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200 PORT command successful.
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/compress.
From: [email protected] (Mark Kantrowitz)
Date: 13 Feb 93 08:02:48 GMT
Subject: FAQ: Artificial Intelligence Questions & Answers 1/3 [Monthly posting]

Archive-name: ai-faq/part1
Last-Modified: Thu Feb 11 10:44:22 1993 by Mark Kantrowitz
Version: 1.4

;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Answers to Questions about Artificial Intelligence *************
;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Written by Mark Kantrowitz
;;; ai-faq-1.text -- 63650 bytes

If you think of questions that are appropriate for this FAQ, or would
like to improve an answer, please send email to [email protected]

*** Topics Covered:

Part 1:
[1-0] What is the purpose of this newsgroup?
[1-1] AI-related Associations and Journals
[1-2] AI-related Newsgroups and Mailing Lists
[1-3] Dial-up AI-related bulletin board systems
[1-4] What are the rules for the game of "Life"?
[1-5] What AI competitions exist?
[1-8] Commercial AI products.
[1-9] Glossary of AI terms.
[1-10] What are the top schools in AI?
[1-11] How can I get the email address for Joe or Jill Researcher?

Part 2 (Bibliography):
Bibliography of introductory texts, overviews and references
Addresses and phone numbers for major AI publishers

Part 3 (FTP Resources):
[3-0] General Information about FTP Resources for AI
[3-1] FTP Repositories
[3-2] FTP and Other Resources
[3-3] AI Bibliographies available by FTP
[3-4] AI Technical Reports available by FTP
[3-5] Where can I get a machine readable dictionary, thesaurus, and
other text corpora?
[3-6] List of Smalltalk implementations.

Search for [#] to get to question number # quickly.

*** Recent changes:

;;; 14-JAN-93 mk Added and to newsgroups
;;; listings. Added definition of Fuzzy Logic to [1-9].
;;; 20-JAN-93 mk Added ViewGen and RWM to part 3, genetic-programming
;;; mailing list to part 1.
;;; 20-JAN-93 mk Added foNETiks mailing list/digest back in.
;;; 21-JAN-93 mk New Distributed-AI discussion list in 1-2.
;;; 27-JAN-93 mk Moved 1-6 and 1-7 to part 3.
;;; 2-FEB-93 mk Added Genetic Algorithms to 3-1, SNNS (Stuttgart
;;; Neural Network Simulator) to 3-2.
;;; 3-FEB-93 mk New mailing list, [email protected]
;;; 3-FEB-93 mk Added SCS and GASSY to 3-2, Genetic Algorithms,
;;; and VFSR to Simulated Annealing.
;;; 5-FEB-93 mk Added FuzzyNet (Aptronix) email server to 3-1.

*** Introduction:

Certain questions and topics come up frequently in the various network
discussion groups devoted to and related to Artificial Intelligence
(AI). This file/article is an attempt to gather these questions and
their answers into a convenient reference for AI researchers. It is
posted on a monthly basis. The hope is that this will cut down on the
user time and network bandwidth used to post, read and respond to the
same questions over and over, as well as providing education by
answering questions some readers may not even have thought to ask.

The latest version of this file is available via anonymous FTP from CMU:

To obtain the file from CMU, connect by anonymous ftp to any CMU CS
machine (e.g., []), using username
"anonymous" and password "[email protected]". The files ai-faq-1.text,
ai-faq-2.text and ai-faq-3.text are located in the directory
[Note: You must cd to this directory in one atomic operation, as
some of the superior directories on the path are protected from
access by anonymous ftp.] If your site runs the Andrew File System,
you can just cp the file directly without bothering with FTP.

The FAQ postings are also archived in the periodic posting archive on []. Look in the anonymous ftp directory
/pub/usenet/news.answers/ in the subdirectory ai-faq/. If you do not
have anonymous ftp access, you can access the archive by mail server
as well. Send an E-mail message to [email protected]
with "help" and "index" in the body on separate lines for more

~Subject: [1-0] What is the purpose of this newsgroup?

The newsgroup exists for general discussion of topics related
to Artificial Intelligence. For example, possible topics can
include (but are not necessarily limited to):
announcements of AI books and products
discussion of AI programs and tools
questions about AI techniques
problems implementing an AI technique
Postings should be of general interest to the AI community. See also
question [1-2].

We've tried to minimize the overlap with the FAQ postings to the
comp.lang.lisp, comp.lang.prolog and newsgroups,
so if you don't find what you're looking for here, we suggest you try
the FAQs for those newsgroups. These FAQs should be available by
anonymous ftp from ( in subdirectories of
/pub/usenet/ or by sending a mail message to [email protected]
with subject "help".

The Lisp FAQ is also available by anonymous ftp from the same ftp
location as the AI FAQ and from

Information about Prolog may be obtained from two sources: The Prolog
FAQ, which is posted twice a month to the newsgroup comp.lang.prolog
by Jamie Andrews , and the Prolog Resource Guide,
which is posted to the newsgroup comp.lang.prolog once a month, and is
available by anonymous ftp from [] as the
file /afs/

The Robotics FAQ is available by anonymous ftp from
[] in the directory /user/nivek/robotics-faq as the files
part1 and part2. To obtain a copy by email, send a message to
[email protected] containing the following lines:
send usenet/news.answers/robotics-faq/part1
send usenet/news.answers/robotics-faq/part2
On UUCP, it is available at
as the files part1.Z and part2.Z (or by ftp from
[] in /archive/usenet/news.answers/robotics-faq/).

Information about object-oriented programming can be obtained in the
newsgroups comp.object, comp.lang.clos, and comp.lang.smalltalk.
Information about object-oriented databases can be obtained in the
survey compiled by Stewart Clamen, which may be found either in the
comp.object FAQ posting or in

~Subject: [1-1] AI-related Associations and Journals


AAAI, 445 Burgess Drive, Menlo Park, CA 94025.
415-328-3123, [email protected], [email protected]
Membership includes AI Magazine:
$40 regular, $20 student (US/Canadian)
$65 regular, $45 student (Foreign)
AAAI has several special interest groups (SIGs), including one
on manufacturing and one on medicine.

ACM, 1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036.
Member Services, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036.
212-869-7440. Fax 212-944-1318. Email: [email protected]
$75 regular, $22 student (includes Communications of the ACM)
$15 ($8 students) extra for SIGART membership (gets Sigart Bulletin)
$12 ($7 students) extra for Lisp Pointers.
$15 ($10 students) extra for Computing Surveys
$34 ($29 students) extra for Computing Reviews

IAKE, 11820 Parklawn Drive, Suite 302, Rockville, MD 20852.
$65 regular, $30 students.

c/o Dr. Donald E. Walker
Bellcore, MRE 2A379
445 South Street, Box 1910
Morristown, NJ 07960-1910
[email protected]
$25 regular, $15 student (includes Computational Linguistics)
Add $10 for first class mail to US, Canada, or Mexico, and $20 elsewhere.

IEEE Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane, PO Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855.
1-800-678-IEEE, 201-981-0060
IEEE membership is $95 regular ($23 students)
For membership in the IEEE Computer Society, add $22.
$20 for IEEE Expert (Intelligent Systems and their Applications)
$12 for Transactions on Neural Networks
$12 for Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics
$15 for Transactions on Robotics and Automation
$19 for Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
$24 for Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence

Initial membership is free until 31 December 1992. Membership after
that date will involve a charge but will include a journal subscription.
To apply contact [email protected]
Working groups include CIM -- Learning in Intelligent Manufacturing
Systems, Automatic Failure Diagnostics, Production Management,
Finance, Building Architecture, Scheduling and Planning.

Membership: $50 individuals, $25 student. Add $15 overseas postage.
Members receive a copy of the journal Cognitive Science without
additional charge. Write to Alan Lesgold, Secretary/Treasurer,
Cognitive Science Society, LRDC, University of Pittsburgh, 3939
O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, fax 1-412-624-9149, email
[email protected]

Natural language processing research and applications.
Members receive a free copy of the journal Computational Linguistics,
ISSN 0891-2017. Regular membership $25 ($15 students), $10 extra for
first class/air postage in North America, $20 elsewhere. For more
information write to Dr. Donald E. Walker (ACL), Bellcore, MRE 2A379,
445 South Street, Box 1910, Morristown, NJ 07960-1910, USA, call
201-829-4312 or send email to [email protected]
Institutions must subscribe to the journal through MIT Press Journals,
55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, 616-253-2889.

Membership $180, includes a subscription to the International Journal
of Fuzzy Sets and Systems, ISSN 0165-0114.
Write to Prof. Philippe Smets, University of Brussels, IRIDIA, 50 av.
F. Roosevelt, CP 194/6, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.

James H. Moor, Treasurer, Society for Machines and Mentality,
Department of Philosophy, Dartmouth College, 6035 Thornton Hall,
Hanover, NH 03755-3592 U.S.A.
603-646-2155. Email: [email protected]
$5 Membership only
$50 Membership with subscription to _Minds and Machines_

CSCSI (Canadian AI Society)
c/o CIPS, 430 King Street West, Suite 205, Toronto, Ontario M5V 1L5

JSAI (Japanese Association for Artificial Intelligence)
OS Bldg. Suite #402
4-7 Tsukudo-cho, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo 162 Japan
Phone: +81-3-5261-3401
Telfax: +81-3-5261-3402

World Scientific Publishing Co., Inc.
1060 Main Street, River Edge, NJ 07661
Tel: 1-800-227-7562


The Computists' Communique is a weekly online newsletter for AI/IS/CS
scientists. It covers research and funding news; career, consulting,
and entrepreneurial issues; AI-related job postings and journal calls;
FTPable & other resource leads; market trends; analysis and
discussion. The Communique serves members of Computists
International, a professional mutual-aid society. Membership in
Computists International runs $135 for new professional members, $55
for students and the unemployed. There is a 25% discount for Canada,
Western Europe, the UK, Japan, and Australia; other countries and
territories outside the U.S. get a 50% discount. For more
information, contact Dr. Kenneth I. Laws ([email protected]),
415-493-7390, 4064 Sutherland Drive, Palo Alto, CA 94303.

Note: Some Journals are listed with the publishing organization above.

Journals -- General:

Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0824-7935
Basil Blackwell Publishers, Journal Subscription Department,
3 Cambridge Centre, Cambridge, MA 02142 or call 1-800-835-6770.
Blackwell Publishers, 108 Cowley Road, Oxford, OX4 1JF, England.
Individual subscriptions are $85 in North America and $100 in the rest of
the world. Institutional subscriptions are $175 and $190, respectively.
A reduced rate of $40 is available to members of the Canadian
Information Processing Society.

Kluwer Academic Publishers,
101 Philip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061, 617-871-6600, fax 617-871-6528.
PO Box 358, Accord Station, Hingham, MA 02018-0358.
Email: [email protected]
The institutional subscription rate is $130 per volume (4 issues).

Published 18 times annually. ISSN 0004-3702.
$80 individuals (must be a member of one of the major AI societies).
To order in the US, write to AAAI, AI Journal, 445 Burgess Drive, Menlo
Park, CA 94025-3496, or to Elsevier Science Publishing, 655 Avenue of
the Americas, New York, NY 10017, 212-633-3827. Outside the US,
contact Elsevier Science Publishers, Attn: Ursula van Dijk, PO Box 103,
1000 AC Amsterdam, The Netherlands, or call +31-20-5862-608.

Ablex Publishing Company,
355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, NJ 07648
201-767-8450, fax 201-767-6717
$50 individual, $125 institution.

Annual subscription, 1992/3, $163; personal subscription, $82.
To order in the US, write to Taylor and Francis, Inc., 1900 Frost
Road, Suite 101, Bristol, PA 19007-1598. Or contact the home office:
Taylor and Francis Ltd, Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK
RG24 0PR (0256) 840366. ISSN 0952-813X

Published monthly. ISSN 0885-9957.
Subscriptions: $405 US & Canada, $455 elsewhere.
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012,
212-850-6347, fax 212-850-6088.

Journal for Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy, and Cognitive Science
ISSN 0924-6495
Subscription information and sample copies available from:
Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht,
The Netherlands. In the US, write to Kluwer Academic Publishers, 101
Philip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061.

I. Plander (ed.)
VEDA Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences,
Klemenosova 19, 814 30 Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.
Published bimonthly, order from:
Lange & Springer GmbH, Foller Str.2, P.O.B. 10 16 10,
5000 Koln 1, Germany.

Organizations -- Robotics Related:

For a list of organizations that are robotics related, see the FAQ
posting for comp.robotics, maintained by Kevin Dowling .

Journals -- Applied AI:

Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0883-9514
Subscriptions: Institutions $176; Individuals $84.
Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1900 Frost Rd., Suite 101, Bristol, PA 19007
215-785-5800, fax 215-785-5515.
(in the UK, write to Taylor & Francis Ltd., Rankine Rd., Baskingstoke,
Hampshire RG24 0PR, UK, call +44-256-840366, or fax +44-256-479438)

Journals -- Automated Reasoning:

Published 6 times annually. ISSN 0168-7433
Subscriptions: Individuals $131; Institutions $263; AAR members $65.
Kluwer Academic Publishers, PO Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The
Netherlands, or Kluwer Academic Publishers, PO Box 358, Accord
Station, Hingham, MA 02018-0358.

Journals -- Engineering:

Published 6 times annually.
Subscriptions: Institutions (1992) 235.00 or approx US$425.00; two year
institutional rate (1992/93) 446.50 or approx US$807.50.
North America: Pergamon Press Inc., 660 White Plains Road,
Tarrytown, NY 10591-55153, USA.
Rest of the World: Pergamon Press Ltd, Headington Hill Hall,
Oxford OX3 0BW, England. Tel: Oxford (0865)794141

Journals -- Expert Systems:

Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0957-4174.
Subscriptions: Institutions L85 ($155), Individuals L45 ($72).
Pergamon Press Inc., 660 White Plains Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591-5153,
email [email protected], or Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall,
Oxford OX3 0BW, England.

Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0266-4720.
Subscriptions: L85 ($110)
Learned Information Ltd., Woodside, Hinksey Hill, Oxford OX1 5AU, UK.
Tel: +44 (0)865-730275 Fax: +44 (0)085-736354

Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0894-9077.
Subscriptions: Institutions $135; Individuals $75. Outside the US add
$10 for surface mail and $20 for airmail.
JAI Press Inc., 55 Old Post Road -- No. 2, PO Box 1678, Greenwich, CT

Journals -- Machine Learning:

Published 8 times annually. ISSN 0885-6125
Subscriptions: Institutions $301; Individuals $140. (AAAI Individual
Members $88)
Kluwer Academic Publishers, PO Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The
Netherlands, or Kluwer Academic Publishers, PO Box 358, Accord
Station, Hingham, MA 02018-0358.

