Category : Lotus and other Spreadsheets
Archive   : BPD22.ZIP
Filename : USERS.GDE

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: Copyright (c) 1993, David A. Works :
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Registration has great benefits:

1. User's Guide
2. Latest version of Biz Plan Developer
3. Bonus diskette

Biz Plan Developer

Version 2.2

David A. Works
Grand Universal
P.O. Box 4118
Whitefish, MT 59937

____|__ | (R)
--| | |-------------------
| ____|__ | Association of
| | |_| Shareware
|__| o | Professionals
-----| | |---------------------
|___|___| MEMBER


Drop a US $20 bill in an envelope and this is what you will

* Latest Version Of Biz Plan Developer

* Technical support (minimum 3 months) via regular mail,
e-mail (via the online services listed below), or

* PRINTED User's Guide

A complete PRINTED User's Guide will be included
with all registrations. The User's Guide will have
all files printed out and will include printouts of
all sections of all the spreadsheet files.

Special Offers:

Registered Users of BIZ PLAN DEVELOPER are
entitled to receive a discount on a subscription to
Shareware Magazine. The regular yearly subscription
rate of $14.95 is reduced to just $9.97. A
toll-free number and special Order Number will be
provided upon registration. CompuServe: full
details about a special offer for CompuServe will
also be provided. The offer provides for FREE sign
up, a $15.00 usage credit and a complimentary
subscription to CompuServe Magazine.

Additional Features:

In addition to all the features listed above, we
will also include the following:

* Personal Net Worth Statement.

For many loans, a Personal Net Worth
statement is part of the mandatory
application package. This spreadsheet
creates one for you!

* Promissory Note

Borrowing money from family or friends? Keep
it on a business level with a promissory
note which details all ther terms and
conditions of the loan.

* Non-Disclosure Agreement

This Non-Disclosure Agreement protects your
rights and ideas. Mandatory when sharing
your business plan with investors.

* Non-Compete Agreement

You have spent many years sharing your ideas
with your employees or partners, now one of
them runs off to your competitor! Not if
they have signed one of these!

Bonus Diskette:

Also included with the registered version
diskette will be another diskette with exceptional
business and productivity shareware/freeware programs.

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Developer, Propose It! and "F & L". Individually these
programs would cost you $60, but you can have all three
programs for only $40 plus shipping and handling.

Propose It!
Create winning proposals by using these proven
templates. Close that sale, win that bid or
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Registration - $20.

F & L
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Includes business correspondence, legal forms
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Please include any comments about BIZ PLAN DEVELOPER
with your order. Hope the P.O. Box doesn't offend you,
but going to the Post Office is one of the highlights of
our small town's social scene.

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INVOICE.DOC contains an invoice which can be given to
your purchasing department to ease ordering.

Grand Universal CompuServe 70400,153
David A. Works Delphi DAVIDWORKS
P.O. Box 4118 GEnie D.WORKS3
Whitefish, MT 59937 America OnLine DAVIDW2959
(406) 862-1280

Table of Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Using Biz Plan Developer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

BPM Historical Financial Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

BPM Proforma Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Break Even Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

Biz Plan Developer(tm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Title Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
The Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
[Your Company] History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Our Competitive Advantages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Pricing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Specific Markets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Targeting New Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Location. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Manufacturing Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Research & Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

Historical Financial Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

Proforma Financial Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Proforma Cash Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Income Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Balance Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Ratio Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Financial Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

Breakeven Point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

Use of Money . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide


Back in my younger days, I ran a small importing
company. One of the sayings we used to pass around was
"We may not be making any money, but we sure have fun!"
Unfortunately that was very true. As a young kid out of
college, it was a great thrill to drive all over the
country, seeing new sights and having the impression
that I was making a lot of money. But I wasn't, and it
took me many years to discover why I didn't make money.

As foolish as it might sound, I recently attempted
to re-enter the same market but in a different way.
This time I put down my plans in writing. I found it to
be a lifesaver! I originally had hoped to raise outside
capital but that was not a realistic proposition. I
eventually gave up on the idea before investing much
money in it. The point I am making is this - I wouldn't
have known when to quit if I hadn't had my ideas, plans
and assumptions in writing.

