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IBM's hardware and software strategy, discusses future of OS/2, Pink, etc.
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This paper is approved for distribution to customers.

This article originally appeared in the April edition of the IBM Personal
Systems Technical Solutions magazine.

This article discusses IBM's product line and planned future
directions for personal computing software. It is important to
understand the direction IBM is planning so you can make decisions
about the right platform to invest in today.

IBM's vision for personal computing in the 1990s is to increase
user productivity by providing easy-to-use solutions that take
advantage of personal computer capabilities. Fundamental to IBM's
vision is making client/server environments, whatever their size or
scope, easy to integrate into a business, and easy to use and
manage. By providing a wide range of options, establishing strong
partnerships, and supporting industry standards, we provide
solutions that help users minimize the risks involved in technology

IBM's goal for the 1990s is to bring information and people
together. Our approach is simple. We begin with powerful Graphical
User Interfaces (GUIs) that "feel" the same regardless of the
system being used. Then we add powerful extensions that make access
to networked information and resources as simple as if they reside
on the desktop. Finally, IBM provides a road to the future -- an
evolutionary path that helps protect current investments while
positioning users to exploit revolutionary new technologies -- in
both hardware and software.

The IBM Personal Software Products Division

As organizations reshape themselves to become more competitive,
they need flexible systems that provide easy access to information
and services, regardless of the underlying computing hardware or
operating systems, or the location of the information.

Because of the dynamics of today's marketplace, IBM has created a
separate division, Personal Software Products (PSP), to focus on
delivering flexible, scalable software platforms that can solve
diverse business problems. IBM PSP is building products with a
commitment to quality and reliability -- a key component to
supporting complex business environments.

IBM PSP is investing significantly in the following areas:

o Enhancing DOS, OS/2, and AIX systems with new technology, such
as objects, multimedia, and pen support. IBM PSP also supports a
broad range of industry-standard hardware and software, while
maintaining application compatibility and coexistence with today's

o Connecting and supplementing these systems with common
components, such as LANs, Extended Services, and LAN administration
tools. These components provide scalable and consistent functions
and interfaces for client/server environments.

o Delivering distributed information systems built on open
industry standards to support client/server environments. These
environments can enable transparent access to data regardless of
its location.

o Enabling the evolution of distributed information systems by
advancing object-oriented technology. Object-oriented technology
will make distributed systems more flexible and easier to use,
while boosting productivity for software developers.

For users, the focus of IBM PSP will be the following:

o Easy access to information and resources -- anytime, anywhere

o Systems that leverage current investments in software, hardware,
applications, data, and training -- bridging today's islands of

o Solutions that adapt easily to new technologies, positioning
users to embrace these enhancements as they need them

Customer Requirements

Today's marketplace is breeding a new class of business -- one that
is leaner, flatter, and more competitive. Increasing competition,
growing economic pressures, and an accelerating rate of change are
part of these dynamics. As companies grapple with the issues of
growth and success -- even survival -- several common issues

Cross-department information sharing: While an engineering depart-
ment may need to run complex modeling programs, it also needs to
share information with other departments, such as product planning,
finance, personnel, and the market support organization.

Real-time monitoring of business results: Many executives want
real-time sales results to help forecast demand, project cash flow,
and plan advertising and public relations activities.

Easy access to information regardless of location: Many
organizations have mobile sales forces that need online access to
product information and the ability to develop sales proposals
without being in their offices.

Successful organizations recognize that the ability to respond,
even to the slightest change in customer preference or buying
patterns, can set them apart. Leading-edge organizations are
committed to the effective use of technology -- maximizing their
current systems while investing in new capabilities that support
the information systems.

Historically, these requirements meant different architectures and
different hardware and software. Solutions maximized for a single
environment have bred islands of information that are difficult to
bridge; multiple environments are difficult to manage as a single
network resource.

Any discussion of the future of operating systems software must
take three factors into account: software and hardware innovation
will continue, making change a way of life; continued, successful
innovation must protect existing investments; and operating systems
must integrate a broad range of platforms, from $300 palmtops to $3
million workstations.

No one product or solution meets everyone's needs. Selecting
solutions that will grow with the company, protect its investments,
and enable the work force to share information should not mean
giving up the power associated with specialized products or
customized applications. They also should not limit the
organization's flexibility. These sophisticated requirements,
diverse computing environments, and the need to share information
make the choice of an operating system platform critical. It
determines the choices available for applications and networking.

Products to Meet These Requirements

IBM's offerings begin with a powerful suite of desktop operating
systems and operating system extensions, such as multimedia and pen
support. Exciting enhancements also are planned.


IBM DOS is the entry-level operating system designed for desktop
systems, as well as new smaller systems such as portable computers
and handheld devices. Today, DOS runs on Intel microprocessor-based
hardware from IBM or virtually any other PC vendor. IBM continues
to optimize DOS for environments that have lower memory and disk
space capabilities. This will enable users to upgrade their current
systems, and supports the emerging handheld devices and portable

For many customers, DOS is essential to protect their investment in
installed hardware. DOS is important for portables, handheld
devices, pen-enabled hardware, desktop systems, and even home
computing environments. Therefore, we will continue to add
capabilities that simplify use, while supporting the following -
advanced capabilities:

Pen support: IBM recently announced pen support for DOS with PenDOS
2.0. PenDOS 2.0 is an advanced operating system extension available
to pen hardware manufacturers worldwide. It supports more than 100
existing mouse-aware DOS applications without modification, and
provides support for the development of new pen applications.
PenDOS 2.0 opens new possibilities for applications that require a
natural interface, such as signature verification, graphics design,
and annotation of documents.

One new feature of PenDOS is a set of gestures common across IBM
pen systems. Instead of developing new pen applications from the
ground up, developers can easily adapt existing DOS programs for
pen-based hardware.

Improved utilities: IBM intends to include utilities in DOS for
disk compression and defragmentation, virus detection, and
full-screen backup.