Journals -- NLP/Speech/MT:

Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0885-2308.
Subscriptions: Institutions $136, Individuals $58.
Academic Press Ltd., 24-28 Oval Road, London NW1, England.

Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0922-6567.
Subscriptions: Institutions $141 plus $16 postage; Individuals $55
(members of ACL $46).
Kluwer Academic Publishers, PO Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The
Netherlands, or Kluwer Academic Publishers, PO Box 358, Accord
Station, Hingham, MA 02018-0358.

Journals -- Neural Nets/Connectionism:

Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0954-0091.
Carfax Publishing Company, PO Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3UE, UK.

Published 6 times annually. ISSN 0893-6080.
Official journal of the International Neural Network Society.
Subscriptions: $380
Pergamon Press, Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW, UK.
Pergamon Press, Inc., 660 White Plains Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591-5153.

Learned Information Ltd., Woodside, Hinksey Hill, Oxford OX1 5AU, UK.
Tel: +44 (0)865-730275 Fax: +44 (0)085-736354

Published quarterly.
Official journal of the Neural Computing Applications Forum.
Subscriptions: #120 per annum. (Free to NCAF members.)
Springer Verlag, Service Center Secaucus, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094
Tel: 201-348-4033
Springer-Verlag, Springer House, 8 Alexandra Road, LONDON SW19 7JZ
Tel: ..44/0 81 947 1280 Fax: 0 81 947 1274
Spqringer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, D-1000 BERLIN, Germany
Tel: (0)30 8207-1

Journals -- Pattern Recognition:

Annual subscription, 1992/3, $340; individual subscription, $138. Add
$34 for airmail. Published 5 times a year by World Scientific
Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Farrer Road, PO Box 128, Singapore 9128.
(In the US, write to World Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., River Edge,
NJ 07661; in Europe to World Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., Totteridge,
London N20 8DH, England.)

Journal of the Pattern Recognition Society. Members receive the
journal free of charge as part of their membership in the Society.
Institutions may subscribe for $845.
Pergamon Press, Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW, UK.
Pergamon Press, Inc., 660 White Plains Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591-5153.

Published 12 times annually. ISSN 0167-8655.
Official publication of the International Association for Pattern
Recognition. Subscriptions: $462 Institutions.
Elsevier Science Publishing, 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY
10017, 212-633-3827. Outside the US, contact Elsevier Science
Publishers, Attn: Ursula van Dijk, PO Box 103, 1000 AC Amsterdam, The
Netherlands, or call +31-20-5862-608.

Journals -- Robotics:

ISSN 0143-991X

Published quarterly. $145/year
MCB University Press Limited, 62 Toller Lane, Bradford, West
Yorkshire, England BD8 9BY, (44) 274-499821, fax (44) 274-547143. In
the US, write to MCB University Press Limited, PO Box 10812,
Birmingham, AL 35201-0812, 1-800-633-4931 (1-205-995-1567), fax

Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0826-8185
Subscriptions: $165 US or 313.50 SFr. ($12 US or 22.80 SFr postage and
handling). A special rate is available to members of IASTED.
Write to ACTA Press, PO Box 354, CH-8053, Zurich, Switzerland or ACTA
Press, PO Box 2481, Anaheim, CA 92814.
IASTED is the International Association of Science and Technology for
Development. Individual memberships are $60 US or $120 SFr and
corporate memberships $100 US or $200.00 SFr. Members receive a
complimentary subscription to the journal of their choice; the annual
cost of additional journals for members is $20US/$40SFr per journal.
Write to IASTED, PO Box 25, Station G, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T3A
2G1, or IASTED, PO Box 354, CH-8053, Zurich, Switzerland.

MIT Press, 28 Carleton Street, Cambridge, MA 02142
Subscriptions: $50/year to individuals

Three issues per volume, $58.50 per volume (individual)
Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, PO Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht,
The Netherlands. In the US write to Kluwer Academic Publishers, PO Box 358,
Accord Station, Hingham, MA 02018-0358.

Society of Manufacturing Engineers, One SME Drive, PO Box 930,
Dearborn, MI 48121. 313-271-1500

Published quarterly.
Communication Channels, 6255 Barfield Road, Atlanta, GA 30328
A magazine of flexible automation for the end-user.
They also publish the Robotics World Directory for $49.95

ROBOT (Japanese)
Industrial Robots and Application Systems
Published bimonthly.
Japan Industrial Robot Association (JIRA)
Kikai-Shinko Building, 3-5-8, Shiba-Kohen, Mina To-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Tokyo (03) 3434-2919, fax (03) 3578-1404

International Journal of Information, Education and Research
in Robotics and Artificial Intelligence.
Published quarterly, US $179/year.
Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbury Road,
Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK. In the US write to Cambridge University Press,
Journals Department, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.

Journals -- User Modeling:

4 issues per annum, ISSN 0924-1868,
$153.50 p.a. ($50 for individuals)
Kluwer Academic Publishers Group,
P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht,
The Netherlands.

Journals -- Virtual Reality:

Subscriptions: $50 individual, $120 institutions, $40 students/retired
(higher rates for Canada and overseas)
MIT Press Journals
55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02142-1399
617-253-2889, fax 617-258-6779
[email protected]

Journals -- Vision:

Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0932-8092.
Subscriptions: Institutions $106 (plus $11 p&h); Individuals $54 (incl p&h).
Springer-Verlag New York Inc., Journal Fulfillment Services, 44 Hartz
Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094, 1-800-SPRINGER.

Published 6 times annually. ISSN 0920-5691.
Subscriptions: Institutions $229; Individuals $115. Add $8 for airmail.
Kluwer Academic Publishers, PO Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The
Netherlands, or Kluwer Academic Publishers, PO Box 358, Accord
Station, Hingham, MA 02018-0358.

Other Journals and Magzines:
If you have the subscription information for the following, please
send a message with that information to [email protected]


Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Brain and Cognition
Brain and Language
Cognition and Brain Theory
Cognitive Psychology
Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing
Human Intelligence
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Sets and Systems ?
International Journal of Man-Machine Studies
Journal of the Association for the Study of Perception
Journal of Intelligent Systems
Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems
Journal of Logic Programming
Journal of Symbolic Computing
New Generation Computing (logic programming)
Speech Technology


AISB Newsletter
Annual Review in Automatic Programming
Artificial Intelligence Report
IEEE Control Systems Magazine (often has articles about NNs and
fuzzy systems)
Robotics Age

~Subject: [1-2] AI-related Newsgroups and Mailing Lists

To be added or deleted to any of the following lists, send mail to the
-request version of the list except where otherwise noted. This sends
mail to the list maintainer, instead of annoying the membership of the
entire mailing list. To subscribe to one of the BITNET listserv
forums, send mail there which contains a line of the form
as the first and only line in the body of the message.

For Lisp-related mailing lists, see part 4 of the FAQ for the
newsgroup comp.lang.lisp.

AI-Related Newsgroups:

Subscribe to these using your newsreader. Artificial Intelligence AI and Education Fuzzy Logic Genetic Algorithms Neural Nets Natural Language and Knowledge Representation
comp.robotics Robotics. Archived at the anonymous ftp site Read
the files AuthorIndex and SubjectIndex first.
comp.theory.cell-automata Cellular Automata
comp.simulation Simulation
comp.speech Speech related research, including recognition
and synthesis. Archived at the anonymous ftp
site in the directory
sci.math.symbolic Symbolic Math
sci.cognitive Cognitive Science Philosophical Foundations of AI Expert System Shells Vision Research

comp.lang.lisp Common Lisp
comp.lang.clos Common Lisp Object System
comp.object Object Oriented Programming
comp.lang.scheme Scheme
comp.lang.lisp.mcl Macintosh Common Lisp
comp.lang.lisp.franz Franz Lisp
comp.lang.lisp.x XLisp
comp.lang.prolog Prolog and Logic Programming
comp.lang.pop POPLOG integrated programming language &
environment for Lisp, Prolog, ML and Pop11
comp.lang.smalltalk Smalltalk

aicom [email protected] International Usenet AI news

Of the above newsgroups, the following have FAQ postings:, comp.robotics, comp.speech, comp.neural-nets,
comp.lang.lisp, comp.lang.scheme, comp.lang.clos, comp.lang.prolog

German AI newsgroups:

AI Research in a particular country:

British AI alvey jws%[email protected]
Japanese AI fj-ai%[email protected]
German AI mod-ki%[email protected]
Mexican AI IAMEX-L on [email protected]

The IAMEX-L list is administrated by the AI Invetigation Center in
Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM)
in Monterrey, N.L. To be added to that list, please contact:
[email protected] (Juana Maria Gomez Puertos)
[email protected] (Fernando Careaga Sanchez)

The newsgroup is the German equivalent of
The newsgroup is for announcements about AI. The
newsgroup is moderated by Hans-Werner Hein

The newsgroup is the (unmoderated) Australian equivalent of

AIIA (Artificial Intelligence Italian Association)
c/o Fondazione Ugo Borboni, Roma - Italy
Contact: Oliviero Stock
Tel: +39 6 54803428
Fax: +39 6 54804405

Artificial Life:
[email protected]

The alife mailing list is for communications regarding artificial
life, a formative interdisciplinary field involving computer science,
the natural sciences, mathematics, medicine and others. Send mail to
[email protected] to be added to the list.

See also UCLA Artificial Life Depository in question [3-0].

AI applications to Human-Computer interface design:

All requests to be added to or deleted from this list, problems, questions,
etc., should be sent to [email protected]

AI in Education:
[email protected] (was [email protected])

Includes ICAI (intelligent computer aided instruction) and
ITS (intelligent tutoring systems).

All requests to be added to or deleted from this list, problems, questions,
etc., should be sent to [email protected]

Artificial Intelligence and Law:
[email protected]

To subscribe to AIL-L you should send a message to the internet address
[email protected]
The body of the message should consist of:
subscribe AIL-L

AI in Medicine:
[email protected]

Focus is on computer-based medical decision support.

All requests to be added to or deleted from this list, problems, questions,
etc., should be sent to [email protected]

AI for Development:
An occasional newsletter for folk interested in AI applications in
and for developing countries. The newsletter is sent to the mailing
list and to the newsgroup comp.society.development.

Send requests to be added to the mailing list to Kathleen King

Cellular Automata:
[email protected] (aka [email protected])

Gatewayed to the newsgroup comp.theory.cell-automata.

Archived messages may be found at in the files:

All other requests to be added to or deleted from this list, problems,
questions, etc., should be sent to [email protected]

Classification and clustering:
class-l%[email protected]

To subscribe to CLASS-L you should send a message to the internet address
listserv%[email protected]
The body of the message should consist of:
subscribe CLASS-L
To have your name removed from the CLASS-L subscriber list, send:
signoff CLASS-L

Connectionism and Neural Networks:

[email protected]

All requests to be added to or deleted from this list, problems,
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Neural Networks (moderated):
[email protected]

Neuron-Digest is a moderated list (in digest form) dealing with all
aspects of neural networks (and any type of network or neuromorphic
system). Topics include both connectionist models (artificial neural
networks) and biological systems ("wetware"). The digest is posted to

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Neuron Digest archives are kept in the OSU Neuroprose collection
and in

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[email protected]
[email protected]

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questions, etc., should be sent to [email protected]

The simulator is available in

Users of the Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator:
[email protected]

To be added to the mailing list, send a message to
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subscribe snns
in the message body.

The simulator is available in []

Distributed AI Mailing Lists:

DAI-List: send requests to [email protected]

MAAMAW Blackboard (Modeling Autonomous Agents in a
Multi-Agent World): send requests to [email protected]

Distributed-AI Discussion List:
subscribe, help: send COMMAND (e.g. HELP) to [email protected]
contributions: send contributions to [email protected]
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Intelligent systems for Economics digest (IE-digest):
[email protected]

The IE-digest aims to act as a forum to exchange ideas on using
`intelligent' techniques to model economic and financial systems.
Calls for papers, paper announcements and queries are welcome.

Techniques which were originally developed to model psychological and
biological processes are now receiving considerable attention as tools
for modelling and understanding economic and financial processes.
These techniques, which include neural networks, genetic algorithms
and expert systems are now being used in a wide variety of
applications including the modelling of economic cycles, modelling of
artificial economies, portfolio optimisation and credit evaluation.

To be added to the list, send mail to [email protected] An
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List moderated by Suran Goonatilake, Dept. of Computer Science,
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Expert Systems in Agriculture:
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To subscribe to ag-exp-l you should send a message to the internet address
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The body of the message should consist of:
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The purpose of this bulletin board is to disseminate information regarding
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Genetic Algorithms:

[email protected] (moderated)

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Past copies of the digest are archieved on
in the /pub/galist directory. Some software is also archived there.

Discussion of GAs also appears from time to time in and comp.theory.self-org-sys.

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A mailing list for discussion of Genetic Programming. See Koza's
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To join the list, mail a message 'subscribe' to
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Back issues may be FTP'd from in pub/ml-list/V/ or
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Corpus-based studies of natural language, statistical natural language
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SCHOLAR is an online information service covering all aspects of
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To retrieve the entire release send mail to
with the folowing as the body of the message:
Get AZ Package

Speech production and perception:

foNETiks is a monthly newsletter distributed by e-mail. The
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automatic speech recognition and speech synthesis. It carries
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The current editors are Linda Shockey and Gerry Docherty.
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Neural Networks:
See Connectionism.

Robot Controller Boards:
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The purpose of the Robot Board mailing list is to discuss robot
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list will be used to support the Miniboard 2.0 and 6.270 board design
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Simulated Annealing:
Contact: [email protected] (Daniel R. Greening)

This mailing list is for discussion of simulated annealing techniques,
analysis, and related issues such as stochastic optimization,
Boltzmann machines, and metricity of NP-complete move spaces.

Membership in this list is restricted to those doing active research
in simulated annealing or related areas. The list itself is

[email protected]
Gatewayed to the newsgroup comp.simulation.

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etc., should be sent to [email protected]

Symbolic Math:
Symbolic Math
Gatewayed to the newsgroup sci.math.symbolic.

Mailing list covering symbolic math algorithms, applications and problems
relating to the various symbolic math languages.

Mail to be forwarded to the list should be sent to
leff%[email protected] (ARPANET/MilNet) or sci.math.symbolic (USENET).
Requests to be included on the list should be sent to
leff%[email protected]

AI Vision Research:

[email protected]
All requests to be added to or deleted from this list, problems, questions,
etc., should be sent to [email protected]

cvnet%[email protected]
Color and vision research.