Even though I tried to raise money, I soon learned
that the value of the plan far exceeded all the hype I
originally was advised to include (through various books
and consultants) to impress outside investors. I ended
up writing the plan just for ME and found that others
liked it better that way.

Now I am involved with several businesses and spend
a fair amount of time helping other businessmen. I owe
a lot of my current success to my original business plan
and the discipline it brought into my business life.

Every business needs a business plan and every
business needs to keep their business plan current. It
will be your road map to reach your goals and your guide
to achieving what you want.

David A. Works

Biz Plan Developer Page 1 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide

To use "Biz Plan Developer(tm)" you will need:

* An IBM PC or compatible
* A word processing program
* A spreadsheet program.


* WordPerfect 5.1 (for *.WP pre-formatted file)
* Lotus 1-2-3 (for *.WK1 pre-formatted files)
* Laser printer (fonts are nice too!)
* Spelling checker, Grammar checker
* Thesaurus


A good business plan is clear and concise and lays
out your goals and plans. Good writing takes time and
preparation. To save time, I have designed BIZ PLAN
DEVELOPER to be used verbatim.

I recommend that you use your business plan as a
guide for your business. Refer to it often to check
your progress. Update it periodically. I recommend
annually or semi-annually. Keep your old copies for
future reference.

Here are some ideas to get the most out of BIZ

* Get a copy of the "User's Guide". You can print
this file out or purchase one from me directly.
You may find it useful to print out the other
files as well as they are lengthy (also included
in purchased User's Guide package.

* Work only on copies of the documents.

* Keep your ideas simple and concise.

* Allow several hours for the preparation of your
business plan.

* Although the file BPD22 generates a business
plan which is some 30 pages long, your's may be
shorter or longer. Some sections may not apply
to your business.

* Fill out the financial worksheets before spending
time on the text.
Biz Plan Developer Page 2 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide


*.WP = WordPerfect 5.1 file
*.DOC = ASCII text file
*.WK1 = Lotus 1-2-3 v2.2 file

Biz Plan Developer

A file containing a sample business plan with sample text which
you can use or modify. Formatted in the most popular style

BPD Proforma Financials

This file contains a large Lotus worksheet which will give you a
cash flow forecast, balance sheet, income statement, ratio
analysis, and financial comparisons.

BPD Breakeven Analysis

A worksheet to help you determine your breakeven point.

BPD Historical Statements

A worksheet to allow comparisons between your past financial
statements and your proforma statements.


This User's Guide.

Biz Plan Developer Page 3 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide


As mentioned previously, my recommendation is to
start with the financial worksheets and then move into
the text. This is very sadistic, I know, but if your
business is not going to work out at a level acceptable
to you or your investors, you need to know that before
spending time on the text.

So let me explain how to fill out the worksheets
with your own projections and to understand the output
they give you.

BPD Historical Financial Worksheet


If you are already in business, then you probably
have financial statements. You will need to include
those in the "Attachment" area. You will find it useful
to plug in that information into this file. This will
allow you to compare your past financial history with
the statements which will be generated by the other
worksheets. This way you will be making a valid


This worksheet was originally created in Lotus 2.01.
It is one large worksheet. I had considered making a
series of smaller "linked" worksheets, but decided that
many users may not understand the usage of linked
worksheets and therefore might lose data. Also, because
it is one large worksheet, by using separate windows and
separating the screen, you can instantly see the effect
one area has on another. Also, I have placed protection
on everything except the numbers. This is not to
frustrate you, but to save you from making any changes
which you have not thought totally through. To undo the
protection use

"Worksheet Global Protection Disable"

Please keep in mind that any numbers already in the
worksheet are examples and are probably nonsense.

Biz Plan Developer Page 4 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide

Each section is recorded as a range name. This will
make it easier for you to maneuver through the

To move to an area
(Go To) followed by the Range Name.

The first items to be entered are the variables into the
"Income Statement".

(Go To) - "Statement Variables".