IBM OS/2 is an operating system for Intel microprocessor-based PCs
that exploits the power of today's advanced 32-bit PC hardware.
Over 400 personal computer types are currently supported. For
users, exploiting 32-bit technology means increased performance and
reliability. Developers get an advanced development environment
that supports 32-bit graphics, object-oriented technology via the
System Object Model (SOM), and multimedia extensions -- capabil-
ities that will soon become integral to the desktop. Both users and
developers can take advantage of the intuitive GUI, the Workplace

The Workplace Shell is the next-generation user interface available
today with OS/2 2.0. It was developed as a user interface that
works the way people work. It shields users from the complexity of
the operating system; they work with familiar objects. For example,
users can simply drop a picture of a file onto a picture of a
printer to print. It also is flexible, so users can tailor the
appearance of their desktops.

OS/2 is the only PC operating system that runs DOS, Microsoft
Windows, and OS/2 applications concurrently and seamlessly. Users
just bring up the application; OS/2 handles which environment is
needed. Unlike DOS and Windows, OS/2 is designed to keep
ill-behaved applications from crashing the entire operating system.
OS/2 delivers superior performance and application concurrency
while remaining responsive to applications that require a high
degree of user interaction. This is possible because of key
technologies such as preemptive multitasking, priority scheduling,
overlapped I/O, and demand-paged virtual memory. Features such as
crash protection and preemptive multitasking are especially
important for users -- particularly users who spend much time
connected to a network, downloading files from bulletin boards, or
interacting with a mainframe or mini-computer at headquarters.

OS/2 2.0 has benefited from a tremendous amount of user feedback,
and user involvement continues. Based on this feedback, IBM plans
to add several key enhancements to OS/2 Release 2.1 for delivery
during early 1993.

o Performance enhancements have been added to both the Workplace
Shell and the base system by reducing resource requirements and
providing improved paging algorithms.

o A 32-bit graphics engine has dramatically improved the handling
of graphic images and state-of-the-art palette management. Users
can now create complex graphics that were impossible in a 16-bit
environment. Palette management offers more flexibility with colors
and fonts than ever before, enabling users to customize individual
desktops or to create more realistic looking images.
The 32-bit graphics engine supports 32-bit video display drivers:
XGA, Super VGA, and VGA. The Super VGA device drivers are based on
the five most popular chip sets -- Tseng, ATI, Western Digital,
Headland, and Trident -- which provides significant coverage of the
graphics adapters and displays currently installed.

o Win-OS/2 has been enhanced to support Microsoft Windows 3.1
applications, including support for the printer device drivers
provided with Windows 3.1, TrueType fonts, multimedia extensions,
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE), and most of the applets in
Windows 3.1. Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE), OLE, and Clipboard
functions are faster. The configuration capability has been
improved beyond Win-OS/2 Version 3.0. Win-OS/2 Version 3.1
performance has improved up to 35% over Win-OS/2 Version 3.0.

o Advanced Power Management (APM) and PCMCIA Level 1 support has
been added. These functions are critical to portable computer
users. The APM support will conserve power, improving battery life.
The PCMCIA support recognizes the credit card-sized memory and
peripheral adapters.

o Support for additional printers and CD-ROMs will be included in
this release. Printers will include the new Lexmark Series 42xx, HP
DeskJet, and HP LaserJet IV printers. CD-ROM support will be
provided for market leaders such as Sony, Hitachi, NEC, and

OS/2 Release 2.1 will be shipped on CD-ROM as well as diskettes.
IBM plans to continue to reduce the resource requirements of OS/2,
enabling computers with limited disk and memory resources to run
more efficiently. Both IBM and PC-compatible hardware vendors will
be making additional device drivers available for graphics
adapters, Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) devices,
printers, and various multimedia devices.


OS/2 will be enhanced to support pen and speech recognition
technologies. With the new pen support (PenPM), users can replace
the keyboard or mouse with a pen in DOS, Windows, and OS/2
applications that are not pen-enabled. For developers, an
additional set of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) has
been created. They will be shipped in a toolkit so applications
that recognize the pen can be developed. We also will provide a set
of gestures that will be common across all applications; for
example, a delete mark will be mapped to current methods for
deletion. Handwriting recognition and training for using
handwriting should be available later in 1993.

Voice recognition technology also is making exciting advances. No
longer will users be forced to "train" the software to the sound of
their voices. High recognition rates -- approaching 100% -- will
make it more practical to use this advanced capability in
general-purpose applications.


OS/2's MultiMedia Presentation Manager/2 (MMPM/2) provides
capabilities beyond anything imagined in the design of original PC
operating systems. A multimedia operating system must provide
superior and dedicated throughput while simultaneously remaining
responsive to users. This can be done only by an operating system
that coordinates its resources in this complex environment where
graphics, sound, and full-motion video are being integrated in real
time. OS/2's underlying technologies are critical to supporting
this environment. MMPM/2 Release 1.0 with additional enhancements
is planned for inclusion in OS/2 Release 2.1.

MMPM/2 provides a common programming interface to control both
multimedia devices and the data streams that flow from these
devices. Media Control Interface (MCI) APIs include Windows 3.1 and
the Multimedia Extension to Windows 3.0. However, by exploiting the
multitasking capabilities of OS/2, IBM has introduced stream
management and stream handling to the MMPM/2 extensions to OS/2. As
a result, OS/2 application programs can control multimedia devices
(through Play, Record, and similar commands), and can control and
synchronize the data streams as well. This is important, for
example, in ensuring lip synchronization with software motion
video, as well as for higher function in editing and playback.

MMPM/2 and OS/2 is the only software environment where a multimedia
audio and video stream can be played while a spreadsheet is
calculating or a word processing document is loading in the
MMPM/2 includes support for multimedia logical devices (such as
audio adapters, CD-ROM drives, and videodisc players) and other
hardware devices, such as logical media devices that are managed by
the Media Device Manager (MDM). The actual implementation is not
relevant to an application because MMPM/2 provides device
independence with the command message and command string
interfaces. Following are some logical devices currently supported
by MMPM/2:

o Amplifier-Mixer
o Waveform Audio
o Sequencer
o CD Audio
o Videodisc

MMPM Toolkit/2 is available to assist product developers. A simple
installation from CD-ROM, using the multimedia installation
program, is all that is required. Once installed, the toolkit
sample programs illustrate the use of the comprehensive multimedia
device and data handling capabilities of MMPM/2.

