of
about 20. This type of index is most efficient when
handling indexes with more than 1000 keys. This is the
opposite approach as that used by dBASE and Clipper,
which is most efficient for smaller indexes.

The algorithm always uses at least half the node. The
node size is 1 Kilobyte. The average keys used in a
node is about 15. So the efficiency of this tree is
expressed as powers of 15:

One Read 15 Keys
Two Reads 225 Keys
Three Reads 3,375 Keys
Four Reads 50,625 Keys
Five Reads 759,375 Keys
Six Reads 11,390,625 Keys
Seven Read s
170,859,375 Keys
Eight Reads 2,562,890,625 Keys

JORF uses an internal disk cache for this tree to avoid
repeated disk reads. Usually, the first two levels are
cached giving access to up to 225 nodes without any
disk reads at all. Other recently read nodes are also
cached because indexes are often read sequentially.
The largest tree shown here would require 166,854
Megabytes of disk space.



Key:Next


Function Key:Next ( RuleStructure )
_____________

Purpose Find next key in sequence.

Returns None.

See Also Key:Find, Chapter Six.

Notes If RuleStructure->KLen is zero, then this command works
just like KeyFind. If it is not zero, then the next
key in sequence is returned. When a key is found, the
structure will be filled with the values of that key
and Fnd will be set to True. This process may be

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 112














continued until the value of the current key does not
match the length specified. Values for Klen are:

0 Rules with the same Type match
1 Rules with the same Type+Obj match
2 Rules with the same Type+Obj+(Partial)Str match
3 Rules with the same Type+Obj+Str match


Key:Prev


Function Key:Prev ( RuleStructure )
_____________

Purpose Find previous index value.

Returns None.

See Also Key:Find, Key:Next, Chapter Six.

Notes This function is the opposite of Key:Next.



Line:Del


Function Line:Del ( Count )
_____

Purpose Delete a Count lines of text displayed in an editing
window.

Returns None.

See Also Line:Inp.

Notes Deletes Count lines of text on the input screen and
handles appropriate scrolling functions. The text must
have been displayed by a legitimate text input routine.
Placing text on the window "by hand" does not make it
an input structure appropriate for handling with this
function.

Lines will be inserted if Count is negative. Nothing
will happen if it is zero. If the cursor is in column
1, then the line will be appended on the previous line.
The Join ability makes it symmetrical with Line:Ins
Join
which can Split text lines.
Split

Example



Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 113















Line:Inp


Function Line:Inp ( Field, Row, Column, Length, Width )
_____

Purpose Input a data entry field or multiple line text.

Returns None..

See Also Line:Out, Text:Add.

Notes This command may now be functionally obsolete, replaced
by the powerful window management Input command. For
the moment, it does no harm to have an extra function
that allows you to input a single item on a data entry
screen.

To Highlight the field before entry, use Line:Out.



Line:Ins


Function Line:Ins ( Count )
_____

Purpose Inserts Count lines in current edit window.

Returns None.

See Also Line:Inp, Line:Del.

Notes Inserts Count lines at the current cursor location and
handles appropriate scrolling functions. Lines will be
deleted if Count is negative. Nothing will happen if
it is zero.

Example How about the Ctrl-N method from the editor.
Ctrl-N

EditKey:Ctrl_N_Key | Insert Line
Win:Ptr->Prefix=Null | ^Q Prefix is now
meaningless
EditKey:Changed | You've ruined it, must
show menu
Line:Ins (1) | Insert one line
EditKey:Message | And show current pos and
status





The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 114















Line:Out


Function Line:Out ( Field, Row, Column, Length, Width )
_____

Purpose Output a data entry field or multiple line text.

Returns None.

See Also Line:Inp, Text:Add.

Notes This command may now be functionally obsolete, replaced
by the powerful window management Input command. For
the moment, it does no harm to have an extra function
that allows you to input a single item on a data entry
screen. To highlight, call Win:Att to set the
attribute, then this command to display line or field
with that attribute.


Line:Rel


Function Line:Rel

Purpose Release input, forcing data to be re-read from the
field.

Returns None.

Notes When data entry is done, there is an internal buffer
that temporarily holds the field value. If a keystroke
function changes that value, this buffer must be
released, so that the value is re-read from the
original field. This mechanism saves you from worrying
about data displayed on the screen when you change it
underneath.


Mem:Ptr


Function Mem:Ptr

Purpose Set or check global values.

Returns None.

Notes Global variables are values that may be tested and
changed by any method. They are a key feature of the
BASIC and dBASE languages. However, I don't like them

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 115














one bit, because you can never really depend on them
holding their values as program flow passes in and out
of other people's subsystems.

The JORF Language has only one true global variable,
Mem:Ptr. This is a structure of the Jorf class.
Mem:Ptr Jorf
Structures of this class are allowed to have any
element, without any declaration. As you run your
program, any time you need to save a value, set it
using Mem:Ptr. Later, you can retrieve it the same
Mem:Ptr
way:

Mem:Ptr->Test = "Hi Jo" | Set global value "Test"
Str:PutLine Mem:Ptr->Test | Use global value "Test"

You should avoid using too many global variables.
Doing so is an indication that your program is
structured poorly. You are probably working too hard
kludging around, when you should be creating a new
class definition to pass values to your methods.

Example See Event:Add.



Method:Add


Function Method:Add ( Text )
____

Purpose Write text including indexes used by the interpreter to
call methods.

Returns None.

See Also Method:Del.

Notes This function differs from Jorf:Add only in that it
looks for a method name on the first line, and if
found, adds the appropriate indexes so the method may
be found again. Methods are also indexed by
Class:Read and Class:Check.

This command does something distressing if the method
already exists. If you are editing an existing method,
there is no problem.
But if you have created a new copy of an existing
method, Method:Write must resolve this so there is only
one copy. What it does is to move your current copy to
the location of the existing copy. Your editing
changes stick, but your pointer Text will be deleted.


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Whenever you use Method:Write, be aware that you may
lose your pointer.



Method:Del


Function Method:Del ( Text )
____

Purpose Delete text including indexes used for calling method.

Returns None.

See Also Jorf:Del.

Notes This function differs from Jorf:Del only in that it
looks for a method name on the first line, and if
found, deletes any index references. Methods are
indexed automatically by Class:Read and Method:Add.
There is no harm in passing all text to this command,
it gives no error if the indexes are not found.

Example See Method:Move.


Msg:Add


Function Msg:Add ( Title, Type, Text )

Purpose Show a Dialog Box.

Returns True or False.

See Also Win:Add.

Notes Displays one of four preset dialog boxes. All boxes
have a message in the top section, and one or two
buttons on the bottom. The four box Types are:

Ok The Default, one button says Ok.
Yes A Yes/No box, default is Yes.
No A Yes/No box, default is No.
Cancel An Ok/Cancel box, default is Ok.

Message boxes use the "Message" background if it is
defined in the JORF.INI or JORFWIN.INI file (See
Appendix D). Under Windows, the message system uses a
special dialog box that limits access to other windows.
To create a message that uses a normal box, use
Win:Add.

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 117














Example

MsgBoxes:YesNo
New (Result)
Result=Msg:Add ("Yes/No", "Yes")
This is a yes-No Box!
Switch
Case Kbd:Got = 'Esc_Key'
Msg:Add
You hit the escape key
Case Result = Ok
Msg:Add
You picked yes
Else
Msg:Add
You picked no
Return Ok

MsgBoxes:NoYes
New Result
Result=Msg:Add ("No/Yes", "No")
This is a No-Yes Box!
Switch
Case Kbd:Got = 'Esc_Key'
Msg:Add
You hit the escape key
Case Result = Ok
Msg:Add
You picked yes
Else
Msg:Add
You picked no
Return Ok

MsgBoxes:OkBox
New Result
Result=Msg:Add ("Ok", "Ok")
This is an Ok Box!
If (Result)
Msg:Add
You picked Ok
else
Msg:Add
You hit the escape key.
Return Ok


MsgBoxes:Cancel
New Result
Result=Msg:Add ("Cancel", "Cancel")
This is an Cancel Box!
Switch

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 118














Case Kbd:Got = 'Esc_Key'
Msg:Add
You hit the escape key
Case Result = Ok
Msg:Add
You picked Ok
Else
Msg:Add
You canceled
Return Ok

MsgBoxes:Start
Win:Add ("Message Test")
MLine:"&Yes", Action:"MsgBoxes:YesNo"
MLine:"&No", Action:"MsgBoxes:NoYes"
MLine:"&Cancel",Action:"MsgBoxes:Cancel"
MLine:"&Ok", Action:"MsgBoxes:OkBox"
MLine:"&Exit", Action:"Jorf:Exit"






Move:To


Function Move:To ( Row, Column )

Purpose Move cursor in window.

Returns None.

See Also Move:By.

Notes Moves the present position to Row and Column
coordinates in the current window. A position that
exceeds window boundaries place the cursor next to the
boundary. There is no way to position the cursor
outside a window.

Row may be zero, in which case the cursor will not be
moved up or down. Row may also be negative, in which
case the cursor will be that many lines from the Bottom
of the window. The top row of a window is Row 1, and
the bottom is WindowPacket->Length.

Column may be zero, in which case the cursor will not
be moved right or left. Column may also be negative,
in which case the cursor will be that many characters
from the left side of the window. The leftmost


Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 119














character is in column 1, and the rightmost is in
column WindowPacket->Width.

A movement that exceeds window boundaries places the
cursor as far as possible without going over the
boundary. There is no way to move outside the current
window.

Example See Jorf:Sound.



Move:By


Function Move:By ( Row, Column )

Purpose Move cursor in window.

Returns None.

See Also Move:To.

Notes Works the same as Move:To Row Column except that
movement is relative to the current position. It is
common to see negative numbers used in this command to
move back one row or column.
A movement that exceeds window boundaries place the
cursor as far as possible without going over the
boundary. There is no way to move outside a window.




New


Function New ( Variable1, Variable2, Variable3 )
_________

Purpose Creates new variables.

Returns None.

See Also Chapter Three.

Notes Creates a new instance of an object. This command is
the only way to allocate structures and new records on
disk. New must be used at the beginning of a method,
before any other commands.

New variables are automatically deallocated unless:


The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 120














They are linked to a rule.
They are linked to a structure, linked to a rule.
They are linked to Mem:Ptr or Win:Ptr.
They are Returned.

You can declare more than one variable, by listing them
one after another. Variables names may be prefixed by
a explicit class, separated with a colon. Variables
may also omit the class, implying they belong to the
Jorf class. Variables of the Jorf class will take on
Jorf Jorf
the class of another value that is assigned to them.

Parentheses are not required in the current version.

Example

Demo:Start
New (Rad, Chk, Inp1, Inp2)
Win:Add ("A Real Screen", 4, 8, 14, 50, Here)
Menu:"&Help"
Menu:"&Indented Menu Items"
Menu:"&Create Sub Menus"
Menu:"&And Even Deeper"
Menu:"&Sub Menus"
Menu:""
Menu:"(Escape to Exit)"
Menu:"&Jorf Help F1" Action:"Hotkey:F1_Key"
Menu:"&Time and Date Alt-T" Action:"HotKey:Alt_t_Key"
String:" Use your Arrow Keys to go up and down. On"
String:" Check Boxes and Radio Buttons, the Enter Key"
String:" checks and Space Bar skips. Be sure to Press"
String:" Alt-H to check out the Menus and Submenus!"
Radio:" Radio &1" Row:6 Col:8
Check:"Rad==True", Action:"Rad=True"
Radio:" Radio &2"
Check:"Rad==False", Action:"Rad=False"
ChBox:" Check Box &A" Row:6, Col:26
Check:"Chk==True", Action:"Chk=True"
ChBox:" Check Box &B"
Check:"Chk==False", Action:"Chk=False"
Input:"&Input 1 " Row:9, Col:8 Field:"Inp1"
Input:"I&nput 2 " Field:"Inp2"
Button:" &Done " Row:12, Col:24, Action:"Esc_Key"
Return









Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 121















Null


Function Null

Purpose Returns "Nothing".

Returns "Nothing".

See Also True.

Notes Returns a JORF Pointer to nothing. This is used like a
0 is used in decimal location. Sometimes you need
indicate "nothing", but it has to be something to keep
other items aligned.

