Category : Files from Magazines
Archive   : DDJ0989.ZIP
Filename : ABRASH.LST

Output of file : ABRASH.LST contained in archive : DDJ0989.ZIP
by Michael Abrash and Dan Illowsky


; This program demonstrates the use of a mini-interpreter to produce
; code that is compact, flexible and easy to modify. The mini-
; program draws and labels a maze and animates an arrow through
; the maze.
; Note: This program must be run in 80-column text mode.
; Tested with TASM 1.0 and MASM 5.0.
; By Dan Illowsky & Michael Abrash 2/18/89
; Public Domain
Stak segment para stack 'stack' ;allocate stack space
db 200h dup (?)
Stak ends
_TEXT segment para public 'code'
assume cs:_TEXT, ds:_TEXT
; Overall animation delay. Selected for an AT: set higher to slow
; animation more for faster computers, lower to slow animation less
; for slower computers.
DELAY_COUNT equ 30000
; Equates for mini-language commands, used in the data
; sequences that define mini-programs. The values of these
; equates are used by Interp as indexes into the jump table
; Function_Table in order to call the corresponding subroutines.
; Lines starting with ">>" describe the parameters that must
; follow the various commands.
Done equ 0 ;Ends program or subprogram.
;>>No parms.
SubProg equ 1 ;Executes a subprogram.
;>>Parm is offset of subprogram.
SetXY equ 2 ;Sets the cursor location (the location at
; which to output the next character).
;>>Parms are X then Y coordinates (both
; bytes).
SetXYInc equ 3 ;Sets the distance to move after displaying
; each character.
;>>Parms are X then Y amount to move after
; displaying character (both bytes).
SetX equ 4 ;Sets the X part of the cursor location.
;>>Parm is the X coordinate (byte).
SetY equ 5 ;Sets the Y part of the cursor location.
;>>Parm is the Y coordinate (byte).
SetXInc equ 6 ;Sets the X part of the amount to move after
; displaying each character.
;>>Parm is the X amount to move after
; character is displayed (byte).
SetYInc equ 7 ;Sets the Y part of the amount to move after
; displaying each character.
;>>Parm is the Y amount to move after
; character is displayed (byte).
SetAtt equ 8 ;Sets the screen attribute of characters to
; be displayed.
;>>Parm is attribute (byte).
TextUp equ 9 ;Displays a string on the screen.
;>>Parm is an ASCII string of bytes,
; which must be terminated by an EndO byte.
RepChar equ 10 ;Displays a single character on the screen
; a number of times.
;>>Parms are char to be displayed followed
; by byte count of times to output byte.
Cls equ 11 ;Clears screen and makes text cursor
; invisible.
;>>No parms.
SetMStart equ 12 ;Sets location of maze start.
;>>Parms are X then Y coords (both bytes).
Mup equ 13 ;Draws maze wall upwards.
;>>Parm is byte length to draw in characters.
Mrt equ 14 ;Draws maze wall right.
;>>Parm is byte length to draw in characters.
Mdn equ 15 ;Draws maze wall downwards.
;>>Parm is byte length to draw in characters.
Mlt equ 16 ;Draws maze wall left.
;>>Parm is byte length to draw in characters.
SetAStart equ 17 ;Sets arrow starting location.
;>>Parms are X then Y coordinates
; (both bytes).
Aup equ 18 ;Animates arrow going up.
;>>No parms.
Art equ 19 ;Animates arrow going right.
;>>No parms.
Adn equ 20 ;Animates arrow going down.
;>>No parms.
Alt equ 21 ;Animates arrow going left.
;>>No parms.
DoRep equ 22 ;Repeats the command that follows
; a specified number of times.
;>>Parm is repetition count (one byte).
EndO equ 0 ;used to indicate the end of a
; string of text in a TextUp
; command.
; The sequences of bytes and words between this line and the next
; line of stars are the entire mini-program that our interpreter will
; execute. This mini-program will initialize the screen, put text on
; the screen, draw a maze, and animate an arrow through the maze.