MMPM/2 Release 1.0, with enhancements in audio device driver
support, is planned for inclusion in OS/2 Release 2.1.

Advances in CPU power, data storage, and compression technology
have provided key technologies for creating and playing digital
video data on personal computers. The high capacity disk drives and
CD-ROMs satisfy the large storage needs for digital video data.
Additionally, i386 and equivalent processors give sufficient
processing power to handle digital video data in real time. When
these advances are combined with image compression techniques, the
result is a powerful integration of video and the personal

Several compression algorithms are currently in use throughout the
industry. Some of these algorithms, such as RTV, MPEG, and P*64,
use additional video hardware to compress and decompress the
digitized video. Others like Road Pizza, Compact, Video 1, and
Indeo are less numerically intensive and can be handled by software
running on the main CPU and still maintain sufficient frame rates
to effect motion. These are referred to as "software-only"
algorithms or "Software Motion Video (SMV)."

While the software-only techniques are attractive due to their low
cost, the video quality of these algorithms is typically lower than
the hardware-based algorithms. Consequently, producers of digital
video data constantly struggle with the issues of trading off
between lower quality/cost of SMV versus the higher quality/cost of
hardware-assisted video. The result has been an outcry from the
industry for a single compression technique capable of providing a
spectrum of levels of quality from a single copy of the digital
video data. To satisfy these requirements, IBM PSP has developed a
state-of-the-art compression technique called Ultimotion.

Ultimotion is a playback time-scalable video data stream.
Specifically, the frame rate, output resolution, and color depth
characteristics of the video can be set when the video is played,
but the resulting characteristics during playback are determined by
the capabilities of the playback platform. The playback platform
capabilities affecting the video quality are CPU, data bandwidth,
and video adapter. Based on the characteristics of these
components, the output quality of a single Ultimotion video stream
can be "scaled" to the playback platform.

MMPM/2 Release 1.1 is available today in beta form on a CD-ROM.

Ultimedia Tools Series

It does not matter if you are a newcomer, an intermediate user, or
a long-time professional with multimedia applications -- using
IBM's Ultimedia Tools Series (UTS) will help you create exciting,
innovative multimedia applications and presentations. UTS is a
series of products from IBM and multiple vendors that adhere to a
common architecture. These programs help bring your multimedia
applications to life.

Creating a Standard Multimedia Architecture

IBM has done more than just put all the UTS tools in one place and
make them simple to order. Together, the creators of UTS products
have developed a UTS architecture that will make it easier to use
your development tools for years to come.

IBM announced in November 1992 the Ultimedia Builder/2,
Workplace/2, and Perfect Image/2 products. These OS/2 tools are
follow-on products to the Audio Visual Connection (AVC). Ultimedia
Builder/2 is an authoring tool; Ultimedia Workplace/2 is a
SOM-based data management tool; and Ultimedia Perfect Image/2 is an
image enhancement tool. These products will be available in
mid-1993. Future IBM offerings are planned that will use advanced
information management query technology to enable database searches
based on image content characteristics, such as color, texture, and
shape. A multimedia server can be connected using OS/2 2.0 and LAN
Server 3.0. This server is capable of supporting up to 40 separate
full-motion video streams to workstations on 16 Mbits-per-second
Token-Ring local area networks.

Also planned is synchronized delivery of sound and motion by a RISC
System/6000 file server. This offering will run under AIX/6000 and
has client capabilities for OS/2 and AIX. This means multimedia
applications can be created for OS/2 and use data streams from the

The UTS architecture means all UTS tools share common file formats
and a similar user interface, so it is easy to share files or work
with multiple packages. Depending on the choice of programs, you
can manipulate multimedia objects across programs, use a clipboard
to copy and paste items from one application to another, and use
DDE techniques across Windows applications.

In the future, there will be greater interoperability among
existing packages, including drag-and-drop capabilities, and
regular upgrades to today's UTS product line. So when choosing a
development tool from the Ultimedia Tools Series, you can be
certain that it will continue to be among the best in the industry.

UTS packages are available for DOS, Windows, and OS/2. UTS product
literature is available, as well as a comprehensive CD-ROM disc
that includes a tutorial, product information and demonstration, a
glossary of multimedia terms, and product selection and ordering


AIX is IBM's version of the UNIX operating system for IBM main-
frames (AIX/ESA), RISC-based workstations (AIX/6000), and
Intel-based PCs (AIX PS/2). AIX PS/2, developed by the PSP
division, is a robust operating system with superb multi-user,
multitasking, security, and connectivity features. In mid-1992, IBM
released AIX PS/2 Version 1.3, which offers enhanced application
performance, improved memory management, and enriched graphics
support in a UNIX-based operating environment for Intel-based

Demonstrating IBM's strong commitment to open systems, AIX PS/2
supports interoperability with other AIX, UNIX, IBM, and non-IBM
systems. AIX PS/2 Release 1.3 provides the following features:

o Full POSIX IEEE 1003.1 1988 standard compliance, as specified in
Section of the IEEE standard

o Enhanced windowing and a GUI through X-Windows Version 11R5 and
Motif 1.1.3

o Multiple concurrent DOS 5.0 sessions

o EZ Utilities for enhanced systems management tools to support
IBM Business Partners and customers with large installations

o Mini-cartridge tape for ease of installation

o Full hardware support and exploitation for models of IBM PS/2
systems based on 32-bit IBM and Intel technology using both Micro
Channel and IBM AT-bus architectures

AIX is an excellent choice for users who want an open systems
solution and the ability to run an impressive array of
engineering/scientific and commercial applications.