1. The percentage rates of returns you have experienced
2. Your state tax rate
3. Your federal tax rate.

Now you may proceed to enter in the remainder of the
"Income Statement" information. This format should
match most income statements. You may have to exercise
some discretion as to where you should put specific

Move to the "Asset Worksheet"

(Go To) "Asset Worksheet".

Fill in:

1. The numbers in column K
2. The amount of goodwill in L17.

If you have other fixed assets, include them in one
of the topics as best you can. DO NOT ALTER L13!

If you have other intangible assets, include them in
"Goodwill" and put them in L17. DO NOT CHANGE THE

Move to the "Balance Sheet"

(Go To) "Balance Sheet".

Next fill in the balance sheet. You will notice
that your Fixed and Intangible Assets will be
transferred over to this sheet. You will need to
manually enter your depreciation rates in R17-T17.

Once you have completed these, the other sheets will
be automatically computed.

Biz Plan Developer Page 5 User's Guide

To print out any section of this worksheet, just use
the "/PPR #Range Name#" command (Lotus) and you can have it
printed out. I strongly suggest printing out each area
separately to make your work easier. I also make a printed
manual (including these spreadsheets) available. See "Order
Form" below.


Income Statement: A13:F72
Statement Variables: A75:C80
Asset Worksheet: H1:M19
Balance Sheet: P1:V53
Ratio Analysis: P56:V79
D&B X1:AG61

BPD Proforma Worksheet

You may have a great business idea, but if it
doesn't make financial sense, you mustn't go any
further. The purpose of this large worksheet is to test
the financial validity of your idea. This section is
undoubtedly the most complex, but it is the most vital.
Without some hope of financial success, there is no
reason to start or continue a business. Even if you
find that your idea is not viable or does not meet your
own personal expectations, this exercise will be well
worth the time and effort to determine that fact.


This worksheet was originally created in Lotus 2.01. It
is one large worksheet. I had considered making a
series of smaller "linked" worksheets, but decided that
many users may not understand the usage of linked
worksheets and therefore might lose data. Also, because
it is one large worksheet, by using separate windows and
separating the screen, you can instantly see the effect
one area has on another. Also, I have placed protection
on everything except the numbers. This is not to
frustrate you, but to save you from making any changes
which you have not thought totally through. To undo the
protection use:

"Worksheet Global Protection Disable"

Biz Plan Developer Page 6 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide

Cash Flow Projections A11:AQ71

This is a very large worksheet to help you track
your cash flow. You may want to print out just this
section to get a handle on what is involved. The best
way to do that is to print it either in a smaller font
using something like the add-in "Allways" or compressed
and sideways.



The best way to learn the relationships in the
worksheet is to look at cells where it is obvious a
calculation is being made. In general, the cash flow
chart feeds into the Income Statement, which feeds into
the Balance Sheet which feeds into the ratios and

The place to start is to the "Variables" area.

(Go To) "Variables".

Here is what you need to fill in:

Cash Reserve: You don't want to end any month with $0 or less in
the bank. What will your cash reserve be? The
worksheet will automatically determine how much of
a bank loan you will need based on this figure.

Mark Up: This is important for figuring inventory. If
you have a service business, enter 100%. This
will give you no inventory. (Default)

Mark-Up is figured as a percentage of SALES, i.e.
you sell something for $100 and your cost is $50,
your Mark Up 50%. In mathematical terms (Sales
Price/Gross Profit = Mark Up). Many think of
Mark Up as the percentage difference between our
cost and our sales price, i.e. I paid $50, sold
it for $100, my mark up is 100%. This is mark up
on COST, not on sales. This distinction is
important in your dealings with financial
consultants, bankers or venture capitalists.
Biz Plan Developer Page 7 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide

Freight %: What percentage of inventory cost will your
inbound freight be? If you have a service
business, there will be none as this amount is
figured as a percentage of inventory and you will
have no inventory (due to the above entry).

If you have a manufacturing company, inbound
freight on raw materials will not be included, so
the percentage is 0.

Commission: How much commission (%) will you pay on sales?
You might have this in a service business as
finder's fees.