DemoScreen$ label byte ;this is the main mini-program that our
; interpreter will execute
; Initialize the screen
db SubProg
dw InitScreen$
; Put up words
db SetXY,0,0, SetXYInc,0,1, TextUp,'START',EndO
db SetXY,79,20, TextUp,'END',EndO
; Draw the maze
db SetMstart,4,0, Mrt,8, Mdn,4, Mrt,4, Mup,3, Mrt,4, Mdn,3
db Mrt,4, Mdn,8, Mrt,3, Mup,3, Mrt,5, Mup,9, Mrt,17, Mdn,9
db Mrt,5, Mdn,3, Mrt,4, Mup,10, Mrt,12, Mdn,18, Mrt,6
db SetXY,4,2, Mrt,4, Mdn,2, Mlt,4, Mdn,18, Mrt,12, Mup,4
db Mrt,4, Mdn,4, Mrt,11, Mup,11, Mrt,5, Mup,9, Mrt,9, Mdn,9
db Mrt,5, Mdn,11, Mrt,12, Mup,4, Mrt,4, Mdn,4, Mrt,10
db SetXY,8,6, SubProg
dw Box4x6$
db SetXY,8,14, SubProg
dw Box4x6$
db SetXY,24,14, SubProg
dw Box4x6$
db SetXY,54,14, SubProg
dw Box4x6$
db SetXY,62,4, SubProg
dw Box4x6$
db SetXY,16,6, SubProg
dw Box4x4$
db SetXY,16,12, SubProg
dw Box4x4$
db SetXY,62,12, SubProg
dw Box4x4$
; Animate the arrow through the maze.
db SetAStart,3,0, Alt,2, Adn,2, Art,2, Aup,2
db SetXY,0,0
db DoRep,5,SubProg
dw SpinAround$
db Alt,2, Adn,1, Art,9, Adn,4, Alt,4, Adn,8, Art,8, Adn,8
db Alt,8, Aup,8, Art,8, Aup,2, Art,8, Adn,2, Art,7, Aup,3
db Art,5, Aup,9, Art,13, Adn,9, Art,5, Adn,11, Art,8, Aup,10
db Art,8, Aup,8, Alt,8, Adn,8, Art,8, Adn,10, Art,8, Adn,1
db Art,2, Aup,2, DoRep,5,SubProg
dw SpinAround$
db Alt,2, Adn,1, Art,1
db Done
; Subprogram to clear the screen and initialize drawing variables.
InitScreen$ db SetXY,0,0, SetAtt,7, SetXYInc,1,0, Cls, Done
; Subprograms to draw boxes.
Box4x4$ db Mrt,4, Mdn,4, Mlt,4, Mup,4, Mrt,2, Done
Box4x6$ db Mrt,4, Mdn,6, Mlt,4, Mup,6, Mrt,2, Done
; Subprogram to spin the arrow around a square.
SpinAround$ db Alt,2, Adn,2, Art,2, Aup,2, Done
; Data for outputting text characters to the screen.
Text_Out_Data label byte
Cursor_X_Coordinate db 0
Cursor_Y_Coordinate db 0
Cursor_X_Increment db 1
Cursor_Y_increment db 0
Character_Attribute db 7
Last_Maze_Direction db 0ffh ;0-up, 1-rt, 2-dn, 3-lt
; 0ffh-starting
AnimateLastCoordinates dw 0 ;low byte is X, high byte is Y
; Jump table used by Interp to call the subroutines associated
; with the various function numbers equated above. The functions
; called through this jump table constitute the mini-language
; used in this program.
