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SAFE SEX IN THE AGE OF AIDS
_________________________________
_____________________________________________________





___________________________________________________

Guidelines for reducing the risk of contracting
AIDS during sexual contact.
___________________________________________________

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- For Men & Women -
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--- Prepared by The Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality ---
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(c) 1986












Page 9

UNSAFE SEXUAL PRACTICES
-----------------------------

Vaginal intercourse without a condom
------------------------------------
If a man is infected, the virus present in his ejaculated semen may enter
the woman's blood-stream through the vagina. Indeed, even the clear pre-
ejaculatory fluid from the man's Cowper's glands may contain the virus.

It also seems possible, albeit less likely, that the viruses present in
the woman's vaginal secretions could infect the man by somehow entering his
bloodstream through the penis, especially if it has some skin abrasions. Any
vaginal intercourse without a condom poses the risk for AIDS infection.


Anal intercourse without a condom
---------------------------------
Anal intercourse without a condom poses an especially serious risk of
infection, because it often involves minor, hardly noticeable tears and other
internal injuries. Infected semen should never be ejaculated into the rectum.
In fact, it is a major source of infection by the AIDS virus.


Oral intercourse
----------------
Licking or sucking the sex organs may also lead to transmission of the
AIDS virus from one sexual partner to another, since there is an exchange of
bodily fluids involved.


Sucking the penis (fellatio)
----------------------------
Swallowing semen containing the virus must be considered unsafe, because
it could enter the bloodstream through even very slight abrasions in the
mouth.


Licking or sucking the female genitalia (cunnilingus)
-----------------------------------------------------
The AIDS virus may also be present in vaginal secretions and thus could
possibly lead to infection through cuts, wounds or abrasions in the mouth of a
man who ingests them. The danger is apparently not as great as that posed by
swallowing semen, but it is only prudent to consider this risky as well.


Fisting
-------
Inserting the fist and/or arm into the rectum ("fisting" or
"fistfucking") is very risky, even without AIDS. Moreover, if the AIDS virus
is present, the possible tears or other internal injuries create an extremely
dangerous environment that leaves the AIDS virus a number of avenues to
invade.

Even well-scrubbed hands often have slight cuts, bruises and abrasions,
and thus a transmission of the virus would be very easy. In principle, the
same holds true for vaginal fisting!








Page 10

Rimming
-------
Licking the anus ("anilingus" or "rimming") is also extremely unsafe,
because, if the AIDS virus is present in the residue, it could easily be
ingested. Moreover, rimming is also the way many other diseases and
intestinal disorders are transmitted. These, in turn, can considerably weaken
the body and make it more susceptible to an AIDS viral infection.


Drinking urine
--------------
Since the AIDS virus is present in urine, it follows that drinking urine
is very unsafe, as is any oral contact with any excretions or secretions.
This is also true of mere skin contact with urine. If the skin is broken or
injured, the virus can enter the bloodstream via the urine.


Sharing sex toys
----------------
As long as dildos, vibrators and similar sex toys are used by one and the
same person, they obviously pose no risk of infection. However, they become
unsafe when they are shared, because one of the users may carry the AIDS
virus, which then could be transmitted through the toy to another person. Sex
toys should therefore never be shared.


Blood contact
-------------
Men and women engaging in S/M (sadomasochistic practices) must take
special precautions to avoid any contact with the partner's blood, because it
may contain the AIDS virus. This means not only direct bodily contact with
the blood, but also indirect contact through bloody toys, whips, ropes etc.
Needless to say, the same goes for any other possibly infected bodily fluid.































Page 11

POSSIBLY SAFE SEXUAL PRACTICES
------------------------------------

Condoms
-------
Since a condom catches a man's ejaculated semen, it does prevent the
exchange of this particular bodily fluid from one person to another. We also
know that the AIDS virus is not smaller than any other virus -- such as Herpes
Simplex II -- and thereby cannot penetrate latex. Indeed, air and water
molecules, which are 1000 times smaller than the AIDS virus, cannot penetrate
a condom. We therefore have reason to believe that a condom offers protection
against infection by ejaculated semen. Still, at this time, this is not a
scientifically proven fact, only a very reasonable assumption. For this
reason, condom use is considered only "possibly safe", not absolutely safe,
particularly since condoms are often used incorrectly.