This is equivalent to closed quotes ("") or the number
zero. The JORF Pointers for zero, "" and null are
exactly the same.



Num:Abs


Function Num:Abs ( Num )
___

Purpose Returns the absolute value of Num.

Returns Num or -Num.

See Also Num:Max, Num:Min.

Notes The Absolute value is the same number, but always
positive. So the absolute value of -5 is five, which
is also the absolute value of 5. This function is used
to insure that negative numbers are treated like their
positive equivalent.

This function maintains the internal type of the
number. If the number is a floating point number, a
floating point number is returned. If it is an
integer, an integer is returned. If it is a string or
text, then the string is converted to a number, and a
floating point or integer value is returned.







The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 122















Num:Btw


Function Num:Btw ( Num, A, B )
___ _ _

Purpose Returns Num between A and B.

Returns Num, A or B.

See Also Num:Max, Num:Min.

Notes Num is between, then the return value is Num. If it is
lower than A, then A is returned. If higher than B
then B is returned.

This function is used to qualify that a value is within
a specific range.


Num:Exp


Function Num:Exp ( Num )
___

Purpose Returns the exponential e to Num.

Returns Exponential e to Num.

See Also Num:Log.

Notes Frankly I don't really understand what this is except
that e is a complex number that shows up in some math
algorithms. Mine is not to question why, but to give
you the capability.


Num:Log


Function Num:Log ( Num )
___

Purpose Returns the natural logarithm of Num.

Returns The natural logarithm of Num.

See Also Num:Sqrt, Num:Pow.

Notes The logarithm is another mathematical concept I don't
fully understand, but it was what one of Babbage's
great machines was to calculate so it must be
important.

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 123














Example

Class:Payment (Amt,Yrs,Int,Pmt,Pmt50,Yrs50)

Payment:Start
New (Payment:Pmt)
Win:Add ("Loan Payment Calculator")
String:"Calculate your loan payment amount and years"
String:"to pay if you added just $50 to the payment."
Input:"&Loan Amount ", Row:4 Wid:12
Field:"Pmt->Amt", After:"Payment:Calc(Pmt)"
Input:"&Years to Pay ", Row:5 Wid:5
Field:"Pmt->Yrs", After:"Payment:Calc(Pmt)"
Input:"&Percent Interest ", Row:6 Wid:5
Field:"Pmt->Int", After:"Payment:Calc(Pmt)"
Input:"Payment ", Row:7 Wid:10
Field:"Pmt->Pmt", Before:"Return(Null)"
Input:"Adding just $50 ", Row:9 Wid:10
Field:"Pmt->Pmt50", Before:"Return(Null)"
Input:"Reduces the years to" Row:10 Wid:5
Field:"Pmt->Yrs50", Before:"Return(Null)"
Button:" &Done ", Row:12, Col:16
Return(Ok)

Payment:Calc(Pmt)
New (Periods,Per_Int,Payment,Months50)
Pmt->Pmt = 0
If (Pmt->Int > 0 And Pmt->Yrs > 0)
Periods = Pmt->Yrs*12
Per_Int = Pmt->Int/12/100
Payment =
(Pmt->Amt*Per_Int)/(1-Num:Pow(1+Per_Int,(-Periods)))
Payment = Num:Int((Payment+.005)*100)/100
Pmt->Pmt = Payment
Pmt->Pmt50 = Payment+50
Months50 =
Num:Log(Pmt->Pmt50 /
(Pmt->Pmt50-Pmt->Amt*Per_Int))/Num:Log(1+Per_Int)
Pmt->Yrs50 = Num:Int((Months50/12)*10)/10
Win:Dsp
Return (Ok)












The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 124















Num:Max


Function Num:Max ( A, B )
_ _

Purpose Returns the higher of A and B.

Returns Either A or B.

See Also Num:Btw, Num:Min.

Notes Corresponds to a common C language macro MAX(A,B). Use
this command to return the Highest of two values.

There is an odd paradox that you commonly use these
numbers to insure a minimum value. For instance, to
produce a number no lower than 10, you call Num:Max
Num:Max
Number, 10.
Number, 10


Num:Min


Function Num:Min ( A, B )
_ _

Purpose Returns the lower of A and B.

Returns Either A or B.

See Also Num:Btw, Num:Max.

Notes Corresponds to a common C language macro MIN(A,B). Use
this command to return the Highest of two values.

There is an odd paradox that you commonly use these
numbers to insure a maximum value. For instance, to
produce a number no higher than 10, you call Num:Min
Num:Min
(Number, 10).
(Number, 10)



Num:Pow


Function Num:Pow ( Num, Pow )
___ ___

Purpose Returns Num raised to the Pow power.

Returns Power of Num.

See Also Num:Sqrt.

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 125














Notes Returns Num raised to the indicated power. The result
is an integer only if it fits, and is a floating point
if it is fractional or very large.

Example See Num:Log


Num:Rand


Function Num:Rand ( Low, High )
___ ____

Purpose Produces a Random Number.

Returns A Random Number from Low through High.

Notes Produces a pseudo random number between High and Low
that are assumed to be integer values. The random
number seed is the system clock and will be different
for each run of JORF. The number may be Low or High or
any integer value between.

Example See Jorf:Sound.


Num:Sqrt


Function Num:Sqrt ( Num )
___

Purpose Returns the square root of Num.

Returns Square root of Num.

See Also Num:Pow.

Notes Returns the square root of Num. The return value is an
integer only if it fits. If it is fractional, it is a
floating point value. The square root of zero is
returned as zero.



Ok


Function Ok

Purpose None.

Returns 1 (integer one).


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See Also True.

Notes This value allows you create readable "Endless" While
loops by saying While Ok.
While Ok



Return


Function Return (Value )

Purpose Return a value.

Returns None.

Notes Methods may return a single value using this command.
If no value is specified, null is returned. A method
that ends without an explicit Return is the same as
Return Null.
Return Null

If more than one value needs to be returned, the
parameters used to call the function may be changed.

Return may be used at any time, including If statements
and While loops. This will end execution of the current
method and return control to the calling method.



Rpt:Add


Function Rpt:Add ( Title, Row, Col, Len, Wid, Level, Def )

Purpose Write a report or document.

Returns None.

See Also File:Print.

Notes The future of this function is bright, but currently it
is but a shadow of what will come. The job here is to
create a report generating system as easy as the screen
system handled item the Win:Add command.

The parameter Title is not currently used, but will
probably find its way into a status box that will show
what page and line is currently being generated. The
parameters Row, Col, Len and Wid help define the page
size.


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The last parameter Def for definition is usually the
report definition in an indented section below this
command. The report is always written to the file
JREPORT.LST which then can be printed using File:Print.
Like Win:Add, there are several key words used to
define report elements.

Header A page header item
Footer A page footer item
Next Method to get the next record
Item An Item on the report
Text A multiline text in the report

This next example shows a normal report format. This
report lists contact names one after the other. It
contains a header and a footer.

Contact:List
New (Dest)
Mem:Ptr->IndexName = "FullName"
Time:Get(Mem:Ptr)
Mem:Ptr->Page=1

Dest=Jorf:Printer()
If (Dest)
Win:Add("Printing")
Printing . . .
Contact:SetFile(Here)
Rep:Add ("Contact Listing", 5, 5, 60, 75,Here)
Header:"'Contact Listing Report'" NewRow:1 Col:30
Header:"'Page '+Mem:Ptr->Page" NewRow:1 Col:1
Header:"'Date '+Mem:Ptr->SDate" Col:50
Header:"Str:AtSet(Null,1,'-',80)" NewRow:1 Col:1
Next:"Struct:Next('Contact',
Mem:Ptr->IndexName, Mem:Ptr->Contact)"
Item:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->FullName" NewRow:2 Col:1 n:20
Item:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->Company " Col:22 Len:32
Item:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->WorkPhone" Col:52 Len:28
Item:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->Addr1" NewRow:1 Col:5 Len:30
Item:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->Addr2" NewRow:1 Col:5 Len:30
Item:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->Addr3" NewRow:1 Col:5 Len:30
Item:"Null" NewRow:1 Col:5 Len:30
Footer:"'Continued on Page '+Mem:Ptr->Page+1" Row:56 Col:1
File:Print("Jreport.lst",Dest)
Return (Ok)

If you skip the page definition, the report will print
without headers or footers. You can use this to print
continuous forms.

Contact:ContinLabels(Flag)
New (Dest,CurrContact)

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Dest=Jorf:Printer()
Win:Add("Printing")
Printing . . .

Contact:SetFile(Here)
CurrContact = Mem:Ptr->Contact
Mem:Ptr->OneContact= CurrContact
Mem:Ptr->Contact = Null
| Report for Continuous labels, 6 lines, 1 line between
|
Rep:Add ("Continuous Labels")
Next:"Contact:Nextlabel(Flag)"
Item:"'('+Mem:Ptr->Contact->MailCode+')'" NewRow:1 Col:26
Before:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->MailCode!=Null"
Item:"" NewRow:1 Col:26 Wid:12
Before:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->MailCode==Null"
Item:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->FullName" NewRow:1 Col:1 Wid:40
Item:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->Company" NewRow:1 Col:1 Wid:40
Before:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->Company!=Null"
Item:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->Addr1" NewRow:1 Col:1 Wid:40
Item:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->Addr2" NewRow:1 Col:1 Wid:40
Item:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->Addr3" NewRow:1 Col:1 Wid:40
Item:"" NewRow:1
Before:"Mem:Ptr->Contact->Company==Null"
File:Print("JREPORT.LST",Dest)
Mem:Ptr->Contact=CurrContact
Return(Null)

This last example shows how you can read an ASCII text
file to feed a text item in the report. The text key
word takes the name of a JORF pointer that holds the
text to use for a format. Lines in that text may
contain JORF variables in curly braces.

Contact:MergeLetter
New (Dest,Letter,CurrContact)
Time:Get(Mem:Ptr)
Letter=File:Load(Contact:GetLetter)
If (Letter!=Null)
Dest=Jorf:Printer()
If (Dest)
CurrContact=Mem:Ptr->Contact
Mem:Ptr->Contact=Null
Win:Add("Printing")
Printing . . .
Rep:Add ("Merge Letter", 5, 5, 60, 75,Here)
Header:"" Row:1
Next:"Contact:NextRecord('Next')"
Text:"Letter"
File:Print("JREPORT.LST",Dest)
Mem:Ptr->Contact=CurrContact
Return (Ok)

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Still to be completed is multiple level processing
(which will be done using indented sections, of course)
and support for printer drivers. Please contact The
JORF Company for further changes and upgrades to this
command.



Rule:Add


Function Rule:Add ( RuleStructure )
_____________

Purpose Add a new Rule.

Returns None.

See Also Key:Add.

Notes RuleStructure must be a structure with the elements
Obj, Att, Val, Prob, Ptr, Fnd (Found), and KLen (Key
Length). The last two elements are used by Rule:Find
to get next rule in a series. The element Str used by
Key:Find are replaced here by Att and Val.
Adds rule valued Obj, Att and Val, with the associated
data in Ptr (Pointer). The rule may be found again by
doing a partial or whole rule search on RuleStructure.

Example The ISA.J source file demonstrates both forward and
ISA.J
backward searching using the Rule system.



Rule:Del


Function Rule:Del ( RuleStructure )
_____________

Purpose Delete a Rule in the Data Base.

Returns None. Sets RuleStructure->Fnd to True if Rule was
deleted.

See Also Key:Del.

Notes Deletes an existing rule. This command may be called
with a partial rule, in which case it will delete the
first rule that begins with that value. It is highly
recommended that this command be called with a complete
rule to insure that the correct entry is deleted.



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After a rule is deleted, you can still use Rule:Next go
the "next" rule.



Rule:Find


Function Rule:Find ( RuleStructure )
_____________

Purpose Find a Rule in the Data Base.

Returns None. Sets RuleStructure->Fnd to True if Rule was
found.

See Also Rule:Add.

Notes Find a rule. In this function, parameters may be empty,
in which case the first matching index entry will be
returned. Parameters must be empty from left to right,
that is, if Att has a value then Obj must also have a
value. If a "hole" is left, then nothing will ever be
found.