~Subject: [1-3] Dial-up AI-related bulletin board systems

The primary AI-related dial-up bulletin board systems are:

The Interocitor 214-258-1832 (Fido 1:124/2206) V.32bis (14.4kbps)
SysOp: Steve Rainwater Hours: 24
Desc: AI CD-ROM submission site, general AI archive.

ShadeTree BBS 412-244-9416 (Fido 1:129/124) V.22bis (2400bps)
SysOp: Bill Keller Hours: 8:30pm-8:30am only
Desc: Oriented toward beginners in the field.

C.N.S. BBS 509-62706267 (Fido 1:347/303) USR HST (9600bps)
SysOp: Wesley Elsberry Hours: 24
Desc: Best source for neural network related information.

Fuzzy Logic Related BBS's:

Aptronix FuzzyNet 408-428-1883 N/8/1 1200-19,200 baud

The Turning Point 512-219-7828 N/8/1 DS/HST 1200-19,200 baud (LIBRARY)
512-219-7848 N/8/1 DS/HST 1200-19,200 buad

Motorola FREEBBS 512-891-3733 E/7/1 1200-9600 baud

EDN BBS 617-558-4241 N/8/1 1200-9600 baud

~Subject: [1-4] What are the rules for the game of "Life"?

Cellular Automata, of which Life is an example, were suggested by
Stanislaw Ulam in the 1940s, and first formalized by von Neumann.
Conway's "Game of Life" was popularized in Martin Gardner's
mathematical games column in the October 1970 and February 1971 issues
of Scientific American. (Shorter notes on life are alse given in the
column in each month from October 1970 to April 1971, and well as
November 1971, January 1972, and December 1972.) There's also quite a
bit on the game in "The Recursive Universe", by William Poundstone,
Oxford University Press, 1987, 252 pages.

The rules for the game of life are quite simple. The game board is a
rectangular cell array, with each cell either empty or filled. At each
tick of the clock, we generate the next generation by the following rules:

if a cell is empty, fill it if 3 of its neighbors are filled
(otherwise leave it empty)

if a cell is filled, it
dies of loneliness if it has 1 or fewer neighbors
continues to live if it has 2 or 3 neighbors
dies of overcrowding if it has more than 3 neighbors

Neighbors include the cells on the diagonals. Some implementations use
a torus-based array (edges joined top-to-bottom and left-to-right) for
computing neighbors.

For example, a row of 3 filled cells will become a column of 3 filled
cells in the next generation. The R pentomino is an interesting
Try it with other patterns of 5 cells initially occupied. If you
record the ages of cells, and map the ages to colors, you can get a
variety of beautiful images.

When implementing Life, be sure to maintain separate arrays for the
old and new generation. Updating the array in place will not work
~Subject: [1-5] What AI competitions exist?

The Loebner Prize, based on a fund of over $100,000 established by New
York businessman Hugh G. Loebner, is awarded annually for the computer
program that best emulates natural human behavior. During the
contest, a panel of independent judges attempts to determine whether
the responses on a computer terminal are being produced by a computer
or a person, along the lines of the Turing Test. The designers of the
best program each year win a cash award and a medal. If a program
passes the test in all its particulars, then the entire fund will be
paid to the program's designer and the fund abolished. For further
information about the Loebner Prize, write Dr. Robert Epstein,
Executive Director, Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, 11
Waterhouse Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, or call 617-491-9020.

The BEAM Robot Olympics is a robot exhibition/competition started in
1991. For more information about the competition, write to BEAM Robot
Olympics, c/o: Mark W. Tilden, MFCF, University of Waterloo, Ontario,
Canada, N2L-3G1, 519-885-1211 x2454, [email protected]

~Subject: [1-8] Commercial AI products.

See the Robotics FAQ for information on Robotics manufacturers.

GBB, generic blackboard framework: provides:
-- A high-performance blackboard database compiler and
runtime library, which support pattern-based, multidimensional
range-searching algorithms for efficient proximity-based retrieval
of blackboard objects
-- KS representation languages
-- Generic control shells and agenda-management utilities
-- Interactive, graphic displays for monitoring and examining
blackboard and control components
These components provide the infrastructure needed to build
blackboard-based applications. GBB is available for DOS/Windows, Mac,
Unix workstations (Sun, HP/Apollo, IBM, DEC, Silicon Graphics),
Symbolics and TI Explorer Lisp machines. (GBB is a significantly enhanced,
commercial version of the UMass GBB research framework, available via
FTP as described in FAQ, part 3.) NetGBB, distributed extension to
GBB: provides to GBB the communication and coordination facilities
needed to build heterogenous distributed blackboard applications.
For more information write to Blackboard Technology Group, Inc., 401 Main
Street, Amherst, MA 01002, call 413-256-8990, or fax 413-256-3179. To
be added to the mailing lists, send mail to [email protected]
There are two mailing lists, gbb-user (moderated) and gbb-users (unmoderated).

RAL (Rule-extended Algorithmic Language) is a C-based RETE (OPS83)
implementation that allows one to seamlessly add rules and objects to
C programs. It runs on Apollo, Sony News, AT&T 3B series, Aviion,
DecStation, HP9000, RS/6000, Sun3, Sparc, Pyramid, Stratus, Unix
System V 386 machines, VAX, microVAX (VMS) and DOS. Production Systems
Technologies was founded by Charles Forgy, the original inventor of
the RETE algorithm. For further information, write to Production
Systems Technologies, Inc., 5001 Baum Boulevard, Pittsburgh, PA 15213,
call 412-683-4000 or fax 412-683-6347.

Stiquito is a small (3cm H x 7cm W x 6cm L), simple (32 parts) and
inexpensive (< $30) nitinol-propelled hexapod robot developed at the
Indiana University (Bloomington) Robotics Laboratory. Its legs are
propelled by nitnol actuator wires. Each leg has one degree of freedom.
The robot walks up to 10 centimeters per minute and can carry a 9-volt
cell, a MOSIS "tiny chip" and power transistors to drive the nitinol
actuator wires. Nitinol wire (aka BioMetal, Flexinol), is a
nickel-titanium alloy which exerts useful force as it is heated by
passing a current through it. IUCS Technical Report 363a describes
Stiquito's construction and is available by anonymous ftp from ( as the files[abc].Z. The tech report is also available by US mail for $5
(checks or money orders should be made payable to "Indiana University")
from Computer Science Department, Attn: TR 363a 215, Lindley Hall,
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. A kit containing all
the materials needed to construct a simple version of Stiquito and its
controller is available for an extra $10 from the above address (use
attn line "Stiquito Kit"). To receive a video showing the assembly of
Stiquito, include an additional $10 and add "Video" to the attn line.
Anyone may build and use Stiquitos in any quantity for educational or
research purposes, but Indiana University reserves all rights to
commercial applications. Questions about Stiquito should be sent to
[email protected] To join the mailing list, send mail to
[email protected]

Togai InfraLogic, Inc. (TIL) is a supplier of fuzzy logic and fuzzy
expert system software and hardware. For more information, write to
Togai InfraLogic, Inc., 5 Vanderbilt, Irvine, CA 92718, call +1 714
975 8522, fax +1 714 975 8524, or send email to [email protected] or
til!info. TIL also supports an email-server that can be reached at
[email protected] or til!fuzzy-server. Send an email message that
contains just the word "help" in either the subject line or the
message body for more information. A list of products can be obtained
by sending a message that contains only the line "send products.txt"
to the email-server. For an index of the contents of the server, send
a message with the line "send index".

The following is from Risks Digest 13.83 -- I have no idea what the software
does, but Colby did head up the PARRY project:

FEELING HELPLESS ABOUT DEPRESSION? Overcoming Depression 2.0 provides
computer based cognitive therapy for depression with therapeutic
dialogue in everyday language. Created by Kenneth Mark Colby, M.D.,
Professor of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences, Emeritus, UCLA.
Personal Version ($199), Professional version ($499). Malibu
Artificial Intelligence Works, 25307 Malibu Rd, CA 90265.

~Subject: [1-9] Glossary of AI terms.

This is the start of a simple glossary of short definitions for AI terminology.

Strong AI:
Claim that computers can be made to actually think, just like human
beings do. More precisely, the claim that there exists a class of
computer programs, such that any implementation of such a program is
really thinking.

Weak AI:
Claim that computers are important tools in the modeling and
simulation of human activity.

Case-based Reasoning:
Technique whereby "cases" similar to the current problem are
retrieved and their "solutions" modified to work on the current

Nonlinear Planning:
A planning paradigm which does not enforce a total (linear)
ordering on the components of a plan.

An admissible search algorithm is one that is guaranteed to
find an optimal path from the start node to a goal node, if
one exists. In A* search, an admissible heuristic is one that never
overestimates the distance remaining from the current node to
the goal.

Fuzzy Logic:
In Fuzzy Logic, truth values are real values in the closed
interval [0..1]. The definitions of the boolean operators are
extended to fit this continuous domain. By avoiding discrete
truth-values, Fuzzy Logic avoids some of the problems inherent in
either-or judgments and yields natural interpretations of utterances
like "very hot". Fuzzy Logic has applications in control theory.

~Subject: [1-10] What are the top schools in AI?

The answer to this question is not intended to be a ranking and should
not be interpreted as such. There are several major problems with
ratings like the Gourman Report and the US News and World Report. Such
rankings are often unsubstantiated and anecdotal, their accuracy is
questionable, and they do not focus on the subfields of an area. When
selecting a graduate school, students should look for schools which
not only have excellent programs in their general area of research
but also at least one faculty member whose research interests mesh
well with the student's. Accordingly, we've broken down this list
according to topic, and sorted the schools within each topic in

The best way for students to discover which schools are good in a
field is to ask professors (and graduate students) in their
undergraduate school for suggestions on where to apply. Reading the
research journals in the field is another good method (see question

A list of email addresses for CS departments is posted once a month to
the newsgroup


Please feel free to suggest schools that are particularly strong in
any of these areas, or to suggest new areas to be listed.

Schools with excellent programs in most fields:
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

Georgia Tech
Imperial College
Sussex University
Univ. of Edinburgh
Univ. of Illinois/Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)
Univ. of Massachusetts/Amherst
Univ. of Rochester
Univ. of Southern California & USC/Information Sciences Institute

AI and Medicine:

AI and Legal Reasoning:
Imperial College

Artificial Life:

Automated Deduction/Theorem Proving:
Imperial College
Univ. of Edinburgh
Univ. of Oregon
Univ. of Texas/Austin

Case-Based Reasoning:
Georgia Tech

Cognitive Modelling:
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
Georgia Tech
Univ. of Indiana

Connectionism/Neural Networks:
Boston University, Cognitive and Neural Systems Department (ART networks)
Brown University
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
Ohio State Univ.
Syracuse University
UC/San Diego
UNC/Chapel Hill
Univ. of Colorado/Boulder
Univ. of Illinois/Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)
Univ. of Indiana
Univ. of Pennsylvania
Univ. of Southern California & USC/Information Sciences Institute

Decision Theory and AI:

Distributed AI:
Univ. of Massachusetts

Fuzzy Logic:

Genetic Algorithms:
George Mason
Univ. of Illinois/Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)
Univ. of Michigan

Integrated AI Architectures:
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
Univ. of Michigan

Knowledge Representation:
Univ. of Oregon

Logic Programming and Logic-based AI:
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
Imperial College
Univ. of Illinois/Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)
Univ. of Oregon
Univ. of Pennsylvania

Machine Discovery:
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

Machine Learning:
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
Georgia Tech
Johns Hopkins
Univ. of Southern California & USC/Information Sciences Institute

Natural Language, Speech:
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
Georgia Tech
Univ. of Indiana
Univ. of Rochester
Univ. of Southern California & USC/Information Sciences Institute
Waterloo (stylistics, MT, discourse)

Nonmonotonic Reasoning:
Imperial College
Univ. of Oregon

Philosophy of AI:

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
Imperial College
Univ. of Oregon
Univ. of Rochester
Univ. of Washington/Seattle

Probabilistic Reasoning:

Production Systems/Expert Systems:
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

Qualitative Physics and Model Based Reasoning:
Univ. of Oregon
Northwestern ILS (Forbus)

Bristol Polytechnic, UK
California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
Georgia Tech
Hull University, UK
Naval Postgraduate School
New York University (NYU) Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences
North Carolina State Univerisity/Raleigh (NCSU)
Reading University, UK
Rennsalear Polytechnic Institute (RPI)
Salford University, UK
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Univ. of Alberta
Univ. of Kansas
Univ. of Kentucky
Univ. of Maryland
Univ. of Michigan/Ann Arbor
Univ. of Paris INRIA
Univ. of Pennsylvania
Univ. of Southern California & USC/Information Sciences Institute
Univ. of Utah
Univ. of Wisconsin

Univ. of Oregon

Temporal Reasoning:
Imperial College

Virtual Reality:
Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
Florida Institute of Technology
MIT Media Lab
Naval Postgraduate School
Univ. North Carolina/Chapel Hill (UNC)

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
Johns Hopkins
Univ. of Maryland
Univ. of Rochester
Univ. of Southern California & USC/Information Sciences Institute

~Subject: [1-11] How can I get the email address for Joe or Jill Researcher?

The AAAI membership directory is updated annually and contains
addresses, phone numbers, and email addresses for many members of AAAI
and other AI societies. Contact [email protected] for information on
getting a copy of the directory (you should get a free copy if you are
a member of one of the listed societies).

See also the Email Address FAQ posting to the newsgroups


;;; *EOF*

From: [email protected] (Mark Kantrowitz)
Date: 13 Feb 93 08:03:51 GMT
Subject: FAQ: Artificial Intelligence Bibliography 2/3 [Monthly posting]

Archive-name: ai-faq/part2
Last-Modified: Wed Feb 3 13:52:34 1993 by Mark Kantrowitz
Version: 1.4

;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Answers to Questions about Artificial Intelligence *************
;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Written by Mark Kantrowitz
;;; ai-faq-2.text -- 41675 bytes

This part of the AI FAQ provides a bibliography of good introductory
texts and overviews of AI and specific subfields of AI. If you feel
that there is a reference or set of references which should be added
to this FAQ, or references which should be removed, please send email
to [email protected] When suggesting references to be
included in a particular subfield, only suggest the best two or three
references (or a particularly well-written overview). It is NOT the
intention of this listing to be a comprehensive AI bibliography.