Function_Table label word ;list of function addresses
dw Done% ; which correspond one for
dw SubProg% ; one with the commands defined
dw SetXY% ; with EQU above
dw SetXYInc%
dw Set% ;Set%, MOut%, and Animate% all use
dw Set% ; the function number to determine
dw Set% ; which byte to set or which
dw Set% ; direction is called for
dw Set%
dw TextUp%
dw RepChar%
dw Cls%
dw SetMStart%
dw MOut%
dw MOut%
dw MOut%
dw MOut%
dw SetAStart%
dw Animate%
dw Animate%
dw Animate%
dw Animate%
dw DoRep%
; Program start point.
Start proc far
push cs ;code and data segments are the
pop ds ; same for this program
mov si,offset DemoScreen$ ;point to mini-program
call Interp ;execute it
mov ah,1 ;wait for a key before clearing the
int 21h ; the screen and ending
mov ah,15 ;get the current screen mode
int 10h ; so it can be set to force
sub ah,ah ; the screen to clear and the
int 10h ; cursor to reset
mov ah,4ch
int 21h ;end the program
Start endp
; Mini-interpreter main loop and dispatcher. Gets the next
; command and calls the associated function.
Interp proc near
lodsb ;get the next command
mov bl,al
xor bh,bh ;convert to a word in BX
shl bx,1 ;*2 for word lookup
call [bx+Function_Table] ;call the corresponding
; function
jmp short GetNextCommand ;do the next command
; The remainder of the listing consists of functions that
; implement the commands supported by the mini-interpreter.
; Ends execution of mini-program and returns to code that
; called Interp.
pop ax ;don't return to Interp
ret ;done interpreting mini-program or subprogram
; so return to code that called Interp
; Executes a subprogram.
lodsw ;get the address of the subprogram
push si ;save pointer to where to
; resume the present program
mov si,ax ;address of subprogram
call Interp ;call interpreter recursively
; to execute the subprogram
pop si ;restore pointer and resume
ret ; the program
; Sets the screen coordinates at which text will be drawn.
mov word ptr [Cursor_X_Coordinate],ax
; Sets the amount by which the cursor will move after each
; character is output to the screen.
mov word ptr [Cursor_X_Increment],ax
; Sets individual X coordinate, Y coordinate, X movement after
; character is output to the screen, Y movement, or character
; attribute depending on function number.
shr bx,1 ;calculate the command number
lodsb ; get the new value
mov [bx+Text_Out_Data-SetX],al ;store in location
; corresponding to
; the command number
; Displays a string of text on the screen.
lodsb ;get next text character
or al,al ;see if end of string
je Return ;if so, next command
call OutputCharacter ;else output character
jmp short GetNextCharacter ;next character
; Displays a single character on the screen multiple times.
lodsw ;get the character in AL
; and the count in AH
push ax ;save the character and count
call OutputCharacter ;output it once
pop ax ;restore count and character
dec ah ;decrement count
jne RepCharLoop ;jump if count not now 0
; Clears the screen and turns off the cursor.
mov ax,600h ;BIOS clear screen parameters
mov bh,[Character_Attribute]
xor cx,cx
mov dx,184fh
int 10h ;clear the screen
mov ah,01 ;turn off cursor
mov cx,2000h ; by setting bit 5 of the
int 10h ; cursor start parameter
; Sets the start coordinates for maze-drawing.
lodsw ;get both X and Y coordinates and store
mov word ptr [Cursor_X_coordinate],ax
mov [Last_Maze_Direction],0ffh ;indicate no
ret ; last direction

; Maze-drawing tables.
XYincTable db 0,-1, 1,0, 0,1, -1,0
;X & Y increment pairs for the 4 directions
CharacterGivenDirectionTable db 179,196,179,196
;vertical or horizontal line character to use
; for a given direction
FirstCharGivenNewAndOldDirectionTable label byte
db 179,218,179,191, 217,196,191,196 ;table of corner
db 179,192,179,217, 192,196,218,196 ; characters
; Outputs a maze line to the screen.