Beg Cash: How much are you starting out with?

Having completed this section, let's go to the "Sales"
section (A20). If you have more than two products, you may
insert them BEFORE the 2nd Product. This will keep the Total
Sales calculation ok. I suggest that you wait before entering
actual sales forecasts numbers.

If you do insert a row (/WIR - Worksheet Insert Row - Lotus;
keep in mind that several of the worksheets next to this Cash
Flow Worksheet will have some holes in it. This will not
effect the calculations, just the appearance. You can correct
the appearance by 1. saving the worksheet and 2. Use the
"Move" command on the section to be moved.

"Cash Receipts" (A26)

I have used percentages which are typical if you
grant terms of 2/10,n/30 (2% cash discount within ten
days, otherwise net 30 days). If your terms are
different you may adjust accordingly by changing the
percentages next to the month.

If you are on a cash basis, put all cash receipts in
the "Month of Shipment" row. Do NOT delete any rows.
If you do, the rest of the worksheets will not work!

Remember that the cells are protected so you will
need to unprotect them to change data.

Now you can fill in the remainder of your costs. Try to
make things fit in the closest category. If you have any
questions as to where anything belongs (and I haven't explained
it well enough!) contact me and I will help. If your financials
are complex enough, we may need to do a customized spreadsheet.
(This is not a blatant advertisement; I like tinkering with
spreadsheets and financial info.)
Biz Plan Developer Page 8 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide

Don't delete any category or the worksheets will fail! If
you feel secure that these costs are going to be stable you can
copy them across the width of the worksheet.

Rent Rent or mortgage payments.

Utilities Electric, gas, garbage, water, etc.

Telephone Office, cellular, long distance charges (not equipment,
that is an asset).

Salaries Management personnel (not hourly). Total of all.

Payroll Hourly employees

Withholding In the US, we have to deduct a certain percentage for
federal and state taxes, as well as Social Security.
Other countries may have different rules. You will
need to check with an accountant or a government
publication to determine rates as they vary
according to many factors.

Inventory, Materials
This will be automatically calculated on your
sales using the Mark Up percentage you entered
into the "Variables".

Freight-In Will also be automatically calculated based on
"Freight Percent" in the "Variables".

Office Expense Use this category for office equipment leasing,
cleaning and other miscellaneous expenses.

Vehicle Expense Vehicle or machinery leasing, oil, gas, etc.

Office Supplies Paper, pencils, envelopes, coffee, etc.

Postage Ordinary mail or overnight, but not in
association with shipping finished merchandise.

Advertising Newspaper, radio, flyers, brochures, etc.

Professionals Accountants, lawyers, etc.

Commissions Figured automatically from the "Variables".

Insurance Liability, fire, auto, truck, etc.

Travel/Entertn I put this here as it is a cost, but the US
Government keeps changing the rules, so be
careful about what you try to deduct out of this
category. Be smart and only put legitimate
expenses in.

Biz Plan Developer Page 9 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide

Research Every company devotes a different amount for
research and development. Please enter an
amount which is appropriate for your company, if

Miscellaneous A good spot for odds and ends.

State Taxes You may have to pay quarterly taxes. It will
depend on your income.

Federal Taxes Same reasoning as "State Taxes".

Now, you can enter in sales goals. I left this
purposely for last. Controlling costs is far more
important than getting tons of sales. If your costs are
not in line, you will be tempted to "fudge" on the
sales. Having determined your costs up front will help
you to be more honest.

I have devised this worksheet to be all you need.
If you have more products or other costs which need to
be included, take your time changing the worksheet.
Make sure you are very familiar with its operation and
always fiddle around on copies, not on originals. It is
a lot of work to rebuild this type of material.

I know. While putting the finishing touches on this
worksheet my hard drive fizzled. I recovered all of
"Biz Plan Developer (tm)" except this one worksheet.
Lost a lot of time.

Asset Worksheet AS1:BC19

This is a very simple worksheet which asks you to
enter your proposed assets. They are totaled
automatically and are used in the balance sheets.