Part 2 (Bibliography):
Bibliography of introductory texts, overviews and references
Addresses and phone numbers for major AI publishers

[1] AI in general (Introductions, Overviews)
[1a] Major AI Publishers
[2] Search
[3] Knowledge Representation
[4] Logic
[5] Planning
[6] Natural Language Processing (NLP)
[7] Connectionism and Neural Nets
[8] Machine Learning
[9] Case-Based Reasoning
[10] Genetic Algorithms
[11] Production Systems, Expert Systems and Match Algorithms
[12] Integrated AI Architectures
[13] Fuzzy Logic
[14] Artificial Life
[15] Qualitative Physics and Model Based Reasoning
[16] Task-specific Architectures for Problem Solving
[17] Automated Deduction
[18] Probabilistic Reasoning
[19] Nonmonotonic Reasoning
[20] Robotics and Computer Vision
[21] Distributed AI
[22] User/Agent Modeling
[23] Philosophy of AI
[24] What is Cyc?
[25] Miscellaneous
[26] Videotapes and Magazines

Search for [#] to get to question number # quickly.

~Subject: [1] AI in general (Introductions, Overviews)

Introductory texts:

Elaine Rich & Kevin Knight, "Artificial Intelligence", 2nd edition,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-07-052263-4

Patrick Henry Winston, "Artificial Intelligence", Third Edition,
Addison Wesley, Reading, MA, 1992, ISBN 0-201-53377-4.

Matthew L. Ginsberg, "Essentials of AI", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, 1993.

Overviews and References:

Shapiro, Stuart C. (ed), "Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence",
2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1992. (1st ed, 1987)

Alan Bundy, editor, "Catalogue of Artificial Intelligence
Techniques", 3rd Edition, Springer Verlag, 1990, ISBN 0-387-52959-4.

Avron Barr and Edward A. Feigenbaum, "The Handbook of Artificial
Intelligence", volumes 1-4, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1986.

Sundermeyer, K., "Knowledge-Based Systems: Terminology and References",
Wissenschaftverlag, 1991. ISBN 3-411-14941-8

Jerry M. Rosenberg, "Dictionary of Artificial Intelligence and
Robotics", Wiley, New York, 1986, 203 pages.

Bonnie Lynn Webber and Nils J. Nilsson, "Readings in Artificial
Intelligence", Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1981.

Raoul N. Smith, editor, "The Facts on File Dictionary of Artificial
Intelligence", Facts on File, New York, 1989, 211 pages.

Older general introductions and overviews:

Nils J. Nilsson, "Principles of Artificial Intelligence", Tioga
Publishing Company, Palo Alto, CA, 1980.

Eugene Charniak and Drew V. McDermott, "Introduction to Artificial
Intelligence", Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1985.

Firebaugh, Morris W., "Artificial Intelligence: A Knowledge-Based
Approach", PWS-Kent, Massachusetts, 1989. ISBN 0-87835-325-9
Emphasis on the role of knowledge in the design of intelligent
systems. Includes intro to AI programming languages, extensive
discussion of expert systems and robotics, survey of parallel
machine architectures, and identification of bottlenecks in
the implementation of useful AI systems.


Howard E. Shrobe, editor, "Exploring Artificial Intelligence",
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1988.
(Survey talks from the AAAI 1986 and 1987 conferences.)

~Subject: [1a] Major AI Publishers

Ablex Publishing Corporation
355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, NJ 07648-2090
Fax 201-767-6717

Academic Press
1250 Sixth Avenue, San Diego, CA 92101
Orders: 800-321-5068
Fax: 619-699-6715

Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
Route 128, 1 Jacob Way, Reading, MA 01867
800-447-2226 (617-944-3700)
Fax: 617-944-8243

Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company
2727 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025
390 Bridge Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065

Blackwell Scientific Publications, Inc.
3 Cambridge Center, Suite 208, Cambridge, MA 02142
Fax: 617-225-0412
Osney Mead, PO Box 88, Oxford, 0X2 0EL, UK

Cambridge University Press
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10022
Orders: 800-221-4512, 212-924-3900

Columbia University Press
562 West 113th Street, New York, NY 10025

Computer Science Press, Inc.
41 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010-3546

Computing Reviews
11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036

Cornell University Press
Box 250, 124 Roberts Place, Ithica, NY 14851

Digital Press
12 Crosby Drive, Bedford, MA 01730

Elsevier Science Publishing
655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10017
PO Box 211, Amsterdam, 1000 AE, The Netherlands
Fax: 020-580-3769

Harvard University Press
79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138

Houghton Miflin Company
One Memorial Drive, Cambridge, MA 02142
One Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158

Kluwer Academic Publishers
101 Philip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061
Fax: 617-871-6528.
Email: [email protected]

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
365 Broadway, Hillsdale, NJ 07642
800-926-6579, (201-666-4110)
Fax: 201-666-2394

Little Brown & Company
34 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108
Fax: 617-227-4633

Macmillan Publishing
866 Third Avenue, Third Floor, New York, NY 10022
800-257-5755 (212-702-2000)

McGraw Hill Book Company
1221 Avenue of the Americas, 43rd Floor, New York, NY 10020
800-442-9685 (212-512-2000)

MIT Press
55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02139
Orders: 800-356-0343 (617-625-8569)
Fax: 617-625-6660

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc.
Department E17, 2929 Campus Drive, Suite 260, San Mateo, CA 94403
Orders: 800-745-7323 (415-578-9911)
Fax: 415-578-0672
Email: [email protected]
Their "Readings in X" series is a good source of information
on various AI topics. (Many of them are listed below.)

Oxford University Press
200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016

Pergamon Press
395 Saw Mill River Road, Elmsford, NY 10523
800-257-5755 (914-592-7700)

Prentice Hall Inc.
College Division, 440 Sylvan Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632
Orders: 800-223-1360 (fax to 800-495-6991)
Fax: 201-461-4573
Email: [email protected]

Princeton University Press
41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540

Random House Publishing
201 East 50th Street, New York, NY 10022

Springer Verlag
175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010
800-777-4643 (201-348-4033)

University Microfilms International
300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Copies of PhD theses off of microfilm.

University of Chicago Press
5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637
800-621-2736 (312-702-7700)

Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.
115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003

W. H. Freeman & Company
41 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010
Fax: 212-689-2383

W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010
800-233-4830 (212-354-5500)

~Subject: [2] Search

[See also the Barr and Feigenbaum's Handbook of AI, chapter 1;
Nilsson's Principles of AI, sections 2.4.1 through 2.4.4 (A*),
sections 3.1 and 3.2 (AND/OR trees and AO*); and the Mackworth paper
in Readings in Artificial Intelligence.]

Pearl, J. and Korf, R. E., "Search techniques", Annual Review of
Computer Science, volume 2, J.F. Traub, B.J. Grosz, B.W. Lampson and
N.J. Nilsson, editors, pages 451-467, Annual Reviews Inc., Palo
Alto, CA, 1987.

L. Kanal and V. Kumar, "Search in Artificial Intelligence",
Springer-Verlag, 1988.

Hans J. Berliner, "The B* Tree Search Algorithm: A Best-First Proof
Procedure", Artificial Intelligence, 12(1):23-40, May 1979. Also
appears in "Readings in Artificial Intelligence".

Pearl, J., "Heuristics: Intelligent Search Strategies for Computer
Problem Solving", Addison-Wesley, 1984.

Kirkpatrick, S. Gelatt, CD, and Vecchi, MP, "Optimization by Simulated
Annealing", Science 220(4589):671-680, 1983.

~Subject: [3] Knowledge Representation

[Several papers in "Readings in Artificial Intelligence" are relevant,
including S. Amarel "On Representations of Problems on Reasoning about
Actions" and P.J. Hayes "The Frame Problem and Related Problems in AI".]

Brachman, Ronald J. and Levesque, Hector J., editors,
"Readings in Knowledge Representation", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, 1985.

Ronald J. Brachman and James G. Schmolze, "An overview of the
KL-ONE knowledge representation system", Cognitive Science,
9:171-216, 1985.

Ronald J. Brachman, Richard E. Fikes, and Hector J. Levesque,
"KRYPTON: A functional approach to knowledge representation",
IEEE Computer, 16:67-73, 1983.

Ronald J. Brachman, "On the epistemological status of semantic
networks", in N.V. Findler, editor, Associative Networks, pp. 318-353.
New York: Academic Press, 1979.

Allen Newell, "The Knowledge Level", Artificial Intelligence,
18:87-127, 1982.

Allen Newell and Herb Simon, "Computer Science as Empirical
Enquiry: Symbols and Search", Communications of the ACM,
19(3):113-126, 1976.

Penny Nii, "Blackboard Systems", AI Magazine 7(3), 1986.

Ronald J. Brachman, " ``I lied about the trees'', or, defaults and
definitions in knowledge representation", AI Magazine 6(3):80-93, 1985.

W.A. Woods, "What's in a link: Foundations for semantic networks", In
D.G. Bobrow & A. Collins (Eds.), "Representation and Understanding",
Academic Press, New York, 1975. Reprinted in "Readings in Cognitive
Science", Collins & Smith (eds.), section 2.2.

~Subject: [4] Logic

Genesereth, M.R. and Nilsson, N.J., "Logical Foundations of Artificial
Intelligence", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos, CA, 1987.

~Subject: [6] Natural Language Processing (NLP)


Gazdar, G. and Mellish, C., "Natural Language Processing in Lisp:
An Introduction to Computational Linguistics", Addison-Wesley,
Reading, Massachusetts, 1989. (There are three different editions
of the book, one for Lisp, one for Prolog, and one for Pop-11.)

Grosz, B.J., Sparck-Jones, K., and Webber, B.L., "Readings in
Natural Language Processing", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los
Altos, CA, 1986.

Robert C. Berwick, "Computational Linguistics", MIT Press,
Cambridge, MA, 1989, ISBN 0262-02266-4.

Brady, Michael, and Berwick, Robert C., "Computational Models
of Discourse", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1983.

Klaus K. Obermeier, "Natural Language Processing Technologies
in Artificial Intelligence: The Science and Industry Perspective",
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1989.

Allen, James F., "Natural Language Understanding", The
Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Menlo Park, California,
(Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts),
1988, ISBN 0-8053-0330-8.

Terry Winograd, "Language as a Cognitive Process", Addison-Wesley,
Reading, MA, 1983.

Schank, R. and Abelson, R. "Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understandings,"
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1977.


David Crystal, "A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics", 3rd Edition,
Basil Blackwell Publishers, New York, 1991.


Tomita, M. (Editor), "Current Issues in Parsing Technology",
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, 1991.

Tomita, M., "An Efficient Context-Free Parsing Algorithm",
Computational Linguistics 13:31-46, 1987.

Marcus, M. "A Theory of Syntactic Recognition for Natural Language,"
The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1980.

Pereira, F. and Sheiber, S. "Prolog and Natural-Language Analysis,"
Center for the Study of Language and Information, 1987.

Probabilistic Parsing:

Wright, J., "LR Parsing of Probabilistic Grammars with Input
Uncertainty for Speech Recognition", Computer Speech and Language
4:297-323, 1990.

Ted Briscoe and John Carroll, "Generalised Probabilistic LR Parsing of
Natural Language (Corpora) with Unification-based Grammars",
University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, Technical Report Number
224, 1991.

Natural Language Understanding:

E. Charniak, "Passing Markers: A Theory of Contextual Influence in
Language Comprehension", Cognitive Science, 7:171-190, 1983.

Bertram C. Bruce, "Case systems for natural language", Artificial
Intelligence 6:327-360, 1975.

Yorick Wilks, "A Preferential, Pattern-Seeking, Semantics For
Natural Language Inference", Artificial Intelligence, 6:53-74, 1975.

Dyer, M. "In-Depth Understanding: A Computer Model of Integrated

Processing for Narrative Comprehension," MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1983.

Natural Language Interfaces:

Raymond C. Perrault and Barbara J. Grosz, "Natural Language
Interfaces", Annual Review of Computer Science, volume 1, J.F. Traub,
editor, pages 435-452, Annual Reviews Inc., Palo Alto, CA, 1986.

Natural Language Generation:

McKeown, Kathleen R. and Swartout, William R., "Language
Generation and Explanation", in Zock, M. and Sabah, G.,
editors, Advances in Natural Language Generation, Volume 1, Pages
1-51, Ablex Publishing Company, Norwood, NJ, 1988. (Overview of
the state of the art in natural language generation.)

~Subject: [5] Planning

Intros, Overviews, Paper Collections:

James Allen, James Hendler and Austin Tate, editors,
"Readings in Planning", Morgan-Kaufmann Publishers, 1990.

James Hendler, Austin Tate and Mark Drummond, "AI Planning:
Systems and Techniques", AI Magazine, May, 1990. (Review article.)

Georgeff, M. P., "Planning," in Annual Review of Computer Science,
Annual Reviews Inc., pages 359-400, 1987.

Drew McDermott, "Robot Planning", AI Magazine 13:2, Summer
1992, pp. 55-79.

William R. Swartout, "DARPA Workshop on Planning", AI Magazine,
9(2):115-131, Summer, 1988. (Survey of current work and issues in

[See also Waldinger's "Achieving several goals simultaneously", in
"Readings in Artificial Intelligence".]


Fikes, R.E. and Nilsson, N.J., "STRIPS: A new approach to the
application of theorem proving to problem solving", Artificial
Intelligence 2:189-208, 1971.


Sacerdoti, E. D., "Planning in a Hierarchy of Abstraction Spaces,"
Artificial Intelligence, 5:115-135, 1974.

Conjunctive Goals:

Chapman, D., "Planning for Conjunctive Goals", Artificial Intelligence
32:333-377, 1987.


Sacerdoti, E., "A Structure for Plans and Behavior", Artificial
Intelligence, pages 1-65, American Elsevier, New York, 1977.

Sacerdoti, E. D., "The Nonlinear Nature of Plans," Proc. of the Fourth
Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Morgan Kaufmann, 1975, 206-214.

Reactive Planning:

Agre P.E. and Chapman, D., "Pengi: An Implementation of a Theory of
Activity", in Proceedings of the Sixth National Conference on
Aritificial Intelligence, Seattle, WA, July 1987.

Georgeoff, M.P. and Lansky, A.L., "Reactive Reasoning and
Planning", in Proceedings of the Sixth National Conference on
Artificial Intelligence, Seattle, WA, pages 677-682, July 1987.

Simmons, R.G., "A theory of debugging plans and interpretations", in
Proceedings of the Seventh National Conference on Artificial
Intelligence (AAAI-88), Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Palo Alto,
CA, pages 94-99, 1988.