For the correct use of a condom, please remember these points:

o Always use new condoms.
o Keep a ready supply of condoms where they cannot be damaged by heat
or moisture.
o Never "test" a condom by blowing it up.
o Put a dab of lubricant on the tip of the condom. This will increase
sensation and prevent an air bubble from forming which could perhaps
cause the condom to break.
o Put the condom on the fully erect penis and roll it down all the way
to the bottom of the shaft.
o Generously lubricate the vaginal entrance or the anus before entry.
o Use only water-soluble lubricants. Oil-based lubricants such as
Vaseline or Crisco can damage the condom.
o Upon withdrawal, hold tightly onto the base of the condom. Make sure
it does not slip.
o After use, throw the condom away.


Spermicides and lubricants
--------------------------
Many spermicides and some lubricants contain a mild detergent called
"nonoxynol-9", which can easily kill the AIDS virus in a lab dish. Whether it
can do so inside a human body is not yet clear. On the other hand, we do know
that it kills not only sperm cells but all kinds of other organisms, such as
amoebae, the herpes virus, and the bacteria that causes gonorrhea and
syphilis. In short, nonoxynol-9 offers very good protection against sexually
transmitted diseases, and there is a reasonable hope that it will also work
against the AIDS virus.

Still, at the time, there is not enough scientific evidence to prove its
effectiveness against the AIDS virus when used inside the human body, and it
is also still unclear whether it can safely be used inside the rectum.

Nevertheless, its vaginal use has been quite common for some time and can
therefore be strongly recommended together with the use of a condom in order
to make vaginal intercourse at least "possibly safe".

It also pays to look around for a lubricant containing "nonoxynol-9",
which can reduce the risk of infection even further.








Page 12

French kissing
--------------
French kissing, also called deep kissing or tongue kissing, cannot be
considered completely safe. Even though, to date, there is no known case of
anyone having contracted the AIDS virus this way, the risk remains being that
there is an exchange of bodily fluids along with the proof that the AIDS virus
has been found in trace amounts in human saliva. It may be impossible to
prove that someone became infected through deep kissing, being that those who
kiss in this way usually also go on to even more intimate physical contact.

Though the AIDS virus has been found in low concentrations in human
saliva, an infection through kissing is not very likely. Still, if one of the
partners carries the virus and the other one suffers from bleeding gums or
even slight injuries inside the mouth, there could be danger. At present, it
appears wise to consider very long and intimate deep kisses to be somewhat
risky.


Oral intercourse with precautions
---------------------------------
While oral intercourse without any precautions is definitely unsafe, it
can be made safer with some effort.


Precautions when sucking the penis (fellatio)
---------------------------------------------
One way of reducing the risk of infection is to avoid swallowing the
semen, i.e., stop before ejaculation can occur (fellatio interrupta).
Actually, one should avoid swallowing even the clear pre-ejaculatory fluid
from the man's Cowper's gland.

Another and better way is to suck the penis only after it has been
thoroughly covered by a condom. The taste of the condom may take some getting
used to, and, of course, one must be careful not to damage it with one's
teeth. Perhaps some manufacturer will, in time, produce condoms with a
special selection of agreeable tastes.


Precautions when licking the female sex organs (cunnilingus)
------------------------------------------------------------
Using spermacides containing nonoxynol-9 in and around the vaginal
opening or licking it through the covering of a dentist's dam may be an option
for some men. (Dentist's dams are thin, small rubber sheets available at
dentist's supply stores.) Whether or how any of these precautions work for a
particular couple can obviously be decided only through some testing and
experimentation.


Vaginal intercourse with a condom and spermicide
------------------------------------------------
Vaginal intercourse should be rather safe, if the man uses a condom
correctly and the woman uses a spermicide containing nonoxynol-9. This double
precaution definitely reduces the risk of infection, and it is therefore
strongly recommended whenever the partners cannot be completely certain that
neither of them carries the virus.

Both condoms and spermicides are easily obtained in drug stores without a
prescription, and thus there is no excuse for not using them for protection.






Page 13

Anal intercourse with a condom
------------------------------
Generally speaking, using a condom in anal intercourse does not offer
quite the same protection as in vaginal intercourse. The anus is much tighter
than the vagina, thus the condom may slip or break more easily. Furthermore,
it is not clear yet whether spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 can be safely
used inside the rectum.

Nevertheless, a lubricant containing nonoxynol-9 should be used and can
further reduce the risk.

Of course, one should never use the same condom for both anal and vaginal
intercourse. Men who switch from one to the other must change condoms in
between.