When a rule is found, the structure will be filled with
the values of that rule and Fnd will be set to True.
If Rule:Next is called with these values set, then the
next rule value is returned. This process may be
next
continued until the value of the current rule does not
match the value of the original partial rule. This
original partial rule
length is put in KLen after every successful search and
may be modified.

Example See Jorf:Write.



Rule:Next


Function Rule:Next ( RuleStructure )
_____________

Purpose Find the next Rule in sequence.

Returns None. Sets RuleStructure->Fnd to True if Rule was
found.

See Also Rule:Find.

Notes If RuleStructure->KLen is zero, this works just like
Rule:Find. If not zero, this command finds the next
rule in a sequence. This process may be continued

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until the value of the current rule within the Klen
changes. Values for Klen are:

0 Rules with the same Type match
1 Rules with the same Type+Obj match
2 Rules with the same Type+Obj+Att match
3 Rules with the same Type+Obj+Att+Prob+Val match



Rule:Prev


Function Rule:Prev ( RuleStructure )
_____________

Purpose Find previous Rule in sequence.

Returns None. Sets RuleStructure->Fnd to True if Rule was
found.

See Also Rule:Next.

Notes This command is the opposite of Rule:Next.



Str:Aft


Function Str:Aft ( String, CharList )
______ ________

Purpose Get substring starting with the first character not
specified in CharList.

Returns The substring.

See Also Str:AtChar.

Notes Skips over characters specified, and returns the string
after those characters. The most common example is to
specify the string after any leading spaces.

The return value is the substring, not the position.

Example See Jorf:Write.








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Str:At


Function Str:At ( String, Position, Length )
______ ________ ______

Purpose Get a substring at specified position in String.

Returns The substring.

See Also Str:In.

Notes Returns the substring at the specified position
and length. JORF does not think of single
characters as integers, as in BASIC, C and Pascal.
Instead, JORF sees characters as one letter
strings.

The first character of the string is one (1) and the
last character is the return value of Str:Len.

A negative Position indicates an offset from the right
(end) of the string. A negative Length just counts
backward. A Position or Length that are out of bounds
returns whatever part of the string is in bounds.

Example See Event:Add.



Str:AtChar


Function Str:AtChar ( String, CharList )
______ ________

Purpose Get a substring starting with one of characters in
CharList.

Returns The substring.

See Also Str:In.

Notes Get a substring starting with one of the specified
characters. To look for a substring within a string,
use Str:In.

Returns the substring, not the position.






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Str:AtCut


Function Str:AtCut ( String, Position )
______ ________

Purpose Get a truncated version of string.

Returns The truncated string.

See Also Str:AtDel.

Notes Truncates String at Position. This command is
functionally the same as:

Str:AtDel (String, Pos, Str:Len(String)-Pos)

If Position is less than one, or greater than the
length of String, then nothing will change.



Str:AtDel


Function Str:AtDel ( String, Position, Count )
______ ________ _____

Purpose Returns a version of String with deleted characters.

Returns The modified string.

See Also Str:AtCut.

Notes Deletes Count characters from a string at Position. If
Count is zero, or exceeds the length of the string,
then the string will be truncated at Position. If
Position is less than one, or greater than the length
of String, then nothing will change.



Str:AtPut


Function Str:AtPut ( String, Position, InsertString )
______ ________ ____________

Purpose Insert a substring within string.

Returns The modified string.

See Also Str:AtSet.


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Notes Inserts InsertString into String at Position. If
Position is less than one, or greater than the length
of String, then nothing will change. This command will
not overwrite existing characters. Instead, it expands
the string to fit the new characters. To replace
characters, first use Str:AtDel.



Str:AtSet


Function Str:AtSet ( String, Position, InsertString, Count )
______ ________ ____________ _____

Purpose Sets a repeated value into String.

Returns The modified string.

See Also Str:AtPut.

Notes Inserts InsertString, Count times, into String at
Position. If Position is less than one, or greater
than the length of String, then nothing will change.
This command will not overwrite existing characters.
Instead, it expands the string to fit the new
characters. To replace characters, first use
Str:AtDel.

This command is used to place a repeated pattern in a
string. It also may be used to create a buffer full
of a known value, like '*************'. You cannot
create a buffer full of nulls.



Str:In


Function Str:In ( String, Substring )
______ _________

Purpose Returns the position of Substring in String.

Returns A numeric position.

See Also Other String functions.

Notes If Substring is not found then returns zero. Examples:

Str:In "Josephine" "ph" Result 5
Str:In "Festus" "f" Result 1
Str:In "Bear" "EAR" Result 2
Str:In "Josephine" "Z" Result 0

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Str:Len


Function Str:Len ( String )
______

Purpose Get the number of characters in String.

Returns The number of characters in String.

See Also Text:Len.

Notes This function may be used to return the length of a
text line, as well as the length of a string.



Str:NPad


Function Str:NPad ( String, Length )
______ ______

Purpose Pad the end of String with nulls until it is the
specified Length.

Returns The modified String.

See Also Str:Pad.

Notes Not commonly used for anything but writing specialized
file formats. Many file formats require fields that
are null padded, instead of space padded. Use this
command to null pad your strings.

Once a string is null padded, most JORF functions will
reconvert the string back to it's smallest format. You
should use this command just prior to writing a string
or buffer to file.



Str:Pad


Function Str:Pad ( String, Length )
______ ______

Purpose Pad the end of String with spaces, until it is the
specified Length.

Returns The modified String.


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See Also Str:NPad.

Notes Commonly used to format consecutive strings for output
on the screen or printer. By padding, you can column
align values. If the string is too long, this command
will truncate it to the Pad length.



Str:Put


Function Str:Put ( String )
______

Purpose Put a string on the window.

Returns None.

See Also Str:PutLine.

Notes Outputs a JORF data pointer to the current window.



Str:PutLine


Function Str:PutLine ( Line )
____

Purpose Put string on window, then go to next line.

Returns None.

See Also Str:Put.

Notes Outputs a line to the current window, moves the cursor
to the next line. This command differs from Str:Put
because it completes the line by moving the cursor.



Struct:Find


Function Struct:Find ( Class, Index, Value )
_____ _____

Purpose Find a structure using an automatic index.

Returns Structure.

See Also Struct:Next, Key:Find.


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Notes When you define a structure with automatic indexes the
interpreter will automatically add, change and delete
that index. This command allows you to find structures
that have previously been stored using this index.
Set Class to the class name, the Index to the name of
the field that is indexed, and the Value to the value
you want to find. If the search value is null, this
command returns the first item in the index.

Example

Class:Filter
Index:Name
Descr
Method

Filter:Start
New (Filter:Filter)
Jorf:File("FILTER.DAT",Here)
Event:Add()

If (Struct:Next('Filter','Name',Null)==Null)
Filter->Name = "All"
Filter->Descr = "All Records"
Filter->Method= Null
Jorf:Write(Filter)
Filter=Null

Win:Add ("Contact Filters")
Menu:"&File"
Menu:"&About Filters" Action:"Filter:About"
Menu:"&Rebuild" Action:"Filter:Rebuild(Filter)"
Menu:"E&xit Alt-X" Action:"HotKey:Alt_X_Key"
Menu:"&Edit"
Menu:"&Add " Action:"Filter:Edit('Add',Filter)"
Menu:"&Change " Action:"Filter:Edit('Chg',Filter)"
Menu:"&Delete " Action:"Filter:Edit('Del',Filter)"
Group:"Filters", Row:1, Col:1, Len:8, Wid:42
String:"Name Description"
List:"" Row:3, Col:2, Len:7, Wid:42
Field:"Filter"
Next:"Struct:Next ('Filter','Name',Filter)"
Prev:"Struct:Prev ('Filter','Name',Filter)"
Show:"Str:Pad(Filter->Name,12)+Str:Pad(Filter->Descr,30)"
Button:" &Select ", Row:11 Col:04 Action:"Return(Ok)"
Button:" &Cancel ", Row:11 Col:26 Action:"Return('Esc_Key')"
Mem:Ptr->Filter=Filter
Return (Ok)

Filter:Edit(Action,Filter)
| Add/Edit/Delete Filters
New (Filter:NewFilter, Result)

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 138














If (Action=="Add")
Jorf:Write(NewFilter)
Filter=NewFilter

If (Action=='Del')
Result=Msg:Add('Filter Delete','No')
Delete this filter

Name: {Filter->Name}
Descr: {Filter->Descr}
If (Result)
Jorf:Del(Filter)
Win:Dsp
Return

Win:Add ("{Action} Filter")
Input:"Name ", Row:1 Wid:10, Field:"Filter->Name"
Input:"Description", Row:2 Wid:30, Field:"Filter->Descr"
Input:"Command ", Row:3 Wid:40, Field:"Filter->Method"
Jorf:Write(Filter)
Filter=Null
Win:Dsp
Return(Null)

Filter:Rebuild(Filter)
Filter=Null
Mem:Ptr->Filter=Null
Jorf:Rebuild
Win:Dsp
Return (Null)



Struct:Next


Function Struct:Next ( Class, Index, Value )
_____ _____ _____

Purpose Find the next structure in sequence.

Returns Structure.

See Also Struct:Find.

Notes If Value is null this command finds the first structure
in the file. Each subsequent call finds the next record
in sequence. This function is widely used for Window
Lists where the Next command is used to find the next
record in the list.

If there are no more records in the index, this command
returns null.

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 139















Struct:Prev


Function Struct:Prev ( Class, Index, Value )
_____ _____ _____

Purpose Find the previous structure in sequence.

Returns Structure.

See Also Struct:Find.

Notes If Value is null this command finds nothing - not the
last structure in the index which is what you might
expect. This function is widely used for Window Lists
when you use the up arrow to go up through a file.

If the Value was already at the first record in the
index, this function returns null.




Switch/Case/Else


Function Switch/Case/Else

Purpose A conditional branch.

Returns None.

See Also If/Else.

Notes A conditional Branch. Tests the value of a parameter
and executes indented code sections based on that
value.

Switch ( TestValue )
_________
Case Value1
Case Value2
Performs this section if TestValue is Value1
OR Value2
Else
If no Case was valid this section performed.

Tests a value and performs commands in indented
sections. This command was introduced for the C
language, but was not robust. I have strengthened the
command by eliminating the need for explicit Break
commands. I have changed "Default" to Else. And I
allow more complex processing on Case lines.

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The Switch command does not need a parameter following.
If the parameter is absent, the Case lines are expected
to be logical expressions that can be evaluated. If
the parameter is present, the parameter is check
against the expression in the Case line.

Break may not be used, even by hopeless C programmers
like myself who put them in anyway. It was never
robust to partially reuse code sections and K&R must
not have realized the ramifications when they created
the C language switch command. They required an extra
key word for the common case and promoted the unwise
programming practice of allowing the program flow to
"fall" into another routine.

Examples The Switch command is used to replace multiple If/Else
Switch If/Else
statements. It checks a condition, and compares it to
various Case clauses. It executes the indented section
Case
under the appropriate Case. It also has an Else
Case Else
clause, which works just like the else in an If
If
statement.

For example: Is Replaced By

If (A=2) Switch (A)
B=A+C Case 2
Else B=A+C
If (A=3) Case 3
B=A+D B=A+D
Else Case 4
If (A=4) B=A+E
B=A+E Else
Else B=A
B=A


Case functions may be stacked.

Switch (Key)
Case 'a'
Case 'A'
Say 'Key is A'
Case 'b'
Case 'B'
Say 'Key is B'
Else
Say 'Key is not A or B'


The Switch function is neater and easier to use than
multiple If/Else functions. The condition for the
If/Else


Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 141














switch command may be omitted, and the Case commands
Case
may be complex comparisons.

Switch
Case (Key>='a' && Key<='Z')
Case (Key>='A' && Key<='Z')
Say 'Key is a Letter'
Case (Key>='0' && Key<='9')
Say 'Key is a Number'
Else
Say 'Key is Something Else'




Text:Add


Function Text:Add ( Line, Text )

Purpose Append Line to the bottom of Text.

Returns Text.

See Also Line:Inp, Win:Add.

Notes Appends to existing text, or creates a new text. There
are some commands in the system, like Win:Add that need
a "text" parameter even if it is blank. A normal null
pointer is not sufficient for these processes to
operate.

