Category : Files from Magazines
Archive   : PJ-EGA.ZIP
Filename : SAMPLE.ASM

 
Output of file : SAMPLE.ASM contained in archive : PJ-EGA.ZIP
; Sample EGA program.
; Animates four balls bouncing around a playfield by using
; page flipping. Playfield is panned smoothly both horizontally
; and vertically.
; Assembled with MASM 4.0, linked with LINK 3.51.
; By Michael Abrash, 11/2/86.
;
stack segment para stack 'STACK'
db 512 dup(?)
stack ends
;
HIRES_VIDEO_MODE equ 0 ;define for 640x350 video mode
; comment out for 640x200 mode
VIDEO_SEGMENT equ 0a000h ;display memory segment for
; true EGA graphics modes
LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH equ 672/8 ;width in bytes and height in scan
LOGICAL_SCREEN_HEIGHT equ 384 ; lines of the virtual screen
; we'll work with
PAGE0 equ 0 ;flag for page 0 when page flipping
PAGE1 equ 1 ;flag for page 1 when page flipping
PAGE0_OFFSET equ 0 ;start offset of page 0 in EGA memory
PAGE1_OFFSET equ LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH * LOGICAL_SCREEN_HEIGHT
;start offset of page 1 (both pages
; are 672x384 virtual screens)
BALL_WIDTH equ 24/8 ;width of ball in display memory bytes
BALL_HEIGHT equ 24 ;height of ball in scan lines
BLANK_OFFSET equ PAGE1_OFFSET * 2 ;start of blank image
; in EGA memory
BALL_OFFSET equ BLANK_OFFSET + (BALL_WIDTH * BALL_HEIGHT)
;start offset of ball image in EGA memory
NUM_BALLS equ 4 ;number of balls to animate
;
; EGA register equates.
;
TS_INDEX equ 3c4h ;TS index register
MAP_MASK equ 2 ;TS map mask register
GDC_INDEX equ 3ceh ;GDC index register
GDC_MODE equ 5 ;GDC mode register
CRTC_INDEX equ 03d4h ;CRTC index register
START_ADDRESS_HIGH equ 0ch ;CRTC start address high byte
START_ADDRESS_LOW equ 0dh ;CRTC start address low byte
CRTC_OFFSET equ 13h ;CRTC offset register
STATUS_REGISTER_1 equ 03dah ;EGA status register
VSYNC_MASK equ 08h ;vertical sync bit in status register 1
ATC_INDEX equ 03c0h ;ATC index register
HPELPAN equ 20h OR 13h ;ATC horizontal pel panning register
; (bit 7 is high to keep palette RAM
; addressing on)
dseg segment para common 'DATA'
CurrentPage db PAGE1 ;page to draw to
CurrentPageOffset dw PAGE1_OFFSET
;
; Four plane's worth of multicolored ball image.
;
BallPlane0Image label byte ;blue plane image
db 000h, 03ch, 000h, 001h, 0ffh, 080h
db 007h, 0ffh, 0e0h, 00fh, 0ffh, 0f0h
db 4 * 3 dup(000h)
db 07fh, 0ffh, 0feh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh
db 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh
db 4 * 3 dup(000h)
db 07fh, 0ffh, 0feh, 03fh, 0ffh, 0fch
db 03fh, 0ffh, 0fch, 01fh, 0ffh, 0f8h
db 4 * 3 dup(000h)
BallPlane1Image label byte ;green plane image
db 4 * 3 dup(000h)
db 01fh, 0ffh, 0f8h, 03fh, 0ffh, 0fch
db 03fh, 0ffh, 0fch, 07fh, 0ffh, 0feh
db 07fh, 0ffh, 0feh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh
db 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh
db 8 * 3 dup(000h)
db 00fh, 0ffh, 0f0h, 007h, 0ffh, 0e0h
db 001h, 0ffh, 080h, 000h, 03ch, 000h
BallPlane2Image label byte ;red plane image
db 12 * 3 dup(000h)
db 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh
db 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 07fh, 0ffh, 0feh
db 07fh, 0ffh, 0feh, 03fh, 0ffh, 0fch
db 03fh, 0ffh, 0fch, 01fh, 0ffh, 0f8h
db 00fh, 0ffh, 0f0h, 007h, 0ffh, 0e0h
db 001h, 0ffh, 080h, 000h, 03ch, 000h
BallPlane3Image label byte ;intensity on for all planes,