Scalable Networking Solutions

The 1990s will likely be known as the decade of client/server
computing. The demand for network access and information sharing
across organizations of all sizes is growing at a phenomenal rate.
Therefore, IBM PSP has developed a comprehensive and scalable LAN
product line that enables users to realize the advantages of
client/server computing today. In addition to the LAN Server,
IBM offers NetWare from IBM, a wide range of LAN administration
tools including electronic mail and workgroup computing solutions,
and powerful productivity tools, such as communications and database
managers. These solutions enable users to focus on running their
businesses instead of running their systems.

OS/2 LAN Server 3.0

OS/2 LAN Server 3.0 is the fastest IBM PC-compatible network server
on the market today, as verified by LANQuest Labs in October 1992.
It supports DOS, DOS/Windows, Macintosh, and OS/2, as well as
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

Both entry and advanced levels are available to address the needs
of small companies and departments as well as large international
enterprises. The entry level provides an economical solution for
both 16-bit and 32-bit systems. The advanced level adds features
such as the High-Performance File System (HPFS) and additional
error recovery, giving it industrial-strength availability. OS/2
LAN Server is supported on a range of personal computer types as
well as PS/2s. LAN Server 3.0 makes life easier for users, LAN
administrators, and systems managers, as follows.

Users: To provide improved productivity and usability, the OS/2 LAN
Server running OS/2 provides a single view of all available network
resources and automatically allocates these resources. Combined
with the Workplace Shell, these once complicated technologies
become easy and intuitive.

LAN administrators: Managing large LANs from a central location is
essential in the ever increasing complexity of business computing.
LAN Server 3.0 provides an architecture that enables
location-independent resource management, making system-wide
changes easier to implement and control.

Systems managers: Identifying bottlenecks and fixing them,
resolving errors quickly, predicting capacity requirements,
distributing application and system code, and providing fixes are
important tasks for the long-term success of LAN solutions. These
facilities, either LAN-based or integrated with IBM's host-based
NetView, provide a powerful set of facilities for LAN management.

Just as we are enhancing OS/2 for portable computer users, we also
will be enhancing LAN Server 3.0 to support portable computer
users. We plan to add remote client support to all LAN services.
Then portable clients will be able to dial into their LAN Server
and have full access to data and facilities on the LAN. Remote
users are supported as if they are locally attached to a LAN. They
can communicate with other clients on the LAN Server and use other
specialized servers, such as communications gateways or Lotus Notes

To provide application transparency, IBM is developing and
supporting programming interfaces (including the industry-standard
Sockets and X/Open's transport interface) as well as protocol
bindings that facilitate communication across multiple protocol
types from a single network interface card. By implementing these
interfaces, users and their existing applications operate
consistently across multiple network environments. For example,
programs written to the Sockets interface will operate
transparently across TCP/IP, NetBIOS, IPX, and Systems Network
Architecture (SNA) networks.

As simple file and print sharing on LANs gives way to distributed
computing and specialized servers, our LAN products will continue
to treat the entire LAN as one system. Central to distributed LAN
systems are common services that support application
interoperability and workgroup application development. IBM and
others, such as Hewlett-Packard and Digital Equipment Corporation,
have selected the Open Software Foundation's (OSF's) Distributed
Computing Environment (DCE) as the fundamental technology to
provide these services. DCE's facilities incorporate key functions
such as Remote Procedure Call (RPC), network time management,
security, and distributed directory services. When implemented, a
single application can be distributed across multiple systems
composed of both IBM and non-IBM hardware.

Since these new applications will be used in systems where
information is passed to users in real time, IBM offers transaction
management services -- Encina from Transarc Corporation and
Customer Information Control System (CICS). These services will
allow distributed application transactions across a network of
heterogeneous systems, providing data integrity if a system or
network fails at any point during a transaction.
We plan to extend the benefits of object technology to the LAN
environment, bringing the productivity benefits of objects to
distributed applications. Video servers will bring the technology
of multimedia to the LAN.

We plan to introduce these enhancements as a family of LAN systems
products. Applications will run across the family, and users can
add and upgrade family members with no disruption to their clients
or applications.

NetWare from IBM

Today, IBM PSP markets two network offerings: OS/2 LAN Server
running with OS/2 and NetWare from IBM. Although there are many
similarities between the two products, each is best suited for
different situations. For example, many users want resource sharing
in a distributed application environment. Since both clients and
OS/2 LAN Servers run on OS/2, they share a common set of APIs,
making development of distributed applications significantly
easier. If a user needs simple resource sharing and does not plan
to implement distributed applications, either product is an
excellent solution. Sometimes specific application requirements
will dictate the selection.

Both products play a significant role in IBM's distributed LAN
systems strategy, but they remain separate product lines with
unique system services, APIs, and communications transports. Users
should choose their network operating system after carefully
considering their future requirements. Whatever product is chosen,
users of NetWare from IBM and OS/2 LAN Server benefit from IBM
service and support.

OS/2 Interoperability with UNIX

IBM's strategy is to make OS/2 and UNIX interoperate as widely as
possible. TCP/IP for OS/2 provides interoperability with UNIX-based
systems (including AIX) that support open standards such as TCP/IP,
Network File System (NFS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), TELNET,
and X-Windows.

Lotus Notes and cc:Mail

Major elements of any networked personal computer environment must
include electronic mail and workgroup computing capabilities --
turning LAN systems from print and file serving into true
client/server systems. As the result of a strong partnership with
Lotus, an integral part of IBM's LAN System and OfficeVision
product offerings are Lotus cc:Mail and Lotus Notes.

Lotus cc:Mail provides high-end electronic mail capabilities. The
cc:Mail clients include DOS, Windows, Macintosh, OS/2 Workplace
Shell, and UNIX, plus gateways to PROFS, OS/400, DEC, NetWare's
MHS, and many more.

With the vast number of gateways available for cc:Mail, LAN-based
users have one of the most powerful user interfaces available,
while supporting the exchange of notes and files between users on
the LAN and those on other host E-mail systems. This makes cc:Mail
the most comprehensive electronic mail and messaging system in the

Lotus is a pioneer in the development of the Vendor Independent
Messaging (VIM) standard. This standard, endorsed and supported by
Apple, Borland, IBM, Novell, and WordPerfect, enables mail to be
integrated with other software vendors' applications as well as
customer-written systems. For example, this capability, supported
by cc:Mail, allows reports to be generated automatically and status
notes to be sent to interested parties directly from applications.