Warning: If you are building a multi-line text, and
you get the parameters to Text:Add backward, you text
will only be the last line you added.

Example See Jorf:Sound.




Text:At


Function Text:At ( Text, LineNumber )
____ __________

Purpose Get a specific line of Text.

Returns The line of Text.

See Also Text:Pos.


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Notes Returns the line of Text at LineNumber. If Text is not
a block of text, it is treated as a single line of
text. If the LineNumber is greater than the length of
the text this function returns null.

Example See Text:Bot



Text:Bot


Function Text:Bot ( Text )
____

Purpose Get the last line of a block of text.

Returns The last line of Text.

See Also Text:Top, Text:Next, Text:Len.

Notes Returns the last line of Text. If Text is not a
multiple line text block, then returns Text as if it
were a one line text block.

Example The following program demonstrates the text commands.
Note how Text:Top and Text:Bot return the top and
Text:Top Text:Bot
bottom of the whole method. To find the top of the
block of text, check the number of leading spaces.

Text:Start
| Sample for Text Functions
Text:Sample
This text was passed to
to a method because:
a) The method call
needed a parameter
b) The text was indented
Return

Text:Sample Text
New Win1, Win2
Win1->Text = Text
Win1->Row = 2
Win1->Col = 2
Win:Add (Win1)

Win2->Row=(-2)
Win2->Col=(-2)
Win2->Len=11
Win2->Wid=40
Win:Add (Win2)


Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 143














Str:PutLine ("Text = "+Text)
Str:PutLine ("Text:Len = "+Text:Len (Text))
Str:PutLine ("Text:Wid = "+Text:Wid (Text))
Str:PutLine ("Text:Top = "+Text:Top (Text))
Str:PutLine ("Text:Bot = "+Text:Bot (Text))
Str:PutLine ("Text:At 2 = "+Text:At (Text, 2))
Text = Text:Next (Text)
Str:PutLine ("Text:Next = "+Text)
Text = Text:Next (Text)
Str:PutLine ("Text:Next = "+Text)
Text = Text:Next (Text)
Str:PutLine ("Text:Next = "+Text)
Text = Text:Next (Text)
Str:PutLine ("Text:Next = "+Text)
Str:PutLine ("Text:Pos = "+Text:Pos (Text))
Text = Text:Prev (Text)
Str:PutLine ("Text:Prev = "+Text)
Text = Text:Prev (Text)
Str:PutLine ("Text:Prev = "+Text)
Win:Pause
Return



Text:Len


Function Text:Len ( Text )
____

Purpose Get number of lines in Text.

Returns Returns number of lines.

See Also Text:Len, Text:Wid.

Notes If Text is not a text block, it will be treated as a
single line.

Example See Text:Bot



Text:Next


Function Text:Next ( Text )
____

Purpose Gets the next line of Text.

Returns A Jorf Pointer to the next line of Text.

See Also Text:Prev, Text:Len.

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 144














Notes Returns the next line of Text. If Text is on the last
line, or is not a block of text, this function returns
null.

Example See Text:Bot


Text:Pos


Function Text:Pos ( Text )
____

Purpose Returns the line number of Text.

Returns The previous line of Text.

See Also Text:At.

Notes Returns the line number of Text. If Text is on the
first line, or is not a block of text, this function
returns 1.

Example See Text:Bot


Text:Prev


Function Text:Prev ( Text )
____

Purpose Get previous line of Text.

Returns The previous line of Text.

See Also Text:Next.

Notes Returns the previous line of Text. If Text is on the
first line, or is not a block of text, this function
returns null.

Example See Text:Bot












Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 145















Text:Top


Function Text:Top ( Text )
____

Purpose Get a Jorf Pointer to the top of a block of text.

Returns A Jorf Pointer to the first line of a block of text.

See Also Text:Bot. Text:Next.

Notes Returns the first line of Text. If Text is not a text
block, then Text is returned because it is treated as a
one line text block.

Example See Text:Bot



Text:Wid


Function Text:Wid ( Text )
____

Purpose Get the width necessary to display this block of text.

Returns The width of the widest line of Text.

See Also Str:Len.

Notes Returns the width of the widest line of Text. This is
used to calculate the width of a window adequate to
display Text without wrapping.

Example See Text:Bot



Time:Get


Function Time:Get ( TimeStructure )
_____________

Purpose Get system Time.

Returns A TimeStructure filled with appropriate values.

See Also Time:Set.

Notes Gets the system time and date from the computer.
TimeStructure elements are set to the following.

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Time:Get (TimeStructure)
TimeStructure->Year | 4 digit year
TimeStructure->Nmonth | Numeric Month
TimeStructure->Day | Day
TimeStructure->24hour | Hour on 24 hour clock
TimeStructure->Hour | Hour on 12 hour clock
TimeStructure->Minute | Minute
TimeStructure->Second | Second
TimeStructure->AMPM | AM or PM
TimeStructure->Stime | Time as HH:MM:SS
TimeStructure->Smonth | String Month
TimeStructure->Sdate | String Date according
to Format
TimeStructure->Ndate | Numeric Date according
to Format

If the computer lacks a clock, this date may not be
correct. One test is to see if the date is less than
1990. Most operating systems boot with a default date
before 1990. If a clock is used, the system date
should be after 1990. You can change the date using
Time:Set.

Americans should be humbled to note that only one
country in the world invented and sustains writing
dates as Month-Day-Year. The European Day-Month-Year
and the Oriental Year-Month-Day both make more sense.
You wouldn't write the time as Minutes-Seconds-Hours
would you?

To change the formats, you must change the default
setup values. These values are:

TimeStructure->M1 | The name for January
TimeStructure->M2 | The name for February
. . .
TimeStructure->M12 | The name for December

TimeStructure->A1 | Letters that mean AM - Default "am"
TimeStructure->A2 | Letters that mean PM - Default "pm"

TimeStructure->Yoff | Offset to change year - Default 0

TimeStructure->STFormat | Time Format - Default "h:mm a"
TimeStructure->SDFormat | Date Format - Default "m d, yyyy"
TimeStructure->NDFormat | Date Format - Default "m/d/y"

Date Formatters
Date Formatters

m = Month, Caps for Upper Case
mm = Month, w/zero Caps is ignored
d = Day Caps is ignored

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dd = Day, w/zero Caps is ignored
y = Year Caps is ignored
yy = Two digit year Caps is ignored
yyyy = Four digit year Caps is ignored

Time Formatters
Time Formatters

h = Hours Caps is military time
_h = Hours, space in front Caps is military time
hh = Hours, zero in front Caps is military time
m = Minutes Caps is ignored
_m = Minutes, space in front Caps is ignored
mm = Minutes, zero in front Caps is ignored
s = Seconds Caps is ignored
_s = Seconds, space in front Caps is ignored
ss = seconds, zero in front Caps is ignored
a = am or pm, Caps for Upper Case

Examples
Examples

French d m, yyyy d-m-yyyy
British d.m.yyyy
Japanese y-m-d

You may note that there is an issue, even in America,
about how the numeric date will be written eight years
from now. Is January 17th, 2001 abbreviated as 2/17/0
or 2/17/00 or 2/17/2000? I bet in our age of speed an
abbreviations that we will use the first. Second
question, if the previous decade was "The Eighties" and
the current decade is "The Nineties", what is name the
next decade?

Example This program displays a text box showing the various
time values, then switches to French (one of only two
foreign languages I know well enough to know all the
words, the other is Japanese, and you need a graphics
screen for that).

TimeTest:Start
New Time
Win:Add ("Time Test", 0, 0, 10, 40, Here)
Time:Get (Time)
Str:PutLine ("NDate: " +Time->NDate)
Str:PutLine ("SDate: " +Time->SDate)
Str:PutLine ("STime: " +Time->STime)
Str:PutLine ("Switch to French")
Time->M1="Janvier"
Time->M2="Frevier"
Time->M3="Mars"
Time->M4="Avril"
Time->M5="Mai"

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Time->M6="Jun"
Time->M7="Juillet"
Time->M8="Aout"
Time->M9="Septembre"
Time->M10="Octobre"
Time->M11="Novembre"
Time->M12="Decembre"
Time->NDFormat = "dd.mm.yy"
Time->SDFormat = "d m, y"
Time->STFormat = "h.m.s a"
Time:Get (Time)
Str:PutLine ("NDate: " +Time->NDate)
Str:PutLine ("SDate: " +Time->SDate)
Str:PutLine ("STime: " +Time->STime)
Win:Pause
Return



Time:Set


Function Time:Set ( TimeStructure )
_____________

Purpose Set DOS clock.

Returns None.

See Also Time:Get.

Notes Sets the DOS time and date. TimeStructure must have
the elements Year, Month, Day, Hour, Minute, and
Second. These elements will be set to appropriate
values.

The Date is set only if TimeStructure->Day is not zero.
The time is set if any of the three values are not
zero, but will not be changed if -TimeStructure->Hour,
TimeStructure->Minute and TimeStructure->Second are all
zero.

Setting the DOS time and date does not usually affect
the computer's system clock. The utility program that
resets the computer clock is not a standard DOS
command. The following are different commands I have
seen that can set the clock to adjust for daylight
savings time: CLKINIT, CLOCK /I, and TIMER /H.
Network clocks must be set on the network server.





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Time:Ticks


Function Time:Ticks

Purpose Gives an accurate timing mechanism.

Returns The number of ticks since midnight.

See Also Time:Get.


Notes Returns the number clock ticks since midnight. This
may be used to time methods and program processes.
This allows you to time operations with greater
precision than the seconds in the Time:Get command
allows. The ticks are somehow tied to the operating
system and the C compiler that I used to compile
JORF.EXE. Currently there are 18 ticks per second on
all DOS and Windows based systems.



To:ASCII


Function To:ASCII ( String )
______

Purpose Get ASCII value of first character of String.

Returns Returns the ASCII decimal value.

See Also To:Char.

Notes Converts a letter to its ASCII decimal value. For
instance To:ASCII "A" returns 41. Generally String
To:ASCII "A" 41
contains only one character, but can be a word or line
of text.




To:Caps


Function To:Caps ( String )
______

Purpose Capitalize a string.

Returns Returns the capitalized string.

See Also To:Ucs.

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Notes Insures that any character following a space in String
is an upper case letter. Does not affect words or
acronyms that are already in capital letters. This is
used to change the appearance of strings for screen
display.


To:Char


Function To:Char ( Value )
_____

Purpose Returns a one character string with the letter
designated by the ASCII Value.

Returns Returns the one letter string.

See Also To:ASCII.

Notes For example, To:Char (41) returns "A".
To:Char (41)


To:Int


Function To:Int ( Num )
___

Purpose Returns the integer value of Num

Returns Integer.

See Also To:Num.

Notes To:Int and To:Num return the same value for integers,
but different values if there is a decimal. This
function truncates decimals, returning the next lower
integer value. You cannot specify a number base using
To:Int as you can with To:Num.


To:Lcs


Function To:Lcs ( String )
______

Purpose Convert a string to lower case.

Returns The lower case string.

See Also To:Ucs.



Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 151














Notes Converts all characters, including initials and
acronyms, to lower case.


To:Num


Function To:Num ( String, Base )
______

Purpose Convert String to its numeric value. Does not change
items that are already numbers.

Returns Returns the numeric value.

See Also To:Str.

Notes I know I promised that JORF pointers automatically
handle numeric conversions, and I am often guilty of
exaggeration on this point. There is a time when
strings must be converted to numbers an back.

You can use another numbering Base for the conversion.
The default is 10 for decimal. Use 16 for Hexadecimal,
8 for Octal, or any other number of other bases.

Strings may be integers, decimals and floating point
numbers with "E" notation (ex. "3.24E-4"). This
command does not change values that are already
numbers, and may be used as a precautionary measure
when the value might or might not have already been
converted.


To:Str


Function To:Str ( Number, Formatter, Base )
______

Purpose Convert number to a string value. Does not change
items that are already strings.

Returns Returns the string value.


See Also To:Num.

Notes Converts the opposite way as To:Num. Used notably to
convert values back into strings.

You can use the Base to change the number base of the
conversion. The default is 10 for decimal. You can 16
for hexadecimal, 8 for octal, or any other number for
other numbering bases.