Case-based Planning:

Hammond, K., "Case-based Planning: Viewing Planning as a Memory Task",
Academic Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989.


Stefik, M.J., "Planning with Constraints", Artificial Intelligence
15:111-140 and 16:141-170, 1981.

Wilkins, D.E., "Domain-Independent Planning: Representation and Plan
Generation", Artificial Intelligence 22:269-301, 1984.

R. Wilensky, "Meta-Planning: Representing and Using Knowledge About
Planning in Problem Solving and Natural Language Understanding",
Cognitive Science 5:197-233, 1981. Reprinted in Readings in Cognitive
Science, Collins & Smith (eds.), section 5.6.

~Subject: [7] Connectionism and Neural Nets

Introductions and Overviews:

Geoffrey E. Hinton, "Connectionist Learning Procedures",
Artificial Intelligence 40(1-3):185-234, 1989. Reprinted in
J. Carbonell, editor, "Machine Learning: Paradigms and Methods",
MIT Press, 1990. Also appears as Technical Report CMU-CS-87-115
(version 2), Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, December 1987.

Kevin Knight, "A gentle introduction to subsymbolic
computation: Connectionism for the AI researcher". Technical Report
CMU-CS-89-150, Carnegie Mellon University, School of Computer Science,
Pittsburgh, PA, May 30, 1989.

Scott Fahlman and Geoffrey Hinton, "Connectionist Architectures for
Artificial Intelligence", IEEE Computer 20(1):100-109, January 1987.

Hertz, J., Krogh, A., and Palmer, R.G., "Introduction to the Theory of
Neural Computation", Addison-Wesley, 1991.

Paper Collections:

Rumelhart, D.E, and McClelland, J.L., editors, "Parallel Distributed
Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition" (Vol. 1:
Foundations; Vol. 2: Psychological and Biological Models), Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press, 1986.

Waltz, D., and Feldman, J.A., "Connectionist Models and their Implications:
Readings from _Cognitive Science_", Ablex, 1988.

Mark Watson, "Common Lisp Modules -- Artificial Intelligence in the
Era of Neural Networks and Chaos Theory", Springer-Verlag, 1991.
Includes code written in Macintosh Common Lisp and uses the Mac
graphical interface (the modules are portable to other Common Lisp
implementations, but without the graphics).

Anderson, J.A., and Rosenfeld, E., editors, "Neurocomputing: Foundations
of Research", Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1988. Also "Neurocomputing
Vol. 2: Directions for Research", Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1991.

Hinton, G.E., and Anderson, J.A., editors, "Parallel Models of
Associative Memory" (updated edition), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989.

Hinton, G.E., editor, "Connectionist Symbol Processing", MIT Press, 1990.
[Was a special issue of Artificial Intelligence, vol. 46, nos. 1-2.]

Touretzky, D.S., editor, "Neural Information Processing Systems", volumes
1-4 (1988-1991), Morgan Kaufmann. [Proceedings from the premier
conference on neural networks.]

Connectionist Language Processing:

See the special issue of _Connection Science_, Volume 2 Numbers 1-2, 1990.
Also the Hinton collection "Connectionist Symbol Processing", above.

Connectionist Cognitive Science:

Barnden, J.A., and Pollack, J.B., "Advances in Connectionist and Neural
Computation Theory Vol. 1: High-Level Connectionist Models", Ablex, 1991.

Quinlan, P., "Connectionism and Psychology: A Psychological Perspective on
New Connectionist Research", University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Waltz, D., and Feldman, J.A., editors, "Connectionist Models and their
Implications: Readings from _Cognitive Science_", Ablex, 1988.

Philosophical Foundations:

Pinker, S., and Mehler, J, editors, "Connections and Symbols", MIT Press,
1988. [Was Cognition special issue Volume 28, 1988]

Clark, A., "Microcognition: Philosophy, Cognitive Science, and Parallel
Distributed Processing", MIT Press, 1989.

~Subject: [8] Machine Learning


J. G. Carbonell, editor, "Machine Learning: Paradigms and Methods", MIT
Press, Cambridge, MA 1990.

Tom Mitchell, Jaime G. Carbonell, and Ryszard S. Michalski,
"Machine Learning: A guide to current research", Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Boston, 1986.

J. W. Shavlik and T. D. Dietterich, editors, "Readings in
Machine Learning", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1990.

[See also the article on Machine Learning from the Encyclopedia of
Artificial Intelligence, pages 464-485.]

Decision Trees:

Quinlan, J. Ross, "Induction of Decision Trees", Machine Learning
1:81-106, 1986.

Quinlan, J. Ross, "C4.5: Programs for Machine Learning", Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, 1992. ISBN 1-55860-238-0. $44.95 US, $49.45 International.
For a slight additional charge ($25), the book comes with software (ISBN
1-55860-240-2). For software only, (ISBN 1-55860-239-9) $34.95 US,
$38.45 International.

Probabilistic Clustering:

Fisher, D.H., "Knowledge Acquisition Via Incremental Conceptual
Clustering", Machine Learning 2:139-172, 1987. (Probabilistic
clustering methods.)

Clancey, W.J., "Classification Problem Solving", Proceedings of the
National Conference on Aritificial Intelligence, 49-55, Los Altos, CA,
Morgan Kaufmann. 1984.

Version Spaces:

Tom M. Mitchell, "Generalization as Search", Artificial Intelligence
18:203-226, 1982.

Machine Discovery:

Langley, P., and Zytkow, J. M., "Data-driven approaches to empirical
discovery", Artificial Intelligence 40:283-312, 1989.

Langley, P., Simon, H.A., Bradshaw, G.L., and Zytkow, J.M.,
"Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative
Processes", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987.

Langley, P., Simon, H.A. and Bradshaw, G.L., "Heuristics for
Empirical Discovery", in L. Bolc, editor, Computational Models
of Learning, Springer-Verlag, 1987. Also appears as CMU CS
Tech Report CMU-CS-84-14.


Laird J.E., Rosenbloom, P.S. and Newell, A., "Chunking in SOAR: The
Anatomy of a General Learning Mechanism", Machine Learning
1:1-46, 1986.

Explanation-Based Learning:

Mitchell, Tom M., Keller, R. M., and Kedar-Cabelli, S. T.,
"Explanation-based learning: A unified view", Machine Learning
1:47-80, 1986.

Derivational Analogy:

Carbonell, J. G., "Derivational analogy: A theory of
reconstructive problem solving and expertise acquisition." In R.S.
Michalski, Jaime G. Carbonell, and Tom M. Mitchell, editors, Machine
Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach, Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1986.

Theoretical Results:

Leslie G. Valiant, "A theory of the learnable", Communications
of the ACM, 27(11):1134--1142, 1984.

Haussler, D., "Quantifying Inductive Bias: AI Learning
Algorithms and Valiant's Learning Framework", Artificial Intelligence,
36:177-221, 1988.

~Subject: [9] Case-Based Reasoning

Roger C. Schank, "Dynamic Memory: A Theory of Reminding and
Learning in Computers and People", Cambridge University Press, New
York, NY, 1982.

Roger C. Schank and C. Riesbeck, "Inside Case-Based Reasoning",
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1989.

Craig Stanfill and David Waltz, "Toward Memory-Based
Reasoning", Communications of the ACM, 29(12):1213-1228,
December 1986. (Memory-based reasoning.)

~Subject: [10] Genetic Algorithms


L. B. Booker, D.E. Goldberg and J.H. Holland, "Classifier Systems and
Genetic Algorithms", Artificial Intelligence 40(1-3):235-282,
September 1989.

David E. Goldberg, "Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and
Machine Learning", Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1989, 412 pages.

See also the July 1992 issue of Scientific American.


Davis, L., editor, "Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing", Morgan
Kaufmann, 1989.

Rawlins, G., editor, "Foundations of Genetic Algorithms", Morgan Kaufmann,

See also the Proceedings of the First/Second/Third/Fourth International
Conference on Genetic Algorithms, published by Lawrence Erlbaum.


Holland, J.H. "Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems", University
of Michigan Press, 1975. Reprinted by MIT Press, 1992.

Holland, J.H., Holyoak, K.J., Nisbett, R.E., and Thagard, P.R., "Induction:
Processes of Inference, Learning, and Discovery", MIT Press, 1988.

Genetic Programming:

Koza, John R., "Genetic Programming: On the programming of
computers by means of natural selection", MIT Press, 1992.
ISBN 0-262-11170-5

~Subject: [11] Production Systems, Expert Systems and Match Algorithms


Bruce G. Buchanan and Edward H. Shortliffe, "Rule-Based Expert
Systems: The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming
Project", Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1985. The Davis and King
paper (chapter 4, "An overview of production systems") provides
a good overview.

Frederick Hayes-Roth, "The knowledge based expert system: A tutorial",
IEEE Computer 17(9):11-28, 1984.

Bruce G. Buchanan and R.O. Duda, "Principles of Rule-Based Systems",
Tech Report HPP-82-14, 1982. (Discusses the design of expert
systems, including representation, inference, and uncertainty
management. Examples from numerous specific systems, and discusses
which problems are suitable for attack by rule-based systems.)

Charles L. Forgy, "OPS5 User's Manual", Technical Report
CMU-CS-81-135, Carnegie Mellon University, School of Computer
Science, Pittsburgh, PA 1981.

Charles L. Forgy, "RETE: A fast algorithm for the many

pattern/many object pattern match problem", Artificial
Intelligence 19(1):17-37, September 1982.

Daniel P. Miranker, "TREAT: A better match algorithm for AI
production systems". In Proceedings of the Sixth National
Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-87), pages 42-47,
August 1987.

Mark Perlin, "The match box algorithm for parallel production
system match", Technical Report CMU-CS-89-163, Carnegie Mellon
University, School of Computer Science, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, May 1989.

Michael A. Kelly and Rudolph E. Seviora, "An evaluation of DRETE
on CUPID for OPS5 matching", in Proceedings of the Eleventh
International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-89),
pages 84-90, Detroit MI, August 1989, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

~Subject: [12] Integrated AI Architectures

Kurt VanLehn, editor, "Architectures for Intelligence",
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1991.

John E. Laird, Allen Newell, and Paul S. Rosenbloom, "SOAR: An
Architecture for General Intelligence", Artificial
Intelligence, 33(1):1-64, 1987.

Steven Minton, Jaime G. Carbonell, Craig A. Knoblock,
Daniel R. Kuokka, Oren Etzioni, and Yolanda Gil.
"Explanation-based learning: A problem solving perspective".
Technical Report CMU-CS-89-103, Carnegie Mellon University,
School of Computer Science, Pittsburgh, PA, 1989.

Tom M. Mitchell, J. Allen, P. Chalasani, J. Cheng, Oren Etzioni,
Marc Ringuette, and Jeffrey Schlimmer, "THEO: A Framework for
Self-Improving Systems", in Kurt VanLehn, editor, Architectures for
Intelligence, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1991.

Subsumption Architectures:
Brooks, R., "A Robust Layered Control System for a Mobile Robot",
IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, RA-2, pages 14-23, April 1986.

~Subject: [13] Fuzzy Logic

Zadeh, L.A., "Fuzzy Sets," Information and Control, 8, 338-353, 1965.

Klir, George J. and Folger, Tina A., "Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and
Information", Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.

Zimmermann, Hans J., "Fuzzy Set Theory and its Applications",
Boston, MA, Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing, 1985.

Didier Dubois, Henri Prade, and Ronald R. Yager, editors,
"Readings in Fuzzy Systems", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1992.

Brubaker, D.I., "Fuzzy-logic Basics: Intuitive Rules Replace
Complex Math," EDN, June 18, 1992.

Schwartz, D.G. and Klir, G.J., "Fuzzy Logic Flowers in Japan,"
IEEE Spectrum, July 1992.

Kosko, B., Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems, Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992.

~Subject: [14] Artificial Life

The best source for information is the proceedings of the
Artificial Life conferences. The proceedings were edited by
Christopher G. Langton and published by Addison-Wesley.
ISBN 0-201-09356-1 and 0-201-52751-2.

Langton, C.G., editor, "Artificial Life" (Proceedings of the First
International Conference), Addison-Wesley, 1989.

Langton, C.G., Taylor, C., Farmer, J.D., and Rasmussen, S., editors,
"Artificial Life II", Addison-Wesley, 1991.

Forrest, S., editor, "Emergent Computation", MIT Press, 1991.

Levy, S. "Artificial Life", 1992. [A popularization]

Jean-Arcady Meyer and Stewart W. Wilson, "From animals to animats:
Proceedings of the First International Conference on Simulation of
Adaptive Behavior (1990, Paris, France)", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA,

~Subject: [15] Qualitative Physics and Model Based Reasoning

QP Theory:
Forbus, K. D., Qualitative Process Theory, Artificial Intelligence,
24:85-168, 1984.

Kuipers, B., Qualitative Reasoning with Causal Models in
Diagnosis of Complex Systems, In D. S. Weld & J. deKleer, editors,
Readings in Qualitative Reasoning about Physical Systems,
pages 257-274, chapter 10, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1989.

MBR-based Diagnosis:
Davis, R., Diagnostic Reasoning Based on Structure and Behavior,
Artificial Intelligence, 24:347-410, 1984.

Function-based MBR:
Sticklen, J., Chandrasekaran, B., & Bond, W.
Distributed Causal Reasoning. Knowledge Acquisition, 1:139-162, 1989.

~Subject: [16] Task-specific Architectures for Problem Solving

Generic Tasks:
Chandrasekaran, B., Towards a Functional Architecture for
Intelligence Based on Generic Information Processing Tasks, In
IJCAI-87, pages 1183-1192, Milan, 1987.

Components of Expertise:
Steels, L., The Components of Expertise. AI Magazine, Summer, 1990.

Breuker, J., & Wielinga, B., Models of Expertise in Knowledge
Acquisition, in G. Guida & C. Tasso, editors, Topics in
Expert Systems Design: Methodologies and Tools, Amsterdam:
North Holland Publishing Company, 1989.

Role-limiting Methods:
McDermott, J., Preliminary Steps Toward a Taxonomy of
Problem-Solving Methods, in S. Marcus, editor, Automating
Knowledge Acquisition for Expert Systems, pages 225-255,
Boston: Kluver Academic Publishers, 1988.

~Subject: [17] Automated Deduction

C. Chang and R.C. Lee, "Symbolic Logic and Mechanical Theorem
Proving", Academic Press, 1973.

Alan Bundy, "The Computer Modelling of Mathematical Reasoning",
Academic Press, 1983.