For users needing the power of a groupware solution, Lotus Notes is
the industry-leading workgroup tool. With Lotus Notes -- a true
client/server application -- everyone in a workgroup, whether
across the hall or across the continent, has access to all the
information needed to make informed decisions, whether it is text,
graphics, or scanned images. Lotus Notes also contains a powerful
application development platform that can be used to create custom
systems that specifically serve individual business needs.

LAN Administration Tools

Making a network as easy to use as your desktop requires a new
generation of LAN administration tools. Installation, maintenance,
performance monitoring, and problem solving are just a few issues
that grow exponentially as the size of the LAN grows. IBM PSP
treats the LAN as a single system to ensure the reliability, man-
ageability, capability, and security of traditional host systems.

Configuration, Installation, and Distribution (CID) and the LAN
NetView product family are tools and processes that simplify
configuration, installation, and distribution tasks and management
of LAN systems. CID goes beyond current software distribution
techniques; cloning multiple sets of shared software is a solution
only when every workstation and end-user requirement is identical.
CID allows each workstation to be unique. Distribution can be
managed from a decentralized LAN, a centralized host, or in
combination in a large network. The benefit is dramatically reduced
end-user involvement with software installation, version control,
and support.

OS/2 and LAN Server are CID-enabled. More than 160 companies,
including WordPerfect, Lotus, and Novell, have indicated that they
plan to CID-enable many of their products.

LAN NetView Family

The LAN NetView family makes using and managing a network easier
and more transparent for LAN administrators -- from monitoring
the performance of the system to automating problem determination.
A description of each component follows.

LAN NetView View: Provides a graphical interface for managing the
LAN based on the X/Open Management Protocol (XMP) architecture. The
View program is planned for availability later in 1993.

LAN NetView Start: Enables administrators to configure and validate
different types of connections, as well as to automate and simplify
tracking and configure workstation software. For example, this
simplifies the process of adding a new department or reconfiguring
a LAN to improve performance, because it supports customized,
unattended installation for OS/2, LAN Server, Extended Services,
and other CID-enabled applications. The Start program is available

LAN NetView Monitor: Evaluates the entire system's performance,
enabling administrators to identify problems and to analyze
performance trends across a LAN. For example, it enables
administrators to anticipate the need for a new server and alerts
them when critical resources are not operating efficiently. This
provides important capacity planning data and performance tuning
information. This product evolved from the current System
Performance Monitor/2 product. LAN NetView Monitor is planned for
availability later in 1993.

LAN NetView Fix: Enables automated problem determination. It
receives both hardware and software fault notifications across the
LAN, and can help determine the probable cause of a problem and
recommend actions. LAN administrators can isolate and resolve
problems faster, thereby increasing network availability. The Fix
program is planned for availability later in 1993.

LAN NetView Tie: Allows NetView administrators to manage
workstations from a host -- an important option for users who want
to administer their LANs from a central location. The Tie program
is planned for availability later in 1993.

LAN NetView Manage: Provides systems management services, such as
inventory queues, configuration management, and industry-standard
protocols for OS/2, DOS, Windows, and NetWare. LAN NetView Manage
is planned for availability later in 1993.

LAN Network Manager: Manages LAN media and will become a LAN
NetView application. This tool can identify media-related problems,
such as a sliced cable, and application problems by looking at the
data stream being sent across the LAN. LAN Network Manager is
available today.

Extended Services

Extended Services for OS/2 is separate from OS/2 and provides
communications and relational database functions. Extended Services
includes many connectivity support and connection protocols, all of
which can be active simultaneously. Whether information resides on
a 3090, an AS/400, a DEC system, or a remote NetWare server,
Extended Services provides the needed connectivity.

As relational database applications are moved from a host to LANs
or desktops, investments in application development, education, and
expertise must be protected. The powerful client/server Database
Manager -- part of IBM's family of relational databases that
includes DB2 and SQL/DS -- capitalizes on experience with host
relational databases. Extended Services works with both the 16-bit
OS/2 1.3 and OS/2 2.0 -- an advantage in mixed 286 and 386

Extended Services is a key component of OS/2's family for communi-
cations protocols (such as Advanced Program-to-Program
Communication or APPC, 3270, 5250, Async/ASCII, and Advanced
Peer-to-Peer Networking or APPN) and relational database access
(SQL and DRDA). These are key building blocks for future
cooperative processing applications, whether they are developed by
third-party applications vendors or by MIS departments.

Communications Manager/2

For users who want to get more from their desktop PCs, IBM has
announced an enhanced product designed to bring the application and
communication resources of large networks to the end user's
fingertips. Communications Manager/2 enables the desktop to access
large networks, allowing them to share in the richest set of
networking services in the industry today.

This can increase productivity of end-user professionals who must
access corporate applications, whether in finance, banking,
insurance, or any industry where users in large and small networks
need to share information.

Communications Manager/2, now packaged separately from OS/2 -
Extended Services, offers new functions, enhanced ease-of-use, and
improved cost-effectiveness. Some new capabilities for
Communications Manager/2 and Communications Manager Client Server/2
include the following:

o The client/server option allows customers to concentrate all
Communications Manager functions in a server. For end users to
share distributed applications across many parts of the network,
individual packaging is ideal. For end users with less intense
usage, such as those primarily emulating host applications, the
client/server packaging will save both money and memory.

o Support for the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) basic
rate interface enables customers to save money by using digital,
switched telephone lines over short or long distances. It also
provides higher bandwidth options for high-productivity and
distributed applications supporting such features as image and
high-resolution graphics.

o Multiple servers can be used with multiple clients, providing
automatic load balancing as information is given and received. This
helps to maximize the efficiency of the network and ensure a fast
end-user response time.

o Installation and configuration of Communications Manager/2 can
be done quickly and easily. Communications Manager/2 also supports
CID capability for remote installation, with no end-user -

o Keyboard customization and color remapping is easily done for
both 3270 and 5250 emulation environments.

o For network administrators, Communications Manager/2 offers much
new power. This includes better alert routing to NetView, IBM's
flagship network management product, and better alert support for
APPN distributed environments. First Failure Support Technology
(FFST) helps LAN administrators isolate and identify networking
problems more effectively.

o Commmunications Manager/2 provides broader access to
applications and other resources in many more hosts. Now a single
desktop user can access up to three hosts concurrently and utilize
as many as 26 different host sessions, 16 of which can be active at
any one time.