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You can use the Formatter to apply a format to the
number. The formatter is a string with a mask for the
number. Available digits in the string are:

# Writes a numeric digit
0 Writes 0 place holder or the numeric digit
- Writes a - sign if number is negative
+ Writes a + sign if positive, - if negative
. Decimal point
$, Any other character will be printed As-Is

Example

Binary:Start
New Char
Win:Add ("BINARY VALUES", 4, 4, 19, 60, Here)

For (Char = 0 Thru 255)
If (Char > 0 and (Char % 16 == 0))
Win:Pause
If Key:Got == "Esc_Key"
Break
Str:Put(" Character= {To:Str(Char,'000')} Symbol= ")
Char:Put(Char)
Str:PutLine(" Binary= {To:Str(Char,'0000 0000',2)}")

If Key:Got != "Esc_Key"
Win:Pause
Jorf:Exit




To:Ucs


Function To:Ucs ( String )
______

Purpose Convert a string to UPPER CASE.

Returns The UPPER CASE string.

See Also To:Caps.

Notes Converts all characters, including initials and
acronyms, to UPPER CASE. Returns the resulting string.







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True


Function True

Purpose Returns a value to indicate Logical True.

Returns A JORF Pointer to the integer 1.

See Also False.

Notes Most programming language express results of logical
equations as zero to indicate False, and one to
indicate True. These values are called Boolean values.


This function was created in the interest of program
clarity. It simply returns the integer value one.




While/Break/Continue


Function While/Break/Continue

Purpose A Loop

Returns None.

Notes A loop. Tests the value of a parameter and executes
indented code sections based on that value.

While ( TestValue )
_________
Does indented section until false
Break
Continue

Tests a value and does commands in indented sections
until that value is zero or false. The value is often
a logical expression in parenthesis.

Corresponds exactly to the C language while command.
The test value is usually a logical evaluation, but
While True is also common. This indicates an endless
loop that will be ended using the Break command.

Break ends the execution of a While. Program flow will
resume on the line following the loop.


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Continue ends execution of the current loop, returns
control to the While command to test and executed the
loop again if the condition remains valid. This
command is used to simplify code within complex while
loops. It is not generally used.

Examples The While statement creates a loop based on a
While
condition. This loop is repeated as long as the
condition is TRUE. A Break can be used to break out of
Break
the loop even if the condition is still True. A
Continue is used to shortcut the loop, restarting the
Continue
next iteration immediately.

Counter=0 | Initialize Counter
While (++Counter <= 5) | Increment Counter
Rule:Find (Rule) | Find a next rule
If (Rule->Fnd=Null) | If not found
Break | break out of
loop
If (Rule->Ptr=Null) | If condition Null
Continue | Skip rest of loop
P=P+"-"+Rule->Pointer | Add Pointer
Str:PutLine (P) | Show result



Win:Add


Function Win:Add ( Title, Row, Col, Len, Wid, Level, Text )
(A WindowStructure may substitute for Title.)

Purpose Display a new Window on the screen.

Returns None.

See Also Chapter Five, Msg:Add, Move:To, Str:Put.

Notes Without doubt, the most complicated library function.
WindowStructure can contain the following elements:

Row Top Row of Window
Col Left Column of Window
Len Number of rows inside window
Wid Number of columns inside window
CurRow Cursor Row in Window
CurCol Cursor Column in Window
MouseRow Mouse Cursor Row in Window
MouseCol Mouse Cursor Column in Window
RowOff Rows that display is offset
ColOff Columns that display is offset
InpRow Row of Input Field

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InpCol Column of Input Field
InpLen Length of Input Field
InpWid Width of Input Field
Text Text displayed in Window
Type Window color or type
Level Value of Here
Magic TRUE if Window interprets Magic Spots
Attr Current Attribute 1 for low - 5 for high
FLRCO Current FLRCO value

A window is a box on the screen where all output and
input takes place. In DOS, the sides of the box are
one character width wide and one character width tall.
A shadow on the right side takes two character columns
and on the bottom takes an additional character row.
Under Microsoft windows, an overlapped window with wide
borders is displayed using your default color scheme.

An optional title may be displayed centered in the top
line, and a message may be displayed in the bottom line
left side.

DOS Windows use direct video access unless you specify
otherwise in the JORF.INI file. DOS windows have an
exploding speed, which changes how the windows are
displayed.

All console input and output takes place on the top
window displayed on the screen. There is no facility
to update a window that is not the top window on the
screen, even under MS-Windows.
If Title is specified, it will be displayed centered on
the top of the window. If the width of the title
exceeds the window width specification then the window
width will be increased to accommodate the title.
Magic spots in the title will be interpreted.

If Text is specified, the window is created exactly the
size of the text to be displayed. If the text is
greater than the screen length or width, the window
will expand to the boundaries of the screen. Commonly
the text attribute is passed as an indented section of
the program. Any indented section is passed by the
interpreter as the last parameter to the command
preceding the indented section. Text is required if
this window is to be edited using Line:Inp.

If Row and Col are specified, the position of the
window will be moved to the position indicated. If
they are negative, then the window will be placed
relative to the bottom right corner of the screen. If

the window dimensions do not entirely fit on the

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screen, because Text is too large or Length too long or
Width too wide the Row and Col values will be changed
so that the window will entirely fit on the screen.

The Len (Length) and Wid (Width) parameters can be used
to set the exact size of the window. These parameters
will override the size of Text.

The Level parameter must specify the value of here in
the method that creates the window. When that method
is completed, the window will automatically be erased.

Example

Windows:Start
Win:Add ("Big", 2, 2, -2, -2)
Win:Add ("Top Right", 3, 3, 3, 15)
Win:Add ("Bottom Right",-3, 3, 3, 15)
Win:Add ("Bottom Left", -3, -3, 3, 15)
Win:Add ("Top Left", 3, -3, 3, 15)
Win:Add ("Tall", 3, 45, -4, 10)
Win:Add ("Wide", 10, 3, 3, -4)
Win:Pause
Return Ok




Win:Attr


Function Win:Attr ( Attribute )
_________

Purpose Sets attribute for text in a window.

Returns None.

Notes Whenever anyone in the IBM PC world says Attribute, you
Attribute
know they are talking about colors on the monitor.
This command sets the colors for text to be displayed.

The attribute may be "Hi" for highlighted text, "Low"
for low highlight. You can also set one of five values
for attribute, 1 corresponds to normal, through 5 for
high.

You can set attribute without using this command by
setting Win:Ptr->Attr = Attribute. This is now the
Win:Ptr->Attr = Attribute
preferred method for setting attribute, and the command
may be eliminated in later versions of JORF.



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Win:Block


Function Win:Block ( Function, Command )
________

Purpose Do some WordStar style block commands.

Returns None.

Notes JORF Version 2.0 introduces the same Block Move and
Copy commands found in other Wordstar style editors.
You can access these functions using Win:Block.

Win:Block "Mark" Marker. Places a block marker.
Marker can be a number from 0 through 9, "Beginning" or
"End".

Win:Block "Goto" Marker. Move cursor to a block
marker. Marker can be a number from 0 through 9,
"Beginning" or "End".

Win:Block "Copy". Copies a marked block to current
cursor location. Nothing is copied if block is not
correctly marked, or if cursor is within the block.

Win:Block "Delete" Marker. Delete the marked block, no
matter where the cursor is located.

Win:Block "Move". Moves a marked block by copying it
to the current cursor location and then deleting it
from its prior location.

Win:Block "Read" FileName. Reads a block from disk
into the current cursor location. File is assumed to
be a text file. This read adds lines one by one, and
is much slower than File:Load.

Win:Block "Write" FileName. Writes a marked block to
disk. Does not change block markers.



Win:Del


Function Win:Del

Purpose Delete top window on screen.

Returns None.


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See Also Win:Add.

Notes Deletes a single window on the screen. This command
is not generally used because windows are deleted
automatically when the method that creates them is
complete.

Example See Arr:Sort.



Win:FLRCO


Function Win:FLRCO ( Mode )
____

Purpose Change wrap mode for text on the window.

Returns Previous wrap mode as a string containing a single
lower case letter "f", "l", "r", "c" or "o".

See Also Win:Add.

Notes Sets the current window mode for text justification.
The name of this command comes from the possible Modes;
"Full", "Left", "Right", "Center", or "Off". "Off"
turns off the text wrapping feature so text that
overflows the window boundary will not be displayed.
The other modes all turn on the wrapping feature that
wraps text at the nearest word boundary.

You can set FLRCO without using this command by setting
Win:Ptr->FLRCO = Attribute. This is now the preferred
Win:Ptr->FLRCO = Attribute
method for setting FLRCO, and the command may be
eliminated in later versions of JORF.


Win:Magic


Function Win:Magic ( Mode )

Purpose Change whether curly brackets are interpreted in text
on the window.

Returns Previous Magic mode True or False.

See Also Win:Add.

Notes Sets the mode for "Magic", whether {curly bracket}
expressions are interpreted in text display. Usually
this mode is True, allowing all variable values and

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input expressions to be interpreted. However, when
editing commands or program text, you want this mode
off so the that curly brackets are not interpreted.

You also want to set FLRCO "Off" to editing program
text. Otherwise text lines will wrap at the window
borders.

Astute programmers may note that variables in windows
are replaced, even when they are not in the current
method. The "Magic" system looks down the entire stack
for a named variable, and is not limited by the current
method which may just display the window.

You can set Magic without using this command by setting
Win:Ptr->Magic = True (or False). This is now the
Win:Ptr->Magic = True
preferred method for setting Magic, and the command may
be eliminated in later versions of JORF.


Win:Msg


Function Win:Msg ( Message )

Purpose Display a message in the Window.

Returns None.

See Also Win:Add.

Notes Displays a message in the last line of the current
window. If the message is absent or null then the
current message is deleted.


Win:Pause


Function Win:Pause ( Hundredths )

Purpose Pause.

Returns The Key that was hit, if one was hit, to end the pause.

See Also Kbd:Get.

Notes Pauses for the specified number of Hundredths of
seconds. Due to the quirky hardware engineering of an
IBM PC, exact Hundredths are a basic unit, but cannot
be obtained by a program. Generally, the finest
resolution is about three hundredths of a second at a

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time. Anyway, this command will pause as close as it
can get to the hundredths you specified.

If the operator hits any key, the pause will end. If
Hundredths is zero, the pause will continue
indefinitely. If the pause is greater than 5 seconds,
a "Happy Goat" will be displayed.

Example This example is the much reviled SayLineByCharacter
method that is used in the tutorial for program
scripts.

Script:SayLineByCharacter (j)
New I C
I=1 | Start with 1
While Ok
C=Str:At(J, I, 1) | Get Character
If (C=Null) | Done?
Break
Str:Put (C) | Put it
++I | Next Character
Win:Pause (1) | Pause a hundredth
Str:PutLine | Carriage Return



Win:Ptr


Function Win:Ptr

Purpose Get the WindowStructure that was used to create the
window.

Returns A pointer to the WindowStructure that was used to
create the window. Null if no structure was used.

See Also Win:Add.

Notes Row, Column, Length and Width reflect the actual
window, and may have changed if the window was adjusted
to fit on the screen.

Win:Ptr is most often used to pass values to keystroke
handling methods. Although no parameters may be
passed, values attached to the window structure can
pass pointers. This is how the Editkey methods find
out the location and value of the item they are working
on.

CurRow and CurCol will be set to the cursor row and
column. MouseRow and MouseCol are set to current mouse

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position If the mouse pointer is inside the window. If
If the mouse pointer is inside the window
the window is an edit window, then the CurLine is set
to the currently executed line, and that line is
redisplayed on the screen (some window display
functions are buffered).

If the window is an edit window, Magic is False, and
FLRCO is "Off", then the window can move right or down
to accommodate text that is larger than the window. In
this case RowOff and ColOff reflect the relative
position of the top left corner of the text in the
window.



Win:Repl


Function Win:Repl ( SearchString, ReplaceString, Flags )
____________ _____________ _____

Purpose Do some WordStar style string replacing commands.

Returns None.

See Also Win:Search.

Notes JORF Version 2.0 introduces the same Search and Replace
commands found in other WordStar style editors. You
can access these functions using Win:Search and
Win:Repl.