Income Statement AT84:BA145

This is automatically generated from the cash flow
worksheet. This is often called a "Profit & Loss
Statement". Hopefully, you will see a profit! I have
included information on year-to-year changes for your
own information.

Biz Plan Developer Page 10 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide

It is very important that you enter the correct
numbers in the "Statement Variables" area.

Go To - Statement Variables".


1. The percentage rates of returns you project
2. Your state tax rate
3. Your federal tax rate.


In the following sections, you might see an entry "NA". This
means that the denominator in the equation equaled zero. Since we
can't divide by zero, an error is created. This should not be taken
as a negative. In fact it cane be very positive. Many of the
ratios are figured on debt. If you have no debt, you have a
zero denominator. Frankly, I think that is wonderful. I just
wanted you to know the math behind this. Look at each ratio to
determine if there might be cause for concern or celebration.

Balance Sheet AT150:BA194

Automatically generated. This shows the relationship of
your assets, liabilities, and your net worth.

Ratio Analysis AT199:BA220

Now we analyze the Income Statement and the Balance Sheet.
Now you can start to see if your idea is healthy or not.

Current Ratio Current Assets/Current Liabilities
Acid Ratio Cash + AR/Current Liabilities
Debt Ratio Total Assets/Total Liabilities
TIE Times Earned Interest
EBIT (Earnings Before Interest & Taxes)/
Interest Expense (no usage here)
Inventory Turn Ending Inventory X 360/Cost of
Goods Sold
Avg. Collection AR X 360/Sales
Total Asset Turn Sales/Total Assets
Gross Margin Gross Profit/Sales
Net Margin Net Income/Sales
Return on Assets Net Income/Total Assets
Return on Equity Net Income/Net Worth
Officers Comp Officer's Compensation/Sales

Biz Plan Developer Page 11 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide

Dun & Bradstreet Industry Norms BE3:BM60

None of the ratios mean anything until you can
compare them to others in your industry. The "Industry
Norms" are complied on the basis of SIC Code numbers.
Not all numbers are available, so if your isn't use the
closest you can find. You do not want to be in the
lower range of numbers nor do you want to be beyond the
highs. No one will believe you if you are higher. If
you are low, it will be very hard to get anyone to fund
you as most projections are believed to be optimistic.
(Available from most public libraries).

These ratios are similar to the above ratios.
Detailed (excruciating) explanations are in the D&B


Another set of industry statistics comes from the
Robert Morris Associates. The same advice holds for
these as for the D&B reports. (Available from most
public libraries).

Break Even Worksheet

This is a simple worksheet to help you determine
your breakeven point. All you have to do is enter the
numbers in the noted areas.

The two items you may not know are price and
quantity. Price is defined as the price at which you
will be selling your product. The quantity is the
number sold. Everything else you should already know.

So, if you want to know your breakeven price and you
know everything else enter it in. Then hit " p".
This solves for price.

If you want to know your breakeven quantity, enter
everything else and then hit "-q". This solves for

Please remember that Profit always equals $0.

Once again, you can modify the worksheet if it
doesn't totally meet your needs.

Biz Plan Developer Page 12 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer

This file contains boilerplate text and is already formatted
for a well-written professional business plan. We will now
explain how to complete the following sections:

Title Page

First replace [My Company] with your company's name. Fill
in the correct address and phone number as well. Finally
replace [Your Name] with your name and replace [DATE] with
today's date.

Table of Contents

Many word processing programs can generate a table of
contents automatically and can paginate automatically. If yours
doesn't you may want to consider paginating manually.

Executive Summary

This is the page where pagination and your footer starts.
Open up the footer and replace [My Company] with your company
name. Be sure to start pagination at Page 1.

The remainder of this section should be written after the
other sections are complete. It is a complete summary of your
company and its objectives.

Go through and replace the following:

1. [My Company] to your company name. It is ok to do a
global search-and-replace if your program supports
that. If you are allowed to confirm each replacement,
it is a good idea to do so.

2. [I/we] to whichever is appropriate. May also be
globally replaced.