; to produce high-intensity colors
db 000h, 03ch, 000h, 001h, 0ffh, 080h
db 007h, 0ffh, 0e0h, 00fh, 0ffh, 0f0h
db 01fh, 0ffh, 0f8h, 03fh, 0ffh, 0fch
db 03fh, 0ffh, 0fch, 07fh, 0ffh, 0feh
db 07fh, 0ffh, 0feh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh
db 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh
db 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh
db 0ffh, 0ffh, 0ffh, 07fh, 0ffh, 0feh
db 07fh, 0ffh, 0feh, 03fh, 0ffh, 0fch
db 03fh, 0ffh, 0fch, 01fh, 0ffh, 0f8h
db 00fh, 0ffh, 0f0h, 007h, 0ffh, 0e0h
db 001h, 0ffh, 080h, 000h, 03ch, 000h
;
BallX dw 15, 50, 40, 70 ;array of ball x coords
BallY dw 40, 200, 110, 300 ;array of ball y coords
LastBallX dw 15, 50, 40, 70 ;previous ball x coords
LastBallY dw 40, 100, 160, 30 ;previous ball y coords
BallXInc dw 1, 1, 1, 1 ;x move factors for ball
BallYInc dw 8, 8, 8, 8 ;y move factors for ball
BallRep dw 1, 1, 1, 1 ;# times to keep moving
; ball according to current
; increments
BallControl dw Ball0Control, Ball1Control ;pointers to current
dw Ball2Control, Ball3Control ; locations in ball
; control strings
BallControlString dw Ball0Control, Ball1Control ;pointers to
dw Ball2Control, Ball3Control ; start of ball
; control strings
;
; Ball control strings.
;
Ball0Control label word
dw 10, 1, 4, 10, -1, 4, 10, -1, -4, 10, 1, -4, 0
Ball1Control label word
dw 12, -1, 1, 28, -1, -1, 12, 1, -1, 28, 1, 1, 0
Ball2Control label word
dw 20, 0, -1, 40, 0, 1, 20, 0, -1, 0
Ball3Control label word
dw 8, 1, 0, 52, -1, 0, 44, 1, 0, 0
;
; Panning control string.
;
ifdef HIRES_VIDEO_MODE
PanningControlString dw 32, 1, 0, 34, 0, 1, 32, -1, 0, 34, 0, -1, 0
else
PanningControlString dw 32, 1, 0, 184, 0, 1, 32, -1, 0, 184, 0, -1, 0
endif
PanningControl dw PanningControlString ;pointer to current location
; in panning control string
PanningRep dw 1 ;# times to pan according to current
; panning increments
PanningXInc dw 1 ;x panning factor
PanningYInc dw 0 ;y panning factor
HPan db 0 ;horizontal pel panning setting
PanningStartOffset dw 0 ;start offset adjustment to produce vertical
; panning & coarse horizontal panning
dseg ends
;
; Macro to set indexed register P2 of chip with index register
; at P1 to AL.
;
SETREG macro P1, P2
mov dx,P1
mov ah,al
mov al,P2
out dx,ax
endm
;
cseg segment para public 'CODE'
assume cs:cseg, ds:dseg
start proc near
mov ax,dseg
mov ds,ax
;
; Select graphics mode.
;
ifdef HIRES_VIDEO_MODE
mov ax,010h
else
mov ax,0eh
endif
int 10h
;
; ES always points to EGA memory.
;
mov ax,VIDEO_SEGMENT
mov es,ax
;
; Draw border around playfield in both pages.
;
mov di,PAGE0_OFFSET
call DrawBorder ;page 0 border
mov di,PAGE1_OFFSET
call DrawBorder ;page 1 border
;
; Draw all four plane's worth of the ball to undisplayed EGA memory.
;
mov al,01h ;enable plane 0
SETREG TS_INDEX, MAP_MASK
mov si,offset BallPlane0Image
mov di,BALL_OFFSET
mov cx,BALL_WIDTH * BALL_HEIGHT
rep movsb
mov al,02h ;enable plane 1
SETREG TS_INDEX, MAP_MASK
mov si,offset BallPlane1Image
mov di,BALL_OFFSET
mov cx,BALL_WIDTH * BALL_HEIGHT
rep movsb
mov al,04h ;enable plane 2
SETREG TS_INDEX, MAP_MASK
mov si,offset BallPlane2Image
mov di,BALL_OFFSET
mov cx,BALL_WIDTH * BALL_HEIGHT
rep movsb
mov al,08h ;enable plane 3
SETREG TS_INDEX, MAP_MASK
mov si,offset BallPlane3Image
mov di,BALL_OFFSET
mov cx,BALL_WIDTH * BALL_HEIGHT
rep movsb
;
; Draw a blank image the size of the ball to undisplayed EGA memory.