Flag values are:

B Search backward to top
G Global replace
N Do not prompt
U Case insensitive search
W Search for Whole Words

In addition, you can add a numeric count for the number
of items to replace.

This command can only be used within an edit window,
and will do nothing if used on a text that is not
currently being edited in the window.








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Win:Search


Function Win:Search ( SearchString, Flags )
____________ _____

Purpose Do some WordStar style string search.

Returns None.

See Also Win:Repl.

Notes JORF Version 2.0 introduces the same Search and Replace
commands found in other Wordstar style editors. You
can access these functions using Win:Search and
Win:Repl.


Flag values are:

B Search backward to top
U Case insensitive search
W Search for Whole Words

In addition, you can add a numeric count for the number
of items to search by before stopping.

This command can only be used within an edit window,
and will do nothing if used on a text that is not
currently being edited in the window.



Word:At


Function Word:At ( Structure, Position )
_________ ________

Purpose Returns a word in parsed command line, or value of a
member of a structure.

Returns Word.

See Also Word:AtPut, Class:At.

Notes Both structures and text lines are stored as an array
of Class:Word pairs. The number of words can be
obtained using Word:Len.

Structures
Structures

Normally, structure elements are accessed using
pointers. However, they may also be accessed by

Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 163














referencing the elements directly using this command.
This has to be done to examine the stack, because it is
not a normal class.

Stack
Stack

Each level of the stack (each method call) creates a
new structure. The first element has the class Method
Method
and is the current program line. The second element
has the class From and is the previous level of the
From
stack. The next elements are the parameters in the
order they were passed. Then, any New variables with
New
the variable name standing for the class name.

New Values
New Values

New values that are structures contain a pointer to the
class definition in the first element. Subsequent
elements are various values in the order that they were
referenced.

Arrays
Arrays

Array elements are normally accessed using square
brackets []. But if you find reason, you can use
Word:At to get the element. Word:Len-1 will be the
Word:At Word:Len-1
number of elements used in the array.

Text
Text

Text lines may be examined to obtain the class and
values of items on that line. The line is
automatically parsed when Word:At is used. Unlike the
parse used by the interpreter, the Word:At parse
separates all punctuation characters into individual
words, even if they are two character symbols like the
pointer->operator.
->

Example See Event:Add.



Word:AtCut


Function Word:AtCut ( Structure, Position )
_________ ________

Purpose Truncates a structure.

Returns None.

See Also Word:At, Str:AtCut.

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Notes I don't know why! I've got this thing about making
commands symmetrical, so just because there is a
Str:AtCut there has to be a Word:AtCut. I suppose you
could use it to truncate temporary values off the
stack. That's It! You can write a JORF interpreter
using JORF and you'll have to be able to add and cut
values on the stack.

Just be real careful, you could easily cut your current
variables right off. Cutting a word also cuts the
adjoining class.


Word:AtDel


Function Word:AtDel ( Structure, Position, Count )
_________ ________ _____

Purpose Squeezes a structure.

Returns None.

See Also Word:At, Str:AtDel.

Notes Squeezes elements out of the center of a structure.
Like Word:AtCut, uses for this command are limited and
rather dangerous.


Word:AtPut


Function Word:AtPut ( Structure, Position, Value )
_________ ________ _____

Purpose Changes the value in a member of a structure.

Returns None.

See Also Word:At, Class:AtPut.

Notes Both structures and text lines are stored as an array
of Class:Word pairs. The number of words can be
obtained using Word:Len. Although Word:At works for
both text and structures, Word:AtPut works only on
structures, not text lines. To change a text line, you
must use the String functions.

Word:AtPut can be used to change an element in a
structure, or a variable in the stack. It can even be
used to move the program line pointer, which is the
first element in a stack structure.


Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 165















Word:In


Function Word:In ( Structure, Word )
_________ ____

Purpose Searches for the existence of Word in a structure or
parsed command line, and returns the position if it is
found. Returns zero if Class is not found.

Returns Position of Word or zero if not found.

See Also Word:At, Class:In.

Notes Both structures and text lines are stored as an array
of Class:Word pairs. The number of words can be
obtained using Word:Len. Word:In can be used to get
the value of an element in a structure without using
the structure pointer operator.



Word:Len


Function Word:Len ( Structure )
_________

Purpose Returns the number of elements in a structure, or the
number of words in a parsed text line.

Returns Number of words.

See Also Word:At, Str:Len.

Notes In the deep past, pieces of the JORF interpreter were
developed as part of a Japanese to English language
translator. But I go so bogged down in memory and file
management problems (in the C language) that I decided
to create a new language to do my parsing and
dictionary management. That tool eventually became The
JORF Language.

There remains a number of low level functions that are
word oriented, especially towards parsing lines into
words. It doesn't matter to the interpreter whether
these lines are English text, or JORF language command
lines, the parser works the same.

Word:Len returns the length of a text line, as parsed
for Natural Language Processing. Each punctuation
character is handled as a separate word. This differs


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slightly from the interpreter parse which sees elements
like the structure->operator as one word.

Structures also use the parsed format, even though
their Str:Len is zero. This is one way to tell a
String from a Structure.


Word:Type


Function Word:Type ( Structure, Position )
_________ ________

Purpose Returns the type of word at the designated Position.

Returns String type of the words.

Notes This function is commonly used within the interpreter,
and so has been added as a function in hopes it will
help JORF language programs that must parse command
lines. Possible types are:

"String" A string, may be a quoted number.
"Punctuation" A punctuation character.
"Function" A JORF Function name.
"Method" A JORF Method name.
"Number" A number.
"Jorf" None of the above.
(A Text or Array pointer for instance.)
























Chapter Six - Library Functions Reference 167














Appendix

Appendix A - JORF Language Reference


Basic Rules

Indentation controls program flow.
Commands and variable names are not case sensitive.
The end of line is the end of the line.
The comment character is a pipe symbol (|).
Parameter lists are surrounded by Parentheses


Key Words

Class Used to declare a new class.
Class
Parent In a class definition, designates a
Parent
parent class.
Jorf The default class for all objects.
Jorf
Index Declares an index field within a class
Index


Math Symbols and Order of Operations

-> Structure Element Pointer
[] Array reference
- ~ ++ -- Negation, Complement, Increment,
Decrement
* / % Multiplication, Division, Modulus
+ - Addition and Subtraction
= <> != Equality and Inequality
> < >= <= Comparison
& ? ^ Bitwise And, Or and Xor
&& ?? And Or Logical And, Or
= Assignment of value

















The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 168















Appendix B - Library Functions

Function Description Returns

Arr:Del (Arr,Pos,Cnt) Delete Cnt Elements at Pos Array
___ ___ ___
Arr:Dir (WildCard,Excl) Directory minus exclusions Array
Arr:Ins (Arr,Pos,Cnt) Insert Cnt Elements at Pos Array
___ ___ ___
Arr:Len (Arr) Number of Elements Count
___
Arr:Pick (Arr,Cmd,T,R,C,L,Df) Show a Pick Menu Pick
___
Arr:Printers Returns Printer List Array
Arr:Sort (Arr,Cmd,Dir) Sort Ascending/Descending Array
___

Char:Del (Count) Del Spaces None
_____
Char:Get Get ASCII value Value
Char:Ins (Count) Ins Spaces None
_____
Char:Put (Value) ASCII value to Screen None
_____
Char:Print (Prn, Val) ASCII value to Printer None
___ ___

Class:At (Struct,Pos) Class at Position Class
______ ___
C l a s s : A t P u t ( S t r u c t , P o s , C l a s s )
____________ ______ __________
Change Class None
Class:In (Struct,Class) Get Position Position
______ _____
Class:Read (Name) Read Class None
____
Class:Write (Name) Write one/all Class None

Event:Add (Class,Type,Lev) Add Event Class None
_____ ____ ___
Event:Del (Type) Delete Event Class None
____
Event:Do (Method,Type) Do Event Method Return
______ ____

False Logical False Null

File:Access (Name,Access) Check Existence/Access If Ok
____
File:Backup (Name) Create a Backup If Ok
____
File:Chgdir (Path) Change Directory If Ok
____
File:Copy (From,To) Copy File If Ok
____ __
File:Del (Name) Delete File If Ok
____
File:Len (Name) Get Size of File Size in K
____
File:Load (Name) Load Text File Text
____
F i l e : M a p ( N m , L e v , C l a s s , T y p e , M a p )
____ ______ __________ ________ ______
Map ASCII or dBASE File None
File:MoveTo (Nm,Lev,Pos) Move to Beg/Ene If Ok
__ ___ ___
File:Ok (Name) Not EOF in File:Read If Ok
____
File:Read (Nm,Lev,Sz,Off) Read Line/Record Line/Record
__ ___
File:Rename (From,To) Rename File If Ok
____ __
File:Save (Name,Text) Save Text to File If Ok
____ ____
File:Write (Nm,Lev,Ln,Sz,Off) Write Line/Record None
__ ___ __






Appendix 169














Function Description Returns

For/Thru/Step Incrementing Loop None

Here Return level Level

If/Else Conditional Branch None

Jorf:Add (Pointer) Write to File None
_______
Jorf:Cls Clear DOS Screen None
Jorf:Del (Text) Delete Text None
____
Jorf:Do (MethodName) Interpret a string Return
__________
Jorf:Dup (Text) Copy Text or Struct A Copy
Jorf:Exit (Status,Msg,Cmd) Exit Doesn't
Jorf:File (Name Level) Current Project None
____ _____
Jorf:Flush (Minimum) Flush memory None
Jorf:Move (Srce,Dest,Class) Move Buffer A Copy
____ ____
Jorf:Pack Pack JORF File None
Jorf:Rebuild Rebuild JORF File None
Jorf:Sound (Freq,Dur) Make a Sound None
Jorf:System (Command) DOS shell Return

Kbd:Bye Flush Keyboard Stream None
Kbd:Get (CursorSize) Keyboard Input Key
Kbd:Got Last Key Value Key
Kbd:Hit Key Waiting? True/False
Kbd:Put (Keys) Stuff Keystrokes None

Key:Add (RuleStructure) Add String Key None
_____________
Key:Del (RuleStructure) Delete String Key Sets Found
_____________
Key:Find (RuleStructure) Find String Key Sets Found
_____________
Key:Next (RuleStructure) Find Next Sets Found
_____________
Key:Prev (RuleStructure) Find Prev Sets Found
_____________

Line:Att (From,To,Len) Set Attribute None
____ __ ___
Line:Del (Count) Delete Lines None
_____
Line:Inp (Fld,R,C,L,W) Input Field/Text Field/Text
___
Line:Ins (Count) Insert Lines None
_____
Line:Out (Fld,R,C,L,W) Output Field/Text None
___

Mem:Ptr A Global Pointer None












The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 170














Function Description Returns

Move:To (Row,Column) Move Cursor None
Move:By (Row,Column) Move Cursor None

Msg:Add (Title,Type,Text) A Dialog Box True/False

New (Class:Var1,Class:Var2) Create Variables None
____

Null Nothing Null

Num:Abs (Num) Absolute value Number
___
Num:Btw (A,B,C) A, Between B and C Number
_ _ _
Num:Exp (Num) Exponent e to the Num Number
___
Num:Log (Num) Log of Num Number
___
Num:Max (A,B) Higher of A or B Number
_ _
Num:Min (A,B) Lower of A or B Number
_ _
Num:Pow (Num,Pow) Num to the Power Number
___ ___
Num:Rand (High,Low) Random Number Number
____ ___
Num:Sqrt (Num) Random Number Number
___

Ok Ok 1

Return (Value) Return a value None

Rule:Add (RuleStructure) Add Rule None
_____________
Rule:Del (RuleStructure) Delete Rule Sets Found
_____________
Rule:Find (RuleStructure) Find Rule Sets Found
_____________
Rule:Next (RuleStructure) Find Next Rule Sets Found
_____________
Rule:Prev (RuleStructure) Find Previous Rule Sets Found
_____________