sub bx,Mup+Mup ;find new direction word index
mov ax,word ptr [bx+XYincTable] ;set for new
mov word ptr [Cursor_X_Increment],ax ; direction
shr bx,1 ;change to byte index from word index
mov al,[bx+CharacterGivenDirectionTable] ;get char for
; this direction
mov ah,al ;move horizontal or vert
mov dl,[Last_Maze_Direction] ; character into AH
mov [Last_Maze_Direction],bl ;if last dir is 0ffh then
or dl,dl ; just use horiz or vert char
js OutputFirstCharacter ;look up corner character
shl dl,1 ; in table using last
shl dl,1 ; direction*4 + new direction
add bl,dl ; as index
mov al,[bx+FirstCharGivenNewAndOldDirectionTable]
push ax ;AL has corner, AH side char
call OutputCharacter ;put out corner character
pop ax ;restore side char to AH
lodsb ;get count of chars for this
dec al ; side, minus 1 for corner
xchg al,ah ; already output
jmp short RepCharLoop ;put out side char n times
; Table of arrow characters pointing in four directions.
AnimateCharacterTable db 24,26,25,27
; Animates an arrow moving in one of four directions.
sub bx,(Aup+Aup) ;get word dir index
mov ax,word ptr [XYIncTable+bx] ;set move direction
mov word ptr [Cursor_X_Increment],ax
lodsb ;get move count
shr bx,1 ;make into byte
mov ah,[bx+AnimateCharacterTable] ; index and get
xchg al,ah ; char to animate
NextPosition: ; into AL, AH count
mov dx,[AnimateLastCoordinates] ;coords of last arrow
;move cursor to where last
; character was output
mov word ptr [Cursor_X_Coordinate],dx
push ax ;save char and count
mov al,20h ;output a space there
call OutputCharacter ; to erase it
pop ax ;restore char in AL, count in AH
push ax ;save char and count
mov dx,word ptr [Cursor_X_Coordinate] ;store new coords
mov [AnimateLastCoordinates],dx ; as last
call OutputCharacter ;output in new
mov cx,DELAY_COUNT ; location then
WaitSome: ; wait so doesn't
loop WaitSome ; move too fast
pop ax ;restore count and
; character
dec ah ;count down
jne NextPosition ; if not done
ret ; do again
; Sets the animation start coordinates.
lodsw ;get both X & Y
mov [AnimateLastCoordinates],ax ; coordinates and
ret ; store
; Repeats the command that follows the count parameter count times.
lodsb ;get count parameter
push si ;save pointer to command
; to repeat
push ax ;save count
lodsb ;get command to repeat
mov bl,al ;convert command byte to
xor bh,bh ; word index in BX
shl bx,1 ;
call [bx+Function_Table] ;execute command once
pop ax ;get back the count
dec al ;see if it's time to stop
je DoneWithRep ;jump if done all repetitions
pop si ;get back the pointer to the
; command to repeat, and
jmp NextRep ; do it again
pop ax ;clear pointer to command to
; repeat from stack, leave
; SI pointing to the next
; command
Interp endp
; Outputs a text character at the present cursor coordinates,
; then advances the cursor coordinates according to the
; X and Y increments.
OutputCharacter proc near
push ax ;save the character to output
mov ah,2 ;set the cursor position
mov dx,word ptr [Cursor_X_Coordinate]
xor bx,bx ;page 0
int 10h ;use BIOS to set cursor position
pop ax ;restore character to be output
mov ah,9 ;write character BIOS function
mov bl,[Character_Attribute] ;set attribute
mov cx,1 ;write just one character
int 10h ;use BIOS to output character
;advance X & Y coordinates
mov ax,word ptr [Cursor_X_Coordinate] ;both x & y Incs
add al,[Cursor_X_Increment] ; can be negative
add ah,[Cursor_Y_Increment] ; so must add bytes
; separately
mov word ptr [Cursor_X_Coordinate],ax ;store new X & Y
; coordinates
OutputCharacter endp
_TEXT ends
end Start ;start execution at Start

  3 Responses to “Category : Files from Magazines
Archive   : DDJ0989.ZIP
Filename : ABRASH.LST

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