Database2 OS/2

Database2 OS/2 (DB2/2) is a powerful 32-bit OS/2 2.0-based
relational database management system for users in a client/server
LAN environment who want to take full advantage of IBM's
industry-leading database technology.

DB2/2 runs on a stand-alone PC or functions as a database server on
a LAN for PCs running OS/2, DOS, and DOS/Windows.

DB2/2 is the 32-bit follow-on product to the database management
components of the 16-bit version of OS/2 Extended Services 1.0
Database Manager and OS/2 Extended Edition 1.3. It will support
applications written for those environments.

DB2/2 exploits OS/2's 32-bit operating system and its flat memory
model for improved database performance. It also provides enhanced
DB2 compatibility, remote systems administration, and several other
features designed to improve reliability and systems management. In
addition, DB2/2 is an open database platform supporting industry

Distributed Database Connection Services/2

IBM has developed the Distributed Database Connection Services/2
(DDCS/2) to provide access to data anywhere. As a complementary
product to Extended Services, it offers host database connectivity
for OS/2 clients. Working with Database Manager, DDCS/2 allows DOS,
Windows, and OS/2 clients to access host databases conforming to
the DRDA. This includes not only IBM's DB2, SQL/DS, and OS/400, but
several third-party database products, such as ORACLE and INFORMIX.

Requirements for Future Directions

Today's users are making trade-offs when determining the
appropriate operating system and platform to develop and run the
software that solves their business problems. DOS and OS/2 are
Intel-based, while UNIX is often RISC-based. Advanced Intel-based
32-bit applications are available on OS/2. Even if they could run
on the same platform, user interfaces are so dissimilar that
end-user education and productivity, as well as end-user support,
can be adversely impacted.

Today, users are compromising with an inferior application, or they
"swallow" the expense of multiple systems on the same desktop.
Could there be a way to run existing UNIX applications on Intel
processors, and existing DOS, DOS/Windows, and OS/2 applications on
RISC processors? Currently, a vast amount of processing power on
desktops is mostly unused. Could we start using those idle MIPS? Is
there a way to ensure that applications written today will still be
of value as technology changes? Additionally, can we build and
maintain a library of code (objects) that could be used and reused
by OS/2, UNIX, and application developers? Could it be possible to
make DOS, OS/2, and UNIX look and feel the same, using the most
advanced user interface in the industry?

Introducing the Workplace Family

To satisfy these requirements and more, IBM is introducing the
Workplace family. The Workplace family includes some current
offerings and a new platform, the Workplace Operating System (OS).
We are designing the Workplace family to do the following:

o Improve usability for users, LAN administrators, and application

o Help protect customer investment in hardware and software

o Address business requirements ranging from stand-alone users to
connected enterprises

o Increase productivity for users, LAN administrators, and
application developers

We plan to continue enhancing OS/2 and AIX, building on their
unique strengths and attributes while taking advantage of similar
architectural components. The architectural components that members
of the Workplace family will share are the Workplace Shell,
objects, and distributed computing. While using this technology
across product lines, we plan to make it available to other
software and hardware companies.

Workplace Shell

Improved usability is key to personal computing in the 1990s. Based
on user feedback, IBM will be using the Workplace Shell across its
product line. We are working toward developing a powerful,
easy-to-use interface for DOS that complements the new generation
of portables -- Workplace on DOS. This will improve the usability
of DOS by eliminating complex syntax and command strings. It will
provide a GUI consistent with OS/2, simplifying the use of DOS and
migration to OS/2. Workplace OS/2 will continue to be enhanced to
make it an even more powerful, yet easy-to-use user interface. The
Workplace Shell GUI is also being developed for the UNIX

Providing users with similar interfaces across operating system
platforms can achieve the benefits of reduced education costs,
lower support costs, and higher productivity. A common user
interface across DOS, OS/2, Workplace OS, and UNIX is the first
step in resolving the platform dilemma facing users today.

Workplace OS

The Workplace OS platform has been designed to complement and
extend the current OS/2, DOS, and AIX operating system family.
Workplace OS is a flexible, modular platform that allows
"pluggable" support for device drivers, application environments,
and operating system services (from advanced file systems and
communications systems to multimedia, pen, and speech systems).

With the Workplace OS platform, users will be able to take
advantage of multiple operating system environments called
personalities on a single desktop. A personality takes on the
characteristics and support of an operating system platform, such
as OS/2 or DOS. Personalities can include DOS, Windows, OS/2, and
UNIX. The UNIX personality is being designed to support different
UNIX application environments. Initially, the UNIX personality is
planned to be based on OSF/1 1.2 Application Environment
Specification (AES) and will support existing AIX PS/2 Version 1.3
applications. Other UNIX environments under consideration are AIX
for the RISC System/6000 and SVR4.x.

The Workplace OS platform will take advantage of the common
technology (Workplace Shell, objects, application frameworks, and
distributed computing) that will be utilized across the IBM PSP

The Workplace OS platform will use microkernel technology.
Microkernel technology supports multiple hardware platforms, such
as Intel and RISC. It also will exploit a variety of
multiprocessor-based computer technologies, such as symmetric
multiprocessing, parallel processing, and loosely coupled clusters.

Hardware Independence with the IBM Microkernel: Today's
applications are usually written for specific operating systems.
This has created a problem for both MIS and developers. They must
select the platforms and then write the application for each
system's native operating system. To resolve the problem of devel-
oping multiple versions of the same application, IBM is developing
the IBM microkernel with operating system personalities.