David Duffy, "Principles of Automated Theorem Proving", John
Wiley and Sons, 1991.

Larry Wos and Ross Overbeek and Ewing Lusk and Jim Boyle,
"Automated Reasoning. Introduction and Applications", Second Edition,
McGraw-Hill, 1992.

~Subject: [18] Probabilistic Reasoning

Neapolitan, Richard E., "Probabilistic Reasoning in Expert Systems:
Theory and Algorithms", John Wiley and Sons, 1990.

Oliver, Robert M., and Smith, James Q., editors, "Influence Diagrams,
Belief Nets and Decision Analysis", John Wiley and Sons, 1990.

Pearl, Judea, "Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems:
Networks of Plausible Inference", Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo,
California, 1988.

Shafer, Glenn, and Pearl, Judea, "Readings in Uncertain Reasoning",
Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, California, 1990.

R.O. Duda, P.E. Hart, and N.J. Nilsson, "Subjective Bayesian Methods
for Rule-Based Inference Systems", In Proceedings of the 1976 National
Computer Conference, pages 1075-1082, AFIPS, 1976.

~Subject: [19] Nonmonotonic Reasoning

Matthew L. Ginsberg, "Readings in Nonmonotonic Reasoning",
Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1987.

Reiter, Ray, "Nonmonotonic Reasoning", Annual Review of Computer
Science, 2:147-186, 1987. (Appears in Ginsberg.)

Doyle, J., "Truth Maintenance Systems", Artificial Intelligence,
12(3):231-272, 1979.

~Subject: [20] Robotics and Computer Vision

John J. Craig, "Introduction to Robotics", Addison-Wesley,
Reading, MA, 1989.

Martin A. Fischler and Oscar Firschein, editors, "Readings in
Computer Vision", Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1987.

J. Michael Brady, "Computational approaches to image understanding",
ACM Computing Surveys 14(1):3-71, March 1982. (Survey of methods in
computer vision.)

David Marr, "Vision: a computational investigation into the human
representation and processing of visual information", W.H. Freeman,
San Francisco, CA, 1982.

[Three papers in the Encyclopedia of Aritificial Intelligence are
Path planning and obstacle avoidance, pages 708-715
Mobile robots, pages 957-961
Sensors, pages 1031-1036]

The 6.270 Robot Builder's Guide, by Fred Martin. Available by
anonymous ftp from ( in
~ftp/pub/fredm/README or in
[]. This directory contains "The 6.270 Robot
Builder's Guide", the course notes to the 1992 MIT LEGO Robot Design
Competition. For more information, contact Fred Martin

~Subject: [21] Distributed AI


Alan H. Bond and Les Gasser, "Readings in Distributed
Artificial Intelligence", Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1988.

Michael N. Huhns, ed., "Distributed Artificial
Intelligence", Morgan Kaufmann, 1987.

Les Gasser and Michael N. Huhns, eds., "Distributed
Artificial Intelligence, Volume II", Morgan Kaufmann, 1989.

(Special Issue on Distributed AI) IEEE Transactions on
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan 1981.

(Special Issue on Distributed AI---10 years later) IEEE
Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 21,
No. 6, Nov/Dec 1991.

Decentralized Artificial Intelligence, Y. Demazeau ed. 1990,
Decentralized AI 2, Demazeau, Y. & Muller, J-P, eds. 1991,
Decentralized AI 3, Werner & Demazeau eds. 1992,
all published by Elsevier Science Publishers .

[Surveys can be found in the Bond & Gasser book listed above,
and in: The Handbook of AI volume 4 1989; IEEE Systems, Man,
and Cybernetics-17(5) 1987; Kluwer Academic's AI Review-6(1)1992.]

~Subject: [22] User/Agent Modeling

Rapaport,W. J. (1987) "Belief Systems", in the Encyclopedia of
Artificial Intelligence, pp. 63-73.

Afzal Ballim and Yorick Wilks, "Artifical Believers", Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 1991. ISBN 0-8058-0453-6.
Contains a 92 page background section on belief modeling in AI,
Philosophy, NLP and Linguistics.

Kobsa, A. & Wahlster, W. (1989) "User Models in Dialog Systems."
Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.

See also the journal User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction in [1-1].

~Subject: [23] Philosophy of AI

D. McDermott, "Artificial Intelligence Meets Natural Stupidity," in
Mind Design: Philosophy, Psychology, Artificial Intelligence, J.
Haugeland, editor, chapter 5, pp. 143-160, MIT Press, 1981.

H.A. Simon, "Sciences of the Artificial", 2nd Edition, MIT Press, 1981.

A.M. Turing, "Computing Machinery And Intelligence," Mind, vol. LIX,
no. 236, 1950. Reprinted in "Computers and Thought", Feigenbaum &
Feldman (eds.), 1963. Also reprinted in "The Mind's I", Hofstadter &
Dennett (eds.). Also reprinted in "Readings in Cognitive Science",
Collins & Smith (eds.), section 1.1.

Roger Penrose, "The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning computers,
minds, and the laws of physics", Oxford University Press, New York,
1989, 466 pages, $30.

Douglas R. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Dennett, "The Mind's I:
Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul", Basic Books, New
York, 1981, 501 pages, $15.50.

Daniel C. Dennett, "Consciousness explained", 1st edition, Little,
Brown and Company, Boston, 1991, 511 pages, $27.95.

John Haugeland, "Artificial Intelligence: The very idea", MIT Press,
Cambridge, MA, 1985, 287 pages.

John Haugeland, editor, "Mind Design: Philosophy, Psychology,
Artificial Intelligence", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1981, 368 pages.

Margaret A. Boden, editor, "The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence",
Oxford University Press, New York, 1990, 452 pages.

Hans Moravec, "Mind Children: The future of robot and human intelligence",
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988, 214 pages.

Kirsh, D., editor, "Foundations of Artificial Intelligence, Special
issues of Artificial Intelligence", The MIT Press, 1991. Reprinted
from Artificial Intelligence 47(1--3), 1991.

~Subject: [24] What is Cyc?

Cyc is a project at MCC in Texas to build an enCYClopedic database and
reasoning engine for common sense knowledge.

"CYC", AI Magazine 1986, 7(1), 1986.

"Cyc: A Mid-Term Report," AI Magazine, 11(3):32-59, Fall 1990.

"Cyc: Toward Programs With Common Sense," CACM, 33(8):30-49,
August 1990.

"Knowledge and Natural Language Processing," CACM, Aug 1990.

"When will machines learn?," Machine Learning, 4(3-4):255-257,
December 1989.

D.B. Lenat, R.V. Guha, "Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems",
Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

~Subject: [25] Miscellaneous

Be sure to check the proceedings of the various national
conferences in the area that interests you.

PhD theses can often be obtained from University Microfilms
Internatinal, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

~Subject: [26] Videotapes and Magazines


The 4th episode of the PBS series "The Machine That Changed the World" is
a good introduction to AI. It is available for $90 from Films for the
Humanities, 1-800-257-5126.

Morgan Kaufmann also has a good set of tapes of AI-related lectures, but
it runs on the expensive side.

AI-related magazines include:

Miller Freeman, Inc., 600 Harrison Street, San Francisco, CA 94107.
Subscriptions: 1-800-274-2534 or 303-447-9330
$42/year (12 issues), $6 extra in Canada and Mexico,
$15 extra (surface mail) or $40 (air mail) for overseas.

3310 West Bell Road, Suite 119, Phoenix, AZ 85023.
Subscriptions: 602-971-1869, fax 602-971-2321.
$28/year (6 issues); $54 for two years; $78 for three years.
$9 extra in Canada and Mexico, $25 extra (air mail) for all
other countries.


;;; *EOF*

From: [email protected] (Mark Kantrowitz)
Date: 13 Feb 93 08:05:21 GMT
Subject: FAQ: Artificial Intelligence FTP Resources 3/3 [Monthly posting]

Archive-name: ai-faq/part3
Last-Modified: Wed Feb 3 13:52:41 1993 by Mark Kantrowitz
Version: 1.4

;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Answers to Questions about Artificial Intelligence *************
;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Written by Mark Kantrowitz
;;; ai-faq-3.text -- 51423 bytes

If you think of questions that are appropriate for this FAQ, or would
like to improve an answer, please send email to [email protected]

Part 3 (FTP Resources):
[3-0] General Information about FTP Resources for AI
[3-1] FTP Repositories
[3-2] FTP and Other Resources
[3-3] AI Bibliographies available by FTP
[3-4] AI Technical Reports available by FTP
[3-5] Where can I get a machine readable dictionary, thesaurus, and
other text corpora?
[3-6] List of Smalltalk implementations.

Search for [#] to get to question number # quickly.

~Subject: [3-0] General Information about FTP Resources for AI

In general, see the Lisp FAQ for Lisp-related software and the Prolog
Resource Guide and the Prolog FAQ for Prolog-related software. If a
Lisp-based or Prolog-based system is listed here, only the ftp site
and directory will be listed; for a more detailed description, see the
Lisp FAQ and the Prolog Resource Guide. For information on obtaining
the Lisp FAQ or the Prolog Resource Guide see [1-0].

~Subject: [3-1] FTP Repositories

Ada Repository:

The Ada Repository on (mailing list
[email protected]) contains a directory of AI programs in
PD2:*.*. A somewhat easier to access copy of the archives is
available as

UCLA Artificial Life Depository: (

Repository of papers, articles, tech reports, software and other items of
interest to Artificial Life researchers. It includes an archive of
past postings to the alife mailing list, [email protected] (send
mail to [email protected] to be added to the list).

(Other artificial life information is available from
in the directory pub/Artificial-Life-III.)

Consortium for Lexical Research: []
equivalently, []

Archive containing a variety of programs and data files related to
natural language processing research, with a particular focus on
lexical research. See the file catalog-short for a quick listing of
the contents of the archive. Long descriptions are in the info/
subdirectory. Publicly available materials are in the pub/
subdirectory. Materials for paid-up members of the Consortium are in
the members-only/ subdirectory. Public materials include the Alvey
Natural Language Tools, Sowa's Conceptual Graph parser implemented in
YACC by Maurice Pagnucco, a morphological parsing lexicon of English,
a phonological rule compiler for PC-KIMMO, C source code for the NIST
SGML parser, PC-KIMMO sources, the 1911 Roget Thesaurus, and a variety
of word lists (including English, Dutch, and male/female/last names).
Comments and questions may be directed to [email protected]

Fuzzy Logic Repositories: contains information concerning fuzzy
logic, including bibliographies (bib/), product descriptions and demo
versions (com/), machine readable published papers (lit/),
miscellaneous information, documents and reports (txt/), and programs,
code and compilers (prog/). You may download new items into the new/
subdirectory. If you deposit anything in new/, please inform
[email protected] The repository is maintained by Timothy Butler,
[email protected] The Fuzzy Logic Repository is also accessible
through a mail server, [email protected] For help on using the
server, send mail to the server with the following line in the body
of the message:
@@ help
Other commands available include index, list, find, send, and credits.

Ostfold Regional College in Norway recently started a ftp site
for material related to fuzzy logic,
Material to be included in the archive (e.g., papers and code)
may be placed in the upload/ directory. Now holds the files from
Togai's mail-server, and other files from Timothy Butler's site It also includes some demo programs. Send
email to Asgeir Osterhus, .

Togai InfraLogic, Inc. (TIL) also runs a fuzzy logic email server
which contains demo versions of some of their software, fuzzy logic
bibliographies, conference announcements, a short introduction to
fuzzy logic, copies of the company newsletter, and so on. See the
entry in the answer to question [1-8] for more information on the
company. To get started with the fuzzy logic email server, send a
message with NO SUBJECT LINE to [email protected], containing just
the word "help" in the message body. The server will reply with a set
of instructions. Please address any comments, questions or requests
to either [email protected] or [email protected] Most of the contents of the
TIL server is mirrored at Tim Butler's fuzzy logic ftp repository at and at Ostfold ftp repository at
For more information, write to Togai InfraLogic, Inc., 5
Vanderbilt, Irvine, CA 92718 or call 714-975-8522.

The Aptronix FuzzyNet files are available through an email
server. Send email to [email protected] with "help"
in the message body to get instructions on how to retrieve files.
"catalog" or "index" will get you a listing of available files.
(You can also connect to the FuzzyNet repository by modem to Aptronix
FuzzyNet 408-428-1883 N/8/1 1200-19,200 baud.) Files on the server
include descriptions of fuzzy logic applications (e.g., washing
machines, camera focusing, air conditioning), introductory materials,
Fide related information, archives of, etc. If you'd
like to have a file included in the FuzzyNet server (e.g., moderate
length technical reports), send email to Scott Irwin

Genetic Algorithms:

The Genetic Algorithms Repository is located at It
includes past copies of the genetic algorithms digest in /pub/galist/, a
copy of Nici Schraudolph's survey of free and commercial GA software in
/pub/galist/information/ga-software-survey.txt (send email to
to add to the list), and some software, including
GAC (a simple GA written in C), GAL (a simple GA written in Common Lisp),
GAucsd, GECO (a Common Lisp toolbox for constructing genetic algorithms),
GENESIS, GENOCOP, Paragenesis (a parallel version of GENESIS that runs on
the CM-200), SGA-C (a C implementation/extension of Goldberg's SGA

UC/Irvine AI/Machine Learning Repository: has a variety of AI-related materials, with a special
focus on machine learning. The directory /pub/machine-learning-databases
contains over 80 benchmark data sets for classifier systems (30mb).

Site Librarian: Patrick M. Murphy ([email protected])
Off-Site Assistant: David W. Aha ([email protected])

Machine Learning:

Various programs (e.g., ID3) and publications related to machine
learning are available by anonymous ftp from the machine
learning group (under Raymond Mooney) at UT-Austin, at
Subdirectories include
ml-course information and homeworks from a graduate course
in machine learning taught by Dr. Mooney. Homeworks
include "miniatures" of various machine learning
systems written in Common Lisp.
ml-code Common Lisp code corresponding to the assignments
for the course in the ml-course directory.
ml-progs More "research-level" versions of inductive
classification algorithms and software for automated
experiments that generation learning curves that
compare several systems.
papers Publications producted by the machine learning
research group.