Str:Aft (String,Chars) String after chars Substring
______ _____
Str:At (String,Pos,Len) Get Substring Substring
______ ___ ___
Str:AtChar (String,Chars) String up to chars Substring
______ _____
Str:AtCut (String,Pos) Truncate String String
______ ___
Str:AtDel (String,Pos,Cnt) Delete Characters String
______ ___ ___
Str:AtPut (String,Pos,Ins) Insert Characters String
______ ___ ___
Str:AtSet (Str,Pos,Ins,Cnt) Insert Rep Chars String
___ ___ ___ ___
Str:In (String,Substring) Get Substring Position
______ _________
Str:Ind (String) Num of lead Spaces Count
______
Str:Len (String) Number of Chars Length
______
Str:Print (Prn,String) String to Printer None
___ ______
Str:Put (String) Display Text None
______
Str:PutLine (Line) Display Text, NL None
____









Appendix 171














Function Description Returns

Struct:Find (Class,Index,Val) Find record w/ auto index Record
_____ _____
Struct:Find (Class,Index,Val) Find record w/ auto index Record
_____ _____
Struct:Find (Class,Index,Val) Find record w/ auto index Record
_____ _____

Switch/Case/Else Conditional Branch None

Text:Add (Line,Text) Create text block New Text
____
Text:At (Text,Pos) Text Line at Pos Line
____ ___
Text:Bot (Text) Last Line of Text Last Line
____
Text:Len (Text) Number of lines Line Count
____
Text:Next (Text) Next line of Text Next Line
____
Text:Pos (Text) Line num of Text Number
____
Text:Prev (Text) Prev line of Text Prev Line
____
Text:Ptr (Text) Ptr to ind Text Text
____
Text:Top (Text) First Line of Text First Line
____
Text:Wid (Text) Width of widest Line Width
____

Time:Get (TimeStructure) Get Date,Time TimeStructure
Time:Set (TimeStructure) Set Date,Time None
Time:Ticks Get Ticks Ticks

To:ASCII (String) Get ASCII Value Value
______
To:Caps (String) Cvt to Capitals String
______
To:Char (Number) Cvt to Letter String
______
To:Int (Number) Cvt to Integer Integer
______
To:Lcs (String) Cvt to Lower Case String
______
To:Num (String,Base) Cvt to Number Number
______
To:Str (Number,Fmt,Base) Cvt to String String
______
To:Ucs (String) Cvt to Upper Case String
______

True Logical True 1

While/Break/Continue A Loop None


















The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 172














Function Description Returns

Win:Add (T,R,C,L,W,Lv,Txt) Add new Window None
Win:Add (WindowStruct) Add new Window None
Win:Attr (Attribute) Change Attribute None
_________
Win:Block (Cmd,Fnc) Do Block Function Null
Win:Del Delete Window None
Win:FLRCO (Mode) Change Wrap Mode Prev Mode
Win:Magic (Mode) Change Interpret Mode Last Mode
Win:Msg (Message) Set Message None
Win:Pause (Hundredths) Pause Key
Win:Ptr Get WindowStruct Structure
Win:Repl (From,To,Flags) Replace Strings None
____ __
Win:Search (Word,Flags) Replace Strings None
____

Word:At (Struct,Pos) Word at Pos Word
______ ___
Word:AtCut (Struct,Pos) Truncate Structure None
______ ___
Word:AtDel (Struct,Pos,Cnt) Squeeze Structure None
______ ___ ___
Word:AtPut (Struct,Pos,Word) Change Word at Pos None
______ ___ ____
Word:In (Struct,Word) Get Position of Word Position
______ ____
Word:Len (Struct) Number of Words Count
______
Word:Type (Struct,Pos) Type of Word Type
______ ___































Appendix 173
















Appendix C - Keyboard Values

Char Normal Shift Ctrl Alt

a A_Key A_Key Ctrl_A_Key Alt_A_Key
b B_Key B_Key Ctrl_B_Key Alt_B_Key
c C_Key C_Key Ctrl_C_Key Alt_C_Key
d D_Key D_Key Ctrl_D_Key Alt_D_Key
e E_Key E_Key Ctrl_E_Key Alt_E_Key
f F_Key F_Key Ctrl_F_Key Alt_F_Key
g G_Key G_Key Ctrl_G_Key Alt_G_Key
h H_Key H_Key BackSpace_Key Alt_H_Key
i I_Key I_Key Tab_Key Alt_I_Key
j J_Key J_Key Ctrl_Return_KeyAlt_J_Key
k K_Key K_Key Ctrl_K_Key Alt_K_Key
l L_Key L_Key Ctrl_L_Key Alt_L_Key
m M_Key M_Key Return_Key Alt_M_Key
n N_Key N_Key Ctrl_N_Key Alt_N_Key
o O_Key O_Key Ctrl_O_Key Alt_O_Key
p P_Key P_Key Ctrl_P_Key Alt_P_Key
q Q_Key Q_Key Ctrl_Q_Key Alt_Q_Key
r R_Key R_Key Ctrl_R_Key Alt_R_Key
s S_Key S_Key Ctrl_S_Key Alt_S_Key
t T_Key T_Key Ctrl_T_Key Alt_T_Key
u U_Key U_Key Ctrl_U_Key Alt_U_Key
v V_Key V_Key Ctrl_V_Key Alt_V_Key
w W_Key W_Key Ctrl_W_Key Alt_W_Key
x X_Key X_Key Ctrl_X_Key Alt_X_Key
y Y_Key Y_Key Ctrl_Y_Key Alt_Y_Key
z Z_Key Z_Key Ctrl_Z_Key Alt_Z_Key


0 0_Key Alt_0_Key
1 1_Key Alt_1_Key
2 2_Key Alt_2_Key
3 3_Key Alt_3_Key
4 4_Key Alt_4_Key
5 5_Key Alt_5_Key
6 6_Key Alt_6_Key
7 7_Key Alt_7_Key
8 8_Key Alt_8_Key
9 9_Key Alt_9_Key









The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 174














Char Normal Shift Ctrl Alt

F1 F1_Key Shift-F1_Key Ctrl_F1_Key Alt_F1_Key
F2 F2_Key Shift-F2_Key Ctrl_F2_Key Alt_F2_Key
F3 F3_Key Shift-F3_Key Ctrl_F3_Key Alt_F3_Key
F4 F4_Key Shift-F4_Key Ctrl_F4_Key Alt_F4_Key
F5 F5_Key Shift-F5_Key Ctrl_F5_Key Alt_F5_Key
F6 F6_Key Shift-F6_Key Ctrl_F6_Key Alt_F6_Key
F7 F7_Key Shift-F7_Key Ctrl_F7_Key Alt_F7_Key
F8 F8_Key Shift-F8_Key Ctrl_F8_Key Alt_F8_Key
F9 F9_Key Shift-F9_Key Ctrl_F9_Key Alt_F9_Key
F10 F10_Key Shift-F10_Key Ctrl_F10_Key Alt_F10_Key
F11 F11_Key Shift-F11_Key Ctrl_F11_Key Alt_F11_Key
F12 F12_Key Shift-F12_Key Ctrl_F12_Key Alt_F12_Key
Space Space_Bar
! !_Key
" "_Key
# #_Key
$ $_Key
% %_Key
& &_Key
' '_Key
( (_Key
) )_Key
* *_Key
+ +_Key Alt_+_Key
,(comma) ,_Key
-(minus) -_Key Alt_-_Key
.(period) ._Key
/ /_Key
:(colon) :_Key
;(semi-colon) ;_Key
< <_Key
= =_Key
> >_Key
? ?_Key
@ @_Key [email protected]_Key
[ [_Key Escape_Key
\ \_Key Ctrl_\_Key
] ]_Key Ctrl_]_Key
^ (carat) ^_Key Ctrl_^_Key
_ __Key Ctrl___Key
` `_Key
{ {_Key
| (pipe) |_Key
} }_Key
~ (tilde) ~_Key






Appendix 175














Char Normal Shift Ctrl Alt

Rubout BackSpace_Key Ctrl_BackSpace_Key
Enter Enter_Key Ctrl_Enter_Key
Tab Tab_Key
Escape Esc_Key
Back Tab Back_Tab_Key
Up Arrow Up_Arrow_Key
Down Arrow Down_Arrow_Key
Right Arrow Right_Arrow_Key
Ctrl_Right_Arrow_Key Alt_Right_Arrow_Key

Left Arrow Left_Arrow_Key Ctrl_Left_Arrow_Key
Alt_Left_Arrow_Key
Home Home_Key Ctrl_Home_Key Alt_Home_Key
Page Up Page_Up_Key
Ctrl_Page_Up_Key
Alt_Page_Up_Key
Page Down Page_Down_Key Ctrl_Page_Down_
K e y
A l t _ P a g e _ D o w n _ K e y

End End_Key Ctrl_End_Key Alt_End_Key

Delete Del_Key Alt_Ins_Key
Insert Ins_Key Alt_Del_Key



























The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 176














Appendix D - The JORF.INI File


The JORF interpreter uses a Windows style INI file to set
initialization values. For the DOS version, the file name is
JORF.INI. The windows version uses a file called JORFWIN.INI.
Compiled JORF applications have use a file with the same name as
the program, with the extension "INI".

There are three major sections of the ini file. The first
section controls operating options and video handling. The
second section controls printers, and the final section controls
screen colors.

Operating Options
Operating Options

These options control how the JORF interpreter operates. Only
the first four letters of the command are used. You will notice
that most options only affect DOS systems, and not Windows
systems.

BIOS=No DOS Only Use Bios Screens
Mouse=Yes DOS Only Use Mouse if available
Scroll=Yes DOS Only If No - doesn't use scroll
Explode=3 DOS Only Speed of display
Mono=No DOS Only Use Mono colors
Multiuser=No Yes for Network Access
Mem Stats=No Memory Details
Ram Disk=E:\ Use Ram Disk


BIOS=No DOS Only. Using BIOS video display is the
BIOS=No DOS Only
official way to handle video functions on IBM PC
computers. Many of the BIOS routines are very
slow, however, so JORF usually uses direct video
access. Some computers, notably EGA systems, have
enough differences that the video display is
really whacked out. If this happens, try setting
BIOS=Yes to see if the video starts working
BIOS=Yes
properly.

Mouse=Yes DOS Only. The JORF interpreter will know if you
Mouse=Yes DOS Only.
have a mouse active. Some mice may have problems,
so this is a way to turn off the mouse in JORF so
you can still have a mouse driver loaded.

Scroll=Yes DOS Only. I recently had a case where I suspected
Scroll=Yes DOS Only.
a specific VGA card did not handle the BIOS scroll
function properly. Although the use of this
function speeds scrolling, it is not required so I
created an option in case you also suspect a
problem with scrolling. You should note that JORF

Appendix 177














uses the scroll function primarily to clear the
inside of windows.

Explode=3 DOS Only. Exploding windows are a cute feature
Explode=3 DOS Only.
found in the DOS version of JORF. An exploding
speed of 3 seems about right for the right video
affect. Some people dislike this, and should set
this to be Explode=0 to have windows display
Explode=0
without exploding.

Mono=No DOS Only. Monochrome video override. Normally
Mono=No DOS Only.
JORF knows whether you have a monochrome or color
monitor. Some people have portables with
monochrome monitors that display shades of gray.
On these monitors the appearance of JORF may be
enhanced if you set Mono=Yes to force the system
Mono=Yes
into monochrome mode.

Multiuser=No DOS and Windows. This one is really important.
Multiuser=No DOS and Windows
If you want to have multiple access to a file,
you must set Multiuser=Yes. This includes
Multiuser=Yes
access on DOS systems when you are using a program
switcher like Software Carousel, and also
multiple access using Microsoft Windows.

As soon as you switch Multiuser=Yes you must also
Multiuser=Yes
take other action. First, you must load
SHARE.EXE so that JORF can properly lock the
files. You will get a nice message if you do not
have share loaded.

You should also have a disk cache program like
SMARTDRV running, because JORF does a lot more
file IO in multiuser mode (It must rewrite the
file header after every file activity) Even with
a cache program running, JORF is just not as fast
in multiuser mode as it is in single user mode.

Mem Stats=No DOS and Windows. This option turns on memory
Mem Stats=No DOS and Windows.
statistics reporting that I use to help me debug
the memory swapping system. When you turn this
mode on, your program will run very slowly. Every
memory allocation and deallocation will be
registered, so when the program ends it can report
any un-deallocated buffers. You will note that
usually the ending is silent, which means that I
am successful in my goal of deallocating every
single buffer that I allocate. This mode also
makes flushing more apparent, and displays the
currently open file.