;
mov al,0fh ;enable all memory planes, since the
SETREG TS_INDEX, MAP_MASK ; blank has to erase all planes
mov di,BLANK_OFFSET
mov cx,BALL_WIDTH * BALL_HEIGHT
sub al,al
rep stosb
;
; Set EGA to write mode 1, for block copying ball and blank images.
;
mov al,1
SETREG GDC_INDEX, GDC_MODE
;
; Set EGA offset register in words to define logical screen width.
;
mov al,LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH / 2
SETREG CRTC_INDEX, CRTC_OFFSET
;
; Move the balls by erasing each ball, moving it, and
; redrawing it, then switching pages when they're all moved.
;
BallAnimationLoop:
mov bx,( NUM_BALLS * 2 ) - 2
EachBallLoop:
;
; Erase old image of ball in this page (at location from one more earlier).
;
mov si,BLANK_OFFSET ;point to blank image
mov cx,[LastBallX+bx]
mov dx,[LastBallY+bx]
call DrawBall
;
; Set new last ball location.
;
mov ax,[BallX+bx]
mov [LastballX+bx],ax
mov ax,[BallY+bx]
mov [LastballY+bx],ax
;
; Change the ball movement values if it's time to do so.
;
dec [BallRep+bx] ;has current repeat factor run out?
jnz MoveBall
mov si,[BallControl+bx] ;it's time to change movement values
lodsw ;get new repeat factor from
; control string
and ax,ax ;at end of control string?
jnz SetNewMove
mov si,[BallControlString+bx] ;reset control string
lodsw ;get new repeat factor
SetNewMove:
mov [BallRep+bx],ax ;set new movement repeat factor
lodsw ;set new x movement increment
mov [BallXInc+bx],ax
lodsw ;set new y movement increment
mov [BallYInc+bx],ax
mov [BallControl+bx],si ;save new control string pointer
;
; Move the ball.
;
MoveBall:
mov ax,[BallXInc+bx]
add [BallX+bx],ax ;move in x direction
mov ax,[BallYInc+bx]
add [BallY+bx],ax ;move in y direction
;
; Draw ball at new location.
;
mov si,BALL_OFFSET ;point to ball's image
mov cx,[BallX+bx]
mov dx,[BallY+bx]
call DrawBall
;
dec bx
dec bx
jns EachBallLoop
;
; Pan and flip displayed page to the one we've been working on, as soon
; as leading edge of vertical sync comes around.
;
call WaitVSync
;
; Perform whatever panning's in effect.
;
call AdjustPanning
;
; Flip to new page by changing start address.
;
mov ax,[CurrentPageOffset]
add ax,[PanningStartOffset]
push ax
SETREG CRTC_INDEX, START_ADDRESS_LOW
mov al,byte ptr [CurrentPageOffset+1]
pop ax
mov al,ah
SETREG CRTC_INDEX, START_ADDRESS_HIGH
;
; Wait for sync again so the new start address has a chance
; to take effect.
;
call WaitVSync
;
; Set horizontal panning now, just as new start address takes effect.
;
mov al,[HPan]
mov dx,STATUS_REGISTER_1
in al,dx ;reset ATC addressing to index reg
mov al,[HPan]
SETREG ATC_INDEX, HPELPAN
;
; Flip the page to draw to to the undisplayed page.
;
xor [CurrentPage],1
jnz IsPage1
mov [CurrentPageOffset],PAGE0_OFFSET
jmp short EndFlipPage
IsPage1:
mov [CurrentPageOffset],PAGE1_OFFSET
EndFlipPage:
;
; Exit if a key's been hit.
;
mov ah,1
int 16h
jnz Done
jmp BallAnimationLoop
;
; Finished, clear key, reset screen mode and exit.
;
Done:
mov ah,0 ;clear key
int 16h
;
mov ax,3 ;reset to text mode
int 10h
;
mov ah,4ch ;exit to DOS
int 21h
;
start endp
;
; Routine to draw a ball-sized image to all planes, copying from
; offset SI in EGA memory to offset CX,DX (x,y) in EGA memory in
; the current page.
;
DrawBall proc near
mov ax,LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH
mul dx ;offset of start of top image scan line
add ax,cx ;offset of upper left of image
add ax,[CurrentPageOffset] ;offset of start of page
mov di,ax
mov bp,BALL_HEIGHT
push ds
push es
pop ds ;move from EGA memory to EGA memory
DrawBallLoop:
push di
mov cx,BALL_WIDTH
rep movsb ;draw a scan line of image
pop di
add di,LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH ;point to next destination scan line
dec bp
jnz DrawBallLoop
pop ds
ret
DrawBall endp
;
; Wait for the leading edge of vertical sync pulse.