IBM's approach takes a single microkernel and makes it run on many
processor types -- whether Intel or RISC -- such as IBM's PowerPC
RISC processor under development by IBM, Apple, and Motorola.
However, instead of developing an IBM proprietary microkernel
technology, we chose to work from an industry-standard kernel. Our
microkernel architecture is based on Carnegie-Mellon University's
Mach 3 microkernel. Developing from an industry-standard kernel
allows IBM to offer this kernel to other hardware and software
companies in the industry, underscoring IBM's strong commitment to
open systems and industry standards.

IBM has extended the Mach microkernel to provide additional
capabilities and enhanced performance. Among the enhancements is
the ability to have user-level device drivers which run outside of
the microkernel, reducing its size and allowing dynamic
loading/unloading of device drivers. Also, the Interprocess
Communication (IPC) mechanisms have been enhanced and performance
greatly improved. Real-time support has been added and the thread
scheduling algorithms in the microkernel have been improved.

To maximize performance, the microkernel supports threads that can

execute simultaneously across multiple microprocessors, providing
scalable system performance.

Support for Multiple Processors: Microkernel symmetrical
multiprocessing support enables applications to run different
threads of execution simultaneously on different microprocessors
within the same system. Users can scale the performance of the
system as application and system workload demands increase. When
the symmetrical multiprocessing microkernel is used in combination
with our distributed computing environment, a system's workload can
be allocated efficiently across multiple systems in a single
network, delivering substantially better performance.

Support for Wide Range of Applications: To ensure existing and new
applications will continue to run, we are building personalities
that work with the microkernel. The microkernel contains the
microprocessor-specific code (containing only the code that
controls fundamental CPU access and processes), but the
personalities provide the application environment. Therefore, DOS,
Windows, OS/2, and UNIX applications run unmodified within their
specific personality on the microkernel. The result is an optimized
microkernel and personality that can accomplish more, and with
greater flexibility and reliability than a monolithic operating

Object-Oriented Technology

IBM PSP is developing object-oriented technologies with a distrib-
uted system and applications focus, pursuing a strategy to
significantly improve the next generation of computing. Our focus
is on creating an open environment for developing distributed

An End User's View

From the user's perspective, object-oriented technology will make
using personal computers more intuitive and easier to use. For
example, in OS/2's Workplace Shell, a user can simply "drag and
drop" the picture of a file onto a picture of a printer to get a
document printed. The user does not have to remember complex oper-
ating system instructions. Object-oriented technology will bring
several benefits to users:

o Increased ease of use and productivity that includes more
intuitive applications and consistent interaction among

o Greater application availability since applications can be
developed faster because of reusable code

o Higher quality application reliability due to reusable code

An Application Developer's View

Object-oriented programming has established itself as an important
methodology in developing high quality, reusable code. Operating
systems and tools vendors are beginning to offer class libraries
and frameworks. Visual programming tools are emerging to assist end
users with software application assembly.

Our strategy is to develop products that provide a basis of
developing object-oriented distributed applications and enable
domain experts and end users to create distributed line-of-business

The paths to achieve this strategy are the development of
system-level enabling technologies and frameworks, and creating
application development shells and protocols. At the system level,
efforts are focused on the SOM. At the applications development
level, a set of application frameworks and visual programming tools
are under development.

The System Object Model

In OS/2 2.0, IBM introduced a new system for developing class
libraries and object-oriented programs. This system is called
System Object Model. SOM is a technology for packaging
object-oriented class libraries. It provides a language-neutral
model for defining libraries of objects that operate across many
computer languages. Because a single version of an application will
operate on many computer systems, software developers should be
able to spend their time building new applications. They should no
longer waste time building multiple versions of each application
for every supported computing platform. Class libraries built with
SOM can be defined and implemented in one language and be usable in
another language. Today's SOM supports the C language. Additional
language support, including C++ and COBOL, will become available in
1993 and 1994.

Because this approach allows developers to build applications by
tailoring and linking pretested objects from different developers'
libraries, two fundamental changes can occur in software
development. First, software developers become more productive;
they can create sophisticated applications in a fraction of the
time of traditional programming methods. Second, the work invested
in creating an object has multiple dividends since the object is
reused in future applications.

IBM's SOM is a clean-sheet approach to unlocking the benefits of
the object-oriented systems model. It is not dependent on any
specific computer language, architecture, CPU, or operating system.
SOM is currently shipped as part of OS/2 (runtimes with the
operating system, and bindings and SOM compiler in the OS/2
Developer's Toolkit); it has been a funded development effort at
IBM since early 1989. Since then it has been reviewed by some of
the computer industry's leading developers of programming
languages, and by commercial and corporate software developers.
These reviewers anticipate SOM's role as a universal translator of
applications and objects developed in diverse programming

Through the SOM language's Object Interface Definitions and Object
Interface Compiler, applications written in other programming
languages can operate within SOM. SOM is designed to support many
common platforms including OS/2, AIX, Windows, DOS, MVS, CICS,
AS/400, other versions of UNIX, and future operating systems
derived from our relationships with third-party operating systems
providers. Support for OS/2 is available today.


SOM will be extended to support multiple inheritance and will use
the Object Management Group Common Object Request Broker
Architecture (OMG CORBA) interface definition language and runtime
APIs. Support for additional language bindings and/or native
support will appear in compiler products from IBM and other
vendors. SOM will be exploited as the foundation for other
frameworks and tools that will be developed, such as object storage
and distribution, and visual programming.

The Distributed System Object Model

Today, SOM provides non-distributed local object support.
Distributed SOM (DSOM) is planned to support transparent remote
access to objects in a distributed environment. DSOM functions as
an Object Request Broker (ORB), similar to RPC. It supports the
full object-oriented programming paradigm via distributed computing
facilities like Sockets and the Distributed Computing Environment
(DCE). DSOM will allow application portability through OMG's
CORBA-compliant ORB. DSOM will extend all the advantages of SOM to
a full range of distributed environments.