Urine on unbroken skin
----------------------
As long as urine comes in external contact only with unbroken skin, there
should be no risk of infection. However, it is sometimes difficult to be
certain that the skin is intact everywhere. Slight cuts, bruises or pimples
are easily overlooked.

Men and women playing with urine ("golden showers"), even if only
externally, therefore need to be especially careful.







































Page 14

SAFE SEXUAL PRACTICES
---------------------------

Dry kissing
-----------
Social kissing or dry kissing even between lovers does not pose a risk of
infection, because there is no exchange of saliva (which could contain the
virus).

This is also true of kissing any other part of the body, except, of
course, the anus, the vaginal opening and the tip of the penis.

The neck the breast, the back, the buttocks, the thighs, the armpits,
etc. can be kissed without any fear of infection as long as the skin is
intact.


Hugging
-------
Hugging and holding someone close is one of the most important ways of
showing affection, and it is completely safe.

Lovers who hug each other and hold each other when falling asleep can
develop the intimacy they need in order to explore all their options.

Prolonged close contact like this can be very erotic as well!


Massage
-------
All kinds of massage are safe that do not directly involve the sex
organs. Slow, erotic "body rubs" can be very soothing or stimulating,
depending on the partners and the situation.

Massaging the head, neck, back, arms, legs and feet can create powerful
sexual feelings. It can, in some cases, restore seemingly lost sexual
responses. This is why sex therapists have long recommended a deliberate
exploration of the body through massage.

This kind of massage, which requires no special skill, only patience,
attention and verbal feedback, has been called "sensate focus" because it
helps couples to focus on the different sensations they feel in different
parts of their bodies as they are stroked, caressed, and touched in various
ways.

Such caresses can also be very exciting when soft fur gloves or feathers
are used in touching the skin. Different lotions and lubricants also create
different sensations. Various oils are available at both grocery and drug
stores. Sesame seed oil is one particularly good choice. Massage oils can
become part of a complete sensory experience, as scented oils can add a
distinct nuance to an already pleasurable experience. However, if the genital
area is touched by hand, a lubricant containing nonoxynol-9 is recommended and
may be useful in preventing any possible risk.

For truly adventurous couples, it may be useful to attend some special
classes in erotic massage (where they are offered), or to buy one or several
massage books for study and exploration.







Page 15

Body-to-body rubbing
---------------------
There are many ways in which men and women can rub against each other's
bodies. Some have been known as "dry humping", others as "frottage", and they
may even lead to orgasm in one or both partners.

Obviously, there is no danger of infection as long as no bodily fluids
are exchanged. Even if the man should ejaculate, there need not be any risk
as long as the semen does not come in contact with any orifice or cut or break
in the skin.

Here again, a lubricant containing nonoxynol-9 can be useful. Thus, the
man may ejaculate on the woman's back or between her breasts.

Women may also reach orgasm by "riding" a man's thigh or forearm and in
still other ways. Body-to-body rubbing is therefore a very attractive and
satisfying sexual option.


Mutual masturbation
-------------------
In the past, mutual masturbation has often been condemned or at least
ridiculed as "immature" or embarrassing. However, many women have always
depended on being masturbated by their male partners, even during intercourse,
if they wanted to reach orgasm.

It is now time to get rid of the prejudice against masturbation and to
accept it as a major, wonderful way of giving and receiving sexual pleasure.

Men and women can take turns masturbating each other or they can do it
simultaneously. In either case, they should use a water-soluble lubricant
containing nonoxynol-9 in order to minimize any accidental risk.

It is very important that each of the partners tell the other exactly and
very clearly how they want to be masturbated. Everybody needs a slightly
different technique, which is impossible to guess. It must be explained to a
sexual partner, and thus mutual masturbation becomes an very important means
of achieving close communication and complete intimacy.

It also greatly reduces stress and performance anxiety. After all,
masturbation in itself feels good. There is no absolute need to reach orgasm,
but when desired, the partners can take over from each other and easily reach
orgasm on their own.

It is very possible that this open, liberated form of sexual contact
comes as an emotional relief to many couples and even increases and enlivens
their sex lives. Men especially may find themselves sexually invigorated with
their female partners once the old inhibitions have fallen. Women, on the
other hand, may reach orgasm just as often or even more often through
masturbation by their male partners.

Needless to say, mutual masturbation can be coupled with erotic massages
and/or body-to-body rubbing. Remember, safer sexual activities can be
combined and tailored to suit both partner's sexual desires.