The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 178














Swap Disk=E:\ DOS and Windows. Since JORF uses a swap file, you
Swap Disk=E:\ DOS and Windows.
can optionally place this file on a RAM disk. The
RAM disk should be more than 100K in size, and is
best at 512K or larger. There is no control if
the Ram disk becomes full and the errors will
probably be really ugly. The largest items in the
swap file are screen backgrounds, but also
misspelled text, the program stack, and other
space bits may appear here. On multiuser systems,
you may also use this to point to a local drive
for the swap file.


Printer Set Up
Printer Set Up

When distributed JORF programs come with my printers. You can
easily change them to be your own by modifying the printer set
up. Printer definitions are simple: The entire line is
displayed on a printer selection menu, and the last word is the
printer designation.

Printer = Screen, SCREEN
Printer = File, FILE
Printer = HP Laser, COM1:
Printer = Panasonic, LPT1:

The options for SCREEN and for FILE invoke special features in
SCREEN FILE
the File:Print function to display the file on screen, or rename
it to a special file name.

To print to a printer, you the last word of the command must be
PRN, AUX, LPT1, LPT2, COM1, or COM2 to indicate default printer,
PRN AUX LPT1 LPT2 COM1 COM2
auxiliary, line printer one and two and serial printer one and
two respectively.

Under DOS, the different printing mechanisms are distinct. The
easiest and most robust is to print to PRN, the default printer.
PRN
To test to see if your printer is working, use the DOS PRINT
PRINT
command to print a small file. The next most robust is LPT1 and
LPT1
LPT2. These use a different BIOS call than PRN so they may not
LPT2 PRN
work even when PRN works just fine. These commands send output
PRN
to parallel printers. Parallel printers may be identified by
having a thick cable and a bigger-than-normal connector on the
printer end of the cable.

Under Microsoft Windows, you must reference a printer that you
have set up under windows. JORF automatically searches your
windows printers, and will not be able to print to a port without
a windows printer set to that port.




Appendix 179














Window Colors
Window Colors

The final section of the JORF.INI file handles the colors and
style of the windows. This section is more extensive in the DOS
version, but also exists in the Windows version.

I do not believe in allowing a high level tool let you set
graphic colors. There is always a tradeoff between wanting to
set a lot of really neat colors, and insuring that your program
is usable on unusable on monochrome monitors. I have laid down
the law here and it is that you will have limited access to
colors, and I will insure readability on all monitors.

The colors I supply are specifically related to the mathematical
values of a pixel on a color monitor. Unfortunately these
colors, especially background colors, are pretty ugly. You see
what you can do, and compare to other applications that you like
to use.


Colors are tied to a window background structure that has a name.
The name is set in the first line. JORF uses some special
backgrounds for specific types of windows. Error boxes use
"Error", Message boxes use "Message", and Menu boxes use "Menu".
You can also specify custom backgrounds using a window structure
in the Win:Add function. The default background is "Text".

Window=Text Background name "Text"
+Mono/Color=Mono DOS Only Normally "Mono"
+Line Style=double DOS Only Double,Single,None
+Border Color=For/Back DOS Only Border Color
+Title Color=For/Back DOS Only Title Color
+Shadow Color=For/Back DOS Only Shadow Color
+Message Color=For/Back Message Color
+Normal Color=For/Back DOS Only Attribute 1
+Low Color=For/Back Attribute 2
+Medium Color=For/Back Attribute 3
+High Color=For/Back Attribute 4
+Bold Color=For/Back Attribute 5

Window=Text DOS and Windows. Sets the name for this
Window=Text DOS and Windows
window background structure. All options
within this structure start with a plus (+)
sign.

Mono/Color DOS Only. If you wish, yo u can set up
Mono/Color DOS Only.
separate definitions for monochrome and color
monitors even if they have the same name.
Line Style= DOS Only. Sets the border line style. The
Line Style= DOS Only.
style can be Single, Double, Thick, or None.
Single Double Thick None
Even if you set None there will still be a
None


The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 180














border, but it will be made of space
characters.

Border Color= DOS Only. Sets the color for the border
Border Color= DOS Only.
lines, but not the title at the top of the
window. The mouse "Close block" is also
drawn using the border color. Under Windows
the border color is a system control.

Title Color= DOS Only. Sets the color for the title.
Title Color= DOS Only.
Under windows this is a system control.

Shadow Color= DOS Only. Sets the color for text in the
Shadow Color= DOS Only.
shadow of a window. Under windows there are
no shadows. If you set this to nothing, no
shadows are displayed.

Message Color= DOS and Windows. Sets the color used by the
Message Color= DOS and Windows
Win:Msg function for messages.


Normal Color= DOS and Windows. Sets the color used by
Normal Color= DOS and Windows
normal text in the window.

Low Color= DOS and Windows. Sets the color used by
Low Color= DOS and Windows
Win:Att(2), and also by inactive menu
option letters. Under windows, pull down
menus use the default system colors.

Medium Color= DOS and Windows. Sets the color used by
Medium Color= DOS and Windows
Win:Att(3), and also by lines within menus
and group boxes.

High Color= DOS and Windows. Sets the color used by
High Color= DOS and Windows
Win:Att(4), and also by active menu lines,
and inactive input fields.

Bold Color= DOS and Windows. Sets the color used by
Bold Color= DOS and Windows
Win:Att(5), and also by active menu option
letters, and active input fields.

Foreground Colors
Foreground Colors


Black Blue Green Cyan
Red Magenta Brown White (Gray)
Gray (Darker Gray) Light Blue Light Green Light Cyan
Light Red Light Magenta Yellow Bright White

Background Colors
Background Colors

Black Blue Green Cyan
Red Magenta Brown White (Gray)

Appendix 181















Index


Absolute Value 122 AtDelete 165
Add AtPut 71
Method 116 Browser 21
Adding Methods 20 In 72, 166
Addition (+) 28 Read 72
Array 47 Write 73
Array Delete 58 Clear Screen 92
Array Directory 58 Continue 155
Array Insert 61 Controls 177
Array Length 61 Converting files 80
Array Pick 63 Copy
Array Printers 66 Structures, Text 95
Array Sort 67 Cursor Position 119
Arrays 17, 104 Data Base Manager 2
ASCII file conversion 80 Date
ASCII Value 13, 150, 151 Get 146
Assignment (=) 28 Set 149
B-Tree 112 dBASE Conversion 80
B-Tree Indexes 22 Debugger 18, 19
Backup File 78 Decrement (--) 30
Between (Number) 123 Delete
Binary Files 87 Character 67
Bitwise Items 92
AND (&) 29 Line 113
OR (?) 29 Method 117
XOR (^) 30 Delete Array elements 58
Block Copy 158 Dialog Box 117
Block Read 158 Directory 58
Block Write 158 Display String 137
Bracket Punctuation 15 Division (/) 31
Break 154 DLM format files 80
Browser List 63 DOS Shell 103
Button 48 Duplicate
Capitalize String 150 Structures, Text 95
Casting Object Types 18 Editing Methods 18
Chaining, Program 96 Encapsulation 10
Changing Methods 21 End of File 84
Character ENIAC 13
Delete 67 Equality (=) 32
Get 30, 33-35, 39, 68 Error
Insert 69 Event 73, 77
Print 84, 100 Message 101
Put 69 Numbers 101
ChBox 48 Event
Class Add 73
About Classes 9, 10 Delete 75
At 70, 163 Do 76
AtCut 164 Exit 95

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 182














Exponent 123 Duplicate 95
False 77 Global 115
File INI File 177
Access 78, 79 Pointer 101
Check existence of 78, JORF Language
79 Library Functions 3
Conversion 80 JORF Pointer 14
Delete 79 JORF.INI File 177
Length 79 JorfFile 14
Map 80 Josephine's Recipe Filer 5
MoveTo 84 Key
New Project 97 Bye 107
Read 87 Event 73, 76
Write 88 Get 108
File Backup 78 Got 109
File Directory 58 Hit 109
File Efficiency 2 String Keys 24
File List 63 Length of Array 61
File Load 80, 87 Less or Equal To (<=) 35
File Ok 84 Less Than (<) 35
File Print 84, 100 Letter Case 15
Flush Memory 99, 102 Line
For loop 88 Class of Word 166, 167
For/Next Loop 88 Delete 113
Global Values 115 Input 114
Greater or Equal To (>=) 34 Length 144
Greater Than (>) 34 Line Output 115
Group Boxes 49 Line Release 115
Here 90 List (of records) 51
Hopper, Grace 3 Load File 80, 87
Hypertext Prompt 53 Logarithm 123
If/Else 91 Logical
Increment (++) 32 AND (&&) 36
Indexes 2, 22, 112 NEGATION (!) 36
Inequality (!=) 33 OR (??) 37
Inheritance 11 Lower Case 151
Initialization 177 Map File 80
Initialization File 177 Math
Input Fields 50, 51 Method Calls 27
Insert Menu Bars 52
Character 69 Menu Lines 52
Line 114 Message Window 117
Insert Array 61 Method 10
Installation 1 Add 20, 116
InString 135 Browser 21
Integer Calls 27
Max 125 Delete 117
Integer Between 123 Names 16
Integers 151 Modulus (%) 38
Interpret 95 Monitor Problems 177
Jorf Move Cursor 119
Do (Interpret) 95 Multiple Inheritance 12

Appendix 183














Multiplication (*) 39 Find 131, 132, 137
MYCIN 23 Next 131
Negation (-) 39 Rule Based System 2
Negative Numbers 122 Say String 137
New 120 Screen Colors 177
Next record in file 139 Screen problems 177
Null 122 SDF format files 80
Number Search 163
Exponent 123 Sequential Files 87
Formatting 152 Sort Array 67
Logarithm 123 Spaces 15
Max 125 Speed 3
Number Between 123 Stack 70, 164
Number Power 125 String 54
Numeric Conversions 152 After 132
Object-Attribute-Value 2 At 133
Object-Attribute-Value AtChar 133
Triplets 23 AtCut 134
Ok 126 AtDelete 134
One's Compliment (~) 40 AtPut 134
Order of Operations 27 AtSet 135
Pack Disk File 99, 101 Instring 135
Parameter Passing 12 Length 136
Parameters 17 Put Line 137
Parentheses 16 String Key 24
Path (Directory) 58 Add 110
Payment Calculation 124 Delete 111
Pick List 47, 63 Efficiency 112
Polymorphism 12 Find 111
Power (of a number) 125 Next 112
Previous record in file 140 Previous 109, 113
Print File 84, 100 Struct Next 139
Printer List 66 Struct Prev 140
Probability Factors 24 Structures 9, 17
Problems 177 Subroutines 10
Programmin Windows 4 Subtraction (-) 40
Project 97 Swap file 18, 177
Project File 14, 18 Switch/Case/Else 140, 141
Prompt 53, 54 System 103
Quotes 16 Text
Radio Buttons 53 At Line 142
Ram Disk 177 Class of Word 166, 167
Random Numbers 125, 126 First Line 146
Reading files 80 Justification 159
Rebuild File 99, 101 Last Line 143
Release Input 115 Length 144
Replace 162 Line Length 136
Return 127 Line Number 145
Rule 14 Next Line 144
Add 127, 130 Position 145
Delete 130 Previous Line 145
Efficiency 112 Width 146

The JORF Manual (Disk Version) 184














Text Entry 55
Text File Load 80, 87
Time
Get 146
Set 149
Ticks 150
To
ASCII 150
Capitals 150, 151
Character 151
Integer 151
Lower 151
Number 152
String 152
Upper 153
Trace
Events 77
Mode 77
Translating to C 21
True 154
Type Casting 18
Underscore Character 16
Upper Case 153
Variable Names 16
Video problems 177
While/Break/Continue 154, 155
Window
Add 155
Attribute 157
Block 158
Colors 177
FLRCO 159
Message 160
Move By 120
Move To 119
Pause 160
Put Line 137
Put String 137
Replace 162
Search 163
Structure 161
Window, Message 117
Windows Features 4
Word
AtCut 164
AtDelete 165
AtPut 165
Write
Item 104
Writing files 80
Writing Programs 18


Appendix 185









 December 23, 2017  Add comments

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