Support for homogeneous environments (OS/2 and AIX) will come first
providing intra-machine (multiple processes, single machine) and
inter-machine support. Intra-machine support is useful when objects
are implemented by programs (versus libraries) which cannot be
linked directly into an application or when objects must be in a
different address space than the application, for example, for
integrity. Support for heterogeneous environments will follow that
exploit available distributed computing services such as DCE.


Frameworks will simplify software development by offering built-in
functionality that can be easily extended. Frameworks are a
collection of objects with established relationships that serve as
a foundation for specific implementations. We will offer system-
and application-level frameworks to include persistence and
replication for saving and sharing objects, as well as system and
application frameworks to accelerate development productivity.
These will include a subset of Taligent's frameworks and services.

Visual Programming Tools

We are developing a visual application development environment, a
set of initial application objects, an object-oriented application
framework, and an extension language. These will include an
extensible palette of objects as components for building
applications. These applications will be built by dragging and
dropping objects into an application layout, selecting properties
for the objects through a dialog box, and then visually
establishing connections between objects. Through these actions,
actual code is generated and compiled.

The visual programming tools will include GUI objects that are a
superset of IBM's Common User Access (CUA '91) and
platform-specific controls. Over time, the application objects will
include text objects, 2-D and 3-D chart objects, forms objects,
table objects, and links to spreadsheets and databases.


Taligent is an independent joint-venture established by IBM and
Apple. A key objective in forming Taligent was to bring the
benefits of object-oriented technology to customers more quickly.
Taligent's native environment will coexist with IBM's current
products. Integrating Taligent-derived technology into IBM's Work-
place family will provide a stable path to Taligent's new
generation of systems.

Taligent will play an important role in optimizing the 32-bit
object environment by introducing revolutionary object
technologies. IBM PSP will integrate technology from Taligent
in future versions of IBM's products. Eventually, Taligent will
introduce an object-oriented environment, re-engineered from the
ground up, and will build compatibility around it for today's
32-bit OS/2 applications.

The Future of Distributed Computing

IBM plans to provide a distributed system infrastructure that can
be used to access resources from any desktop or application,
whether it is running on a client, a server, or a mainframe. This
includes client operating systems such as DOS, DOS/Windows,
Macintosh, AIX, OS/2, and Taligent. Our goal is to help protect
customers' existing investments in hardware, software,
applications, and data, while enabling the new capabilities offered
by network systems.

Today's information needs have stretched far beyond dedicated
personal computers acting within their islands of information.
Simple interconnectivity must be pushed forward so that not only
can any personal computer connect to any system, but applications
on each connected computer have a way to jointly process infor-
mation. We are advancing these connectivity services on the client,
server, and host systems to provide the next logical progression of
networked systems: distributed computing.

IBM is approaching this by using open industry definitions for
these application and operating system interfaces. For example, DCE
is being driven by the Open Software Foundation, an organization in
which IBM and other major computer vendors have been active for
many years. OSF's goal is to enable users to implement computing
environments where systems and applications work together, locally
and globally, regardless of what vendor hardware and software is

From the variety of architectures available to OSF members, we have
selected the industry standard DCE. We have committed to
incorporating DCE into OS/2, OS/400, AIX, MVS, and VM. Beyond
IBM-supported operating systems, DCE is the common selection among
other system suppliers. Through this industry-wide support of DCE,
businesses can finally achieve the goal of distributed computing
throughout an enterprise network. Our distributed SOM technology
will support DCE.

IBM has begun to deliver these advanced functions to users.
Distributed System Services (DSS), our core advanced network
architecture, is as adept at supporting client/server computing on
a LAN as it is at supporting distributed computing across an enter-
prise. DSS will allow applications and data to reside any place
that an individual or an organization chooses.

Some components of DSS will come from IBM, such as DRDA -- the way
relational databases "talk" to each other. Even here the solution
will not be IBM-unique, since Oracle, Informix, and several other
vendors already have adopted or committed support for this
database-to-database communication language. Other elements of DSS
will include components created through industry consortia, such as
the Vendor Independent Messaging standard developed by Lotus for

Consistent technologies for key functions, such as remote program
execution, network time, security, and global directory services,
should enable true, cross-platform interoperability. For example,
it will be possible to develop and run a single application across
multiple systems, while still providing the ability to manage and
support it with full problem-determination capabilities.

Getting Started Today

You can start with our offerings today, giving you the right
products and support to move easily and safely into the future.
DOS, OS/2, AIX, LAN Server, and NetWare from IBM are a base from
which your system can evolve.

We have discussed how our advanced technologies will be integrated
into our products -- increasing the power and usability of today's
products while developing our future product lines to be even more
flexible, consistent, easy to use, networked, and open. This
results in investment protection for users.

When considering ways to solve business problems, you face several
key challenges. First, users have solutions in place, and many feel
strongly about the solutions they have chosen. Therefore, we offer
products today that support their individual choices. Second, our
products offer the opportunity to improve the way you do business
today. Manage it better, react quicker, and move information closer
to the users.

Finally, we understand that it is critical to build solutions that
are open, supporting standards that are prevalent in the industry
from applications to networking protocols. The implementation,
interconnection, modification, support, and growth of your systems
can be simplified by choosing solutions built on open standards.
IBM PSP will continue its leading role in creating, driving, and
implementing industry standards.


I wish to thank Neeraj Srivastava, Mac McCarter, D'Ann Ostrom, and
Karl LaWall for their time and energy in helping to write this
article. They are presently involved with developing market
strategies for Personal Software Products.

This paper was written by DeeAnne Safford who is a program manager
in IBM's Personal Software Products Marketing Strategies group. She
holds an MBA from Nova University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. If you
have questions, or need more information, you can contact her at
(407) 982-9025.

Some of the information in this paper concerns future products, or
future releases of current commercially available products. IBM's
future products and their performance, functions and availability are
based upon IBM's current intent and are subject to change.

IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject
matter in this notice. This paper does not grant anyone a license to
those patents, patent applications or to any other IBM intellectual

References in this paper to IBM products or services do not imply that
IBM intends to make them available in all countries in which IBM

IBM and OS/2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines
Corporation. Workplace Shell is a trademark of International Business
Machines Corporation. Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

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