;
WaitVSync proc near
mov dx,STATUS_REGISTER_1
WaitNotVSyncLoop:
in al,dx
and al,VSYNC_MASK
jnz WaitNotVSyncLoop
WaitVSyncLoop:
in al,dx
and al,VSYNC_MASK
jz WaitVSyncLoop
ret
WaitVSync endp
;
; Perform horizontal/vertical panning.
;
AdjustPanning proc near
dec [PanningRep] ;time to get new panning values?
jnz DoPan
mov si,[PanningControl] ;point to current location in
; panning control string
lodsw ;get panning repeat factor
and ax,ax ;at end of panning control string?
jnz SetnewPanValues
mov si,offset PanningControlString ;reset to start of string
lodsw ;get panning repeat factor
SetNewPanValues:
mov [PanningRep],ax ;set new panning repeat value
lodsw
mov [PanningXInc],ax ;horizontal panning value
lodsw
mov [PanningYInc],ax ;vertical panning value
mov [PanningControl],si ;save current location in panning
; control string
;
; Pan according to panning values.
;
DoPan:
mov ax,[PanningXInc] ;horizontal panning
and ax,ax
js PanLeft ;negative means pan left
jz CheckVerticalPan
mov al,[HPan]
inc al ;pan right; if pel pan reaches
cmp al,8 ; 8, it's time to move to the
jb SetHPan ; next byte with a pel pan of 0
sub al,al ; and a start offset that's one
inc [PanningStartOffset] ; higher
jmp short SetHPan
PanLeft:
mov al,[HPan]
dec al ;pan left; if pel pan reaches -1,
jns SetHPan ; it's time to move to the next
mov al,7 ; byte with a pel pan of 7 and a
dec [PanningStartOffset] ; start offset that's one lower
SetHPan:
mov [HPan],al ;save new pel pan value
CheckVerticalPan:
mov ax,[PanningYInc] ;vertical panning
and ax,ax
js PanUp ;negative means pan up
jz EndPan
add [PanningStartOffset],LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH
;pan down by advancing the start
; address by a scan line
jmp short EndPan
PanUp:
sub [PanningStartOffset],LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH
;pan up by retarding the start
; address by a scan line
EndPan:
ret
;
; Draw textured border around playfield that starts at DI.
;
DrawBorder proc near
;
; Draw the left border.
;
push di
mov cx,LOGICAL_SCREEN_HEIGHT / 16
DrawLeftBorderLoop:
mov al,0ch ;select red color for block
call DrawBorderBlock
add di,LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH * 8
mov al,0eh ;select yellow color for block
call DrawBorderBlock
add di,LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH * 8
loop DrawLeftBorderLoop
pop di
;
; Draw the left border.
;
push di
add di,LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH - 1
mov cx,LOGICAL_SCREEN_HEIGHT / 16
DrawRightBorderLoop:
mov al,0eh ;select yellow color for block
call DrawBorderBlock
add di,LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH * 8
mov al,0ch ;select red color for block
call DrawBorderBlock
add di,LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH * 8
loop DrawRightBorderLoop
pop di
;
; Draw the top border.
;
push di
mov cx,(LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH - 2) / 2
DrawTopBorderLoop:
inc di
mov al,0eh ;select yellow color for block
call DrawBorderBlock
inc di
mov al,0ch ;select red color for block
call DrawBorderBlock
loop DrawTopBorderLoop
pop di
;
; Draw the bottom border.
;
add di,(LOGICAL_SCREEN_HEIGHT - 8) * LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH
mov cx,(LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH - 2) / 2
DrawBottomBorderLoop:
inc di
mov al,0ch ;select red color for block
call DrawBorderBlock
inc di
mov al,0eh ;select yellow color for block
call DrawBorderBlock
loop DrawBottomBorderLoop
ret
DrawBorder endp
;
; Draws an 8x8 border block in color in AL at location DI.
; DI preserved.
;
DrawBorderBlock proc near
push di
SETREG TS_INDEX, MAP_MASK
mov al,0ffh
rept 8
stosb
add di,LOGICAL_SCREEN_WIDTH - 1
endm
pop di
ret
DrawBorderBlock endp
AdjustPanning endp
cseg ends
end start



  3 Responses to “Category : Files from Magazines
Archive   : PJ-EGA.ZIP
Filename : SAMPLE.ASM

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