Machine Learning Algorithms Implemented in Prolog:

In 1988 the Special Interest Group on Machine Learning of the German
Society for Computer Science (GI e.V.) decided to establish a library
of PROLOG implementations of Machine Learning algorithms. The library
includes - amongst others - PROLOG implementations of Winston's arch,
Becker's AQ-PROLOG, Fisher's COBWEB, Brazdil's generation of
discriminations from derivation trees, Quinlan's ID3, inverse
resolution, and Mitchell's version spaces algorithm. The programs are
currently available via anonymous ftp-server from the GMD: []

Send additional PROLOG implementations of Machine Learning
Algorithms, complaints about them and detected bugs or problems
to Thomas Hoppe, . Send suggestions and
complaints about the ftp library to Werner Emde, Gesellschaft
fuer Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung, Bonn, .

Funic Neural FTP Archive Site:
The Finnish University maintains an archive site containing a large
collection of neural network papers and public domain software
gathered from FTP sites in the US. The files are available by
anonymous ftp from [].
(Also know as, See the file 01README for
details. A list of mirrored ftp sites is in 04Neural_FTP_Sites. For
further information, contact [email protected] or Marko
Gronroos (or ).

OSU Neuroprose: []

This directory contains technical reports as a public service to the
connectionist and neural network scientific community which has an
organized mailing list (for info: [email protected])

NL Software Registry:

The Natural Language Software Registry is a catalogue of software
implementing core natural language processing techniques, whether
available on a commercial or noncommercial basis. Some of the topics
listed include speech signal processing, morphological analysis,
parsers, and knowledge representation systems. The catalogue is
available from the German Research Institute for Artificial
Intelligence (DFKI) in Saarbruecken (Germany) by anonymous ftp to, email to [email protected], or
physical mail to NL Software Registry, Deutsches Forschungszentrum
fuer Kuenstliche Intelligenz, Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3, D-W-6600
Saarbruecken, Germany, or by telephone to +49 (681) 303-5282.

Miscellaneous AI:

Some miscellaneous AI programs may be found on
Most are mirrors of programs available at other sites.

~Subject: [3-2] FTP and Other Resources

In addition to programs available free by anonymous ftp, we've
included some programs which are available by contacting the authors,
and some programs which charge a nominal fee.

Agent Modelling:

ViewGen (Viewpoint Generator) is a Prolog program that implements a
"Belief Ascription Algorithm" as described in Ballim and Wilks (see the
bibliography section on User Modelling). This can be seen as a form of
agent modelling tool, which allows for the generation of arbitrarily deep
nested belief spaces based on the system's own beliefs, and on beliefs
that are typically held by groups of agents. ViewGen is available by
anonymous ftp from [] []
as the file ViewGen.tar.Z. The theory of belief ascription upon which
it is based is described in detail in Ballim and Wilks, and a general
framework for attributing and maintaining nested propositional
attitudes is described in Afzal Ballim's dissertation which is
archived with the Viewgen program (in the files
the variable part indicating the format of the PostScript file).
Contact Afzal Ballim for more information.

Artificial Life:

Tierra is an artificial life system for studying the evolution of digital
organisms. Tierra runs in Unix and MS-DOS. Source code and documentation
is available by anonymous ftp at ( and ( in the directories almond/, beagle/,
doc/, and tierra/. To be added to either the tierra-announce (official
announcements only) or tierra-digest (moderated discussion plus
announcements) mailing lists, send mail to
[email protected] Send bug reports to
[email protected]

Blackboard Architectures:

GBB (PD Version) --

GEST -- Contact: Susan Coryell
Blackboard system. Runs on Symbolics and SUN.
Georgia Tech's Generic Expert System Tool (GEST)
Available to academic institutions for classroom use.

Case-based Reasoning:

CL-Protos --
Contact: Dan Dvorak
Ray Bareiss
Erik Eilerts
Bruce W. Porter

MICRO-xxx -- Contact: [email protected]


The SAN Kit chess programming C source toolkit provides common routines
for move notation I/O, move generation, move execution, etc. Only search
routines and an evaluation function need be added to obtain a working
chess program. It runs on Apple Macintosh (Think C 5.0),
Commodore Amiga (SAS C), MS-DOS, and Unix. It is available by
anonymous ftp from [] in the
directory pub/chess/misc as the compressed tar file san.tar.Z.
Contact Steven J. Edwards, [email protected] for more information.

Eliza and Similar Programs:

The software from Peter Norvig's book "Paradigms of AI Programming" is
available by anonymous ftp from and on disk in
Macintosh or DOS format from the publisher, Morgan Kaufmann. The
software includes Common Lisp implementations of: Eliza and pattern
matchers, Emycin, Othello, Parsers, Scheme interpreters and compilers,
Unification and a prolog interpreter and compiler, Waltz
line-labelling, implementation of GPS, macsyma, and random number
generators. For more information, write to Morgan Kaufmann, Dept. P1,
2929 Campus Drive, Suite 260, San Mateo CA 94403, call 800-745-7323,
or fax 415-578-0672. (Mac ISBN 1-55860-227-5; DOS 3.5" ISBN
1-55860-228-3; or DOS 5.25" ISBN 1-55860-229-1).

The doctor.el is an implementation of Eliza for GNU-Emacs
emacs-lisp. Invoke it with "Meta-X doctor".

Source code for ELIZA in Prolog (implemented by Viren
Patel) is available by ftp from

muLISP-87 (a MSDOS Lisp sold by Soft Warehouse) includes
a Lisp implementation of Eliza.

Compute!'s Gazette, June 1984, includes source for a BASIC
implementation of Eliza. You can also find it in 101 more computer
games, edited by David Ahl, published by Creative Computing (alas,
they're defunct, and the book is out of print).

Herbert Schildt "Artificial Intelligence using C", McGraw-Hill, 1987,
ISBN 0-07-881255-0, pp315-338, includes a simple version of DOCTOR. contains implementations of Eliza for the IBM PC.

The original Parry (in MLISP for a PDP-10) is available in

RACTER is *not* public domain. According to A.K. Dewdney's book,
"The Armchair Universe", Racter is available from John Owens,
INRAC, Inc., 12 Schubert St., Staten Island, NY 10305. It was
published in 1984, and written in compiled BASIC.

Expert Systems:

Contact: [email protected]
Expert System Shell and Machine Learning Program;
Extends Quinlan's FOIL.

OPS5 --

(BinHexed stuffit archive of Babylon)
Development environment for expert systems.

CLIPS is an OPS-like forward chaining production system written in ANSI C
by NASA. The CLIPS inference engine includes truth maintenance, dynamic
rule addition, and customizable conflict resolution strategies. CLIPS,
including the runtime version, is easily embeddable in other
applications. CLIPS runs on IBM PC compatibles, Macintosh, VAX 11/780,
Sun 3/260, and HP9000/500. CLIPS is available from COSMIC at a nominal
fee for unlimited copies with no royalties. For more information, email
[email protected], write COSMIC, University of Georgia, 382
East Broad Street, Athens, GA 30602, call 404-542-3265, or fax
404-542-4807. To subscribe to the CLIPS mailing list, send a message to
the list server [email protected] ( with
message body SUBSCRIBE CLIPS-LIST. An electronic bulletin board
containing information regarding CLIPS can be reached 24 hours a day at
713-280-3896 or 713-280-3892. Communications information is 300, 1200, or
2400 baud, no parity, 8 data bits, and 1 stop bit. The CLIPS help desk
phone number is 713-280-2233 and email address is
[email protected] The book "Expert Systems:
Principles and Programming" by Joseph Girrantano and Garey Riley
comes with an MS-DOS CLIPS interpreter.

Frame Systems:

FrameWork --

Theo -- Contact: [email protected]

FrameKit -- Contact: [email protected]

KR -- Contact: [email protected]

PARKA -- Contact: [email protected]
Frames for the CM

PARMENIDES (Frulekit) -- Contact: [email protected]

Contact: Robert Kessler

PFC --

YAK -- Contact: Enrico Franconi

Fuzzy Logic:

Contact: [email protected]
Fuzzy Logic Inference Engine, Institute of Robotics, ETH.

Game Playing:

METAGAME is a game-playing workbench for developing and playing
metagame programs. It includes a generator for symmetric chess-like
games; definitions of chess, checkers, chinese chess, shogi, lose
chess, lose checkers, french checkers, and tic tac toe translated into
symmetric chess-like games; a legal move generator; and a variety of
player programs, from simple through sophisticated. The METAGAME
Workbench runs in Quintus or Sictus Prolog. Available by anonymous
ftp from [] in users/bdp/metagame.tar.Z.
For more information, contact Barney Pell of the
University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory.

Genetic Algorithms:

SCS (Simple Classifier System) is a C port of the system from
Appendix D of "Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine
Learning" by David E. Goldberg. It was ported to C by Erik Mayer
. For more information, contact the author.

GASSY is a library of routines in C for implementing genetic
algorithms. It is available by anonymous ftp from For further information,
contact the author, Terry Jones, .

Other packages are listed in Nici Schraudolph's survey of free and
commercial GA software (see the Genetic Algorithms Repository in [3-1]).


Japan's Institute for New Generation Computer Technology (ICOT) has
made their software available to the public free of charge. The
collection includes a variety of prolog-based programs in symbol
processing, knowledge representation, reasoning and problem solving,
natural language processing. All programs are available by anonymous
ftp from Note that most of the programs are written
for the PSI machines, and very few have been ported to Unix-based
emulators. For further information, send email to [email protected], or
write to ICOT Free Software Desk, Institute for New Generation
Computer Technology, 21st Floor, Mita Kokusai Bldg., 4-28, Mita
1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, fax +81-3-4456-1618.

Knowledge Representation:

KNOWBEL --{knowbel.tar.Z,manual.txt.tar.Z}
Contact: Bryan M. Kramer,
Telos temporal/sorted logic system.

SB-ONE -- Contact: [email protected]
KL-ONE family
KRIS -- Contact: [email protected]
KL-ONE family (Symbolics only)
BACK -- Contact: [email protected]
KL-ONE family
CLASSIC -- Contact: [email protected]
KL-ONE family
MOTEL -- Contact: [email protected]
Modal KL-ONE (contains KRIS as a kernel).
Implemented in Prolog.

FOL GETFOL -- Contact: [email protected]
Weyrauch's FOL system

SNePS -- Contact: [email protected]
Semantic Nets

COLAB/RELFUN -- Contact: [email protected]
Logic Programming
COLAB/FORWARD -- Contact: [email protected]
Logic Programming
COLAB/CONTAX -- Contact: [email protected]
Constraint System for Weighted Constraints over
Hierarchically Structured Finite Domains.
COLAB/TAXON -- Contact: [email protected]
Terminological Knowl. Rep. w/Concrete Domains

Machine Learning:

COBWEB/3 -- Contact: [email protected]

FOIL -- []
~ftp/pub/ contains source, a brief manual,
and several sample datasets.

RWM -- Contact: H. Altay Guvenir
RWM is a program for learning problem solving strategies,
written in Common Lisp (tested on Suns and NeXT).

IND -- Contact: NASA COSMIC,
Tel: 706-542-3265 (ask for customer support)
Fax: 706-542-4807
IND is a C program for the creation and manipulation of
decision trees from data, integrating the CART,
ID3/C4.5, Buntine's smoothing and option trees, Wallace
and Patrick's MML method, and Oliver and Wallace's MML
decision graphs which extend the tree representation to
graphs. Written by Wray Buntine, .

Medical Reasoning:


Natural Language Processing:

Contact: Mark Johnson
Lisp YACC/Parser.

BABBLER -- Contact: [email protected]
Markov chains/NLP

PENMAN -- Contact: [email protected]
Natural Language Generation.

An implementation of KIMMO morphological analyzer
for the IBM PC.

The Link Parser is a highly efficient English parser written by Danny
Sleator and Davy Temperley. It uses a novel grammatical formalism known
as Link Grammar to represent a robust and diverse collection of
English-language phenomena. The system is available by anonymous ftp from in the directory /usr/sleator/public/. Read the
README file for more information.

Neural Networks:

Aspirin/MIGRAINES is a neural network simulator available free from the
MITRE Corporation. It contains a neural network simulation code generator
which generates high performance C code implementations for
backpropagation networks. It runs on the following platforms: Apollo,
Convex, Cray, DecStation, HP, IBM RS/6000, Intel 486/386 (Unix System V),
NeXT, News, Silicon Graphics Iris, Sun3, Sun4, Mercury i860 (40MHz)
Coprocessors, Meiko Computing Surface w/i860 (40MHz) Nodes, Skystation
i860 (40MHz) Coprocessors, and iWarp Cells. The software is available by
anonymous ftp from the CMU simulator collection on
( in the directory /afs/cs/project/connect/code (you must
cd to this directory in one atomic operation) and UCLA's cognitive
science collection on ( in the
directory alexis as the file am6.tar.Z. They include many
examples in the release, include an implementation of NETtalk.
For more information, contact Russell Leighton .

MUME (Multi-Module Neural Computing Environment) is a simulation
environment for multi-modules neural computing. It provides an object
oriented facility for the simulation and training of multiple nets
with various architectures and learning algorithms. The object
oriented structure makes simple the addition of new network classes
and new learning algorithms. _ MUME includes a library of network
architectures including feedforward, simple recurrent, and
continuously running recurrent neural networks. Each architecture is
supported by a variety of learning algorithms, including backprop,
weight perturbation, node perturbation, and simulated annealing. MUME
can be used for large scale neural network simulations as it provides
support for learning in multi-net environments. It also provide pre-
and post-processing facilities. MUME can be used to include
non-neural computing modules (decision trees, etc.) in applications. _
MUME is being developed at the Machine Intelligence Group at Sydney
University Electrical Engineering. The software is written in 'C' and
is being used on Sun and DEC workstations. Efforts are underway to
port it to the Fujitsu VP2200 vector processor using the VCC
vectorising C compiler. MUME is available to research institutions on
a media/doc/postage cost arrangement. It is also available free
for MSDOS by anonymous ftp from
For further information, write to Marwan Jabri, SEDAL, Sydney
University Electrical Engineering, NSW 2006 Australia,
call +61-2-692-2240, fax +61-2-660-1228, or send email to
Marwan Jabri . To be added to the mailing
list, send email to [email protected]

Adaptive Logic Network (ALN)
The atree adapative logic network simulation package is available by
anonymous ftp from [] in
pub/atree2.tar.Z (Unix). The MS-Windows 3.x and IBM PC version is
available as either pub/atre27.exe (includes C/C++ sources) or
pub/a27exe.exe (just the executables). Documentation is in
pub/ To be added to the mailing list, send email to
[email protected] For more information, contact
William W. Armstrong, .

Neural network simulator. Other files of interest. Executables are
free; source code for a small fee.

A neural network definition language.