3. Most other changes are unique to this page and are
obvious. Whenever you come across and
, this means that the items following pertain
either to a product oriented business or a service
oriented business. Of course, if you see something
you want to use, by all means do so.

Biz Plan Developer Page 13 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide

4. Always look out for "XXX" this means to replace this
with a number.

5. Also be on the lookout for my attempts at comedy (i.e.
Ferrari Testarossa). A business plan doesn't have to
be dry and boring. But it should be original so use
your own jokes!

Be sure to include:

* Type of business you have or are starting.

* If you are currently in business, how are you doing?

* What form you business is in - proprietorship,
partnership, corporations (Subchapter S, etc.)

* How are you going to be profitable and how profitable?

* What distinguishes your business from the competition?

* What are the financial rewards?

Financial Goals Table:

The data for this table is available from the BPD Proforma
Financials (Stock Analysis) spreadsheet. The exact location is
CA1 through CE25. You must enter this manually from the BPD
Proforma Financials.

The Management

[Include either your resume (if proprietor) or short biographies
(if partnership or corporation). Be sure to include all
experience and information pertinent to this type of business.
Then you will need to include a section on duties and
responsibilities. This might incorporate a simple organization
chart. Include salaries.

Biz Plan Developer Page 14 User's Guide

Biz Plan Developer - User's Guide

[My Company] History

If you have been in business, give a complete but brief
history of your accomplishments to date. Short, succinct
paragraphs are all that is truly necessary. Include all
highlights whether positive or negative. The negative portions
should include the lessons you learned and the steps taken to
prevent a recurrence. This is very valuable. Everyone has made
mistakes. Did you learn from them? Make sure your history ties
into where you are going from now. Don't leave time gaps.

[Product, Service] Description

The readers of your business plan will want to know exactly
what your product or service offering is. The length of this
section is in direct proportion to the complexity of your
service or product. Look one again for comments and suggested
text in brackets which will need to be replaced. The complexity
of your description will also be dictated by the audience your
business plan is addressing. Investors may not understand all
your technical lingo, whereas a partner with a technical
background will want to see it all.


Long Term

State very simply what your firm's long term objectives are.
Long term should be considered 5-10 years. Pithy statements
such as "market leader", "most profitable", etc. are obvious.
What you need are clear direct statements of intent.

Short Term

Short-term goals are those to be met within 5 years. Again
steer clear of pithy overused marketing mumbo jumbo and just
state your intent backed up with a plan. Short-term goals
should mesh invisibly into and support long term goals.


List all your competitors along with their respective
strengths and weaknesses. Discuss how you will compete against
these strengths and weaknesses, if you intend to do so directly.

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Our Competitive Advantages

Unless you can distinguish yourself from the competition,
you may have a rough go of it. It is very important that you
have an honest appraisal of your company strengths and
weaknesses as well as the strengths and weaknesses of your
competitors. Some may prefer to switch this section with the
section on "Competitors". However, if you have multiple
products with different competitors, use a separate section for
each product and examine the competition there.

Make sure that you speak to all of your competitors'
strengths and weaknesses whether you intend to meet them or not,
as well as how these strengths and weakness will impact your

This section has also been divided between and


Because you have been so thorough in your explanation of
your particular advantages, you need to summarize your
competitive advantages so that your reader will get the gist of
what your are saying.

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You will need to discuss at what price you will be offering
your products or services. Respond to the following questions:

* How did you calculate this price?

* How does this price compare to your competition?
Remember that price competition for a startup company
is usually deadly for the startup company. It is
better to offer more services or tangible benefits with
a higher price.

* What pricing policy are you following (cost plus,
market, seat-of-pants, etc.)?

Specific Markets

If you are entering several markets at once (not a good idea
unless they are very compatible or the single line of products
or services you are offering cross market lines) it is mandatory
that you discuss your strategy for each market.

Market #1

General History

Give a specialized history of this market and how it
pertains to your product. Keep in mind that you know your market
better than anyone. Therefore outsiders may not understand it as
you do. Try to imagine writing this for someone who knows
nothing about your industry or product. This will help you keep
your ideas simple and clear.