Page 16

Exhibitionism and Voyeurism with consent
----------------------------------------
Couples who have learned to shed their inhibitions through mutual
masturbation may also learn to enjoy "showing off" to each other or simply
watching the other reach orgasm.

Men and women who like the idea can easily create very imaginative and
elaborate performances ranging from a "strip tease" to pretending ignorance
about being observed. They can allow themselves to be "caught in the act" or
invent drawn-out complicated scenarios in order to increase their mutual
excitement. Some couples also watch "porn videos" together and watch each
other masturbating at the same time.

There is almost no limit to the ways of mutual visual stimulation, and
thus this form of absolutely risk-free sexual contact may become a major
source of satisfaction for many couples.


Telephone sex
-------------
Men and women who have come to an appropriate understanding can also call
each other on the telephone and thus stimulate each other while masturbating
at the same time. If a certain time is set aside for this, each partner can
look forward to the call all day, create a comfortable atmosphere and then
enjoy a long session.

This absolutely risk-free form of sexual contact has lately become so
popular that many new companies offer the service commercially. Customers pay
by credit card. Whatever one might think about this commercial version of the
"obscene phone call", one thing is certain: There is no way anyone can catch
the AIDS virus via telephone. Each telephone sex call is one possible
infection that did not happen.


S/M without bruising or bleeding
--------------------------------
Men and women who like sado-masochistic practices, including bondage, can
easily make their sexual encounters risk-free by avoiding any exchange of
bodily fluids as well as bruises, cuts or bleeding from any other source.

In fact, the highly ritualistic character of an S/M scene can more easily
be changed in the direction of safer sex than many other sexual encounters.
Sexual plays of dominance or submission do not depend on the insertion of the
penis into the mouth, vagina or anus, and thus S/M couples who are used to
working out their scenes in advance have a better chance than many other men
and women of finding "safe" sexual alternatives.


Separate sex toys
-----------------
A couple may want to keep separate sets of HIS and HERS sex toys, which
they can use on themselves or each other. The point is that the sets remain
separate and are never shared. However, as long as each partner uses his or
her set separately, even in the presence of the other, it can greatly enrich
some relationships.

Vibrators of various kinds and dildos can be real "turn-ons". Only keep
in mind that HIS vibrators and dildos should be used only on him, and HERS
only on her.





Page 17

[4] LIVING BY THE GUIDELINES
------------------------------

Looking at the "safer sex" guidelines, some men and women may wonder
whether they really can (or want to) apply them in their own lives. Some of
the implied changes may seem too drastic. However, it may help to remember
that the guidelines are just that -- guidelines -- nothing more. They are
meant to start everyone thinking about sex in a more deliberate and rational
way.

For example, one useful way of reading the guidelines is to ask oneself
in every instance: "How can this particular behavior become `safer', and how
can it become `less safe'?"

Even behavior that is already "unsafe" can be made more dangerous in many
ways, not only by having more partners. Conversely, behavior that is only
"possibly safe" can be made "safer". it can also be made "less safe".
Finally, even some otherwise "safe" sex can be made unsafe through mere
carelessness.

In more simpler terms, the guidelines are not unbending iron rules. They
are instead only helpful hints. They appeal to our sense of responsibility.
They help us in assessing the various degrees of risk and in negotiating
sensible sexual encounters. In the final analysis, we all have to make our
own choices.

The guidelines also appeal to our creativity. Sexual spontaneity need
not be the first casualty of the AIDS situation. When one is well-practiced
in the ways of safer sex, the possibilities are truly limited only by the
couples' combined imagination and creativity!

While there is never a single correct solution to all sexual problems
including the danger of infection with the AIDS virus, it is still possible to
overcome the sexual problem(s) without having to give up our sex lives!

Safe sex guidelines can work only if they are widely known and accepted.
Everyone should be aware of them, so that it becomes easier to talk about
sexual options in the age of AIDS.

____________________________________________________________________________
/ \
| AIDS does not have to mean the end of sex. |
\____________________________________________________________________________/


Not only that, but "safe sex" can prevent or at least greatly slow down
the further spread of the disease and many other sexually transmitted
diseases.

____________________________________________________________________________
/ \
| Living by the "Safe Sex" guidelines is the best way of fighting AIDS. |
\____________________________________________________________________________/










-End of Section 2-
-Safe Sex in the Age of AIDS-

  3 Responses to “Category : Various Text files
Archive   : SAFESEX.ZIP
Filename : SAFESEX2.TXT

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