A neural network simulator from Drew van Camp at the University
of Toronto. It provides a library of routines for building networks
and graphically displaying them. Written in C and uses the X window
system for graphics. Example simulators include Back Propagation,
Recurrent Back Propagation, Boltzmann Machine, Mean Field Theory, Free
Energy Manipulation, Kohonnen Net, and Hard and Soft Competitive
Learning. Xerion runs on SGI Personal Iris, SGI 4d, Sun3 (SunOS), Sun4
(SunOS). Available by anonymous ftp from
See the file /pub/xerion.README for more information. To be added to
the mailing list, send mail to [email protected] Bugs
should be reported to [email protected] Complaints,
suggestions or comments may be sent to [email protected]

SNNS (Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator) is a software simulator for
neural networks on Unix workstations developed at the Institute for
Parallel and Distributed High Performance Systems (IPVR) at the
University of Stuttgart. The SNNS simulator contains a simultor kernel
written in C and a 2D/3D graphical user interface running under X11R4 or
X11R5. It runs under Sun Sparc (SLC, ELC, SS2, GX, GS), DECstation (2100,
3100, 5000/200), IBM RS 6000, HP 9000, and IBM-PC (386/486). SNNS
includes the following learning procedures: backpropagation (online,
batch, with momentum and flat spot elimin.), counterpropagation,
quickprop, backpercolation 1, and generalized radial basis functions
(RBF). (Version 2.2 will include recurrent ART1, ART2 and ARTMAP, Cascade
Correlation and Recurrent Cascade Correlation. Time delay networks
(TDNN), Elman networks and some other network paradigms have already been
implemented but are scheduled for a later release.) The SNNS simulator
can be obtained via anonymous ftp from [].
The PostScript version of the user manual can be obtained as file To be added to the mailing list, send a message to
[email protected] with "subscribe snns Name>" in the message body. Submissions may be sent to
[email protected] For further information, contact
Andreas Zell, .

Probabilistic Reasoning:

Contact: Russell Almond

IDEAL -- Contact: [email protected]
Bayesian networks


Contact: [email protected]
[email protected]

Contact: [email protected]

Contact: Brad Miller

Contact: [email protected]
Nonlinear planner.

IDM -- (
Contact: [email protected]
STRIPS-like planning.

PRODIGY -- Contact: [email protected]
Integrated Planning and Learning System

Contact: [email protected]
Integrated Agent Architecture

MATS -- Contact: [email protected]
Temporal constraints

Qualitative Reasoning:

Contact: Ben Kuipers

Robotics (Planning Testbeds):

Planning testbed

The ARS MAGNA abstract robot simular provides an abstract world in
which a planner controls a mobile robot. This abstract world is more
realistic than typical blocks worlds, in which micro-world simplifying
assumptions do not hold. Experiments may be controlled by varying
global world parameters, such as perceptual noise, as well as building
specific environments in order to exercise particular planner
features. The world is also extensible to allow new experimental
designs that were not thought of originally. The simulator also
includes a simple graphical user-interface which uses the CLX
interface to the X window system. ARS MAGNA can be obtained by
anonymous ftp from, as ars-magna.tar.Z in the pub/nisp
directory. Installation instructions are in the file
Installation.readme. The simulator is written in Nisp, a macro-package
for Common Lisp. Nisp can be retrieved in the same way as the
simulator. Version 1.0 of the ARS MAGNA simulator is documented in
Yale Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR #928, "ARS MAGNA: The Abstract
Robot Simulator". This report is available in the distribution as a
PostScript file. Comments should be directed to Sean Philip
Engelson .

Simulated Annealing:

VFSR (Very Fast Simulated Reannealing) is a powerful global optimization
C-code algorithm especially useful for nonlinear and/or stochastic
systems. Most current copies usually can be obtained by anonymous ftp
Older versions can be found in the Netlib archive (,
logging in as netlib), the Statlib archive (, logging in
as statlib), the UMIACS archive (, and the
UTSA archive ( The authors have
(p)reprints related to VFSR in their archives: Lester Ingber has a review
article,, in the UMIACS archive (and on uunet in /tmp), and
Bruce Rosen has a comparison study, "Function Optimization based on
Advanced Simulated Annealing", which is available in the UTSA archive as
the file
Copies of the code are also available by email from the author, Lester
Ingber .

Theorem Proving/Automated Reasoning:

Otter --

Isabelle -- []
Relevant files include:
intro.dvi.Z "Introduction to Isabelle"
ref.dvi.Z "The Isabelle Reference Manual"
logics.dvi.Z "Isabelle's Object-Logics"
92.tar.Z Isabelle-92 distribution directory
Contact: [email protected]
[email protected]

MVL --
Contact: [email protected]
Multi-valued logics

Boyer-Moore --
Contact: [email protected]


University of Toronto:
ftp --

Archives of ailist mailing list, defunct as of January 19, 1990

PAIL (Portable AI Lab)
ftp -- []
contact: Mike Rosner and Dean Allemang {dean,mike}

The Artificial Intelligence CD-ROM (Volume One, 1992) is available
from Network Cybernetics Corporation for $129.00 per copy (plus $5
shipping domestic, $10 shipping international). The AI CD-ROM is an
ISO-9660 format disk usable on any computer system, and contain a
variety of public domain, shareware, and other software of special
interest to the AI community. The disk contains source code,
executable programs, demonstration versions of commercial programs,
tutorials and other files for a variety of operating systems. Among
the supported operating systems are MS-DOS, OS/2, Mac, Amiga, and
Unix. Among the items included are CLIPS v5.1 and NETS, courtesy of
COSMIC, the collected source code from AIExpert magazine from the
premier issue in June of 1986 to the present, and complete
transcriptions of the first annual Loebner Prize competition, which
took place at the Boston Computer Museum. It also includes examples
many different kinds of neural networks, genetic algorithms,
artificial life simulators, natural language software, public domain
and shareware compilers for a wide range of languages such as Lisp,
Xlisp, Scheme, XScheme, Smalltalk, Prolog, ICON, SNOBOL, and many
others. Complete collections of the Neural Digest, Genetic Algorithms
Digest, and Vision List Digest are included. Network Cybernetics
Corporation intends to release annual revisions to the AI CD-ROM to
keep it up to date with current developments in the field. For more
information, write to Network Cybernetics Corporation, 4201 Wingren
Road, Suite 202, Irving, Texas 75062-2763, call 214-650-2002, fax
214-650-1929, or send email to [email protected] or
[email protected] (Steve Rainwater).

~Subject: [3-3] AI Bibliographies available by FTP

The Computer Science Department at the University of Saarbruecken, Germany,
maintains a large bibliographic database of articles pertaining to the
field of Artificial Intelligence. Currently the database contains more
than 25,000 references, which can be retrieved by electronic mail from
the LIDO mailserver at [email protected] Send a mail message with
subject line "lidosearch help info" to get instructions on using the
mail server. A variety of queries based on author names, title and
year of publication are possible. The references can be provided in
BibTeX or Refer formats. The entire bibliographic database can be
obtained for a fee by ftp or on tape. Questions may be directed to
[email protected]

A variety of AI-related bibliographies are located on
in the directory /pub/bibliographies.

For information on a fairly complete bibliography of computational
linguistics and natural language processing work from the 1980s, send
mail to [email protected] with the subject HELP.

Stanford University (SUMEX-AIM) has a large BibTeX bibliography of
Artificial Intelligence papers and technical reports. Available by
anonymous ftp from{1,2,3}.bib

A BibTeX database of references addressing neuro-fuzzy issues can be
obtained by anonymous ftp from ( in the
directory local/papers as the (ascii) file fuzzy-nn.bib.

~Subject: [3-4] Technical Reports available by FTP

This section lists the anonymous ftp sites for technical reports from
several universities and other organizations. Some of the sites
provide only an online catalog of technical reports, while the rest
make the actual reports available online. The email address listed is
that of the appropriate person to contact with questions about
ordering technical reports.

When ftping compressed .Z files, remember to set the transfer type to
binary first, using the command
ftp> binary

Another general location for technical reports from several
universities is available as

The newsgroup comp.doc.techreports is devoted to distributing lists of
tech reports and their abstracts.

MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

A full catalog of MIT AI Lab technical reports (and a listing of recent
updates) may be obtained from the above location, by writing to
Publications, Room NE43-818, M.I.T. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory,
545 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, or by calling
1-617-253-6773. The catalog lists the technical reports ("AI Memos")
with a short abstract and their current prices. There is also a charge
for shipping. Technical reports are NOT available by ftp.

The only technical report currently available online is Sandiway
Fong's 1991 PhD thesis, ``The Computational Properties of
Principle-Based Grammatical Theories,'' which may be found in the
directory pub/sandiway/.

CMU School of Computer Science:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

CMU Software Engineering Institute:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

ftp --

University of Washington CSE Tech Reports:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]


AT&T Bell Laboratories:
ftp --

bib.Z contains short bibliography, including all the technical
reports contained in this directory.

ftp --

Boston University:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

Brown University:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

Columbia University:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

DEC Cambridge Research Lab:
ftp --{abstracts,tech-reports}

DEC Paris Research Lab:
email -- [email protected]
Put commands in Subject: line of the message.
To get a list of articles, use
send index articles
To get a list of tech reports, use
send index reports

ftp --
email -- Martin Henz ([email protected])

Duke University:
ftp --{papers,theses}
email -- [email protected]

A list of available reports can be sent via email. Send requests
for information about reports from the Center for Cognitive Science
to cogsci%[email protected], and from the Human Communication
Research Center to HCRC%[email protected]

Georgia Tech College of Computing, AI Group:
ftp -- (
email -- Professor Ashwin Ram

email -- Erna Amerman

ftp -- []
ftp -- []

Institute for Learning Sciences at Northwestern University:
ftp --

New York University (NYU):
ftp --

ftp --
email -- [email protected]

Ohio State University, Laboratory for AI Research
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

OSU Neuroprose:
ftp -- (

This directory contains technical reports as a public service to the
connectionist and neural network scientific community which has an
organized mailing list (for info: [email protected])

ftp --

Very spotty collection.

SUNY at Stony Brook:
ftp --
email -- [email protected] or [email protected]

The /pub/sunysb directory contains the SB-Prolog implementation
of the Prolog language. Contact [email protected] for more

Thinking Machines:
ftp --

This file contains a list of Thinking Machines technical reports.
Orders may be placed by email (limit 5) to [email protected], or by US
Mail to Thinking Machines Corporation, Attn: Technical reports, 245
First Street, Cambridge, MA 01241. In addition, the directories
cm/starlisp and cm/starlogo contain code for the *Lisp and *Logo

University of Arizona:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

The directory /japan/kahaner.reports contains reports on AI in
Japan, among other things, written by Dr. David Kahaner, a
numerical analyst on sabbatical to the Office of Naval
Research-Asia (ONR Asia) in Tokyo from NIST. The reports are not
written in any sort of official capacity, but are quite interesting.

University of California/Santa Cruz:
ftp --{bib,tr}
email -- [email protected]

University of Colorado:
ftp --

University of Florida:
ftp --

University of Illinois at Urbana:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

University of Indiana, Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

University of Kentucky:
ftp --

University of Massachusetts at Amherst:
email -- [email protected]

University of Michigan:
ftp --

University of North Carolina:
ftp --

University of Pennsylvania:
email -- [email protected]

USC/Information Sciences Institute:
email -- Sheila Coyazo is the contact.

University of Toronto:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

University of Virginia:
ftp --

University of Wisconsin:
ftp --
email -- [email protected]

Some AI authors have set up repositories of their own papers:

Matthew Ginsberg:

~Subject: [3-5] Where can I get a machine readable dictionary, thesaurus, and
other text corpora?


Roget's 1911 Thesaurus is available by anonymous FTP from the
Consortium for Lexical Research (, []).
The pathname is /pub/lexica/thesauri/roget-1911.

Project Gutenberg also has Roget's 1911 Thesaurus. For more
information, write to Michael S. Hart, Professor of Electronic Text,
Executive Director of Project Gutenberg Etext, Illinois Benedictine
College, Lisle, IL 60532 or send email to [email protected]

For people without FTP, Austin Code Works sells floppy disks
containing Roget's 1911 Thesaurus for $40.00. This money helps support
the production of other useful texts, such as the 1913 Webster's dictionary.

The Open Book Initiative maintains a text repository on
(a public access UNIX system, 617-739-WRLD). For more information,
send email to [email protected], write to Software Tool & Die, 1330
Beacon Street, Brookline, MA 02146, or call 617-739-0202.

The CHILDES project at Carnegie Mellon University has a lot of data of
children speaking to adults, as well as the adult written and adult
spoken corpora from the CORNELL project. Contact Brian MacWhinney
for more information.

The Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) has a Data
Collection Initiative. For more information, contact Donald Walker at
Bellcore, [email protected]

Two lists of common female first names (4967 names) and male first
names (2924 names) are available for anonymous ftp from
in the directory /afs/ Read
the file README first. [Note that you must cd to this directory in one
atomic operation, as superior directories are protected during an
anonymous ftp.] Send mail to [email protected] for more information.


Illumind publishes the Moby Thesaurus (25,000 roots/1.2 million
synonyms), Moby Words (560,000 entries), Moby Hyphenator (155,000
entries), and the Moby Part-of-Speech (214,000 entries) and Moby
Pronunciator (167,000 entries) lexical databases. All databases are
supplied in pure ASCII, royalty-free, in both Macintosh and MS-DOS
disk formats (also in .Z file formats). Both commercial (to resell
derived structures as part of commercial applications) and
educational/research licenses are available. For more information,
write to Illumind, Attn: Grady Ward, 3449 Martha Court, Arcata,
CA 95521, call 707-826-7715, or send email to [email protected]

The Oxford Text Archive has hundreds of online texts in a wide variety
of languages, including a few dictionaries (the OED, Collins, etc.).
The Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen (LOB), Brown, and London-Lund corpii are also
available from them. For more information, write to Oxford Electronic
Publishing, Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New York, NY
10016, call 212-889-0206, or send mail to [email protected]
(Their contact information in England is Oxford Text Archive, Oxford
University Computing Service, 13 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6NN, UK, +44
(865) 273238.)

Mailing Lists:

CORPORA is a mailing list for Text Corpora. It welcomes information
and questions about text corpora such as availability, aspects of
compiling and using corpora, software, tagging, parsing, and
bibliography. To be added to the list, send a message to
[email protected] Contributions should be sent to
[email protected]

~Subject: [3-6] List of Smalltalk implementations.

Little Smalltalk -- Tim Budd's version of Smalltalk /pub/budd/small.v3.tar

GNU Smalltalk


;;; *EOF*

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