Entry Strategy

Discuss how you will enter (or have entered) this particular
market in detail.

Growth Strategy

Having now entered this market, how will you maintain and
increase your sales and service?

Market Size & Share

State directly what you expect to achieve in this market.

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Other Markets

Use the same format for additional markets.

Targeting New Markets

In order to keep growing, you will need to either expand
into your present market or address other markets. How are you
going to do this?


For many businesses, the location where you run your
business is extremely important. This is true for
manufacturing, distribution or wholesale businesses as well as
many service industries and product-based industries where being
close to clients and customers is very important.

Manufacturing Plan

This section does not apply to service businesses. Because
of the difference in manufacturing processes, I have just
included some sample text. You will need to address the
following questions:

* What are your sources of supply? Do you have secondary

* Which production method will you be using? Is it state
of the art?

* How do you [will you] protect your cost advantage?

* Will you be a job shop or mass production?

* Are there any toxic or hazardous materials involved
with your production [include by-products] and how will
you handle them?

* What will be your quality control procedures?

* What do you estimate to be your capital asset

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Research & Development

Probably also only for product based businesses, unless
continuing education will play an important role in your
service- based business. The following points need to be

* List and explain your present research achievements.

* Who will control research efforts?

* Describe projects underway are planned for near future.

* What has been your success in terms of rate of

* Are any government funding sources available to you?

* Are you involved or seeking to be involved in any R&D

Historical Financial Data

Simply include these statements in the "Attachment" area.
Also discuss all assumptions, successes, problems, discrepancies
and other items not obvious to the Casual observer. Also
include the worksheet "BPD Historical Financials". These
include valuable guides to industry standards for use in
comparing your business with others in your field. For
information on filling in this spreadsheet, see the section "BPD
Historical Financial Worksheet" above.

Also explain any occurrences of "NA" and their significance.

Proforma Financial Data

Give a complete explanation of all your financial
statements. Clear up anything that might not be obvious to the
casual observer. Check documentation for complete explanation
of spreadsheets.

Also explain any occurences of "NA" and their significance.

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Proforma Cash Flow Analysis


Just because the worksheets make sense to you, they
probably won't make sense to anyone else. Also, you may
forget what your own assumptions were. BE SURE TO KEEP

Sales Forecast

Putting your growth rates here will help you remember
what you forecast as well as presenting these numbers in a
simplified fashion.

Cash Flow Variables

You need to be forthcoming about any variables which may
effect your cash flow. No business ever goes exactly according
to plan. The idea is to show that you can keep on top of it when
things go worse than expected and also when things go better than
expected. Both can be dangerous!

Income Statement


Just because the worksheets make sense to you, they probably
won't make sense to anyone else. Also, you may forget what
your own assumptions were. BE SURE TO KEEP THIS UP-TO-DATE!

Risks & Variables

Share your assumptions and what might happen if your
assumptions are wrong - positive or negative.

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Balance Sheet

Cost Control

How do you plan to track your financial progress?

Ratio Analysis

Ratio Analysis allows you to track your performance in
accord with some financial conventions. These ratios will
be closely looked at by bankers and others interested in
investing in your business. More importantly, you should
know where you stand.

Financial Standards

The two most popular sources of industry financial rations
are Dun & Bradstreet's Industry Norms and the Robert Morris
Associates tables. Both of these references should be available
in your public library in the business reference section. These
two items are copyrighted by their respective companies.

Breakeven Point

Taken from BPDBREAK.WK1 or .WKS spreadsheet.

Use of Money

This section is for those who are seeking to raise capital
or debt financing. You need to let your prospective investors
know where the money is going. Even close friends and family
need to be kept informed about where the money is going.
Consider the following questions:

* Where is the money going?

* Who is the supplier?

* What is the price?

* Model name and number.

* Are there any extra charges such as sales tax,
installation charges and freight?

* How will this make this business more profitable?

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  3 Responses to “Category : Lotus and other Spreadsheets
Archive   : BPD22.ZIP
Filename : USERS.GDE

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: