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DRAFT OF 09-30-91

Charles B. Kramer, Esq.
NY and IL Bars
(212) 254-5093
[email protected]

** Thesaurus-1911 **
Being a computer-readable version of the Roget's Thesaurus published
in 1911.

This electronic version was prepared and placed in the public domain
by MICRA, Inc. 1991.
This file is in MICROSOFT WORD (R) (version 5) (for MS-DOS) format.
(186,767 words including comments were counted by MS Word.)

This file is an electronic version of the edition of Roget's Thesaurus
published in 1911 by the Crowell company. The following differences will
be noted between this version and the original printed edition:
(1) the space-saving abbreviations in the original, using hyphens to
represent common prefixes or suffixes have been expanded into the full
(2) the side-by-side format for words and their opposites has been
abandoned. Words are listed in order of their entry number.
(3) each main entry has a pound sign "#" in front of the number to
facilitate computerized search.
(4) greek words and phrases are transliterated and included between
brackets in the format .
(5) where italics occurred in the original, italics are used in the
Microsoft Word format file. In the plain ASCII file, this formatting is
(6) the approximate location of the bottom of each page in the original
1911 printed book is indicated by a comment of the form: <-- p. 23 -->.
Note that there are two spaces between the "p." and the page number.
(7) This file contains only the main body of the thesaurus. Neither
outline nor index are contained here.

A version of this electronic thesaurus which has been supplemented to
include more modern words and phrases is in preparation, and will be
available from MICRA, Inc. The supplemented version will also be available
for licensing in larger quantities at a modest cost (this supplemented
version has been copyrighted). This supplemented version is much less
complete than the latest editions of commercial thesauri, and is probably
not as suitable for use as an adjunct to word-processing programs, but it
nevertheless has the substantial virtue that it can be obtained and
licensed with minimum fuss by anyone with an interest in computer
Future versions of this thesaurus are also planned, which will be
reorganized somewhat in a hierarchical fashion to maximize the ability to
take advantage of inheritance from higher categories. The objective is to
create a database of words organized by semantic categories, suitable for
use in natural-language understanding programs. This is a very small-scale
project, which will not be competitive with commercial efforts such as the
CYC project, but is intended to provide a resource for natural-language
processing for individuals or small groups without the financial clout of
large corporations. Anyone who is currently engaged in a similar project,
or would be willing to contribute to this project, is encouraged to contact
us, so that unnecessary duplication of effort can be avoided.
This copy has about 1,000 typographical errors which have not yet been

. Send inquiries or comments to:

735 Belvidere Ave.
Plainfield, NJ 07062-2054
(908) 668-5252






#1. Existence.-- N. existence, being, entity, ens, esse, subsistence
reality, actuality; positiveness &c.. adj.; fact, matter of fact,
sober reality; truth &c. 494; actual existence.
presence &c.. (existence in space) 186; coexistence &c.. 120.
stubborn fact, hard fact; not a dream &c. 515; no joke.
center of life, essence, inmost nature, inner reality, vital
[Science of existence], ontology.
V. exist, be; have being &c. n.; subsist, live, breathe, stand,
obtain, be the case; occur &c. (event) 151; have place, prevail; find
oneself, pass the time, vegetate.
consist in, lie in; be comprised in, be contained in, be constituted
come into existence &c. n.; arise &c. (begin) 66; come forth &c.
(appear) 446. become &c. (be converted) 144; bring into existence &c. 161.
abide, continue, endure, last, remain, stay.
Adj. existing &c. v. existent, under the sun; in existence &c. n.;
extant; afloat, afoot, on foot, current, prevalent; undestroyed.
real, actual, positive, absolute; true &c. 494; substantial,
substantive; self-existing, self-existent; essential.
well-founded well-grounded; unideal, unimagined; not potential &c. 2;
Adv. actually &c. adj.; in fact, in point of fact, in reality; indeed;
de facto, ipso facto.
Phr. ens rationis; ergo sum cogito: "thinkest thou existence doth
depend on time?" [Byron].

#2. Inexistence.-- N. inexistence; nonexistence, nonsubsistence;
nonentity, nil; negativeness &c. adj.; nullity; nihility, nihilism; tabula
rasa, blank; abeyance; absence &c. 187; no such thing &c. 4; nonbeing,
nothingness, oblivion.
annihilation; extinction &c. (destruction) 162; extinguishment,
extirpation, Nirvana, obliteration.
V. not exist &c. 1; have no existence &c. 1; be null and void; cease
to exist &c.. 1; pass away, perish; be extinct, become extinct &c. adj.;
die out; disappear &c. 449; melt away, dissolve, leave not a rack behind;
go, be no more; die &c. 360.
annihilate, render null, nullify; abrogate &c.. 756; destroy &c. 162;
take away; remove &c. (displace) 185; obliterate, extirpate.
Adj. inexistent, nonexistent &c. 1; negative, blank; missing, omitted;
absent &c. 187,; insubstantial, shadowy, spectral, visionary.
unreal, potential, virtual; baseless, in nubibus; unsubstantial &c..
4; vain. unborn, uncreated, unbegotten, unconceived, unproduced, unmade.
perished, annihilated, &c. v.; extinct, exhausted, gone, lost,
vanished, departed, gone with the wind; defunct &c. (dead) 360.
fabulous, ideal &c. (imaginary) 515, supposititious &c. 514.
Adv negatively, virtually &c.. adj.
Phr. non ens.

<-- p. 1 -->


#3. Substantiality. -- N. substantiality, hypostasis; person, being,
thing, object, article, item; something, a being, an existence; creature,
body, substance, flesh and blood, stuff , substratum; matter &c. 316;
corporeity, element, essential nature, groundwork, materiality,
substantialness, vital part.
[Totality of existences], world &c. 318; plenum.
Adj. substantive, substantial; hypostatic; personal, bodily, tangible
&c. (material) 316; corporeal.
Adv. substantially &c. adj.; bodily, essentially.

#4. Unsubstantiality. -- N. unsubstantiality, insubstantiality;
nothingness, nihility; no degree, no part, no quantity, no thing.
nothing, naught, nil, nullity, zero, cipher, no one, nobody; never a
one, ne'er a one; no such thing, none in the world; nothing whatever,
nothing at all, nothing on earth; not a particle &c.. (smallness) 32; all
talk, moonshine, stuff and nonsense; matter of no importance, matter of no
consequence. thing of naught, man of straw, John Doe and Richard Roe,
faggot voter; nominis umbra, nonentity; flash in the pan, vox et praeterea
shadow; phantom &c.,(fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c. (imagination)
515; ignis fatuus &c.. (luminary) 423; " such stuff as dreams are made of "
[Tempest]; air, thin air, vapor; bubble &c. 353; " baseless fabric of a
vision " [Tempest]; mockery.
hollowness, blank; void &c. (absence) 187.
inanity, fool's paradise.
V. vanish, evaporate, fade, dissolve, melt away; disappear &c. 449.
Adj. unsubstantial; baseless, groundless; ungrounded; without
foundation, having no foundation.
visionary &c. (imaginary) 515; immaterial &c.. 137; spectral &c. 980;
dreamy; shadowy; ethereal, airy; cloud built, cloud formed; gossamery,
illusory, insubstantial, unreal.
vacant, vacuous; empty &c.. 187; eviscerated; blank, hollow; nominal;
null; inane.
Phr. there's nothing in it; " an ocean of dreams without a sound"


Internal conditions

#5. Intrinsicality.-- N. intrinsicality, inbeing, inherence, inhesion;
subjectiveness; ego; egohood; essence; essentialness &c.. adj.; essential
part, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, marrow, core, sap,
lifeblood, backbone, heart, soul; important part &c.. (importance) 642.
principle, nature, constitution, character, type, quality, crasis,
habit; temper, temperament; spirit, humor, grain; disposition.
endowment, capacity; capability &c.. (power) 157.
moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities &c. (speciality)
79; idiosyncrasy, oddity; idiocrasy &c.. (tendency) 176; diagnostics.
V. be in the blood, run in the blood; be born so; be intrinsic &c. adj.
Adj. derived from within, subjective; intrinsic, intrinsical;
fundamental, normal; implanted, inherent,.essential, natural; innate,
inborn, inbred, ingrained, inwrought; coeval with birth, genetous,
haematobious, syngenic radical, incarnate, thoroughbred, hereditary,
inherited, immanent; congenital, congenite|; connate, running in the blood;
ingenerate, ingenite|; indigenous; in the grain &c. n.; bred in the bone,
instinctive; inward, internal &c.. 221; to the manner born; virtual.
characteristic &c. (special) 79, (indicative) 550; invariable,
incurable, incorrigible, ineradicable, fixed.
Adv. intrinsically &c. adj.; at bottom, in the main, in effect,
practically, virtually, substantially, au fond; fairly.
Phr. " character is higher than intellect " [Emerson]; "come give us a
taste of your quality " [ Hamlet] magnos homines virtute metimur non
fortuna [Nepos]; non numero haec judicantur sed pondere [Cicero]; " vital
spark of heavenly flame " [Pope].

External conditions

#6. Extrinsicality.-- N. extrinsicality, objectiveness, non ego;
extraneousness &c.. 57; accident.
Adj. derived from without; objective; extrinsic, extrinsical;
extraneous &c.. (foreign) 57; modal, adventitious; ascititious,
adscititious; incidental, accidental, nonessential; contingent, fortuitous.
implanted, ingrafted; inculcated, infused.
outward &c.. (external) 220.
Adv. extrinsically &c. adj.

<-- p. 2 -->

#7. State. -- N. state, condition, category, estate, lot, ease, trim,
mood, pickle, plight, temper; aspect &c. (appearance) 448, dilemma, pass,
constitution, habitude, diathesis; frame, fabric &c. 329; stamp, set,
fit, mold, mould.
mode, modality, schesis; form &c.. (shape) 240.
tone, tenor, turn; trim, guise, fashion, light, complexion, style,
V. be in a state, possess a state, enjoy a state, labor under a state
&c. n.; be on a footing, do, fare; come to pass.
Adj. conditional, modal, formal; structural, organic.
Adv. conditionally &c.. adj.; as the matter stands, as things are;
such being the case &c. 8.


#8. Circumstance. -- N. circumstance, situation, phase, position,
posture, attitude, place, point; terms; regime; footing, standing, status.
occasion, juncture, conjunctive; contingency &c. (event) 151.
predicament; emergence, emergency; exigency, crisis, pinch, pass,
push; occurrence; turning point.
bearings, how the land lies.
surroundings, context, environment 229a[TE 232]; location 184.
contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; causation 153, attribution
Adj. circumstantial; given, conditional, provisional; critical; modal;
contingent, incidental; adventitious &c. (extrinsic) 6; limitative.
Adv. in the circumstances, under the circumstances &c.. n., the
circumstances, conditions &c. 7; thus, in such wise.
accordingly; that being the case, such being the case, in view of the
circumstances; that being so, sith, since, seeing that.
as matters stand; as things go, as times go.
conditionally, provided, if, in case; if so, if so be, if it be so;
depending on circumstances, in certain circumstances, under certain
conditions; if it so happen, if it so turn out; in the event of; in such a
contingency, in such a case, in such an event; provisionally, unless,
according to circumstances, according to the occasion; as it may
happen, as it may turn out,as it may be; as the case may be, as the wind
blows; pro re nata.
Phr. " yet are my sins not those of circumstance " [Lytton].

<-- p. 3 -->


#9. Relation. -- N. relation, bearing, reference, connection,
concern,. cognation ; correlation &c. 12; analogy; similarity &c. 17;
affinity, homology, alliance, homogeneity, association; approximation &c..
(nearness) 197; filiation &c. (consanguinity) 11; interest; relevancy &c.
23; dependency, relationship, relative position.
comparison &c. 464; ratio, proportion.
link, tie, bond of union.
V. be related &c. adj.; have a relation &c. n.; relate to, refer to;
bear upon, regard, concern, touch, affect, have to do with; pertain to,
belong to, appertain to; answer to; interest.
bring into relation with, bring to bear upon; connect, associate, draw
a parallel; link &c. 43.
Adj. relative; correlative &c.. 12; cognate; relating to &c. v.;
relative to, in relation with, referable or referrible to; belonging to &c.
v.; appurtenant to, in common with.
related, connected; implicated, associated, affiliated, allied to; en
rapport, in touch with.
approximative, approximating; proportional, proportionate,
proportionable; allusive, comparable.
in the same category &c. 75; like &c. 17; relevant &c. (apt) 23;
applicable, equiparant.
Adv. relatively &c. adj.; pertinently &c. 23.
thereof; as to, as for, as respects, as regards; about; concerning &c.
v.; anent; relating to, as relates to; with relation, with reference to,
with respect to,with regard to; in respect of; while speaking of, a propos
of; in connection with; by the way, by the by; whereas; for as much as, in
as much as; in point of, as far as; on the part of, on the score of; quoad
hoc; pro re nata; under the head of &c.. (class) 75 of; in the matter of,
in re.
Phr. " thereby hangs a tale " [Taming of the Shrew].

#10. [Want, or absence of relation.] Irrelation. -- N. irrelation,
dissociation; misrelation; inapplicability; inconnection; multifariousness;
disconnection &c. (disjunction) 44; inconsequence, independence;
incommensurability; irreconcilableness &c. (disagreement) 24;
heterogeneity; unconformity &c. 83; irrelevancy, impertinence, nihil ad
rem; intrusion &c.. 24; non-pertinence.
V. have no relation to &c. 9; have no bearing upon, have no concern
with &c. 9 , have no business with; not concern &c.. 9; have no business
there, have nothing to do with,
intrude &c. 24.
bring in head and shoulders, drag in head and shoulders, lug in head
and shoulders.
Adj. irrelative, irrespective, unrelated; arbitrary; independent,
unallied; unconnected, disconnected; adrift, isolated, insular; extraneous,
strange, alien, foreign, outlandish, exotic.
not comparable, incommensurable, heterogeneous; unconformable &c. 83.
irrelevant, inapplicable; not pertinent, not to the, purpose; impertinent,
inapposite, beside the mark, a propos de bottes; aside from the purpose,,
away from the purpose,, foreign to the purpose, beside the purpose, beside
the question, beside the transaction, beside the point; misplaced &c.
(intrusive) 24; traveling out of the record.
remote, far-fetched, out of the way, forced, neither here nor there,
quite another thing; detached, segregate; disquiparant.
multifarious; discordant &c.. 24.
incidental, parenthetical, obiter dicta, episodic.
Adv. parenthetically &c. adj.; by the way, by the by; en passant,
incidentally; irrespectively &c. adj.; without reference to, without regard
to; in the abstract &c. 87; a se.

#11. [Relations of kindred.] Consanguinity. -- N. consanguinity,
relationship, kindred, blood; parentage &c.. (paternity) 166; filiation,
affiliation; lineage, agnation, connection, alliance; family connection,
family tie; ties of blood; nepotism.
kinsman, kinfolk; kith and kin; relation, relative; connection; sib;
next of kin; uncle, aunt, nephew, niece; cousin, cousin-german; first
cousin, second cousin; cousin once removed, cousin twice &c. removed; near
relation, distant relation; brother, sister, one's own flesh and blood.
family, fraternity; brotherhood, sisterhood, cousinhood.
race, stock, generation; sept &c.. 166; stirps, side; strain; breed, clan,
tribe, nation.
V. be related to &c. adj. claim relationship with &c. n. with.
Adj. related, akin, consanguineous, of the blood, family, allied,
collateral; cognate, agnate, connate; kindred; affiliated; fraternal.

<-- p. 4 -->

intimately related, nearly related, closely related, remotely related,
distantly related, allied; german.

#12. [Double or reciprocal relation.] Correlation. -- N.
reciprocalness &c.. adj.; reciprocity, reciprocation; mutuality,
correlation, interdependence, connection, link, association; interchange
&c. 148; exchange, barter.
V. reciprocate, alternate; interchange &c.. 148; exchange;
Adj. reciprocal, mutual, commutual, correlative; alternate;
interchangeable; international; complemental, complementary.
Adv. mutatis mutandis; vice versa; each other, one another; by turns
&c. 148; reciprocally & c. adj.
Phr. " happy in our mutual help " [Milton].

#13. Identity. -- N. identity, sameness; coincidence, coalescence;
convertibility; equality &c. 27; selfness, self, oneself; identification.
monotony, tautology &c. (repetition) 104.
facsimile &c. (copy) 21; homoousia: alter ego &c. (similar) 17;
ipsissima verba &c. (exactness) 494; same; self, very , one and the same;
very thing, actual thing; real McCoy; no other; one and only; in the flesh.
V. be identical &c. adj.; coincide, coalesce, merge.
treat as the same, render the same, identical; identify; recognize
the identity of, .
Adj. identical; self, ilk; the same &c. n. selfsame, one and the same,
coincide, coalescent, coalescing; indistinguishable; one; equivalent
&c. (equal) 27; tweedle dee and tweedle dum; much the same, of a muchness;
unaltered. .
Adv. identically &c. adj.; on all fours.

#14. [Noncoincidence.] Contrariety. N. contrariety, contrast, foil,
antithesis, oppositeness; contradiction; antagonism &c. (opposition) 708;
clashing, repugnance.
inversion &c. 218; the opposite, the reverse, the inverse, the
converse, the antipodes, the antithesis, the other extreme.
V. be contrary &c. adj.; contrast with, oppose; diller toto coelo.
invert, reverse, turn the tables; turn topsy-turvy, turn end for end,
turn upside down, turn inside out.
contradict, contravene; antagonize &c.. 708.
Adj. contrary, contrarious, contrariant; opposite, counter, dead
against; converse, reverse; opposed, antithetical, contrasted, antipodean,
antagonistic, opposing; conflicting, inconsistent, contradictory, at cross
purposes; negative; hostile &c.. 703. differing toto coelo; diametrically
opposite; diametrically opposed; as opposite as black and white, as
opposite as light and darkness, as opposite as fire and water, as opposite
as the poles; as different as night and day; " Hyperion to a satyr"[
Hamlet]; quite the contrary, quite the reverse ;no such thing, just the
other way, tout au contraire.
Adv. contrarily &c. adj.; contra, contrariwise, per contra, on the
contrary, nay rather; vice versa; on the other hand &c. (in compensation)
Phr. " all concord's born of contraries " [B. Jonson]. Thesis,
antithesis, synthesis [Marx]

#15. Difference. -- N. difference; variance, variation, variety;
diversity, dissimilarity &c.. 18; disagreement &c. 24; disparity &c.
(inequality) 28; distinction, contradistinction; alteration.
modification, permutation, moods and tenses.
nice distinction, fine distinction, delicate distinction, subtle
distinction; shade of difference, nuance; discrimination &c.. 465;
different thing, something else, apple off another tree, another pair
of shoes; horse of a different color; this that or the other.
V. be different &c. adj.; differ, vary, ablude|, mismatch, contrast;
divaricate; differ toto coelo, differ longo intervallo.
vary, modify &c.. (change) 140.
discriminate &c. 465.
Adj. differing &c.. v.; different, diverse, heterogeneous,
multifarious, polyglot; distinguishable, dissimilar; varied, modified;
diversified, various, divers, all manner of, all kinds of; variform &c. 81;
other, another, not the same; unequal &c. 28. unmatched; widely apart,
poles apart, distinctive, characteristic, ; discriminative; distinguishing.
Adv. differently &c. adj.
Phr. il y a fagots et fagots.

<-- p. 5 -->


#16. Uniformity. -- N. uniformity; homogeneity, homogeneousness;
consistency; connaturality, connaturalness; homology; accordance;
conformity &c. 82; agreement &c. 23; consonance, uniformness. regularity,
constancy, even tenor,.routine; monotony.
V. be uniform &c. adj.; accord with &c.. 23; run through.
become uniform &c. adj.; conform to &c. 82.
render uniform, homogenize &c. adj.; assimilate, level, smooth, dress.
Adj. uniform; homogeneous, homologous;of a piece, consistent, connatural;
monotonous, even, invariable; regular, unchanged, undeviating, unvaried,
Adv. uniformly &c. adj.; uniformly with &c. (conformably) 82; in harmony
with &c.. (agreeing) 23.
always, invariably, without exception, without fail, unfailingly,
never otherwise; by clockwork.
Phr. ab uno disce omnes.


#16a. [Absence or want of uniformity.] Nonuniformity. -- N. diversity,
irregularity, unevenness; multiformity &c. 81; unconformity &c. 83;
roughness &c. 256; dissimilarity, dissimilitude, divarication, divergence.
Adj. diversified varied, irregular, uneven, rough &c. 256;
multifarious; multiform &c. 81; of various kinds; all manner of, all sorts
of, all kinds of.
Adv. variously, in all manner of ways, here there and everywhere.

#17. Similarity. -- N. similarity, resemblance, likeness, similitude,
semblance; affinity, approximation, parallelism; agreement &c. 23; analogy,
analogicalness; correspondence, homoiousia, parity.
connaturalness, connaturality; brotherhood, family likeness.
alliteration, rhyme, pun.
repetition &c. 104; sameness &c. (identity) 13; uniformity &c. 16;
analogue; the like; match, pendant, fellow companion, pair, mate,
twin, double, counterpart, brother, sister; one's second self, alter ego,
chip of the old block, par nobile fratrum, Arcades ambo, birds of a
feather, et hoc genus omne; gens de meme famille.
parallel; simile; type &c. (metaphor) 521; image &c. (representation)
554; photograph; close resemblance, striking resemblance, speaking
resemblance, faithful likeness, faithful resemblance.
V. be similar &c. adj.; look like, resemble, bear resemblance; smack
of, savor of,; approximate; parallel, match, rhyme with; take after;
imitate &c.. 19; favor, span [U. S.].
render similar &c. adj.; assimilate, approximate, bring near;
connaturalize, make alike; rhyme, pun.
Adj. similar; resembling &c. v.; like, alike; twin.
analogous, analogical; parallel, of a piece; such as, so; homoiousian.
connatural, congener, allied to; akin to &c. (consanguineous) 1 1.
approximate, much the same, near, close, something like, sort of, in
the ballpark, such like; a show of; mock, pseudo, simulating, representing.
exact &c. (true) 494; lifelike, faithful; true to nature, true to
life, the very image, the very picture of; for all the world like, comme
deux gouttes d'eau; as like as two peas in a pod, as like as it can stare;
instar omnium, cast in the same mold, ridiculously like.
Adv. as if, so to speak; as it were, as if it were; quasi, just as,
veluti in speculum.
Phr. et sic de similibus; tel maitre tel valet; tel pere tel fils;
like master, like servant; like father, like son; the fruit doesn't fall
far from the tree; a chip off the old block

<-- p. 6 -->

#18. Dissimilarity. -- N. dissimilarity, dissimilaritude; unlikeness,
diversity, disparity, dissemblance; divergence, variation.; difference &c.
15; novelty, originality; creativeness; oogamy.
V. be unlike &c. adj.; vary &c. (differ) 15; bear no resemblance to,
differ toto coelo.
render unlike &c. adj.; vary &c. (diversify) 140.
Adj. dissimilar, unlike, disparate; divergent; of a different kind &c.
(class) 75 unmatched, unique; new, novel; unprecedented &c. 83; original.
nothing of the kind; no such thing, quite another thing; far from it,
cast in a different mold, tertium quid, as like a dock as a daisy, "very
like a whale " [Hamlet]; as different as chalk from cheese, as different
as Macedon and Monmouth; lucus a non lucendo.
diversified &c. 16a.
Adv. otherwise.
Phr. diis aliter visum; " no more like my father than I to Hercules"

#19. Imitation. -- N. imitation; copying &c. v.; transcription;
repetition, duplication, reduplication; quotation; reproduction;
mimeograph, xerox, facsimile; reprint, offprint.
mockery, mimiery; simulation, impersonation, personation;
representation &c. 554; semblance; copy &c. 21; assimilation.
paraphrase, parody &c. 21.
plagiarism; forgery, counterfeit &c. (falsehood) 544; celluloid.
imitator, echo, cuckoo|, parrot, ape, monkey, mocking bird, mime;
copyist, copycat; plagiarist, pirate.
V. imitate, copy, mirror, reflect, reproduce, repeat; do like, echo,
reecho, catch; transcribe; match, parallel.
mock, take off, mimic, ape, simulate, impersonate, personate; act &c.
(drama) 599; represent &c.. 554; counterfeit, parody, travesty, caricature,
follow in the steps of, tread in the steps, follow in the footsteps
of, follow in the wake of; take pattern by; follow suit, follow the
example of; walk in the shoes of, take a leaf out of another's book, strike
in with, follow suit; take after, model after; emulate.
Adj. imitated &c. v.; mock, mimic; modelled after, molded on.
paraphrastic; literal; imitative; secondhand; imitable; aping, apish,

Adv. literally, to the letter, verbatim, literatim, sic, totidem
verbis, word for word, mot a mot; exactly, precisely. master like man; " like - but oh! how different! "
[Wordsworthl; " genius borrows nobly " [Emerson]; pursuing echoes calling
'mong the rocks " [A. Coles]; " quotation confesses inferiority "

#20. Nonimitation. -- N. no imitation; originality; creativeness.
invention, creation.
Adj. unimitated, uncopied; unmatched, unparalleled; inimitable &c. 13;
unique, original; creative, inventive, untranslated; exceptional, rare, sui
generis uncommon, unexampled.

#20a. Variation. -- N. variation; alteration &c.. (change) 140.
modification, moods and tenses; discrepance, discrepancy.
divergency &c.. 291; deviation &c. 279; aberration; innovation.
V. vary &c.. (change) 140; deviate &c. 279; diverge &c. 291; alternate,
Adj. varied &c. v.; modified; diversified &c.. 16a.

#21. [Result of imitation.] Copy. -- N. copy, facsimile, xerox,
counterpart, effigies, effigy, form, likeness, image, picture, photo,
similitude, semblance, cast, tracing, ectype, photo offset, electrotype;
imitation &c. 19; model, representation, adumbration, study; portrait &c.
(representment) 554; resemblance.
duplicate; transcript, transcription; reflex, reflexion, reflection;
shadow, echo; recording, scan; chip off the old block; reprint,
reproduction; second edition &c. (repetition) 104; rechauffe; apograph,
fair copy, revise.
parody, caricature, burlesque, travesty, travestie, paraphrase.
[copy with some differences] derivative, modification, expansion,
servile copy, servile imitation; plagiarism, counterfeit, fake
&c.(deception) 545; pasticcio.
Adj. faithful; lifelike &c.. (similar) 17; close, conscientious.
unoriginal, imitative, derivative.

#22. [Thing copied.] Prototype. -- N. prototype, original, model,
pattern, precedent, standard, ideal, reference, scantling, type; archetype,
antitype; protoplast, module, exemplar, example, ensample, paradigm; lay-
text, copy, design; fugleman, keynote. die, mold; matrix, last, plasm;
proplasm, protoplasm; mint; seal, punch, intaglio, negative; stamp.
V. be an example, be a role model, set an example; set a copy. Phr. a
precedent embalms a principle [Disraeli]; exempla sunt odiosa.

<-- p. 7 -->


#23. Agreement. -- N. agreement; accord, accordance; unison, harmony;
concord &c. 714; concordance, concert; understanding, mutual understanding.
conformity &c.. 82; conformance; uniforinity &c.. 1*6; consonance,
consentaneousness, consistency; congruity, congruence; keeping;
congeniality; correspondence, parallelism, apposition, union.
fitness, aptness &c. adj.; relevancy; pertinence, pertinencey;
sortance|; case in point; aptitude, coaptation, propriety, applicability,
admissibility, commensurability, compatibility; cognation &c. (relation) 9.
adaption, adjustment, graduation, accommodation; reconciliation,
reconcilement; assimilation.
consent &c. (assent) 488; concurrence &c. 178; cooperation &c. 709.
right man in the right place, very thing,; quite the thing, just the
V. be accordant &c. adj.; agree, accord, harmonize; correspond, tally,
respond; meet, suit, fit, befit, do, adapt itself to; fall in with, chime
in with, square with, quadrate with, consort with, comport with; dovetail,
assimilate; fit like a glove, fit to a tittle, fit to a T; match &c. 17;
become one; homologate.
consent &c.. (assent) 488.
render accordant &c. adj.; fit, suit, adapt, accommodate; graduate;
adjust &c. (render, equal) 27; dress, regulate, readjust; accord,
harmonize,. reconcile; fadge, dovetail, square.
Adj. agreeing, suiting &c. v.; in accord, accordant, concordant,
consonant, congruous, consentaneous, correspondent, congenial; coherent;
becoming; harmonious reconcilable, conformable; in accordance with, in
harmony with, in keeping with, in unison with, &c. n.; at one with, of one
mind, of a piece; consistent, compatible, proportionate; commensurate; on
all fours.
apt, apposite, pertinent, pat; to the point, to the purpose; happy,
felicitous, germane, ad rem, in point, on point, directly on point, bearing
upon, applicable, relevant, admissible.
fit adapted, in loco, a propos, appropriate, seasonable, sortable,
suitable, idoneous, deft; meet &c. (expedient) 646.

at home, in one's proper element.
Adv. a propos of; pertinently &c.. adj.
Phr. rem acu tetigisti; if the shoe fits, wear it; the cap fits;
auxilia humilia firma consensus facit [Syrus]; discers concordia [Ovid].

<-- p. 8 -->

#24. Disagreement. -- N. disagreement; discord, discordance;
dissonance, dissidence, discrepancy; unconformity &c.. 83; incongruity,
incongruence; discongruity, mesalliance; jarring &c. v.; dissension &c.
713; conflict &c.. (opposition) 708; bickering, clashing, misunderstanding,
disparity, mismatch, disproportion; dissimilitude, inequality;
disproportionateness &c. adj.; variance, divergence, repugnance.
unfitness &c. adj.; inaptitude, impropriety; inapplicability &c..
adj.; inconsistency, inconcinnity; irrelevancy &c.. (irrelation) 10.
misjoining, misjoinder; syncretism, intrusion, interference; concordia
fish out of water.
V. disagree; clash, jar &c.. (discord) 713; interfere, intrude, come
amiss; not concern &c. 10; mismatch; humano capiti cervicem jungere
Adj. disagreeing &c.. v.; discordant, discrepant; at variance, at war;
hostile, antagonistic, repugnant, incompatible, irreconcilable,
inconsistent with; unconformable, exceptional &c.. 83; intrusive,
incongruous; disproportionate, disproportionated; unharmonious;
unconsonant; divergent, repugnant to.
inapt, unapt, inappropriate, improper; unsuited, unsuitable;
inapplicable, not to the point; unfit, unfitting, unbefitting; unbecoming;
illtimed, unseasonable, mal a propos, inadmissible; inapposite &c..
(irrelevant) 10. uncongenial; ill-assorted, ill-sorted; mismatched,
misjoined, misplaced, misclassified; unaccommodating, irreducible,
uncommensurable; unsympathetic.
out of character, out of keeping, out of proportion, out of joint,
out of tune, out of place, out of season, out of its element; at odds
with, at variance with.
Adv. in defiance, in contempt,in spite of; discordantly &c. adj.; a
tort et a travers.
Phr. asinus ad lyram.



#25. [Absolute quantity.] Quantity. -- N. quantity, magnitude; size
&c. (dimensions) 192; amplitude, magnitude, mass, amount, sum, quantum,
measure, substance, strength, force.
[Science of quantity.] mathematics, mathesis.
[Logic.] category, general conception, universal predicament.
[Definite or finite quantity.] armful, handful, mouthful, spoonful,
capful; stock, batch, lot, dose; yaffle.
V. quantify, measure, fix, estimate, determine, quantitate, enumerate.
Adj. quantitative, some, any, aught, more or less, a few.
Adv. to the tune of, all of, a full, the sum of, fully, exactly,

#26. [Relative quantity.] Degree. -- N. degree, grade, extent,
measure, amount, ratio, stint, standard, height, pitch; reach, amplitude,
range, scope, caliber; gradation, shade; tenor, compass; sphere, station,
rank, standing; rate, way, sort.
point, mark, stage &c.. (term) 71; intensity, strength &c. (greatness)
Adj. comparative; gradual, shading off; within the bounds &c. (limit)
Adv. by degrees, gradually, inasmuch, pro tanto; however, howsoever;
step by step, bit by bit, little by little, inch by inch, drop by drop; a
little at a time, by inches, by slow degrees, by degrees, by little and
little; in some degree, in some measure; to some extent; di grado in grado.


#27. [Sameness of quantity or degree.] Equality. -- N. equality,
parity, coextension, symmetry, balance, poise; evenness, monotony, level.
equivalence; equipollence, equipoise, equilibrium, equiponderance;
par, quits, a wash; not a pin to choose; distinction without a difference,
six of one and half a dozen of the other; tweedle dee and tweedle dum;
identity &c. 13; similarity &c.. 17.
equalization, equation; equilibration, co*ordination, adjustment,
readjustment. drawn game, drawn battle; neck and neck race; tie, draw,
standoff, dead heat.
match, peer, compeer, equal, mate, fellow, brother; equivalent.
V. be equal &c.. adj.; equal, match,reach, keep pace with, run
abreast; come to, amount to, come up to; be on a level with, lie on a level
with; balance; cope with; come to the same thing.
render equal &c. adj.; equalize level, dress, balance, equate,
handicap, give points, spot points, handicap, trim, adjust, poise; fit,
accommodate; adapt &c. (render accordant) 23; strike a balance; establish
equality, restore equality, restore equilibrium; readjust; stretch on the
bed of Procrustes.
Adj. equal, even, level, monotonous, coequal, symmetrical, coordinate;
on a par with, on a level with, on a footing with; up to the mark;
equivalent, tantamount; indistinguishable; quits; homologous;
synonymous &c.. 522; resolvable into, convertible, much at one, as broad as
long, neither more nor less.; much the same as, the same thing as, as good
as; all one, all the same; equipollent, equiponderant, equiponderous,
equibalanced; equalized &c. v.; drawn; half and half; isochronal,
isochronous isoperimetric, isoperimetrical; isobath, isobathic.
Adv. equally &c. adj.; pari passu, ad eundum, caeteris paribus; in
equilibrio; to all intents and purposes.

Phr. it comes to the same thing, it amounts to the same thing; what
is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander.

#28. [Difference of quantity or degree.] Inequality. -- N. inequality;
disparity, imparity; odds; difference &c. 15; unevenness; inclination of
the balance, partiality, bias, weight; shortcoming; casting weight, make-
weight; superiority &c. 33; inferiority &c. 34; inequation.
V. be unequal &c. adj.; countervail; have the advantage, give the
advantage; turn the scale; kick the beam; topple,topple over; overmatch
&c.. 33; not come up to &c. 34.
Adj. unequal, uneven, disparate, partial; unbalanced, overbalanced;
top-heavy, lopsided, biased, skewed; disquiparant.
Adv. haud passibus aequis [Vergil].

<-- p. 9 -->

#29. Mean. -- N. mean, medium, intermedium, average, balance,
mediocrity, generality;median, mode; golden mean &c. (mid-course) 628;
middle &c.. 68; compromise &c. 774; middle course, middle state;
V. split the difference; take the average &c. n.; reduce to a mean &c.
n.; strike a balance, pair off.
Adj. mean, intermediate; middle &c. 68; average; neutral.
mediocre, middle-class; commonplace &c. (unimportant) 643.
Adv. on an average, in the long run; taking one with another, taking
all things together, taking it for all in all; communibus annis, in round
Phr. medium tenuere beati.

#30. Compensation. -- N. compensation, equation; commutation;
indemnification; compromise &c.. 774 neutralization, nullification;
counteraction &c. 179; reaction; measure for measure. retaliation &c. 718
equalization &c.. 27; robbing Peter to pay Paul.
set-off, offset; make-weight, casting-weight; counterpoise, ballast;
indemnity, equivalent, quid pro,quo; bribe, hush money; amends &c..
(atonement) 952; counterbalance, counterclaim; cross-debt, cross-demand.
V. make compensation; compensate, compense; indemnify; counteract,
countervall, counterpoise; balance; outbalance, overbalance,
counterbalance; set off; hedge, square, give and take; make up for, lee
way; cover, fill up, neutralize, nullify; equalize &c. 27; make good;
redeem &c. (atone) 952.
Adj. compensating, compensatory; countervailing &c. v.; in the
opposite scale; equivalent &c.. (equal) 27.
Adv. in return, in consideration; but, however, yet, still,
notwithstanding; nevertheless, nathless, none the less; although, though;
albeit, howbeit; mauger; at all events, at any rate; be that as it may, for
all that, even so, on the other, hand, at the same time, quoad minus, quand
meme, however that may be; after all is said and done; taking one thing
with another &c. (average) 29.
Phr. " light is mingled with the gloom " [Whittier]; every dark cloud
has a silver lining; primo avulso non deficit alter [Vergil]; saepe creat
molles aspera spina rosas [Ovid].


#31. Greatness. -- N. greatness &c. adj.; magnitude; size &c.
(dimensions) 192; multitude &c. (number) 102; immensity; enormity; infinity
&c. 105; might, strength, intensity, fullness; importance &c. 642.
great quantity, quantity, deal, power, sight, pot, volume, world;
mass, heap &c. (assemblage) 72; stock &c. (store) 636; peck, bushel, load,
cargo; cartload, wagonload, shipload; flood, spring tide; abundance &c.
(sufficiency) 639.
principal part, chief part, main part, greater part, major part, best
part, essential part ; bulk, mass &c. (whole) 50.
V. be great &c. adj.; run high, soar, tower, transcend; rise to a
great height, carry to a great height; know no bounds; ascend, mount.
enlarge &c.. (increase) 35, (expand) 194.
Adj. great; greater &c. 33; large, considerable, fair, above par; big,
huge &c.. (large in size) 192; Herculean, cyclopean; ample; abundant &c..
(enough) 639 full, intense, strong, sound, passing, heavy, plenary, deep,
high; signal, at its height, in the zenith.
world-wide, widespread, far-famed, extensive; wholesale; many &c. 102.
goodly, noble, precious, mighty; sad, grave, heavy, serious; far gone,
arrant, downright; utter, uttermost; crass, gross, arch, profound, intense,
consummate; rank, uninitiated, red-hot, desperate; glaring, flagrant, stark
staring; thorough-paced, thoroughgoing; roaring, thumping; extraordinary.;
important &c. 642; unsurpassed &c. (supreme) 33; complete &c. 52. august,
grand, dignified, sublime, majestic &c. (repute) 873.
vast, immense, enormous, extreme; inordinate, excessive, extravagant,
exorbitant, outrageous, preposterous, unconscionable, swinging, monstrous,
overgrown; towering, stupendous, prodigious, astonishing, incredible;
marvelous &c..
unlimited &c.. (infinite) 105; unapproachable, unutterable,
indescribable, ineffable, unspeakable, inexpressible, beyond expression,
undiminished, unabated, unreduced, unrestricted.
absolute, positive, stark, decided, unequivocal, essential, perfect,
remarkable, of mark, marked, pointed, veriest; noteworthy; renowned.
Adv. [in a positive degree] truly &c. (truth) 494; decidedly,
unequivocally, purely, absolutely, seriously, essentially, fundamentally,
radically, downright, in all conscience; for the most part, in the main.
[in a complete degree] entirely &c. (completely) 52; abundantly &c.
(sufficiently) 639; widely, far and wide.
[in a great or high degree] greatly &c. adj.; much, muckle, well,
indeed, very, very much, a deal, no end of, most, not a little; pretty,
pretty well; enough, in a great measure, richly; to a large extent, to a
great extent, to a gigantic extent; on a large scale; so; never so, ever
so; ever so dole; scrap, shred, tag, splinter, rag, much; by wholesale;
mighty, powerfully; with a witness, ultra, in the extreme, extremely,
exceedingly, intensely, exquisitely, acutely, indefinitely, immeasurably;
beyond compare, beyond comparison, beyond measure, beyond all bounds;
incalculably, infinitely.
[in a supreme degree] preeminently, superlatively &c. (superiority)
[in a too great degree] immoderately, monstrously, preposterously,
inordinately, exorbitantly, excessively, enormously, out of all proportion,
with a vengeance.
[in a marked degree] particularly, remarkably, singularly, curiously,
uncommonly, unusually, peculiarly, notably, signally, strikingly,
pointedly, mainly, chiefly; famously, egregiously, prominently, glaringly,
emphatically, , strangely, wonderfully, amazingly,
surprisingly, astonishingly, incredibly, marvelously, awfully,
[in an exceptional degree] peculiarly &c.. (unconformity) 83.
[in a violent degree] furiously &c. (violence) 173; severely,
desperately, tremendously, extravagantly, confoundedly, deucedly,
devilishly, with a vengeance; a outrance, a toute outrance.
[in a painful degree] painfully, sadly, grossly, sorely, bitterly,
piteously, grievously, miserably, cruelly, woefully, lamentably,
shockingly, frightfully, dreadfully, fearfully, terribly, horribly.
Phr. a maximis ad minima; " greatness knows itself" [Henry IV]; "
mightiest powers by deepest calms are fed " [B. Cornwall]; minimum decet
libere cui multum licet [Seneca]; " some are born great, some achieve
greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them " [Twelfth Night].

<-- p. 10 -->

#32. Smallness. -- N. smallness &c. adj.; littleness &c.. (small size)
193; tenuity; paucity; fewness &c (small number) 103; meanness,
insignificance (unimportance) 643; mediocrity, moderation.
small quantity, modicum, trace, hint, minimum; vanishing point;
material point, atom, particle, molecule, corpuscle, point, speck, dot,
mote, jot, iota, ace; minutiae, details; look, thought, idea, soupcon, dab,
dight, whit, tittle, shade, shadow; spark, scintilla, gleam; touch, cast;
grain, scruple, granule, globule, minim, sup, sip, sop, spice, drop,
droplet, sprinkling, dash, morceau, screed, smack, tinge, tincture; inch,
patch, scantling,
tatter, cantlet, flitter, gobbet, mite, bit, morsel, crumb, seed, fritter,
shive; snip, snippet; snick, snack, snatch, slip, scrag; chip, chipping;
shiver, sliver, driblet, clipping, paring, shaving, hair.
nutshell; thimbleful, spoonful, handful, capful, mouthful; fragment;
fraction &c. (part) 51; drop in the ocean.
animalcule &c. 193.
trifle &c. (unimportant thing) 643; mere nothing, next to nothing;
hardly anything; just enough to swear by; the shadow of a shade.
finiteness, finite quantity.
V. be small &c. adj.; lie in a nutshell.
diminish &c. (decrease) 36; (contract) 195.
Adj. small, little; diminutive &c. (small in size) 193; minute; fine;
inconsiderable, paltry &c. (unimportant) 643; faint &c. (weak) 160;
slender, light, slight, scanty, scant, limited; meager &c. (insufficient)
640; sparing; few &c. 103; low, so-so, middling, tolerable, no great
shakes; below par, under par, below the mark; at a low ebb; halfway;
moderate, modest; tender, subtle.
inappreciable, evanescent, infinitesimal, homeopathic, very small;
atomic, corpuscular, microscopic, molecular, subatomic.
mere, simple, sheer, stark, bare; near run.
dull, petty, shallow, stolid, ungifted, unintelligent.
Adv. [in a small degree] to a small extent, on a small scale; a little
bit, a wee bit; slightly &c. adj.; imperceptibly; miserably, wretchedly;
insufficiently &c. 640; imperfectly; faintly &c. 160; passably, pretty
well, well enough.
[in a certain or limited degree] partially, in part; in a certain
degree, to a certain degree; to a certain extent; comparatively; some,
rather in some degree, in some measure; something, somewhat; simply, only,
purely, merely; at least, at the least, at most, at the most; ever so
little, as little as may be, tant soit peu, in ever so small a degree; thus
far, pro tanto, within bounds, in a manner, after a fashion, so to speak.
almost, nearly, well-nigh, short of, not quite, all but; near upon,
close upon; peu s'en faut, near the mark; within an ace of, within an inch
of; on the brink of; scarcely, hardly, barely, only just, no more than. [in
an uncertain degree] about, thereabouts, somewhere about, nearly, say; be
the same, be little more or less. [in no degree] no ways, no way, no wise;
not at all, not in the least, not a bit, not a bit of it, not a whit, not a
jot, not a shadow; in no wise, in no respect; by no means, by no manner of
means; on no account, at no hand.
Phr. dare pondus idonea fumo [Persius]; magno conatu magnas nugas
[Terence]; " small sands the mountain, moments make the year [Young].

<-- p. 11 -->


#33. Superiority. [Supremacy.] -- N. superiority, majority; greatness
&c.. 31; advantage; pull; preponderance, preponderation; vantage ground,
prevalence, partiality; personal superiority; nobility &c.. (rank) 875;
Triton among the minnows, primus inter pares, nulli secundus, captain;
crackajack * [U. S.].
supremacy, preeminence; lead; maximum; record; , climax;
culmination &c. (summit) 210; transcendence; ne plus ultra; lion's share,
Benjamin's mess; excess, surplus &c. (remainder) 40; (redundance) 641.
V. be superior &c.. adj.; exceed, excel, transcend; outdo, outbalance,
outweigh, outrank, outrival, out-Herod; pass, surpass, get ahead of; over-
top, override, overpass, overbalance, overweigh, overmatch; top, o'ertop,
cap, beat, cut out; beat hollow; outstrip &c.. 303; eclipse, throw into the
shade, take the shine out of, outshine, put one's nose out of joint; have
the upper hand, have the whip hand of, have the advantage; turn the scale,
kick the beam; play first fiddle &c.. (importance) 642,; preponderate,
predominate, prevail; precede, take precedence, come first; come to a
head, culminate; beat &c. all others,
bear the palm; break the record; take the cake * [U. S.].
become larger, render larger &c.. (increase) 35, (expand) 194.
Adj. superior, greater, major, higher; exceeding &c. v.;great &c. 31;
distinguished, ultra; vaulting; more than a match for.
supreme, greatest, utmost, paramount, preeminent, foremost, crowning;
first-rate &c. (important) 642, (excellent) 648; unrivaled peerless,
matchless; none such, second to none, sans pareil; unparagoned,
unparalleled, unequalled, unapproached, unsurpassed; superlative,
inimitable facile princeps, incomparable, sovereign, without parallel,
nulli secundus, ne plus ultra; beyond compare, beyond comparison;
culminating &c. (topmost) 210; transcendent, transcendental;plus royaliste
que le Roi, more catholic than the Pope
increased &c. (added to) 35; enlarged &c. (expanded) 194.
Adv. beyond, more, over; over the mark, above the mark; above par;
upwards of, in advance of; over and above; at the top of the scale, at its
[in a superior or supreme degree] eminently, egregiously,
preeminently, surpassing, prominently, superlatively, supremely, above all,
of all things, the most, to crown all, , par excellence,
principally, especially, particularly, peculiarly, a fortiori, even, yea,
still more.

Phr. " I shall not look upon his like again " [Hamlet]; deos fortioribus
addesse [Tacitus].

<-- p. 12 -->

#34. Inferiority. -- N. inferiority, minority, subordinacy;
shortcoming, deficiency; minimum; smallness &c. 32; imperfection; lower
quality, lower worth.
[personal inferiority] commonalty &c. 876.
V. be inferior &c. adj.; fall short of, come short of; not pass, not
come up to; want.
become smaller, render smaller &c. (decrease) 36, (contract) 195; hide
its diminished head, retire into the shade, yield the palm, play second
fiddle, be upstaged, take a back seat.
Adj. inferior, smaller; small &c. 32; minor, less, lesser, deficient,
minus, lower, subordinate, secondary; secondrate &c.. (imperfect) 651; sub,
subaltern; thrown into the shade; weighed in the balance and found wanting;
not fit to hold a candle to, can't hold a candle to.
least, smallest &c. (see little, small &c. 193); lowest.
diminished &c. (decreased) 36; reduced &c. (contracted) 195;
unimportant &c. 643.
Adv. less; under the mark, below the mark,below par; at the bottom of the
scale, at a low ebb, at a disadvantage; short of, under.


#35. Increase. -- N. increase, augmentation, enlargement, extension;
dilatation &c. (expansion) 194; increment, accretion; accession &c. 37;
development, growth; aggrandizement, aggravation; rise; ascent &c. 305;
exaggeration exacerbation; spread &c. (dispersion) 73; flood tide; gain,
produce, product, profit.
V. increase, augment, add to, enlarge;. dilate &c. (expand) 194; grow,
wax, get ahead. gain strength; advance; run up, shoot up; rise; ascend &c.
305; sprout &c. 194.
aggrandize; raise, exalt; deepen, heighten; strengthen; intensify,
enhance, magnify, redouble; aggravate, exaggerate; exasperate, exacerbate;
add fuel to the flame, oleum addere camino, superadd &c. (add) 37; spread
&c. (disperse) 73.
Adj. increased &c. v.; on the increase, undiminished; additional &c.
(added) 37.
Adv. crescendo.
Phr. vires acquirit eundo [Vergil].

#36. Nonincrease, Decrease. -- N. decrease, diminution; lessening &c.
v.; subtraction &c. 38; reduction, abatement, declension; shrinking &c.
(contraction.) 195; coarctation|; abridgment &c. (shortening) 201;
subsidence, wane, ebb, decline; ebbing; descent &c. 306; decrement,
reflux, depreciation; deterioration &c. 659; anticlimax; mitigation &c.
(moderation) 174.
V. decrease, diminish, lessen; abridge &c. (shorten) 201; shrink &c.
(contract) 195; drop off, fall off, tail off; fall away, waste, wear; wane,
ebb, decline; descend &c. 306; subside; melt away, die away; retire into
the shade, hide its diminished head, fall to a low ebb, run low, languish,
decay, crumble.
bate, abate, dequantitate|; discount; depreciate; extenuate, lower,
weaken, attenuate, fritter away; mitigate &c. (moderate) 174; dwarf, throw
into the shade; reduce &c. 195; shorten &c. 201; subtract &c. 38.
Adj. unincreased &c. (see increase &c.35); decreased &c. v.; decreasing &c.
v.; on the wane &c. n.
Phr. " a gilded halo hovering round decay " [Byron); " fine by degrees
and beautifully less " [Prior].

<-- p. 13 -->


#37. Addition. -- N. addition, annexation, adjection; junction &c. 43;
superposition, superaddition, superjunction, superfetation; accession,
reinforcement; increase &c. 35; increment, supplement; accompaniment &c.
88; interposition &c. 228; insertion &c. 300.
V. add, annex, affix, superadd, subjoin, superpose; clap on, saddle
on; tack to, append, tag; ingraft; saddle with; sprinkle; introduce &c.
(interpose) 228; insert &c. 300.
become added, accrue; advene, supervene.
reenforce, restrengthen; reinforce, swell the ranks of; augment &c.
Adj. added &c. v.; additional; supplemental, supplementary;
suppletory, subjunctive; adjectitious, adscititious, ascititious; additive,
extra, accessory.
Adv. au reste, in addition, more, plus, extra; and, also, likewise,
too, furthermore, further, item; and also, and eke; else, besides, to boot,
et cetera; &c.; and so on, and so forth; into the bargain, cum multis
aliis, over and above, moreover.
with, withal; including, inclusive, as well as, not to mention, let
alone; together with, along with, coupled with, in conjunction with;
conjointly; jointly &c. 43.
Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit.

#38. Nonaddition. Subduction. - N. subduction, subtraction; deduction,
retrenchment; removal; ablation, sublation; abstraction &c. (taking) 789;
garbling,, &c. v. mutilation, detruncation; amputation; abscision,
excision, recision; curtailment &c. 201; minuend, subtrahend; decrease &c.
36; abrasion.
V. subduct, subtract; deduct, deduce; bate, retrench; remove,
withdraw; take from, take away; detract.
garble, mutilate, amputate, detruncate; cut off, cut away, cut out;
abscind, excise; pare, thin, prune, decimate; abrade, scrape, file; geld,
castrate; eliminate.
diminish &c. 36; curtail &c. (shorten) 201; deprive of &c. (take) 789;
Adj. subtracted &c. v.; subtractive.
Adv. in deduction &c. n.; less; short of; minus, without, except,
excepting, with the exception of, barring, save, exclusive of, save and
except, with a reservation.

#39. [Thing added] Adjunct. -- N. adjunct; addition, additament;
additum, affix, appelidage, annexe, annex; augment, augmentation;
increment, reinforcement, supernumerary, accessory, item; garnish, sauce;
accompaniment &c. 88; adjective, addendum; complement, supplement;
rider, offshoot, episode, side issue, corollary; piece; flap, lappet,
skirt, embroidery, trappings, cortege; tail, suffix &c. (sequel) 65; wing.
Adj. additional &c. 37. alate, alated; winged.
Adv. in addition &c. 37.

#40. [Thing remaining.] Remainder. -- N.
remainder, residue; remains, remanet, remnant, rest, relic;
leavings, heeltap, odds and ends, cheesepairings, candle ends, orts;
residuum; dregs &c. (dirt) 653; refuse &c. (useless) 645; stubble, result,
educt; fag-end; ruins, wreck, skeleton., stump; alluvium.
surplus, overplus, excess; balance, complement; superplus, surplusage;
superfluity &c.(redundance) 641; survival, survivance.
V. remain,; be left &c. adj.; exceed, survive; leave.

Adj.remaining, left; left behind left over; residual, residuary; over,
odd; unconsumed, sedimentary; surviving; net; exceeding, over and above;
outlying, outstanding; cast off &c. 782; superfluous &c. (redundant) 641.

#40a. [Thing deducted.] Decrement. -- N. decrement, discount, defect,
loss, deduction; afterglow; eduction; waste.

<-- p. 14 -->

#41. [Forming a whole without coherence.] Mixture. -- N. mixture,
admixture, commixture, commixtion; commixion, intermixture, alloyage,
matrimony; junction &c. 43; combination &c. 48; miscegenation.
impregnation; infusion, diffusion suffusion, transfusion;
infiltration; seasoning, sprinkling, interlarding; interpolation &c. 228
adulteration, sophistication.
[Thing mixed] tinge, tincture, touch, dash, smack, sprinkling, spice,
seasoning, infusion, soupcon.
[Compound resulting from mixture] alloy, amalgam; brass, chowchow,
pewter; magma, half-and-half, melange, tertium quid, miscellany, ambigu|,
medley, mess, hotchpot, pasticcio, patchwork, odds and ends, all sorts;
jumble &c. (disorder) 59; salad, sauce, mash, omnium gatherum, gallimaufry,
olla-podrida, olio, salmagundi, potpourri, Noah's ark, caldron texture,
mingled yarn; mosaic &c. (variegation) 440.

half-blood, half-caste. mulatto; terceron, quarteron, quinteron
&c.;.quadroon, octoroon; griffo, zambo; cafuzo; Eurasian; fustee, fustie;
grimffe, ladino, marabou, mestee, mestizo, quintroon, sacatra [U. S.]
zebrule; catalo; cross, hybrid, mongrel.

V. mix; join &c. 43; combine &c. 48; commix, immix, intermix; mix up
with, mingle; commingle, intermingle, bemingle; shuffle &c. (derange) 61;
pound together; hash up, stir up; knead, brew; impregnate with; interlard
&c. (interpolate) 228; intertwine, interweave &c. 219; associate with;
be mixed &c.; get among, be entangled with.
instil, imbue; infuse, suffuse, transfuse; infiltrate, dash, tinge,
tincture, season, sprinkle, besprinkle, attemper, medicate, blend, cross;
alloy, amalgamate, compound, adulterate, sophisticate, infect.

Adj. mixed &c. v.; implex, composite, half-and-half, linsey-woolsey,
chowchow, hybrid, mongrel, heterogeneous; motley &c. (variegated) 440;
miscellaneous, promiscuous, indiscriminate; miscible.
Adv. among, amongst, amid, amidst; with; in the midst of, in the crowd.

#42. [Freedom from mixture.] Simpleness. -- N. simpleness &c. adj.;
purity, homogeneity.
elimination; sifting &c. v.; purification &c. (cleanness) 652.
V. render simple &c. adj.; simplify.
sift, winnow, bolt, eliminate; exclude, get rid of; clear; purify &c.
(clean) 652; disentangle &c. (disjoin) 44.
Adj. simple, uniform, of a piece, homogeneous, single, pure, sheer,
unmixed, unmingled, unblended, uncombined, uncompounded; elementary,
undecomposed; unadulterated, unsophisticated, unalloyed, untinged,
unfortified, pur et simple; incomplex.
free from, exempt from; exclusive.
Adv. simple &c. adj. only.

#43. Junction. -- N. junction; joining &c. v.; joinder, union
connection, conjunction, cojugation; annexion, annexation, annexment;
astriction, attachment, compagination, vincture, ligation, alligation;
accouplement; marriage &c. (wedlock,) 903; infibulation, inosculation,
symphysis, anastomosis, confluenee, communication, concatenation; meeting,
reunion; assemablage &c. 72.
coition, copulation;sex, sexual congress,sexual conjunction, sexual
intercourse, love-making.
joint, joining, juncture, pivot, hinge, articulation, commissure,
seam, gore, gusset, suture, stitch; link &c. 45; miter mortise.
closeness, tightness, &c. adj.; coherence &c. 46; combination &c. 48.
V. join, unite; conjoin, connect; associate; put together, lay
together, clap together, hang together, lump together, hold together, piece
together, tack together, fix together, bind up together together; embody,
reembody; roll into one.
attach, fix, affix, saddle on, fasten, bind, secure, clinch, twist,
make fast &c. adj.; tie, pinion, string, strap, sew, lace, stitch, tack,
knit, button, buckle, hitch, lash, truss, bandage, braid, splice, swathe,
gird, tether, moor, picket, harness, chain; fetter &c. (restrain) 751;
lock, latch, belay, brace, hook, grapple, leash, couple, accouple, link,
yoke, bracket; marry &c. (wed) 903; bridge over, span.
braze; pin, nail, bolt, hasp, clasp, clamp, screw, rivet; impact,
solder, set; weld together, fuse together; wedge, rabbet, mortise, miter,
jam, dovetail, enchase; graft, ingraft, inosculate; entwine, intwine;
interlink, interlace, intertwine, intertwist, interweave; entangle; twine
round, belay; tighten; trice up, screw up.
be joined &c.; hang together, hold together; cohere &c. 46.
Adj. joined &c. v.; joint; conjoint, conjunct; corporate, compact;
hand in hand.
firm, fast, close, tight, taut, taught, secure, set, intervolved |;
inseparable, indissoluble, insecable, severable.
Adv. jointly &c. adj.; in conjunction with &c. (in addition to) 37;
fast, firmly, &c. adj.; intimately.
Phr. tria juncta in uno.

<-- p. 15 -->

#44. Disjunction. -- N. disjunction, disconnection, disunity,
disunion, disassociation, disengagement; discontinuity &c. 70; abjunction;
cataclasm; inconnection; abstraction, abstractedness; isolation;
insularity, insulation; oasis; island; separateness &c. adj.; severalty;
disjecta membra; dispersion &c. 73; apportionment &c. 786.
separation; parting &c. v.; circumcision; detachment, segregation;
divorce, sejunction|, seposition|, diduction, diremption, discerption;
elision; caesura, break, fracture,
division, subdivision, rupture; compartition |; dismemberment,
dislocation; luxation; severance, disseverance; scission; rescission,
abscission; laceration, dilaceration; disruption, abruption; avulsion,
divulsion; section, resection, cleavage; fission; partibility,

fissure, breach, rent, split, rift, crack, slit, incision.
dissection anatomy; decomposition &c. 49; cutting instrument &c (shar
pness) 253; buzzsaw, circular saw, rip saw.
V. be disjoined &c.; come off, fall off, come to pieces, fall to
pieces; peel off; get loose.
disjoin, disconnect, disengage, disunite, dissociate, dispair;
divorce, part, dispart, detach, separate, cut off, rescind, segregate; set
apart, keep apart; insulate,, isolate; throw out of gear; cut adrift;
loose; unloose, undo, unbind, unchain, unlock &c. (fix) 43, unpack,
unravel; disentangle; set free &c. (liberate) 750.
sunder, divide, subdivide, sever, dissever, abscind; circumcise; cut;
incide|, incise; saw, snip, nib, nip, cleave, rive, rend, slit, split,
splinter, chip, crack, snap, break, tear, burst; rend &c. rend asunder,
rend in twain; wrench, rupture, shatter, shiver, cranch, crunch, craunch,
chop; cut up, rip up; hack, hew, slash; whittle; haggle, hackle, discind|,
lacerate, scamble, mangle, gash, hash, slice.
cut up, carve, dissect, anatomize; dislimb; take to pieces, pull to
pieces, pick to pieces, tear to pieces; tear to tatters, tear piecemeal,
tear limb from limb; divellicate; skin &c. 226; disintegrate, dismember,
disbranch, disband; disperse &c. 73; dislocate, disjoint; break up; mince;
comminute &c. (pulverize) 330; apportion &c. 786.
part, part company; separate, leave.
Adj. disjoined &c. v.; discontinuous &c. 70; multipartite, abstract;
disjunctive; secant; isolated &c. v.; insular, separate, disparate,
discrete, apart, asunder, far between, loose, free; unattached, unannexed,
unassociated, unconnected; distinct; adrift; straggling; rift, reft.
[capable of being cut] scissile, divisible, discerptible, partible,
Adv. separately &c. adj.; one by one, severally, apart; adrift,
asunder, in twain; in the abstract, abstractedly.

#45. [Connecting medium.] Vinculum. -- N. vinculum, link; connective,
connection; junction &c. 43; bond of union, copula, intermedium, hyphen;
bracket; bridge, stepping-stone, isthmus.
bond, tendon, tendril; fiber; cord, cordage; ribband, ribbon, rope,
guy, cable, line, halser|, hawser, painter, moorings, wire, chain; string
&c. (filament) 205.
fastening, tie; ligament, ligature; strap; tackle, rigging.; standing
rigging, running rigging; traces, harness; yoke; band bandage; brace,
roller, fillet; inkle; with, withe, withy; thong, braid; girder, tiebeam;
girth, girdle, cestus, garter, halter, noose, lasso, surcingle, knot,
running knot; cabestro [U. S.], cinch [U. S.], lariat, legadero, oxreim;

<-- p. 16 -->

pin, corking pin, nail, brad, tack, skewer, staple, clamp; cramp,
cramp iron, detent, larigo, pawl, terret, treenail, screw, button, buckle,
clasp, hasp, hinge, hank, catch, latch, bolt, latchet, tag; tooth; hook,
hook and eye; lock, holdfast, padlock, rivet; anchor, grappling iron,
trennel, stake, post.
cement, glue, gum, paste, size, wafer, solder, lute, putty, birdlime,
mortar, stucco, plaster, grout; viscum.
shackle, rein &c. (means of restraint) 752; prop &c. (support) 215.
V. bridge over, span; connect &c. 43; hang &c. 214.

#46. Coherence. -- N. coherence, adherence, adhesion, adhesiveness;
concretion accretion; conglutination, agglutination, agglomeration;
aggregation; consolidation, set, cementation; sticking, soldering &c. v.;
connection; dependence.
tenacity, toughness; stickiness &c. 352; inseparability,
inseparableness; bur, remora.
conglomerate, concrete &c. (density) 321.
V. cohere, adhere, stick, cling, cleave, hold, take hold of, hold
fast, close with, clasp, hug; grow together, hang together; twine round &c.
(join) 43.
stick like a leech, stick like wax; stick close;
cling like ivy, cling like a bur; adhere like a remora, adhere like
Dejanira's shirt.
glue; agglutinate, conglutinate; cement, lute, paste, gum; solder,
weld; cake, consolidate &c. (solidify) 321; agglomerate.
Adj. cohesive, adhesive, adhering, cohering &c. v.; tenacious, tough;
sticky &c. 352.
united, unseparated, unsessile, inseparable, inextricable,
infrangible; compact &c. (dense) 321.

#47. [Want of adhesion, nonadhesion, immiscibility.] Incoherence. - N.
nonadhesion; immiscibility; incoherence; looseness &c. adj.; laxity;
relaxation; loosening &c. v.; freedom; disjunction &c. 44; rope of sand.
V. make loose &c. adj.; loosen, slacken, relax; unglue &c. 46; detach
&c. (disjoin) 44.
Adj. nonadhesive, immiscible; incoherent, detached, loose, baggy,
slack, lax, relaxed, flapping, streaming; disheveled; segregated, like
grains of sand unconsolidated &c. 231, uncombined &c. 48; noncohesive.

#48. Combination. -- N. combination; mixture &c. 41; junction &c. 43;
union, unification, synthesis, incorporation, amalgamation, embodiment,
coalescence, crasis, fusion, blending, absorption, centralization.
alloy, compound, amalgam, composition, tertiun quid; resultant,
V. combine, unite, incorporate, amalgamate, embody, absorb, reembody,
blend, merge, fuse, melt into one, consolidate, coalesce, centralize,
impregnate; put together, lump together; cement a union, marry.
Adj. combined &c. v.; impregnated with, ingrained; imbued inoculated.

#49. Decomposition. -- N. decomposition, analysis, dissection,
resolution, catalysis, dissolution; corruption &c. (uncleanness) 653;
dispersion &c. 73; disunction &c. 44; disintegration.
V. decompose, decompound; analyze, disembody, dissolve; resolve into
its elements, separate into its elements; electrolyze; dissect,
decentralize, break up; disperse &c. 73; unravel &c. (unroll) 313; crumble
into dust.
Adj. decomposed &c. v.; catalytic, analytical; resolvent, separative,

<-- p. 17 -->


#50. Whole. [Principal part.] -- N. whole, totality, integrity;
totalness &c. adj.; entirety, ensemble, collectiveness; unity &c. 87;
completeness &c. 52; indivisibility, indiscerptibility; integration,
embodiment; integer.
all, the whole, total, aggregate, one and all, gross amount, sum, sum
total, tout ensemble, length and breadth of,
Alpha and Omega, " be all and end all "; complex, complexus ; lock stock
and barrel.
bulk, mass, lump, tissue, staple, body, compages; trunk, torso, bole,
hull, hulk, skeleton greater part, major part, best part, principal part,
main part; essential part &c. (importance). 642; lion's share, Benjamin's
mess; the long and the short; nearly, all, almost all.
V. form a whole, constitute a whole; integrate, embody, amass;
aggregate &c. (assemble) 72; amount to, come to.
Adj. whole, total, integral, entire; complete &c. 52; one, individual.
unbroken, uncut, undivided, unsevered, unclipped uncropped, unshorn;
seamless; undiminished; undemolished, undissolved, undestroyed, unbruised.
indivisible, indissoluble, indissolvable, indiscerptible.
wholesale, sweeping; comprehensive.
Adv. wholly, altogeher; totally &c. (completely) 52; entirely, all,
all in all, wholesale, in a body, collectively, all put together; in the
aggregate, in the lump, in the mass, in the gross, in the main, in the long
run; en masse, on the whole, bodily, en bloc, in extenso, throughout, every
inch; substantially.
Phr. tout bien ou rien.

#51. Part. -- N. part, portion; dose; item, particular; aught, any;
division, ward; subdivision, section; chapter, clause, count, paragraph,
verse; article, passage; sector, segment; fraction, fragment; cantle,
frustum; detachment, parcel.
piece, lump, bit cut, cutting; chip, chunk, collop, slice, scale;
lamina &c. 204; small part; morsel, particle &c. (smallness) 32;
installment, dividend; share &c. (allotment) 786.
debris, odds and ends, oddments, detritus; excerpta; member, limb,
lobe, lobule, arm, wing, scion, branch, bough, joint, link, offshoot,
ramification, twig, bush, spray, sprig; runner; leaf, leaflet; stump;
component part &c. 56; sarmentum.
compartment; department &c. (class) 75; county &c. (region) 181.
V. part, divide, break &c. (disjoin) 44; partition &c. (apportion)
Adj. fractional, fragmentary; sectional, aliquot; divided &c. v.; in
compartments, multifid; disconnected; partial.
Adv. partly, in part, partially; piecemeal, part by part; by by
installments,by snatches, by inches, by driblets; bit by bit, inch by inch,
foot by foot, drop by drop; in detail, in lots.

#52. Completeness. -- N. completeness &c. adj.; completion &c. 729;
integration; allness.
entirety; perfection &c. 650; solidity, solidarity; unity; all; ne
plus ultra, ideal, limit.
complement, supplement, make-weight; filling, up &c. v.
impletion; saturation, saturity|; high water; high tide, flood tide,
spring tide; fill, load, bumper, bellyful; brimmer; sufficiency &c. 639.
V. be complete &c. adj.; come to a head.
render complete &c. adj.; complete &c. (accomplish) 729; fill, charge,
load, replenish; make up, make good; piece out, eke out; supply
deficiencies; fill up, fill in, fill to the brim, fill the measure of;
go the whole hog, go the whole length; go all lengths.
Adj. complete, entire; whole &c. 50; perfect &c. 650; full, good,
absolute, thorough, plenary; solid, undivided; with all its parts; all-
exhaustive, radical, sweeping, thorough-going; dead.
regular, consummate, unmitigated, sheer, unqualified, unconditional,
free; abundant &c. (sufficient) 639.
brimming; brimful, topful; chock full, choke full; as full as an egg
is of meat, as full as a vetch; saturated, crammed; replete &c. (redundant)
641; fraught, laden; full-laden, full-fraught, full-charged; heavy laden.
completing &c. v.; supplemental, supplementary; ascititious.
Adv. completely &c. adj.; altogether, outright, wholly, totally, in
toto, quite; all out; over head and ears; effectually, for good and all,
nicely, fully, through thick and thin, head and shoulders; neck and heel,
neck and crop; in all respects, in every respect; at all points, out and
out, to all intents and purposes; toto coelo; utterly; clean, clean as a
whistle; to the full, to the utmost, to the backbone; hollow, stark; heart
and soul, root and branch, down to the ground.
to the top of one's bent, as far as possible, a outrance.
throughout; from first to last, from beginning to end, from end to
end, from one end to the other, from Dan to Beersheba, from head to foot,
from top to toe, from top to bottom, de fond en comble; a fond, a capite ad
calcem , ab ovo usque ad mala, fore and aft; every, whit, every inch; cap-
a-pie, to the end of the chapter; up to the brim, up to the ears, up to the
eyes; as . . . as can be.
on all accounts; sous tous les rapports; with a vengeance, with a
Phr. falsus in uno falsus in omnib us; omnem movere lapidem; una scopa
nuova spazza bene

#53. Incompleteness. -- N. incompleteness &c. adj.; deficiency, short
measure; shortcoming &c. 304; insufficiency &c. 640; imperfection &c. 651;
immaturity &c. (nonpreparation) 674; half measures.
[part wanting] defect, deficit, defalcation, omission; caret;
shortage; interval &c. 198; break &c. (discontinuity) 70; noncompletion &c.
730 missing link.
V. be incomplete &c. adj.; fall short of &c. 304; lack &c. (be
insufficient) 640; neglect &c. 460.
Adj. incomplete; imperfect &c. 651; unfinished; uncompleted &c. (see
complete &c. 729); defective, deficient, wanting, failing; in default, in
arrear; short, of; hollow, meager, lame, half-and-half, perfunctory,
sketchy; crude &c. (unprepared) 674.
mutilated, garbled, docked, lopped, truncated.
in progress, in hand; going on, proceeding.
Adv. incompletely &c. adj.; by halves.
Phr. caetera desunt; caret.

<-- p. 18 -->

#54. Composition. -- N. composition, constitution, crasis; combination
&c. 48; inclusion, admission, comprehension, reception; embodiment;
V. be composed of, be made of, be formed of, be made up of; consist
of, be resolved into.
include &c. (in a class) 76; contain, hold, comprehend, take in,
admit, embrace, embody; involve, implicate; drag into.
compose, constitute, form, make; make up, fill up, build up; enter into the
composition of &c. (be a component) 56.
Adj. containing, constituting &c.v.

#55. Exclusion. -- N. exclusion, nonadmission, omission, exception,
rejection, repudiation; exile &c. (seclusion) 893; noninclusion,
preclusion, prohibition.
separation, segregation, seposition, elimination, expulsion;
V. be excluded from &c.
exclude, bar; leave out, shut out, bar out; reject, repudiate,
blackball; lay apart, put apart, set apart, lay aside, put aside; relegate,
segregate; throw overboard; strike off, strike out; neglect &c. 460; banish
&c. (seclude) 893; separate.&c. (disjoin) 44.
pass over, omit; garble; eliminate, weed, winnow.
Adj. excluding &c. v.; exclusive. excluded &c. v.; unrecounted, not
included in; inadmissible.
Adv. exclusive of, barring; except; with the exception of; save;

#56. Component. -- N. component; component part, integral part,
integrant part; element, constituent, ingredient, leaven; part and parcel;
contents; appurtenance; feature; member &c. (part) 51; personnel.
V. enter into, enter into the composition of; be a component &c. n; be
part of, form part of &c. 51 ; merge in, be merged in; be implicated in;
share in &c. (participate) 778; belong to, appertain to; combine, inhere
in, unite.
form, make, constitute, compose.
Adj. forming &c. v. inclusive.

#57. Extraneousness. -- N. extraneousness &c. adj.; extrinsicality &c.
6; exteriority &c. 220; alienage, alienism. foreign body, foreign
substance, foreign element; alien, stranger, intruder, interloper,
foreigner, novus homo, newcomer, immigrant, emmigrant; creole, Africander;
outsider; Dago*, wop, mick, polak, greaser, slant, Easterner [U.S.],
Dutchman, tenderfoot.
Adj. extraneous, foreign, alien, ulterior; tramontane, ultramontane.
excluded &c. 55; inadmissible; exceptional.
Adv. in foreign parts, in foreign lands; abroad, beyond seas; over sea
on one's travels.

<-- p. 19 -->



#58. Order. -- N. order, regularity, uniformity, symmetry, lucidus
ordo; music of the spheres.
gradation, progression; series &c. (continuity) 69.
subordination; course, even tenor, routine; method, disposition,
arrangement, array, system, economy, discipline orderliness &c. adj.
rank, place &c. (term) 71.
V. be in order, become in order &c. adj.; form, fall in, draw up;
arrrange itself, range itself, place itself; fall into one's palce, take
one's place, take one's rank; rally round.
adjust, methodize, regulate, systematize.
Adj. orderly, regular; in order,in trim, in appleinpie order, in its
proper place; neat, tidy, en regle, well regulated, correct, methodical,
uniform, symmetrical, shipshape, businesslike, systematic; unconfused &c.
(see confuse &c. 61); arranged &c. 60.
Adv. in order; methodically &c. adj.; in -turn, - its turn; step by
step; by regular -steps, -gradations, -stages, -intervals; seriatim,
systematically, by clockwork, gradatim; at stated periods &c.
(periodically) 138.
Phr. natura non facit saltum; "order is heaven's first law" [Pope];
"order from disorder sprung" [Paradise Lost]; ordo est parium dispariumque
rerum sua loca tribuens dispositio [St. Augustine].

#59. [Absence, or want of Order, &c.] Disorder. -- N. disorder;
derangement &c. 61; irregularity; anomaly &c. (unconformity) 83; anarchy,
anarchism; want of method; untidiness &c. adj.; disunion; discord &c. 24.
confusion; confusedness &c. adj.; mishmash, mix; disarray, jumble, huddle,
litter, lumber; cahotage; farrago; mess, mash, muddle, muss [U. S.], hash,
hodgepodge; hotch-potch, hotch-pot; imbroglio, chaos, omnium gatherum,
medley; mere mixture &c. 41; fortuitous concourse of atoms, disjecta
membra, rudis indigestaque moles [Ovid].
turmoil; ferment &c. (agitation) 315; to-do, trouble, pudder, pother,
row, rumble, disturbance, hubbub, convulsion, tumult, uproar, revolution,
riot, rumpus, stour, scramble, brawl, fracas, fight, free-for-all, row,
ruction, rumpus, embroilment, melee, spill and pelt, rough and tumble;
whirlwind &c. 349; bear garden, Babel, Saturnalia, donnybrook, Donnybrook
Fair, confusion worse confounded, most admired disorder, concordia discors;
Bedlam, all hell broke loose; bull in a china shop; all the fat in the
fire, diable a' quatre, Devil to pay; pretty kettle of fish; pretty piece
of work, pretty piece of business.
V. be disorderly &c. adj.; ferment, play at cross-purposes.
put out of order; derange &c. 61; ravel &c. 219; ruffle, rumple.
Adj. disorderly, orderless; out of order, out of place, out of gear;
irregular, desultory; anomalous &c. (unconformable) 83; acephalous,
deranged; aimless; disorganized; straggling; unmethodical, immethodical;
unsymmetric, unsystematic; untidy, slovenly; dislocated; out of sorts;
promiscuous, indiscriminate; chaotic, anarchical; unarranged &c. (see
arrange &c. 60); confused; deranged &c. 61; topsy-turvy &c. (inverted) 218;
shapeless &c. 241; disjointed, out of joint.
troublous; riotous &c. (violent) 173.
Adv. irregularly &c. adj.; by fits, by fits and snatches, by fits and
starts; pellmell; higgledy-piggledy; helter-skelter, harum-scarum; in a
ferment; at sixes and sevens, at cross-purposes; upside down &c. 218.
Phr. the cart before the horse; ; chaos is
come again; "the wreck of matter and the crush of worlds " [Addison].

#59a. Complexity -- N. complexity; complexness &c. adj.; complexus;
complication, implication; intricacy, intrication; perplexity; network,
labyrinth; wilderness, jungle; involution, raveling, entanglement; coil &c.
(convolution) 248; sleave, tangled skein, knot, Gordian knot, wheels within
wheels; kink, knarl; webwork.
Adj. knarled. complex, complexed; intricate, complicated, perplexed,
involved, raveled, entangled, knotted, tangled, inextricable; irreducible.

<-- p. 20 -->

#60. [Reduction to Order.] Arrangement. -- N. arrangement; plan &c.
626; preparation &c. 673; disposal, disposition; collocation, allocation;
distribution; sorting &c. v.; assortment, allotment, apportionment, taxis,
taxonomy, syntaxis, graduation, organization; grouping; tabulation.
analysis, classification, clustering, division, digestion.
[Result of arrangement] digest; synopsis &c. (compendium) 596;
syntagma, table, atlas; file, database; register. &c. (record) 551;
organism, architecture.
[Instrument for sorting] sieve, riddle, screen, sorter.
V. reduce to order, bring into order; introduce order into; rally.
arrange, dispose, place, form; put in order, set in order, place in order;
set out, collocate, pack, marshal, range, size, rank, group, parcel out,
allot, distribute, deal; cast the parts, assign the parts; dispose of,
assign places to; assort, sort; sift, riddle; put to rights, set to rights,
put into shape, put in trim, put in array; apportion.
class, classify; divide; file, string together, thread; register &c.
(record) 551; catalogue, tabulate, index, graduate, digest, grade.
methodize, regulate, systematize, coordinate, organize, settle, fix.
unravel, disentangle, ravel, card; disembroil; feaze.
Adj. arranged &c. v.; embattled, in battle array; cut and dried;
methodical, orderly, regular, systematic.
Phr. "In vast cumbrous array" [Churchill]

#61. [Subversion of Order; bringing into disorder.] Derangement. -- N.
derangement &c. v.; disorder &c. 59; evection, discomposure, disturbance;
disorganization, deorganization; dislocation; perturbation, interruption;
shufflng &c. v.; inversion &c. 218; corrugation &c. (fold) 258;
V. derange; disarrange, misarrange; displace, misplace; mislay,
discompose, disorder; deorganize, discombobulate, disorganize; embroil,
unsettle, disturb, confuse, trouble, perturb, jumble, tumble; shuffle,
randomize; huddle, muddle, toss, hustle, fumble, riot; bring into
disorder, put into disorder, throw into disorder &c. 59; muss [U.S.];
break the ranks, disconcert, convulse; break in upon.
unhinge, dislocate, put out of joint, throw out of gear.
turn topsy-turvy &c. (invert) 218; bedevil; complicate, involve,
perplex, confound; imbrangle, embrangle, tangle, entangle, ravel, tousle,
towzle, dishevel, ruffle; rumple &c. (fold) 258.
litter, scatter; mix &c. 41.
Adj. deranged &c. v.; syncretic, syncretistic; mussy, messy; flaky;
random, unordered [U.S.].


#62. Precedence. -- N. precedence; coming before &c. v.; the lead, le
pas; superiority &c. 33; importance &c. 642; antecedence, antecedency;
anteriority &c. (front) 234; precursor &c. 64; priority &c. 116; precession
&c. 280; anteposition; epacme; preference.
V. precede; come before, come first; head, lead, take the lead; lead
the way, lead the dance; be in the vanguard; introduce, usher in; have the
pas; set the fashion &c. (influence) 175; open the ball; take precedence,
have precedence; have the start &c. (get before) 280.
place before; prefix; premise, prelude, preface.
Adj. preceding &c. v.; precedent, antecedent; anterior; prior &c. 116;
before; former; foregoing; beforementioned, abovementioned, aforementioned;
aforesaid, said; precursory, precursive; prevenient, preliminary,
prefatory, introductory; prelusive, prelusory; proemial, preparatory.
Adv. before; in advance &c. (precession) 280.
Phr. seniores priores; prior tempore prior jure.

#63. Sequence. -- N. sequence, coming after; going after &c.
(following) 281; consecution, succession; posteriority &c. 117.
continuation; order of succession; successiveness; paracme.
secondariness; subordinancy &c. (inferiority) 34.
afterbirth, afterburden; placenta, secundines.
V. succeed; come after, come on, come next; follow, ensue, step into
the shoes of; alternate.
place after, suffix, append.
Adj. succeeding &c.v.; sequent; subsequent, consequent, sequacious,
proximate, next; consecutive &c. (continuity) 69; alternate, amoebean.
latter; posterior &c. 117.
Adv. after, subsequently; behind &c. (rear) 235.

<-- p. 21 -->

#64. Precursor. -- N. precursor, antecedent, precedent, predecessor;
forerunner, vancourier, avant-coureur, pioneer, prodrome|, prodromos,
prodromus, outrider; leader, bellwether; herald, harbinger; foreboding;
dawn; avant-courier, avant-garde, bellmare, forelooper, foreloper,
stalking-horse, voorlooper, voortrekker.
prelude, preamble, preface, prologue, foreword, avant-propos,
protasis, proemium, prolusion, proem, prolepsis, prolegomena, prefix,
introduction; heading, frontispiece, groundwork; preparation &c. 673;
overture, exordium, symphony; premises.
prefigurement &c. 511; omen &c. 512.
Adj. precursory; prelusive, prelusory, preludious; proemial,
introductory, prefatory, prodromous, inaugural, preliminary; precedent &c.
(prior) 116.
Phr. "a precedent embalms a principle" [Disraeli].

#65. Sequel. -- N. sequel, suffix, successor; tail, queue, train,
wake, trail, rear; retinue, suite; appendix, postscript; epilogue;
peroration; codicil; continuation, sequela; appendage; tail piece,
heelpiece; tag, more last words; colophon.
aftercome, aftergrowth, afterpart, afterpiece, aftercourse,
afterthought, aftergame; arrier pensee, second thoughts; outgrowth.

#66. Beginning.-- N. beginning, commencement, opening, outset,
incipience, inception, inchoation; introduction &c. (precursor) 64; alpha,
initial; inauguration, debut, le premier pas, embarcation, rising of the
curtain; maiden speech; outbreak, onset, brunt; initiative, move, first
move; narrow end of the wedge, thin end of the wedge; fresh start, new
origin &c. (cause) 153; source, rise; bud, germ &c. 153; egg,
rudiment; genesis, primogenesis, birth, nativity, cradle, infancy; start,
inception, creation, starting point &c. 293; dawn &c. (morning) 125;
title-page; head, heading; van &c. (front)
234; caption, fatihah.
entrance, entry; inlet, orifice, mouth, chops, lips, porch, portal,
portico, propylon, door; gate, gateway; postern, wicket, threshold,
vestibule; propylaeum; skirts, border &c. (edge) 231.
first stage, first blush, first glance, first impression, first sight.
rudiments, elements, outlines, grammar, alphabet, ABC.
V. begin, commence, inchoate rise, arise, originate, conceive,
initiate, open, dawn, set in, take its rise, enter upon, enter; set out &c.
(depart) 293; embark in; incept.
usher in; lead off, lead the way; take the lead, take the initiative;
inaugurate, head; stand at the head, stand first, stand for; lay the
foundations &c. (prepare) 673; found &c. (cause) 153; set up, set on foot,
agoing, set abroach, set the ball in motion; apply the match to a train;
launch, broach; open up, open the door to; set about, set to work; make a
beginning, make a start; handsel; take the first step, lay the first stone,
cut the first turf; break ground, break the ice, break cover; pass the
Rubicon, cross the Rubicon; open fire, open the ball; ventilate, air;
undertake &c. 676.
come into existence, come into the world; make one's debut, take
birth; burst forth, break out; spring up, crop up, pop up, appear,
begin at the beginning, begin ab ovo, begin again, begin de novo;
start afresh, make a fresh start, shuffle the cards, resume, recommence.
Adj. beginning &c. v.; initial, initiatory, initiative; inceptive,
introductory, incipient; proemial, inaugural; inchoate, inchoative;
embryonic, rudimental; primogenial; primeval, primitive, primordial &c.
(old) 124; aboriginal; natal, nascent.
first, foremost, leading; maiden.
begun &c. v.; just begun &c. v.
Adv. at the beginning, in the beginning, &c. n.; first, in the first
place, imprimis, first and foremost; in limine; in the bud, in embryo, in
its infancy; from the beginning, from its birth; ab initio, ab ovo, ab
incunabilis, ab origine.
Phr. aller Anfang ist schwer; dimidium facti qui coepit habet
[Cicero]; omnium rerum principia parva sunt [Cicero].

<-- p. 22 -->

#67. End. -- N. end, close, termination; desinence, conclusion, finis,
finale, period, term, terminus, endpoint, last, omega; extreme, extremity;
gable end, butt end, fag-end; tip, nib, point; tail &c. (rear) 235; verge
&c. (edge) 231; tag, peroration; bonne bouche; bottom dollar, tail end,
rear guard.
consummation, denouement; finish &c. (completion) 729; fate; doom,
doomsday; crack of doom, day of Judgment, dies irae, fall of the curtain;
goal, destination; limit, determination; expiration, expiry, extinction,
extermination; death &c. 360; end of all things; finality; eschatology.
break up, commencement de la fin, last stage, turning point; coup de
grace, deathblow; knock-out, -blow; sockdolager* [U.S.].
V. end, close, finish, terminate, conclude, be all over; expire; die
&c. 360; come-, draw- to a -close &c. n.; have run its course; run out,
pass away. bring to an -end &c. n.; put an end to, make an end of;
determine; get through; achieve &c. (complete) 729; stop &c. (make to
cease) 142; shut up shop; hang up one's fiddle.
Adj. ending &c. v.; final, terminal, definitive; crowning &c.
(completing) 729; last, ultimate; hindermost; rear &c. 235; caudal;
conterminate, conterminous, conterminable.
ended &c. v.; at an end; settled, decided, over, played out, set at
rest; conclusive. penultimate; last but one, last but two, &c. unbegun,
uncommenced; fresh.
Adv. finally &c. adj.; in fine; at the last; once for all.
Phr. "as high as Heaven and as deep as hell" [Beaumont & Fletcher];
deficit omne quod nascitur [Quintilian]; en toute chose il faut considerer
la fin; finem respice; ultimus Romanorum.

#68. Middle. -- N. middle, midst, mediety|, mean &c. 29; medium,
middle term; center &c. 222, mid-course &c. 628; mezzo termine; juste
milieu &c. 628; halfway house, nave, navel, omphalos; nucleus, nucleolus.
equidistance, bisection, half distance; equator, diaphragm, midriff;
intermediate &c. 228.
Adj. middle, medial, mesial, mean, mid, median, average; middlemost,
midmost; mediate; intermediate &c. (interjacent) 228; equidistant; central
&c. 222; mediterranean, equatorial; homocentric.
Adv. in the middle; midway, halfway; midships, amidships, in medias

#69. [Uninterrupted sequence.] Continuity. -- N. continuity;
consecution, consecutiveness &c. adj.; succession, round, suite,
progression, series, train chain; catenation, concatenation; scale;
gradation, course; ceaselessness, constant flow, unbroken extent.
procession, column; retinue, cortege, cavalcade, rank and file, line
of battle, array.
pedigree, genealogy, lineage, race; ancestry, descent, family, house;
line, line of ancestors; strain.
rank, file, line, row, range, tier, string, thread, team; suit;
V. follow in a series, form a series &c. n.; fall in.
arrange in a series, collate &c. n.; string together, file, thread,
graduate, organize, sort, tabulate.
Adj. continuous, continued; consecutive; progressive, gradual; serial,
successive; immediate, unbroken, entire; linear; in a line, in a row &c.
n.; uninterrupted, unintermitting; unremitting; perennial, evergreen;
Adv. continuously &c. adj.; seriatim; in a line &c. n.; in succession,
in turn; running, gradually, step by step, gradatim, at a stretch; in file,
in column, in single file, in Indian file.

#70. [Interrupted sequence.) Discontinuity.-- N. discontinuity;
disjunction &c. 44; anacoluthon; interruption, break, fracture, flaw,
fault, crack, cut; gap &c. (interval) 198; solution of continuity, caesura;
broken thread; parenthesis, episode, rhapsody, patchwork; intermission;
alternation &c. (periodicity) 138; dropping fire.
V. be discontinuous &c. adj.; alternate, intermit, sputter, stop and
start, hesitate.
discontinue, pause, interrupt; intervene; break, break in upon, break
off; interpose &c. 228; break the thread, snap the thread; disconnect &c.
(disjoin) 44; dissever.
Adj. discontinuous, unsuccessive, broken, interrupted, dicousu;
disconnected, unconnected; discrete, disunctive; fitful &c. (irregular)
139; spasmodic, desultory; intermitting, occasional &c. v., intermittent;
alternate; recurrent &c. (periodic) 138.
Adv. at intervals; by snatches, by jerks, by skips, by catches, by
fits and starts; skippingly, per saltum; longo intervallo.
Phr. like "angel visits few and far between" [Campbell].

<-- p. 23 -->

#71. Term. -- N. term, rank, station, stage, step; degree &c. 26;
scale, remove, grade, link, peg, round of the ladder, status, position,
place, point, mark, pas, period, pitch; stand, standing; footing, range.
V. hold a place, occupy a place, find a place, fall into a place &c.


#72. Assemblage. -- N. {opp. 73} assemblage; collection, collocation,
colligation; compilation, levy, gathering, ingathering, muster,
attroupement; team; concourse, conflux, congregation, contesseration|,
convergence &c. 290; meeting, levee, reunion, drawing room, at home;
conversazione &c. (social gathering) 892; assembly, congress; convention,
conventicle; gemote; conclave &c. (council) 696; posse, posse comitatus;
Noah's ark.
miscellany, collectanea; museum, menagerie &c. (store) 636; museology.
crowd, throng, group,; flood, rush, deluge; rabble, mob, press,
crush, cohue, horde, body, tribe; crew, gang, knot, squad, band, party;
swarm, shoal, school, covey, flock, herd, drove; atajo; bunch, drive,
force, mulada [U.S.]; remuda; roundup [U.S.]; array, bevy, galaxy; corps,
company, troop, troupe, task force; army, regiment &c. (combatants) 726;
host &c. (multitude) 102; populousness.
clan, brotherhood, fraternity, sorority, association &c. (party) 712.
volley, shower, storm, cloud.
group, cluster, Pleiades, clump, pencil; set, batch, lot, pack;
budget, assortment, bunch; parcel; packet, package; bundle, fascine,
fasces, bale; seron, seroon; fagot, wisp, truss, tuft; shock, rick, fardel,
stack, sheaf, haycock; fascicle, fascicule, fasciculus, gavel, hattock,
accumulation &c. (store) 636; congeries, heap, lump, pile, rouleau,
tissue, mass, pyramid; bing; drift; snowball, snowdrift; acervation,
cumulation; glomeration, agglomeration; conglobation; conglomeration,
conglomerate; coacervate, coacervation, coagmentation, aggregation,
concentration, congestion, omnium gaterum, spicilegium, black hole of
Calcutta; quantity &c. (greatness) 31.
collector, gatherer; whip, whipper in.
V. [be or come together] assemble, collect, muster; meet, unite, join,
rejoin; cluster, flock, swarm, surge, stream, herd, crowd, throng,
associate; congregate, conglomerate, concentrate; precipitate; center
round, rendezvous, resort; come together, flock get together, pig together;
forgather; huddle; reassemble.
[get or bring together] assemble, muster; bring together, get
together, put together, drawtogether, scrape together, lump together;
collect, collocate, colligate; get , whip in; gather; hold a meeting;
convene, convoke, convocate; rake up, dredge; heap, mass, pile; pack, put
up, truss, cram; acervate; agglomerate, aggregate; compile; group, aggroup,
concentrate, unite; collect into a focus, bring into a focus; amass,
accumulate &c. (store) 636; collect in a dragnet; heap Ossa upon Pelion.
Adj. assembled &c. v.; closely packed, dense, serried, crowded to
suffocation, teeming, swarming, populous; as thick as hops; all of a heap,
fasciculated cumulative.
Phr. the plot thickens; acervatim; tibi seris tibi metis.

#73. Nonassemblage. Dispersion. -- N. {opp. 72} dispersion;
disjunction &c. 44; divergence &c. 291; aspersion; scattering &c. v.;
dissemination, diffusion, dissipation, distribution; apportionment &c. 786;
spread, respersion, circumfusion, interspersion, spargefaction; affusion.
waifs and estrays, flotsam and jetsam, disjecta membra, [Hor.]; waveson.
V. disperse, scatter, sow, broadcast, disseminate, diffuse, shed,
spread, bestrew, overspread, dispense, disband, disembody, dismember,
distribute; apportion &c. 786; blow off, let out, dispel, cast forth,
draught off; strew, straw, strow; ted; spirtle, cast, sprinkle; issue, deal
out, retail, utter; resperse, intersperse; set abroach, circumfuse.
turn adrift, cast adrift; scatter to the winds;.
spread like wildfire, disperse themselves.
Adj. unassembled &c. (see assemble &c. 72); dispersed &c. v.; sparse,
dispread, broadcast, sporadic, widespread; epidemic &c. (general) 78;
adrift, stray; disheveled, streaming.
Adv. sparsim, here and there, passim.

<-- p. 24 -->

#74. [Place of meeting.] Focus. -- N. focus; point of convergence &c.
290; corradiation; center &c. 222; gathering place, resort haunt retreat;
venue; rendezvous; rallying point, headquarters, home, club; depot &c.
(store) 636; trysting place; place of meeting, place of resort, place of
assignation; point de reunion; issue.
V. bring to a point, bring to a focus, bring to an issue.


#75. Class. - N. class, division, category, categorema, head, order,
section; department, subdepartment, province, domain.
kind, sort, genus, species, variety, family, order, kingdom, race,
tribe, caste, sept, clan, breed, type, subtype, kit, sect, set, subset;
assortment; feather, kidney; suit; range; gender, sex, kin.
manner, description, denomination, designation, character, stamp
predicament; indication, particularization, selection, specification.
similarity &c. 17.

#76. Inclusion. [Comprehension under, or reference to a class.] -- N.
inclusion, admission, comprehension, reception.
composition &c. (inclusion in a compound) 54.
V. be -included in &c.; come -, fall -, range- under; belong -,
pertain- to; range with; merge in.
include, comprise, comprehend, contain, admit, embrace, receive;
inclose &c. (circumscribe) 229; embody, encircle.
reckon -, enumerate -, number- among; refer to; place -, arrange- -
under, - with; take into account.
Adj. included, -ing &c. v.; inclusive; congen-er, -erous; of the same
-class &c. 75; encircling.
Phr. a maximis ad minima, et hoc genus omne, &c., etc.; et coetera.

#77. Exclusion. -- N. [The same set of words is used to express
exclusion from a class and exclusion from a compound. Reference is
therefore made to the former at 55. This identity does not occur with
regard to inclusion, which therefore constitutes a separate category.]
exclusion &c. 55.

#78. Generality. -- N. generality, generalization; universality;
catholicity, catholicism; miscellany, miscellaneousness; dragnet; common
run; worldwideness.
everyone, everybody; all hands, all the world and his wife; anybody, N
or M, all sorts.
prevalence, run.
V. be general &c. adj.; prevail, be going about, stalk abroad.
render general &c. adj.; generalize.
Adj. general, generic, collective; broad, comprehensive, sweeping;
encyclopedical, widespread &c. (dispersed) 73.
universal; catholic, catholical; common, worldwide; , ecumenical,
oecumenical; transcendental; prevalent, prevailing, rife, epidemic,
besetting; all over, covered with.
Pan-American, Anglican, Pan-Hellenic, Pan-Germanic, slavic;
every, all; unspecified, impersonal.
customary &c. (habitual) 613.
Adv. whatever, whatsoever; to a man, one and all.
generally &c. adj.; always, for better for worse; in general,
generally speaking; speaking generally; for the most part; in the long run
&c. (on an average) 29.

<-- p. 25 -->

#79. Speciality. -- N. {opp. 78} speciality, specialite;
individuality, individuity|; particularity, peculiarity; idiocrasy &c.
(tendency) 176; personality, characteristic, mannerism, idiosyncrasy;
specificness &c. adj.; singularity &c. (unconformity) 83; reading, version,
lection; state; trait; distinctive feature; technicality; differentia.
particulars, details, items, counts; minutiae.
I, self, I myself; myself, himself, herself, itself.
V. specify, particularize, individualize, realize, specialize,
designate, determine; denote, indicate, point out, select.
descend to particulars, enter into detail, go into detail, come to the
Adj. special, particular, individual, specific, proper, personal,
original, private, respective, definite, determinate, especial, certain,
esoteric, endemic, partial, party, peculiar, appropriate, several,
characteristic, diagnostic, exclusive; singular &c. (exceptional) 83;
idiomatic; idiotypical; typical.
this, that; yon, yonder.
Adv. specially, especially, particularly &c. adj.; in particular,
in propria persona; ad hominem; for my part.
each, apiece, one by one, one at a time; severally, respectively, each
to each; seriatim, in detail, in great detail, in excruciating detail, in
mind-numbing detail; bit by bit; pro hac vice, pro re nata.
namely, that is to say, for example, id est, exemplia gratia, e.g.,
i.e.,videlicet, viz.; to wit.
Phr. le style est l'homme meme.


#80. Normality. -- N. normality, normalcy, normalness; familiarity,
naturalness; commonness (frequency) 136; rule, standard (conformity) 82;
customary (habit) 613; standard, pattern (prototype) 22.
V. normalize, standardize.
Adj. normal, natural, unexceptional; common, usual (frequency) 136;

#81. Multiformity. -- N. multiformity, omniformity; variety,
diversity; multifariousness &c. adj.; varied assortment.
Adj. multiform, multifold, multifarious, multigenerous, multiplex;
variform, manifold, many-sided; omniform, omnigenous, omnifarious;
heterogeneous, motley, mosaic; epicene, indiscriminate, desultory,
irregular, diversified, different divers; all manner of; of every
description, of all sorts and kinds; et hoc genus omne; and what not? de
omnibus rebus et quibusdam aliis.
Phr. "harmoniously confused" [Pope]; variety's the very spice of life"

#82. Conformity. -- N. {opp. 83} conformity, conformance; observance;
habituation. naturalization; conventionality &c. (custom) 613; agreement
&c. 23.
example, instance, specimen, sample, quotation; exemplification,
illustration, case in point; object lesson; elucidation.
standard, model, pattern &c. (prototype) 22.
rule, nature, principle; law; order of things; normal state, natural
state, ordinary state, model state, normal condition, natural condition,
ordinary condition, model condition; standing dish, standing order;
Procrustean law; law of the Medes and Persians; hard and fast rule.

V. conform to, conform to rule; accommodate oneself to, adapt oneself
to; rub off corners.
be regular &c. adj.; move in a groove; follow observe the rules, go by
the rules, bend to the rules ,obey the rules, obey the precedents; comply
with, tally with, chime in with, fall in with; be guided by, be regulated
by; fall into a custom,fall into a usage; follow the fashion, follow the
crowd, follow the multitude; pass muster, do as others do, hurler avec les
loups; stand on ceremony; when in Rome do as the Romans do; go with the
stream, go with the flow, swim with the stream, swim with the current, swim
with the tide, blow with the wind; stick to the beaten track &c. (habit)
613; keep one in countenance.
exemplify, illustrate, cite, quote, quote precedent, quote authority,
appeal to authority, put a case; produce an instance &c. n.; elucidate,
Adj. conformable to rule; regular &c. 136; according to regulation,
according to rule, according to Hoyle, according to Cocker, according to
Gunter; en regle, selon Ies, reges, well regulated, orderly; symmetric &c.
conventional &c. (customary) 613; of daily occurrence, of everyday
occurrence; in the natural order of things; ordinary, common, habitual,
usual, everyday, workaday.
in the order of the day; naturalized.
typical, normal, nominal, formal; canonical, orthodox, sound, strict,
rigid, positive, uncompromising, Procrustean.
secundum artem, shipshape, technical. exempIe. illustrative, in point.
Adv. conformably &c. adj.; by rule; agreeably to; in conformity with,
in accordance with, in keeping with; according to; consistently with; as
usual, ad instar, instar omnium; more solito, more-majorum. for the sake of
conformity; as a matter of course, of course; pro forma, for form's sake,
by the card.
invariably, &c. (uniformly) 16.
for example, for instance; exempli gratia; e. g.
inter alia.
Phr. cela va sans dire; ex pede Herculem; noscitur a sociis; ne e
quovis ligno Mercurius fiat [Erasmus]; "they are happy men whose natures
sort with their vocations" [Bacon]. "The nail that sticks up will get
hammered down" [Japanese saying]; "Stick your neck out and it may get cut

<-- p. 26 -->

#83. Unconformity.-- N. nonconformity &c. 82; unconformity,
disconformity; unconventionality, informality, abnormity, abnormality,
anomaly; anomalousness &c. adj.; exception, peculiarity; infraction of
law, breach, of law, violation of law, violation of custom, violation of
usage, infringement of law, infringement of custom, infringement of
usage; teratism, eccentricity, bizarrerie, oddity, je ne sais quoi,
monster, monstrosity, rarity; freak, freak of Nature, wierdo, mutant;
rouser, snorter* [U.S.].
individuality, idiosyncrasy, originality, mannerism.
aberration; irregularity; variety; singularity; exemption; salvo &c.
(qualification) 469.
nonconformist; nondescript, character, original, nonsuch, monster,
prodigy, wonder, miracle, curiosity, flying fish, black sheep, black swan,
lusus naturae, rara avis, queer fish; mongrel, random breed; half-caste,
half-blood, half-breed; metis, crossbreed, hybrid, mule, hinny, mulatto;
tertium quid, hermaphrodite.
phoenix, chimera, hydra, sphinx, minotaur; griffin, griffon; centaur;
saggittary; kraken, cockatrice, wyvern, roc, dragon, sea serpent; mermaid;
unicorn; Cyclops, "men whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders"
[Othello]; teratology.
fish out of water; neither one thing nor another, neither fish nor
fowl, neither fish flesh nor fowl nor good red herring; one in a million,
one in a way, one in a thousand; outcast, outlaw; off the beaten track;
V. be uncomformable &c. adj.; abnormalize; leave the beaten track,
leave the beaten path; infringe a law, infringe a habit, infringe a usage,
infringe a custom, break alaw, break a habit, break a usage, break a
custom, violate a law, violate a habit, violate a usage, violate a custom;
drive a coach and six through; stretch a point; have no business there;
baffle all description, beggar all description.
Adj. uncomformable, exceptional; abnormal, abnormous; anomalous,
anomalistic; out of order, out of place, out of keeping, out of tune, out
of one's element;. irregular, arbitrary; teratogenic; lawless, informal,
aberrant, stray, wandering, wanton; peculiar, exclusive, unnatural,
eccentric, egregious; out of the beaten track, off the beaten track, out of
the common, out of the common run; beyond the pale of, out of the pale of;
misplaced; funny.
unusual, unaccustomed, uncustomary, unwonted, uncommon; rare,
singular, unique, curious, odd, extraordinary; strange, monstrous;
wonderful &c. 870; unexpected, unaccountable; outre, out of the way,
remarkable, noteworthy; queer, quaint, nondescript, none such, sui generis;
original, unconventional, unfashionable; undescribed, unprecedented,
unparalleled, unexampled, unheard of, unfamiliar; fantastic, newfangled,
grotesque, bizarre; outlandish, exotic, tombe des nues, preternatural;
heterogeneous, heteroclite, amorphous, mongrel, amphibious, epicene,
half blood, hybrid; androgynous, androgynal; unsymmetric &c. 243;
adelomorphous, bisexual, hermaphrodite, monoclinous.
qualified &c. 469.
Adv. unconformably &c. adj.; except, unless, save barring, beside,
without, save and except, let alone.
however, yet, but.
Int. what on earth! what in the world! What the devil! Holy cow!
Sacre bleu!
Phr. never was seen the like, never was heard the like, never was
known the like.

<-- p. 27 -->



#84. Number. -- N. number, symbol, numeral, figure, cipher, digit,
integer; counter; round number; formula; function; series.
sum, difference, complement, subtrahend; product; multiplicand,
multiplier, multiplicator; coefficient, multiple; dividend, divisor,
factor, quotient, submultiple, fraction; mixed number, complex number,
complex conjugate; numerator, denominator; decimal, circulating decimal,
repetend; common measure, aliquot part; prime number; reciprocal; totient.
permutation, combination, variation; election.
ratio, proportion, progression; arithmetical progression, geometrical
progression, harmonical progression; percentage.
figurate numbers, pyramidal numbers, polygonal numbers.
power, root, exponent, index, logarithm, antilogarithm; modulus.
differential, integral, fluxion, fluent.
Adj. numeral, complementary, divisible, aliquot, reciprocal, prime,
relatively prime, fractional, decimal, figurate, incommensurable.
proportional, exponential, logarithmic, logometric, differential,
fluxional, integral, totitive.
positive, negative; rational, irrational; surd, radical, real;
complex, imaginary; finite; infinite; impossible.

#85. Numeration. -- N. numeration; numbering &c. v.; pagination;
tale, recension, enumeration, summation, reckoning, computation,
supputation; calculation, calculus; algorithm, algorism, rhabdology,
dactylonomy; measurement &c. 466; statistics.
arithmetic, analysis, algebra, geometry, analytical geometry,
fluxions; differential calculus, integral calculus, infinitesimal calculus;
calculus of differences.
[Statistics] dead reckoning, muster, poll, census, capitation, roll
call, recapitulation; account &c. (list) 86.
[Operations] notation, addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, rule of three, practice, equations, extraction of roots,
reduction, involution, evolution, estimation, approximation, interpolation,
differentiation, integration.
[Instruments] abacus, logometer, slide rule, slipstick[coll.],
tallies, Napier's bones, calculating machine, difference engine, suan-pan;
adding machine; cash register; electronic calculator, calculator,
[people who calculate] arithmetician, calculator, abacist, algebraist,
mathematician; statistician, geometer; programmer; accountant, auditor.
V. number, count, tally, tell; call over, run over; take an account
of, enumerate, muster, poll, recite, recapitulate; sum; sum up, cast up;
tell off, score, cipher, compute, calculate, suppute, add, subtract,
multiply, divide, extract roots. algebraize.
check, prove, demonstrate, balance, audit, overhaul, take stock; affix
numbers to, page.
amount to, add up to, come to.
Adj. numeral, numerical; arithmetical, analytic, algebraic,
statistical, numerable, computable, calculable; commensurable,
commensurate; incommensurable, incommensurate, innumerable, unfathomable,

#86. List. -- N. list, catalog, catalogue, inventory, schedule;
register &c. (record) 551; account; bill, bill of costs; syllabus; terrier,
tally, file; calendar, index, table, atlas, contents; book, ledger;
synopsis, catalogue raisonne; tableau; invoice, bill of lading; prospectus,
program, programme; bill of fare, menu, carte; score, census, statistics,
returns; Red book, Blue book, Domesday book; cadastre; directory, gazetter.
almanac; army list, clergy list, civil service list, navy list; Almanach de
Gotha, cadaster, card index, card file, rolodex, dictionary, thesaurus,
Lloyd's register, nautical almanac, who's who, Guiness's Book of World
roll; check roll, checker roll, bead roll; muster roll, muster book;
roster, panel; cartulary, diptych.
Adj. cadastral.

<-- p. 28 -->


#87. {opp. 100} Unity. -- N. unity; oneness &c. adj.; individuality;
solitude &c. (seclusion) 893; isolation &c. (disjunction) 44; unification
&c. 48.
one, unit, ace; individual; none else, no other.
V. be one, be alone &c. adj.; dine with Duke Humphrey.
isolate &c. (disjoin) 44.
render one; unite &c. (join) 43, (combine) 48.
Adj. one, sole, single, solitary, unitary; individual, apart, alone;
unaccompanied, unattended; solus, single-handed; singular, odd,
unique, unrepeated, azygous, first and last; isolated &c. (disjoined) 44;
monospermous; unific, uniflorous, unifoliate, unigenital, uniliteral,
unijocular, unimodular.
lone, lonely, lonesome; desolate, dreary. insecable|, inseverable,
indiscerptible; compact, irresolvable.
Adv. singly &c. adj.; alone, by itself, per se, only, apart, in the
singular number, in the abstract; one by one, one at a time; simply; one
and a half, sesqui-
Phr. natura il fece, e poi roppe la stampa; du fort au faible; "two
souls with but a single thought, two hearts that beat as one."

#88. Accompaniment. -- N. accompaniment; adjunct &c. 39; context;
appendage, appurtenance.
coexistence, concomitance, company, association, companionship;
partnership, copartnership; coefficiency.
concomitant, accessory, coefficient; companion, buddy, attendant,
fellow, associate, friend, colleague; consort, spouse, mate; partner, co-
partner; satellite, hanger on, fellow-traveller, shadow; escort, cortege;
V. accompany, coexist, attend; hang on, wait on; go hand in hand with;
synchronize &c. 120; bear company, keep company; row in the same boat;
bring in its train; associate with, couple with.
Adj. accompanying &c. v.; concomitant, fellow, twin, joint; associated
with, coupled with; accessory, attendant, obbligato.
Adv. with, withal; together with, along with, in company with; hand in
hand, side by side; cheek by jowl, cheek by jole; arm in arm; therewith,
herewith; and &c. (addition) 37.
together, in a body, collectively.
Phr. noscitur a sociis; virtutis fortuna comes.

#89. Duality. -- N. duality, dualism; duplicity; biplicity, biformity;
polarity. two, deuce, couple, duet, brace, pair, cheeks, twins, Castor and
Pollux, gemini, Siamese twins; fellows; yoke, conjugation; dispermy,
doublets, dyad, span.
V. [unite in pairs] pair, couple, bracket, yoke; conduplicate; mate,
span [U.S.].
Adj. two, twin; dual, dualistic, double; binary, binomial; twin,
biparous; dyadic; conduplicate; duplex &c. 90; biduous, binate, diphyletic,
dispermic, unijugate; tete-a-tete.
coupled &c. v.; conjugate.
both, both the one and the other.

#90. Duplication. -- N. duplication; doubling &c. v.; gemination,
ingemination; reduplication; iteration &c. (repetition) 104; renewal.
V. double, redouble, duplicate, reduplicate; geminate; repeat &c. 104;
renew &c. 660.
Adj. double; doubled &c. v.; bicipital, bicephalous, bidental,
bilabiate, bivalve, bivalvular, bifold, biform, bilateral; bifarious,
bifacial; twofold, two-sided; disomatous; duplex; double-faced, double-
headed; twin, duplicate, ingeminate; second.
Adv. twice, once more; over again &c. (repeatedly) 104; as much again,
twofold. secondly, in the second place, again.

#91. [Division into two parts.] bisection. -- N. bisection,
bipartition; dichotomy, subdichotomy; halving &c. v.; dimidiation.
bifurcation, forking, branching, ramification, divarication; fork,
prong; fold. half, moiety.
V. bisect, halve, divide, split, cut in two, cleave dimidiate,
go halves, divide with.
separate, fork, bifurcate; branch off, out; ramify.
Adj. bisected &c. v.; cloven, cleft; bipartite, biconjugate, bicuspid,
bifid; bifurcous, bifurcate, bifurcated; distichous, dichotomous, furcular;
semi-, demi-, hemi.

<-- p. 29 -->

#92. Triality. -- N. Triality, trinity; triunity.
three, triad, triplet, trey, trio, ternion, leash; shamrock, tierce,
spike-team [U.S.], trefoil; triangle, trident, triennium, trigon,
trinormial, trionym, triplopia, tripod, trireme, triseme, triskele,
triskelion, trisula.
third power, cube.
Adj. three ; triform, trinal, trinomial; tertiary; ternary; triune;
triarch, triadie; triple &c. 93..
Phr. tria juncta in uno.

#93. Triplication. -- N. triplication, triplicity; trebleness, trine.
V. treble, triple; triplicate, cube.
Adj. treble, triple; tern, ternary; triplicate, threefold,
trilogistic; third; trinal, trine.
Adv. three times, three fold; thrice, in the third place, thirdly;
trebly &c. adj.

#94. [Division into three parts.] Trisection. -- N. trisection,
tripartition, trichotomy; third, third part.
V. trisect, divide into three parts.
Adj. trifid; trisected &c. v.; tripartite, trichotomous, trisulcate.
Triadelphous, triangular, tricuspid, tricapsular, tridental,
tridentate, tridentiferous, trifoliate, trifurcate, trigonal, trigrammic,
trigrammatic, tripetalous, tripodal, tripodic, triquetral, triquetrous.

#95. Quaternity. -- N. Quaternity, four, tetrad, quartet, quaternion,
square, quarter; tetract, tetragon.
quadrangle, quadrature, quadfifoil, quadfiform, quadruplet;
V. reduce to a square, square.
Adj. four; quaternary, quaternal; quadratic; quartile; tetract,
tetractic, tetractinal; tetrad, tetragonal.

#96. Quadruplication. -- N. quadruplication.
V. multiply by four, quadruplicate, biquadrate.
Adj. fourfold; quadrable, quadrumanous, quadruple, quadruplicate,
quadrible; fourth.
quadrifoliate, quadrifoliolate, quadrigeminal, quadrigeminate,
quadriplanar, quadriserial.
Adv. four times; in the fourth place, fourthly.

#97. [Division into four parts.] Quadrisection. -- N. quadrisection,
quadripartition; quartering &c. v; fourth; quart, quarter, quartern;
farthing (i.e. fourthing).
V. quarter, divide into four parts.
Adj. quartered &c. v.; quadrifid, quadripartite.

#98. Five, &c. -- N. five, cinque, quint, quincux; six, half-a-dozen,
half dozen; seven; eight; nine, three times three; dicker; ten, decade;
eleven; twelve, dozen; thirteen; long dozen, baker's dozen; quintuplet;
twenty, score; twenty-four, four and twenty, two dozen; twenty-five, five
and twenty, quarter of a hundred; forty, two score; fifty, half a hundred;
sixty, three score; seventy, three score and ten; eighty, four score;
ninety, fourscore and ten; sestiad.
hundred, centenary, hecatomb, century; hundredweight, cwt.; one
hundred and fourty-four, gross.
thousand, chiliad; millenium, thousand years; myriad; ten thousand,
ban[Japanese], man[Japanese]; ten thousand years, banzai[Japanese]; lac,
one hunddred thousand, plum; million; thousand million, milliard, billion,
trillion &c.
V. centuriate; quintuplicate.
Adj. five, quinary, quintuple; fifth; senary, sextuple; sixth;
seventh; septuple; octuple; eighth; ninefold, ninth; tenfold, decimal,
denary, decuple, tenth; eleventh; duodenary, duodenal; twelfth; in one's
'teens, thirteenth.
vicesimal, vigesimal; twentieth; twenty-fourth &c. n.; vicenary,
centuple, centuplicate, centennial, centenary, centurial; secular,
hundredth; thousandth, &c.

#99. Quinquesection, &c. -- N. division by five &c. 98; quinquesection
&c.; decimation; fifth &c.
V. decimate; quinquesect.
Adj. quinquefid, quinqueliteral, quinquepartite; quinquarticular;
octifid; decimal, tenth, tithe; duodecimal, twelfth; sexagesimal,
sexagenary; hundreth, centesimal; millesimal &c.

<-- p. 30 -->

#100. {opp. 87} [More than one.] Plurality. -- N. plurality; a number,
a certain number; one or two, two or three &c.; a few, several; multitude
&c. 102; majority.
Adj. plural, more than one, upwards of, some, certain; not alone &c.
Adv. et cetera, &c., etc.
Phr. non deficit alter.

3. Indeterminate Number

#100a. [Less than one.] Fraction -- N. fraction, fractional part; part
&c. 51.
Adj. fractional, fragmentary, inconsiderable, negligable,

#101. Zero. -- N. zero, nothing; null, nul, naught, nought, void;
cipher, goose egg; none, nobody, no one; nichts[Ger.], nixie*, nix*; zilch,
zip, zippo [all slang]; not a soul; ame qui vive; absence &c. 187;
unsubstantiality &c. 4.
Adj. not one, not a one, not any, nary a one [dial.];not a, never a;
not a whit of, not an iota of, not a drop of, not a speck of, not a jot;
not a trace of, not a hint of, not a smidgen of, not a suspicion of, not a
shadow of, neither hide nor hair of.

#102. Multitude. -- N. multitude; numerous &c. adj.; numerosity,
numerality; multiplicity; profusion &c. (plenty) 639; legion, host; great
number, large number, round number, enormous number; a quantity, numbers,
array, sight, army, sea, galaxy; scores, peck, bushel, shoal, swarm,
draught, bevy, cloud, flock, herd, drove, flight, covey, hive, brood,
litter, farrow, fry, nest; crowd &c. (assemblage) 72; lots; all in the
world and his wife.
[Increase of number] greater number, majority; multiplication,
V. be numerous &c. adj.; swarm with, teem with, creep with; crowd,
swarm, come thick upon; outnumber, multiply; people; swarm like locusts,
swarm like bees.
Adj. many, several, sundry, divers, various, not a few; Briarean; a
hundred, a thousand, a myriad, a million, a quadrillion, a nonillion, a
thousand and one; some ten or a dozen, some forty or fifty &c.; half a
dozen, half a hundred &c.; very many, full many, ever so many; numerous;
numerose; profuse, in profusion; manifold, multiplied, multitudinous,
multiple, multinominal, teeming, populous, peopled, crowded, thick,
studded; galore.
thick coming, many more, more than one can tell, a world of; no end
of, no end to; cum multis aliis; thick as hops, thick as hail; plenty as
blackberries; numerous as the stars in the firmament, numerous as the sands
on the seashore, numerous as the hairs on the head; and what not, andheaven
knows what; endless &c. (infinite) 105.
Phr. their name is "legion"; acervatim; en foule; "many-headed
multitude" [Sidney]; "numerous as glittering gems of morning dew" [Young];
vel prece vel pretio.

#103. Fewness. -- N. fewness &c. adj.; paucity, small number; small
quantity &c. 32; rarity; infrequency &c. 137; handful, maniple; minority;
[Diminution of number] reduction; weeding &c. v.; elimination,
sarculation|, decimation; eradication.
V. be few &c. adj.
render few &c. adj.; reduce, diminish the nnumber, weed, eliminate,
thin, decimate.
Adj. few; scant, scanty; thin, rare, thinly scattered, few and far
between exiguous; infreqent &c. 137; rari nantes; hardly any, scarcely any;
to be counted on one's fingers; reduced &c. v.; unrepeated.
Adv. here and there.

<-- p. 31 -->

#104. Repetition. -- repitition, iteration, reiteration, harping,
recurrence, succession, run; battology, tautology; monotony, tautophony;
rhythm &c. 138; diffuseness, pleonasm, redundancy.
chimes, repetend, echo, ritornello, burden of a song, refrain;
rehearsal; rechauffe, rifacimento, recapitulation.
cuckoo &c. (imitation) 19; reverberation &c. 408; drumming &c. (roll)
407; renewal &c. (restoration) 660.
twice-told tale; old story, old song; second edition, new edition;
reappearance, reproduction; periodicity &c. 138.
V. repeat, iterate, reiterate, reproduce, echo, reecho, drum, harp
upon, battologize, hammer, redouble.
recur, revert, return, reappear; renew &c. (restore) 660.
rehearse; do over again, say over again; ring the changes on; harp on
the same string; din in the ear, drum in the ear; conjugate in all its
moods tenses and inflexions, begin again, go over the same ground, go the
same round, never hear the last of; resume, return to, recapitulate,
Adj. repeated &c. v.; repetitional, repetitionary; recurrent,
recurring; ever recurring, thick coming; frequent, incessant; redundant,
monotonous, harping, iterative, unvaried; mocking, chiming; retold;
aforesaid, aforenamed; above-mentioned, above-said; habitual &c. 613;
Adv. repeatedly, often, again, anew, over again, afresh, once more;
ding-dong, ditto, encore, de novo, bis, da capo.
again and again; over and over, over and over again; many times over;
time and again, time after time; year after year; day by day &c.; many
times, several times, a number of times; many a time, full many a time;
frequently &c. 136.
Phr. ecce iterum Crispinus; toujours perdrix; "cut and come again"
[Crabbe]; "tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow" [Macbeth]; cantilenam eandem
canis [Terence]; nullum est jam dictum quod non dictum sit prius [Terence].

#105. Infinity. -- N. infinity, infinitude, infiniteness &c. adj.;
perpetuity &c. 112; boundlessness.
V. be infinite &c. adj.; know no limits, have no limits, know no
bounds,have no bounds; go on for ever.
Adj. infinite; immense; numberless, countless, sumless, measureless;
innumerable, immeasurable, incalculable, illimitable, inexhaustible,
interminable, unfathomable, unapproachable; exhaustless, indefinite;
without number, without measure, without limit, without end;
incomprehensible; limitless, endless, boundless, termless; untold,
unnumbered, unmeasured, unbounded, unlimited; illimited; perpetual &c. 112.
Adv. infinitely &c. adj.; ad infinitum.
Phr. "as boundless as the sea" [Romeo and Juliet].



#106. Time. -- N. time, duration; period, term, stage, space, span,
spell, season; the whole time, the whole period; space-time; course &c.
109; snap.
intermediate time, while, interim, interval, pendency; intervention,
intermission, intermittence, interregnum, interlude; respite.
era, epoch; time of life, age, year, date; decade &c. (period) 108;
moment, &c. (instant) 113.
glass of time, sands of time, march of time, Father Time, ravages of
time; arrow of time; river of time, whirligig of time, noiseless foot of
time; scythe.
V. continue last endure, go on, remain, persist; intervene; elapse &c.
109; hold out.
taketime, take up time, fill time, occupy time.
pass time, pass away time, spend time, while away time, consume time,
talk against time; tide over; use time, employ time; seize an opportunity
&c. 134; waste time &c.
(be inactive) 683.
Adj. continuing &c. v.; on foot; permanent &c. (durable) 110
Adv. while, whilst, during, pending; during the time, during the
interval; in the course of, at that point, at that point in time; for the
time being, day by day; in the time of, when; meantime, meanwhile; in the
meantime, in the interim; ad interim, pendente lite; de die in diem; from
day to day, from hour to hour &c.; hourly, always; for a time, for a
till, until, up to, yet, as far as, by that time, so far, hereunto,
heretofore, prior to this, up to this point.
the whole time, all the time; all along; throughout &c. (completely)
52; for good &c. (diuturnity) 110.
hereupon, thereupon, whereupon; then; anno Domini; A.D.; ante
Christum; A.C.; before Christ; B.C.; anno urbis conditae; A.U.C.; anno
regni; A.R.; once upon a time, one fine morning, one fine day, one day,
Phr. time flies, tempus fugit [Lat.]; time runs out, time runs
against, race against time, racing the clock, time marches on, time is of
the essence, "time and tide wait for no man".
ad calendas Groecas; "panting Time toileth after him in vain"
[Johnson]; "'gainst the tooth of time and razure of oblivion [Measure for
Measure] rich with the spoils of time" [Gray]; tempus edax rerum [Horace);
"the long hours come and go" [C.G. Rossetti]; "the time is out of joint"
[Hamlet]; "Time rolls his ceaseless course" [Scott]; "Time the foe of man's
dominion" [Peacock]; "time wasted is existence, used is life" [Young];
truditur dies die [Horace]; volat hora per orbem [Lucretius]. ; carpe diem.

<-- p. 32 -->

#107. Neverness. -- N. "neverness"; absence of time, no time; dies
non; Tib's eve; Greek Kalends, a blue moon.
Adv. never, ne'er; at no time, at no period; on the second Tuesday of
the week, when Hell freezes over; on no occasion, never in all one's born
days, nevermore, sine die; in no degree.

#108. [Definite duration, or portion of time.] Period. -- N. period,
age, era; second, minute, hour, day, week, month, quarter, year, decade,
decenniumm lustrum, quinquennium, lifetime, generation; epoch, ghurry,
lunation, moon.
century, millennium; annus magnus.
Adj. horary; hourly, annual &c. (periodical) 138.

#108a. Contingent Duration.-- Adv. during pleasure, during good
behavior; quandiu se bene gesserit.

#109. [Indefinite duration.] Course. -- N. corridors of time, sweep of
time, vesta of time, course of time, progress of time, process of time,
succesof timesion of time, lapse of time, flow of time, flux of time,
stream of time, tract current of time, tide of time, march of time, step of
time, flight of time; duration &c. 106.
[Indefinite time] aorist.
V. elapse, lapse, flow, run, proceed, advance, pass; roll on, wear on,
press on; flit, fly, slip, slide, glide; run its course. out- expire; go
-, pass- by; be -past &c. 122.
Adj. elapsing &c. v.; aoristic; progressive. -
Adv. in due time, in due season; in in due course, in due process, in
the fullness of time; in time.
Phr. labitur et labetur [Horace]; truditur dies die [Horace]; fugaces
labuntur anni [Horace] "tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow creeps in this
petty pace from day to day" [Macbeth].

#110. [Long duration.] Diuturnity. -- N. diuturnity; a long time, a
length of time; an age, a century, an eternity; slowness &c. 275;
perpetuity &c. 112; blue moon, coon's age [U.S.], dog's age.
durableness, durability; persistence, endlessness, lastingness &c.
adj.; continuance, standing; permanence &c. (stability) 150 survival,
survivance; longevity &c. (age) 128; distance of time.
protraction of time, prolongation of time, extension of time; delay
&c. (lateness) 133.
V. last, endure, stand, remain, abide, continue, brave a thousand
tarry &c. (be late) 133; drag on, drag its slow length along, drag a
lengthening chain; protract, prolong; spin out, eke out, draw out, lengthen
out; temporize; gain time, make time, talk against time.
out-last, -live; survive; live to fight again.
Adj. durable; lasting &c. v.; of long duration, of longstanding;
permanent, endless, chronic, long-standing; intransient, intransitive;
intransmutable, persistent; lifelong, livelong; longeval, long-lived,
macrobiotic, diuturnal, evergreen, perennial; sempervirent, sempervirid;
unintermitting, unremitting; perpetual &c. 112.
lingering, protracted, prolonged, spun out &c. v. long-pending, long-
winded; slow &c. 275.
Adv. long; for a long time, for an age, for ages, for ever so long,
for many a long day; long ago &c. (in a past time) 122; longo intervallo.
all the day long, all the year round; the livelong day, as the day is
long, morning noon and night; hour after hour, day after day, &c.; for
good; permanently &c. adj.

#111. [Short duration.] Transientness. -- N. transience, transientness
&c. adj.; evanascence, impermanence, fugacity, caducity, mortality, span;
nine days' wonder, bubble, Mayfly; spurt; flash in the pan; temporary
arrangement, interregnum.
velocity &c. 274; suddenness &c. 113; changeableness &c. 149.
transient, transient boarder, transient guest [U.S.].
V. be transient &c. adj.; flit, pass away, fly, gallop, vanish, fade,
evaporate; pass away like a cloud, pass away like a summer cloud, pass away
like a shadow, pass away like a dream.
Adj. transient, transitory, transitive; passing, evanescent, fleeting,
cursory, short-lived, ephemeral; flying &c. v.; fugacious, fugitive;
shifting, slippery; spasmodic; instantaneous, momentaneous.
temporal, temporary; provisional, provisory; deciduous; perishable,
mortal, precarious, unstable, insecure; impermanent.
brief, quick, brisk, extemporaneous, summary; pressed for time &c.
(haste) 684; sudden, momentary &c. (instantaneous) 113.
Adv. temporarily &c. adj.; pro tempore; for the moment, for a time;
awhile, en passant, in transitu; in a short time; soon &c. (early) 132;
briefly &c. adj.; at short notice; on the point of, on the eve of; in
articulo; between cup and lip.
Phr. one's days are numbered; the time is up; here today and gone
tomorrow; non semper erit aestas; eheu! fugaces labuntur anni; sic transit
gloria mundi; a schoolboy's tale, the wonder of the hour! [Byron]; dum
loquimur fugerit invidia aetas; fugit hora; all that is transitory is but
an illusion [Goethe].

<-- p. 33 -->

#112. [Endless duration.] Perpetuity. -- N. perpetuity, eternity,
everness, aye, sempiternity, immortality, athanasia; interminability,
agelessness, everlastingness &c. adj.; perpetuation; continued existence,
uninterrupted existence; perennity; permanence (durability) 110.
V. last forever, endure forever, go on forever; have no end.
eternize, perpetuate.
Adj. perpetual, eternal; everduring, everlasting, everliving,
everflowing; continual, sempiternal; coeternal; endless, unending;
ceaseless, incessant, uninterrupted, indesinent, unceasing; endless,
unending, interminable, having no end; unfading, evergreen, amaranthine;
neverending, never-dying, never-fading; deathless, immortal, undying,
Adv. perpetually &c. adj.; always, ever, evermore, aye; for ever, for
aye, till the end of the universe, forevermore, forever and a day, for
ever and ever; in all ages, from age to age; without end; world without
end, time without end; in secula seculorum; to the end of time, to the
crack of doom, to the "last syllable of recorded time" [Macbeth]; till
doomsday; constantly &c. (very frequently) 136.
Phr. esto perpetuum; labitur et labetur in omne volubilis oevum
[Horace]; "but thou shall flourish in immortal youth" [Addison]; "Eternity!
thou pleasing, dreadful thought" [Addison]; "her immortal part with angels
lives" [Romeo & Juliet]; ohne Rast [Goethe's motto]; ora e sempre.

#113. [Point of time] Instantaneity. -- N. instantaneity,
instantaneousness, immediacy; suddenness, abruptness.
moment, instant, second, minute; twinkling, trice, flash, breath,
crack, jiffy, coup, burst, flash of lightning, stroke of time.
epoch, time; time of day, time of night; hour, minute; very minute
&c., very time, very hour; present time, right time, true time, exact
correct time.
V. be instantaneous &c. adj.; twinkle, flash.
Adj. instantaneous, momentary, sudden, immediate, instant, abrupt,
discontinuous, precipitous, precipitant, precipitate; subitaneous,
hasty;quick as thought, quick as lightning, quick as a flash; rapid as
speedy, quick, fast, fleet, swift ,lively, blitz; rapid (velocity)
Adv. instantaneously &c. adj.; in no time, in less than no time;
presto, subito, instanter, suddenly, at a stroke, like a shot; in a moment
&c. n. in the blink of an eye, in the twinkling of an eye, in a trice; in
one's tracks; right away; toute a l'heure; at one jump, in the same breath,
per saltum, uno saltu; at once, all at once; plump, slap; "at one fell
swoop"; at the same instant &c. n.; immediately &c. (early) 132; extempore,
on the moment, on the spot, on the spur of the moment; no sooner said than
done; just then; slap-dash &c. (haste) 684.
Phr. touch and go; no sooner said than done.

#114. [Estimation, measurement, and record of time.] Chronometry. --
N. chronometry, horometry, horology; date, epoch; style, era.
almanac, calendar, ephemeris; register, registry; chronicle, annals,
journal, diary, chronogram.
[Instruments for the measurement of time]; clock, wall clock, pendulum
clock, grandfather's clock, cuckoo clock, alarm clock, clock radio; watch,
wristwatch, pocket watch, stopwatch, Swiss watch; atomic clock, digital
clock, analog clock, quartz watch, water clock; chronometer, chronoscope,
chronograph; repeater; timekeeper, timepiece; dial, sundial, gnomon,
horologe, pendulum, hourglass, clepsydra; ghurry.
chronographer, chronologer, chronologist, timekeeper; annalist.
calendar year, leap year, Julian calendar, Gregorian calendar, Chinese
calendar, Jewish calendar, perpetual calendar, Farmer's almanac, fiscal
V. fix the time, mark the time; date, register, chronicle; measure
time, beat time, mark time; bear date; synchronize watches.
Adj. chronological, chronometrical, chronogrammatical; cinquecento,
quattrocento, trecento.
Adv. o'clock.

#115. [False estimate of time.] Anachronism. -- N. anachronism,
metachronism, parachronism, prochronism; prolepsis, misdate; anticipation,
disregard of time, neglect of time, oblivion of time.
intempestivity &c. 135.
V. misdate, antedate, postdate, backdate, overdate; anticipate; take
no note of time, lose track of time; anachronize.
Adj. misdated &c. v.; undated; overdue, past due; out of date.

<-- p. 34 -->


1. Time with reference to Succession

#116. Priority. -- N. priority, antecedence, anteriority, precedence,
pre-existence; precession &c. 280; precursor &c. 64; the past &c. 122;
V. precede, come before; forerun; go before &c. (lead) 280; preexist;
dawn; presage &c. 511; herald, usher in.
be beforehand &c. (be early) 132; steal a march upon, anticipate,
forestall; have the start, gain the start.
Adj. prior, previous; preceding, precedent; anterior, antecedent; pre-
existing, pre-existent; former, foregoing; before-mentioned, above-
mentioned; aforesaid, said; introductory &c. (precursory) 64.
Adv. before, prior to; earlier; previously &c. adj.; afore, aforehand,
beforehand, ere, theretofore, erewhile; ere then, ere now, before then,
before now; erewhile, already, yet, beforehand; on the eve of.
Phr. prior tempore prior jure.

#117. Posteriority. -- N. posteriority; succession, sequence;
following &c. 281.; subsequence, supervention; futurity &c. 121; successor;
sequel &c. 65; remainder, reversion.
V. follow &c. 281 after, come after, go after; succeed, supervene;
ensue, occur; step into the shoes of.
Adj. subsequent, posterior, following, after, later, succeeding,
postliminious, postnate; postdiluvial, postdiluvian; puisne; posthumous;
future &c. 121; afterdinner, postprandial.
Adv. subsequently, after, afterwards, since, later; at a subsequent,
at a later period, at a later date; next, in the sequel, close upon,
thereafter, thereupon, upon which, eftsoons|; from that time, from that
moment; after a while, after a time; in process of time.

#118. The Present Time. -- N. the present, the present time, the
present day, the present moment, the present juncture, the present
occasion; the times, the existing time, the time being; today, these
days, nowadays, our times, modern times, the twentieth century; nonce,
crisis, epoch, day, hour.
age, time of life.
Adj. present, actual, instant, current, existing, extant, that is;
present-day, up-to-date, up-to-the-moment.
Adv. at this time, at this moment &c. 113; at the present time &c. n.;
now, at present; at hand.
at this time of day, today, nowadays; already; even now, but now,
just now; on the present occasion; for the time being, for the nonce; pro
hac vice.; on the nail, on the spot; on the spur of the moment, until now;
to this day, to the present day.
Phr. "the present hour alone is man's " [Johnson].

#119. [Time different from the present.] Different time. -- N.
different time, other time.
[Indefinite time] aorist.
Adj. aoristic; indefinite.
Adv. at that time, at which time, at that moment, at that instant;
then, on that occasion, upon; not now, some other time.
when; whenever, whensoever; upon which, on which occasion; at another,
at a different, at some other, at any- time; at various times; some one of
these days, one of these days, one fine morning; eventually, some day, by
and by, sooner or later; some time or other; once upon a time

<-- p. 35 -->

#120. Synchronism. -- N. synchronism; coexistence, coincidence;
simultaneousness, simultaneity &c. adj.; concurrence, concomitance, unity
of time, interim.
[Having equal times] isochronism.
contemporary, coetanian.
V. coexist, concur, accompany, go hand in hand, keep pace with;
Adj. synchronous, synchronal, synchronical, synchronistical;
simultaneous, coexisting, coincident, concomitant, concurrent; coeval,
coevous; contemporary, contemporaneous; coetaneous; coeternal; isochronous.
Adv. at the same time; simultaneously &c. adj.; together, in concert,
during the same time; in the same breath; pari passu; in the interim.
at the very moment &c. 113; just as, as soon as; meanwhile &c. (while)

#121. [Prospective time.] Futurity. -- N. futurity, futurition;
future, hereafter, time to come; approaching time, coming time, subsequent
time, after time, approaching age, coming age, subsequent age, after age,
approaching days, coming days, subsequent days, after days, approaching
hours, coming hours, subsequent hours, after hours, approaching ages,
coming ages, subsequent ages, after ages, approaching life, coming life,
subsequent life, after life, approaching years, coming years, subsequent
years, after years; morrow; millennium, doomsday, day of judgment, crack of
doom, remote future.
approach of time advent, time drawing on, womb of time; destiny &c.
152; eventuality.
heritage, heirs posterity.
prospect &c. (expectation) 507; foresight &c. 510.
V. look forwards; anticipate &c. (expect) 507, (foresee) 510;
forestall &c. (be early) 132.
come on, draw on; draw near; approach, await, threaten; impend &c. (be
destined) 152.
Adj. future, to come; coming &c. (impending) 152; next, near; close at
hand; eventual, ulterior; in prospect &c. (expectation) 507.
Adv. prospectively, hereafter, in future; kal, tomorrow, the day after
tomorrow; in course of time, in process of time, in the fullness of time;
eventually, ultimately, sooner or later; proximo; paulo post futurum; in
after time; one of these days; after a time, after a while.
from this time; henceforth, henceforwards; thence; thenceforth,
thenceforward; whereupon, upon which.
soon &c. (early) 132; on the eve of, on the point of, on the brink of;
about to; close upon.
Phr. quid sit futurum cras fuge quoerere [Horace].

#122. [Retrospective time.] Preterition -- N. the past, past time;
days of yore, times of yore, days of old, times of old, days past, times
past, days gone by, times gone by; bygone days; old times, ancient times,
former times; fore time; the good old days, the olden time, good old time;
auld lang syne; eld|.
antiquity, antiqueness, status quo; time immemorial; distance of time;
remote age, remote time; remote past; rust of antiquity
paleontology, paleography, paleology; palaetiology, archaeology;
archaism, antiquarianism, medievalism, Pre-Raphaelitism; retrospect,
retrospection, looking back, memory &c. 505.

laudator temporis acti; medievalist, Pre-Raphaelite; antiquary,
antiquarian; archmologist &c.; Oldbuck, Dryasdust.
ancestry &c. (paternity) 166.
V. be past &c. adj.; have expired &c. adj., have run its course, have
had its day; pass; pass by, go by , pass away, go away , pass off, go off;
lapse, blow over.
look back, trace back, cast the eyes back; exhume.
Adj. past, gone, gone by, over, passed away, bygone, foregone;
elapsed, lapsed, preterlapsed, expired, no more, run out, blown over, has-
been, that has been, extinct, antediluvian, antebellum, never to return,
gone with the wind, exploded, forgotten, irrecoverable; obsolete &c. (old)
former, pristine, quondam, ci-devant, late; ancestral.
foregoing; last, latter; recent, over night; preterperfect,
looking back &c. v.; retrospective, retroactive; archaeological &c. n.
Adv. formerly; of old, of yore; erst, whilom, erewhile, time was, ago,
over; in the olden time &c. n.; anciently, long ago, long since; a long
while, a long time ago; years ago, yesteryear, ages ago; some time ago,
some time since, some time back.
yesterday, the day before yesterday; last year, ultimo; lately &c.
(newly) 123.
retrospectively; ere now, before now, till now; hitherto, heretofore;
no longer; once, once upon a time; from time immemorial, from prehistoric
times; in the memory of man; time out of mind; already, yet, up to this
time; ex post facto.
Phr. time was; the time has been, the time hath been; you can't go
home again; fuimus Troes [Vergil]; fruit Ilium [Vergil]; hoc erat in more
majorum; "O call back yesterday, bid time return" [Richard II]; tempi
passati; "the eternal landscape of the past" [Tennyson]; ultimus Romanorum;
"what's past is prologue" [Tempest]; "whose yesterdays look backward with a
smile" [Young].

<-- p. 36 -->

#123. Newness. -- N. newness &c. adj.; novelty, recency; immaturity;
youth &c. 127; gloss of novelty.
innovation; renovation &c. (restoration) 660.
modernism; mushroom, parvenu; latest fashion.
V. renew &c. (restore) 660; modernize.
Adj. new, novel, recent, fresh, green; young &c. 127; evergreen; raw,
immature; virgin; untried, unhandseled, untrodden, unbeaten; fire-new,
late, modern, neoteric, hypermodern, nouveau; new-born, nascent,
neonatal[med.], new-fashioned, new-fangled, new-fledged; of yesterday;
just out, brand-new, up to date, up to the minute, with it, fashionable, in
fashion; in, hip [coll.]; vernal, renovated, sempervirent, sempervirid.
fresh as a rose, fresh as a daisy, fresh as paint; spick and span.
Adv. newly &c. adj.; afresh, anew, lately, just now, only yesterday,
the other day; latterly, of late.
not long ago, a short time ago.
Phr. di novello tutto par bello; nullum est jam dictum quod non dictum
est prius; una scopa nuova spazza bene.

#124. Oldness. -- N. oldness &c. adj.; age, antiquity; cobwebs of
antiquity. maturity; decline, decay; senility &c. 128.
seniority, eldership, primogeniture. archaism &c. (the past) 122;
thing of the past, relic of the past; megatherium; Sanskrit.
tradition, prescription, custom, immemorial usage, common law.
V. be old &c. adj.; have had its day, have seen its day; become old
&c. adj.; age, fade, senesce.
Adj. old, ancient, antique; of long standing, time-honored, venerable;
elder, eldest; firstborn.
prime; primitive, primeval, primigenous; paleoanthropic, paleolithic,
; primordial, primordinate; aboriginal &c. (beginning) 66; diluvian,
antediluvian; protohistoric; prehistoric; antebellum, colonial,
precolumbian; patriarchal, preadamite; paleocrystic; fossil, paleozoic,
preglacial, antemundane; archaic, classic, medieval, Pre-Raphaelite,
ancestral, black-letter.
immemorial, traditional, prescriptive, customary, whereof the memory
of man runneth not to the contrary; inveterate, rooted.
antiquated, of other times, rococo, of the old school, after-age,
obsolete; out of date, out of fashion, out of it; stale, old-fashioned,
behind the age; old-world; exploded; gone out, gone by; passe, run out;
senile &c. 128; time worn; crumbling &c. (deteriorated) 659; secondhand.
old as the hills, old as Methuselah, old as Adam, old as history.
Adv. since the world was made, since the year one, since the days of
Phr. vetera extollimus recentium incuriosi [Tacitus].

#125. Morning. [Noon.] -- N. morning, morn, forenoon, a.m., prime,
dawn, daybreak; dayspring, foreday, sunup;
peep of day, break of day; aurora; first blush of the morning, first flush
of the morning, prime of the morning; twilight, crepuscule, sunrise;
cockcrow, cockcrowing; the small hours, the wee hours of the morning.
spring; vernal equinox, first point of Aries.
noon; midday, noonday; noontide, merodoam, prime; nooning, noontime.
summer, midsummer.
Adj. matin, matutinal; vernal.
Adv. at sunrise &c. n.; with the sun, with the lark, "when the morning
Phr. "at shut of evening flowers" [Paradise Lost]; entre chien et
loup; "flames in the forehead of the morning sky" [Milton]; "the breezy
call of incense-breathing morn" [Gray].

#126. Evening. [Midnight.] -- N. evening, eve; decline of day, fall of
day, close of day; candlelight, candlelighting; eventide, nightfall,
curfew, dusk, twilight, eleventh hour; sunset, sundown; going down of the
sun, cock- shut, dewy eve, gloaming, bedtime.
afternoon, postmeridian, p.m.
autumn; fall, fall of the leaf; autumnal equinox; Indian summer, St.
Luke's summer, St. Martin's summer.
midnight; dead of night, witching hour, witching hour of night,
witching time of night; winter; killing time.
Adj. vespertine, autumal, nocturnal.
Phr. "midnight, the outpost of advancing day" [Longfellow]; "sable-
vested Night" [Milton]; "this gorgeous arch with golden worlds inlay'd"

<-- p. 37 -->

#127. Youth. -- N. youth; juvenility, juvenescence; juniority;
infancy; babyhood, childhood, boyhood, girlhood, youthhood; incunabula;
minority, nonage, teens, tender age, bloom.
cradle, nursery, leading strings, pupilage, puberty, pucelage.
prime of life, flower of life, springtide of life, seedtime of life,
golden season of life; heyday of youth, school days; rising generation.
Adj. young, youthful, juvenile, green, callow, budding, sappy, puisne,
beardless, under age, in one's teens; in statu pupillari; younger, junior;
hebetic, unfledged.
Phr. "youth on the prow and pleasure at the helm" [Gray]; youth . . .
the glad season of life" [Carlyle].

#128. Age. -- N. age; oldness &c. adj.; old age, advanced age, golden
years; senility, senescence; years, anility, gray hairs, climacteric, grand
climacteric, declining years, decrepitude, hoary age, caducity,
superannuation; second childhood, second childishness; dotage; vale of
years, decline of life, "sear and yellow leaf" [Macbeth]; threescore years
and ten; green old age, ripe age; longevity; time of life.
seniority, eldership; elders &c. (veteran) 130; firstling; doyen,
father; primogeniture.
[Science of old age.] geriatrics, nostology|.
V. be aged &c. adj.; grow old, get old &c. adj.; age; decline, wane,
dodder; senesce.
Adj. aged; old &c. 124; elderly, geriatric, senile; matronly, anile|;
in years; ripe, mellow, run to seed, declining, waning, past one's prime;
gray, gray-headed; hoar, hoary; venerable, time-worn, antiquated, passe,
effete, decrepit, superannuated; advanced in life, advanced in years;
stricken in years; wrinkled, long in the tooth, marked with the crow's
foot; having one foot in the grave; doting &c. (imbecile) 499; like the
last of pea time.
older, elder, oldest, eldest; senior; firstborn; ichiban, ichiro
turned of, years old; of a certain age, no spring chicken, old as
Methuselah; ancestral; patriarchal &c. (ancient) 124; gerontic.
Adv. pro tem
Phr. "give me a staff of honor for my age" [Titus Andronicus]; bis
pueri senes; peu de gens savent elre vieux; plenus annis abiit plenus
honoribus [Pliny the Younger]; "old age is creeping on apace" [Byron];
"slow-consuming age"' [Gray]; "the hoary head is a crown of glory"
[Proverbs xvi, 31]; "the silver livery of advised age" [II Henry VI]; to
grow old gracefully; "to vanish in the chinks that Time has made" [Rogers].

#129. Infant.-- N. infant, babe, baby, babe in arms; nurseling,
suckling, yearling, weanling; papoose, bambino; kid; vagitus.
child, bairn, little one, brat, chit, pickaninny, urchin; bantling,
bratling; elf. youth, boy, lad, stripling, youngster, youngun, younker,
callant, whipster, whippersnapper, whiffet [U.S.], schoolboy, hobbledehoy,
hopeful, cadet, minor, master. scion; sap, seedling; tendril, olivebranch,
nestling, chicken, larva, chrysalis, tadpole, whelp, cub, pullet, fry,
callow; codlin ,codling; foetus, calf, colt, pup, foal, kitten; lamb,
lambkin; aurelia, caterpillar, cocoon, nymph, nympha, orphan, pupa,
girl; lass, lassie; wench, miss, damsel, demoiselle; maid, maiden;
virgin; hoyden.
Adj. infantine, infantile; puerile; boyish, girlish, childish,
babyish, kittenish; baby; newborn, unfledged, new-fledged, callow.
in the cradle, in swaddling clothes, in long clothes, in arms, in
leading strings; at the breast; in one's teens.

#130. Veteran.-- N. veteran, old man, seer, patriarch, graybeard;
grandfather, grandsire; grandam; gaffer, gammer; crone; pantaloon;
sexagenarian, octogenarian, nonagenarian, centenarian; old stager; dotard
&c. 501.
preadamite, Methuselah, Nestor, old Parr; elders; forefathers &c.
(paternity) 166.
Phr. "superfluous lags the veteran on the stage" [Johnson].

<-- p. 38 -->

#131. Adolescence. -- N. adolescence, pubescence, majority; adultism;
adultness &c. adj.; manhood, virility, maturity full age, ripe age; flower
of age; prime of life, meridian of life, spring of life.
man &c. 373; woman &c. 374; adult, no chicken.
V. come of age, come to man's estate, come to years of discretion;
attain majority, assume the toga virilis; have cut one's eyeteeth, have
sown one's mild oats.
Adj. adolescent, pubescent, of age; of full age, of ripe age; out of
one's teens, grown up, mature, full grown, in one's prime, middle-aged,
manly, virile, adult; womanly, matronly; marriageable, nubile.

3. Time with reference to an Effect or Purpose

#132. Earliness. -- N. {ant. 133} earliness &c. adj.; morning &c. 125.
punctuality; promptitude &c. (activity) 682; haste &c. (velocity) 274;
suddenness &c. (instantaneity) 113.
prematurity, precocity, precipitation, anticipation; a stitch in time.
V. be early &c. adj., be beforehand &c. adv.; keep time, take time by
the forelock, anticipate, forestall; have the start, gain the start; steal
a march upon; gain time, draw on futurity; bespeak, secure, engage,
accelerate; expedite &c. (quicken) 274; make haste &c. (hurry) 684.
Adj. early, prime, forward; prompt &c. (active) 682; summary.
premature, precipitate, precocious; prevenient, anticipatory; rath.
sudden &c. (instantaneous) 113; unexpected &c. 508; near, near at
hand; immediate.
Adv. early, soon, anon, betimes, rath; eft, eftsoons; ere long, before
long, shortly; .
beforehand; prematurely &c. adj.; precipitately &c. (hastily) 684; too
soon; before its time, before one's time; in anticipation; unexpectedly
&c. 508.
suddenly &c. (instantaneously) 113; before one can say "Jack
Robinson", at short notice, extempore; on the spur of the moment, on the
spur of the occasion [Bacon]; at once; on the spot, on the instant; at
sight; offhand, out of hand; a' vue d'oeil; straight, straightway,
straightforth; forthwith, incontinently, summarily, immediately, briefly,
shortly, quickly, speedily, apace, before the ink is dry, almost
immediately, presently at the first opportunity, in no long time, by and
by, in a while, directly.
Phr. no sooner said than done, immediately, if not sooner; tout vient
a temps pour qui sait attendre.

#132a Punctuality -- N. puncuality, promptness, immediateness.
V. be prompt, be on time, be in time; arrive on time; be in the nick
of time.
Adj. timely, seasonable, in time, punctual, prompt.
Adv. on time, punctually, at the deadline, precisely, exactly; right
on time, to the minute; in time; in good time, in military time, in pudding
time|, in due time; time enough; with no time to spare, by a hair's
Phr. touch and go, not a minute too soon, in the nick of time, just
under the wire, get on board before the train leaves the station.

#133. Lateness. -- N. {ant. 132} lateness &c. adj.; tardiness &c.
(slowness) 275.
delay, delation; cunctation, procrastination; deferring, deferral &c.
v.; postponement, adjournment, prorogation, retardation, respite, pause,
reprieve, stay of execution; protraction, prolongation; Fabian policy,
medecine expectante, chancery suit, federal case; leeway; high time;
moratorium, holdover.
V. be late &c. adj.; tarry, wait, stay, bide, take time; dawdle &c.
(be inactive) 683; linger, loiter; bide one's time, take one's time; gain
time; hang fire; stand over, lie over.
put off, defer, delay, lay over, suspend; table [parliamentary]; shift
off, stave off; waive, retard, remand, postpone, adjourn; procrastinate;
dally; prolong, protract; spin out, draw out, lengthen out, stretch out;
prorogue; keep back; tide over; push to the last, drive to the last; let
the matter stand over; reserve &c. (store) 636; temperize; consult one's
pillow, sleep on it.
lose an opportunity &c. 135; be kept waiting, dance attendance; kick
one's heels, cool one's heels; faire antichambre; wait impatiently; await
&c. (expect) 507; sit up, sit up at night.
Adj. late, tardy, slow, behindhand, serotine, belated, postliminious,
posthumous, backward, unpunctual, untimely; delayed, postponed; dilatory
&c. (slow) 275; delayed &c. v.; in abeyance.
Adv. late; lateward, backward; late in the day; at sunset, at the
eleventh hour, at length, at last; ultimately; after time, behind time,
after the deadline; too late; too late for &c. 135.
slowly, leisurely, deliberately, at one's leisure; ex post facto; sine
die [parl.].
Phr. nonum prematur in annum [Horace]; "against the sunbeams serotine
and lucent" [Longfellow]; ie meglio tardi che mai; deliberando soepe perit
occasio [Syrus].

<-- p. 39 -->

#134. Occasion. -- N. {ant. 135} timeliness, occasion, opportunity,
opening, room; event (eventuality) 151; suitable season, proper season ,
suitable time, proper time; high time; opportuneness &c. adj.;
crisis, turn, juncture, conjuncture; crisis, turning point, given
nick of time; golden opportunity, well timed opportunity, fine
opportunity, favorable opportunity, opening; clear stage, fair field;
mollia tempora; fata Morgana; spare time &c. (leisure) 685.
V. seize &c. (take) 789 an opportunity, use &c. 677 an opportunity,
give &c. 784 an opportunity, use an occasion; improve the occasion.
suit the occasion &c. (be expedient) 646.
seize the occasion, strike while the iron is hot, battre le fer sur
l'enclume, make hay while the sun shines, seize the present hour, take time
by the forelock, prendre la balle au bond.
Adj. opportune, timely, well-timed, timeful, seasonable.
providential, lucky, fortunate, happy, favorable, propitious,
auspicious, critical; suitable &c. 23; obiter dicta.
Adv. opportunely &c. adj.; in proper course, in due course, in proper
season, in due season, in proper time, in due time; for the nonce; in the
nick of time, in the fullness of time; all in good time; just in time, at
the eleventh hour, now or never.
by the way, by the by; en passant, a propos; pro re nata, pro hac
vice; par parenthese, parenthetically, by way of parenthesis, incidentally;
while speaking of, while on the subject; extempore; on the spur of the
moment, on the spur of the occasion; on the spot &c. (early) 132.
Phr. carpe diem, [Horace]; occasionem cognosce; one's hour is come,
the time is up; that reminds me, now that you mention it, come to think of
it; bien perdu bien connu; e sempre l'ora; ex quovis ligno non fit
Mercurius; nosce tempus; nunc aut nunquam.

#135. Untimeliness -- N. {ant. 134} untimeliness, intempestivity,
unseasonableness, inexpedience; unsuitable time, improper time;
unreasonableness &c. adj; evil hour; contretemps; intrusion; anachronism
&c. 115.
bad time, wrong time, inappropriate time, not the right occasion,
unsuitable time, inopportune time, poor timing.
V. be ill timed &c. adj.; mistime, intrude, come amiss, break in upon;
have other fish to fry; be busy, be occupied.
lose an opportunity, throw away an opportunity, waste an opportunity,
neglect &c. 460 an opportunity; allow the opportunity to pass, suffer the
opportunity to pass, allow the opportunity to slip, suffer the opportunity
to slip, allow the opportunity to go by, suffer the opportunity to go by,
allow the opportunity to escape, suffer the opportunity to escape, allow
the opportunity to lapse, suffer the opportunity to lapse, allow the
occasion to pass, allow the occasion to slip by; waste time &c. (be
inactive) 683; let slip through the fingers, lock the barn door after the
horse is stolen.
Adj. ill-timed, mistimed; ill-fated, ill-omened, ill-starred;
untimely, unseasonable; out of date, out of season, out of tuen;
inopportune, timeless, intrusive, untoward, mal a propos, unlucky,
inauspicious, infelicitous, unbefitting, unpropitious, unfortunate,
unfavorable; unsuited &c. 24; inexpedient &c. 647.
unpunctual &c. (late) 133; too late for; premature &c. (early) 132;
too soon for; wise after the event, monday morning quarterbacking, twenty-
twenty hindsight.
Adv. inopportunely &c. adj.; as ill luck would have it, in an evil
hour, the time having gone by, a day after the fair.
Phr. after death the doctor, after meat mustard.


#136. Frequency. -- N. frequency, oftness, oftenness, commonness;
repetition &c. 104; normality &c. 80; example (conformity) 82; routine,
custom (habit) 613.
regularity, uniformity, constancy, clock-work precision; punctuality
&c. (exactness) 494; even tenor; system; routine &c. (custom) 613; formula;
rule &c. (form, regulation) 697; keynote, standard, model; precedent &c.
(prototype) 22; conformity &c. 82.
V. recur &c. 104; do nothing but; keep, keep on.
Adj. frequent, many times, not rare, thickcoming, incessant,
perpetual, continual, steady, constant, thick; uniform; repeated &c. 104;
customary &c. 613 (habit) 613; regular (normal) 80; according to rule &c.
(conformable) 82.
common, everyday, usual, ordinary, familiar.
old-hat, boring, well-known, trivial.
Adv. often, oft; ofttimes, oftentimes; frequently; repeatedly &c. 104;
unseldom, not unfrequently; in quick succession, in rapid succession; many
a time and oft; daily, hourly &c.; every day, every hour, every moment &c.
perpetually, continually, constantly, incessantly, without ceasing, at
all times, daily and hourly, night and day, day and night, day after day,
morning noon and night, ever anon, invariably (habit) 613 .
most often; commonly &c. (habitually) 613.
sometimes, occasionally, at times, now and then, from time to time,
there being times when, toties quoties, often enough, when the mood
strikes, again and again.

<-- p. 40 -->

#137. Infrequency.-- N. infrequency, rareness, rarity; fewness &c.
103; seldomness; uncommonness.
V. be rare &c. adj.
Adj. unfrequent, infrequent; rare, rare as a blue diamond; few &c.
103; scarce; almost unheard of, unprecedented, which has not occurred
within the memory of the oldest inhabitant, not within one's previous
Adv. seldom, rarely, scarcely, hardly; not often, not much,
infrequently, unfrequently, unoften; scarcely, scarcely ever, hardly ever;
once in a blue moon.
once; once -for all, - in a way; pro hac vice.
Phr. ein mal kein mal.

#138. Regularity of recurrence. Periodicity. -- N. periodicity,
intermittence; beat; oscillation &c. 314; pulse, pulsation; rhythm;
alternation, alternateness, alternativeness, alternity.
bout, round, revolution, rotation, turn, say.
anniversary, jubilee, centenary.
catamenia;, courses, menses, menstrual flux.
[Regularity of return] rota, cycle, period, stated time, routine; days
of the week; Sunday, Monday &c.; months of the year; January &c.; feast,
fast &c.; Christmas, Easter, New Year's day
Allhallows, Allhallowmas, All Saints' Day; All Souls', All Souls' Day;
Ash Wednesday, bicentennial, birthday, bissextile, Candlemas, Dewali,
groundhog day [U.S.], Halloween, Hallowmas, Lady day, leap year, Midsummer
day, Muharram, woodchuck day [U.S.], St. Swithin's day, natal day;
yearbook; yuletide.
punctuality, regularity, steadiness.
V. recur in regular order, recur in regular succession; return,
revolve; come again, come in its turn; come round, come round again; beat,
pulsate; alternate; intermit.
Adj. periodic, periodical; serial, recurrent, cyclical, rhythmical;
recurring &c. v.; intermittent, remittent; alternate, every other.
hourly; diurnal, daily; quotidian, tertian, weekly; hebdomadal|,
hebdomadary|; biweekly, fortnightly; bimonthly; catamenial|; monthly,
menstrual; yearly, annual; biennial, triennial, &c.; centennial, secular;
paschal, lenten, &c.
regular, steady, punctual, regular as clockwork.
Adv. periodically &c. adj.; at regular intervals, at stated times; at
fixed established , at established periods; punctually &c. adj. de die in
diem; from day to day, day by day.
by turns; in turn, in rotation; alternately, every other day, off and
on, ride and tie, round and round.

#139. Irregularity of recurrence. -- N. irregularity, uncertainty,
unpunctuality; fitfulness &c. adj.; capriciousness, ecrhythmus|.
Adj. irregular, uncertain, unpunctual, capricious, desultory, fitful,
flickering; rambling, rhapsodical; spasmodic; immethodical, unmethodical,
Adv. irregularly &c. adj.; by fits and starts &c. (discontinuously)



#140. [Difference at different times.] Change. -- N. change,
alteration, mutation, permutation, variation, modification, modulation,
inflexion, mood, qualification, innovation, metastasis, deviation, turn,
evolution, revolution; diversion; break.
transformation, transfiguration; metamorphosis; transmutation;
deoxidization; transubstantiation; mutagenesis, transanimation,
transmigration, metempsychosis|; avatar; alterative.
conversion &c. (gradual change) 144; revolution &c. (sudden or radical
change) 146 inversion &c. (reversal) 218; displacement &c. 185;
transference &c. 270.
changeableness &c. 149; tergiversation &c. (change of mind)
V. change, alter, vary, wax and wane; modulate, diversify, qualify,
tamper with; turn, shift, veer, tack, chop, shuffle, swerve, warp, deviate,
turn aside, evert, intervert; pass to, take a turn, turn the corner,
work a change, modify, vamp, superinduce; transform, transfigure,
transmute, transmogrify, transume; metamorphose, ring the changes.
innovate, introduce new blood, shuffle the cards; give a turn to, give
a color to; influence, turn the scale; shift the scene, turn over a new
recast &c. 146; reverse &c. 218; disturb &c. 61; convert into &c. 144.
Adj. changed &c. v.; newfangled; changeable &c. 149; transitional;
modifiable; alterative.
Adv. mutatis mutandis.
Int. quantum mutatus!
Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron]; nous avons
change tout cela [Moliere]; tempora mutantur nos et mutamur in illis; non
sum qualis eram [Horace]; casaque tourner; corpora lente augescent cito
extinguuntur [Tacitus]; in statu quo ante bellum; "still ending and
beginning still" [Cowper]; vox audita perit littera scripta manet.

<-- p. 41 -->

#141. [Absence of change.] Permanence. -- N. stability &c. 150;
quiescence &c. 265; obstinacy &c. 606.
permanence, persistence, endurance; durability; standing, status quo;
maintenance, preservation, conservation; conservation; law of the Medes and
Persians; standing dish.
V. let alone, let be, let it be; persist, remain, stay, tarry, rest;
stet [copy editing]; hold, hold on; last, endure, bide, abide, aby, dwell,
maintain, keep; stand, stand still, stand fast; subsist, live, outlive,
survive; hold one's ground, keep one's ground, hold one's footing, keep
one's footing; hold good.
Adj. stable &c. 150; persisting &c. v.; permanent; established;
unchanged &c. (change &c. 140); renewed; intact, inviolate; persistent;
monotonous, uncheckered; unfailing.
undestroyed, unrepealed, unsuppressed; conservative, qualis ab
incepto; prescriptive &c. (old) 124; stationary &c. 265.
Adv. in statu quo; for good, finally; at a stand, at a standstill; uti
possidetis; without a shadow of turning.
Phr. esto perpetua; nolumus leges Angliae mutari; j'y suis et j'y

#142. [Change from action to rest.] Cessation. -- N. cessation,
discontinuance, desistance, desinence.
intermission, remission; suspense, suspension; interruption; stop;
stopping &c. v.; closure, stoppage, halt; arrival &c. 292. pause, rest,
lull, respite, truce, drop; interregnum, abeyance; cloture [U.S. congress].
dead stop, dead stand, dead lock; finis, cerrado; blowout, burnout,
meltdown, disintegration; comma, colon, semicolon, period, full stop; end
&c. 67; death &c. 360.
V. cease, discontinue, desist, stay, halt; break off, leave off; hold,
stop, pull up, stop short; stick, hang fire; halt; pause, rest; burn out,
blow out, melt down.
have done with, give over, surcease, shut up shop; give up &c.
(relinquish) 624.
hold one's hand, stay one's hand; rest on one's oars repose on one's
come to a stand, come to a standstill; come to a deadlock, come to a
full stop; arrive &c. 292; go out, die away; wear away, wear off; pass away
&c. (be past) 122; be at an end; disintegrate, self-destruct.
intromit, interrupt, suspend, interpel; intermit, remit; put an end
to, put a stop to, put a period to; derail; turn off, switch off, power
down, deactivate, disconnect; bring to a stand, bring to a standstill;
stop, cut short, arrest, stem the tide, stem the torrent; pull the check-
string, pull the plug on.
Int. hold! stop! enough! avast! have done! a truce to! soft! leave
off! tenez!
Phr. "I pause for a reply" [Julius Caesar].

#143. Continuance in action. -- N. continuance, continuation; run;
perpetuation, prolongation; persistence &c. (perserverance) 604a;
repetition &c. 104.
V. continue, persist; go on, jog on, keep on, run on, hold on; abide,
keep, pursue, stick to its course, take its course, maintain its course;
carry on, keep up.
sustain, uphold, hold up, keep on foot; follow up, perpetuate;
maintain; preserve &c.. 604a; harp upon &c. (repeat) 104.
keep going, keep alive, keep the pot boiling, keep up the ball, keep
up the good work; die in harness, die with one's boots on; hold on the even
tenor of one's way, pursue the even tenor of one's way.
let be; stare super antiquas vias; quieta non movere; let things take
their course; stare decisis [Jurisprudence].
Adj. continuing &c. v.; uninterrupted, unintermitting, unvarying,
unshifting; unreversed, unstopped, unrevoked, unvaried; sustained; undying
&c. (perpetual) 112; inconvertible.
Int. keep it up! go to it! right away! right on! attaboy!
Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari; vestigia nulla retrorsum [Horace];
labitur et albetur [Horace].

<-- p. 42 -->

#144. [Gradual change to something different.] Conversion. -- N.
conversion, reduction, transmutation, resolution, assimilation; evolution,
sea change; change of state; assumption; naturalization; transportation;
development [biol.], developing [photography].
[conversion of currency] conversion of currency, exchange of currency;
exchange rate; bureau de change.
chemistry, alchemy; progress, growth, lapse, flux.
passage; transit, transition; transmigration, shifting &c. v.; phase;
conjugation; convertibility.
crucible, alembic, caldron, retort.
onvert, pervert, renegade, apostate.
V. be converted into; become, get, wax; come to, turn to, turn into,
evolve into, develop into; turn out, lapse, shift; run into, fall into,
pass into, slide into, glide into, grow into, ripen into, open into,
resolve itself into, settle into, merge into, emerge as; melt, grow, come
round to, mature, mellow; assume the form of, assume the shape of, assume
the state of, assume the nature of, assume the character of; illapse|;
begin a new phase, assume a new phase, undergo a change.
convert into, resolve into; make, render; mold, form &c. 240; remodel,
new model, refound, reform, reorganize; assimilate to, bring to, reduce to.
Adj. converted into &c. v.; convertible, resolvable into;
transitional; naturalized.
Adv. gradually, &c. (slowly) 275 in transitu &c. (transference) 270.

#145. Reversion. -- N. reversion, return; revulsion.
turning point, turn of the tide; status quo ante bellum; calm before a
storm. alternation &c. (periodicity) 138; inversion &c. 219; recoil &c.
277; retreat, regression, retrogression &c. 283; restoration &c. 660;
relapse, recidivism &c. 661; atavism; vicinism;
V. revert, turn back; relapse &c. 661; recoil &c. 277; retreat &c.
283; restore &c. 660; undo, unmake; turn the tide, roll back the tide, turn
the scale, tip the scale.
Adj. reverting &c. v.; revulsive, reactionary; retrorse.
Adv. a rebours.

#146. [Sudden or violent change.] Revolution. -- N. revolution,
bouleversement, subversion, break up; destruction &c. 162; sudden change,
radical change, sweeping organic change; change of state, phase change;
quantum leap, quantum jump; clean sweep, coup d'etat, counter revolution.
jump, leap, plunge, jerk, start, transilience|; explosion; spasm,
convulsion, throe, revulsion; storm, earthquake, cataclysm.
legerdemain &c. (trick) 545.
V. revolutionize; new model, remodel, recast; strike out something
new, break with the past; change the face of, unsex.
Adj. unrecognizable; revolutionary.

#147. [Change of one thing for another.] Substitution. -- N.
substitution, commutation; supplanting &c. v.; metaphor, metonymy &c.
(figure of speech) 521.
[Thing substituted] substitute, ersatz, makeshift, temporary
expedient, replacement, succedaneum; shift, pis aller, stopgap, jury
rigging, jury mast, locum tenens, warming pan, dummy, scapegoat; double;
changeling; quid pro quo, alternative.
representative &c. (deputy) 759; palimpsest.
price, purchase money, consideration, equivalent.
V. substitute, put in the place of, change for; make way for, give
place to; supply the place of, take the place of; supplant, supersede,
replace, cut out, serve as a substitute; step into stand in the shoes of;
jury rig, make a shift with, put up with; borrow from Peter to pay Paul,
take money out of one pocket and put it in another, cannibalize; commute,
redeem, compound for.
Adj. substituted &c.; ersatz; phony; vicarious, subdititious.
Adv. instead; in place of, in lieu of, in the stead of, in the room
of; faute de mieux.

#148. [Double or mutual change.] Interchange. -- N. interchange,
exchange; commutation, permutation, intermutation; reciprocation,
transposition, shuffling; alternation, reciprocity; castling [at chess];
interchangeableness, interchangeability.
barter &c. 794; tit for tat &c. (retaliation) 718; cross fire,
battledore and shuttlecock; quid pro quo.
V. interchange, exchange, counterchange; bandy, transpose, shuffle,
change bands, swap, permute, reciprocate, commute; give and take, return
the compliment; play at puss in the corner, play at battledore and
shuttlecock; retaliate &c. 718; requite.
Adj. interchanged &c. v.; reciprocal, mutual, commutative,
interchangeable, intercurrent.
Adv. in exchange, vice versa, mutatis mutandis, backwards and
forwards, by turns, turn and turn about; each in his turn, everyone in his
Adj. substituted &c. v.; vicarious, subdititious.
Adv. instead; in place of, in lieu of, in the stead of, in the room
of; faute de mieux.

<-- p. 43 -->


#149. Changeableness. -- N. changeableness &c. adj.; mutability,
inconstancy; versatility, mobility; instability, unstable equilibrium;
vacillation &c. (irresolution) 605; fluctuation, vicissitude; alternation
&c. (oscillation) 314.
restlessness &x. adj. fidgets, disquiet; disquietude, inquietude; unrest;
agitation &c. 315.
moon, Proteus, chameleon, quicksilver, shifting sands, weathercock,
harlequin, Cynthia of the minute, April showers; wheel of Fortune;
transientness &c. 111.
V. fluctuate, vary, waver, flounder, flicker, flitter, flit, flutter,
shift, shuffle, shake, totter, tremble, vacillate, wamble, turn and turn
about, ring the changes; sway to and fro, shift to and fro; change and
change about; waffle, blow with the wind (irresolute) 605; oscillate &c.
314; vibrate between, two extremes, oscillate between, two extremes;
alternate; have as man phases as the moon.
Adj. changeable, changeful; changing &c. 140; mutable, variable,
checkered, ever changing; protean, proteiform|; versatile.
unstaid, inconstant; unsteady, unstable, unfixed, unsettled;
fluctuating &c. v.; restless; agitated &c. 315; erratic, fickle; irresolute
&c. 605; capricious &c. 608; toucb and go; inconsonant, fitful, spasmodic;
vibratory; vagrant, wayward; desultory; afloat; alternating; alterable,
plastic, mobile; transient &c. 111; wavering.
Adv. seesaw &c. (oscillation) 314; off and on.
Phr. "a rolling stone gathers no moss"; pictra mossa non fa muschis;
honores mutant mores; varium et mutabile semper femina [Vergil].

#150. Stability. -- N. stability; immutability &c. adj.;
unchangeableness &c. adj.; constancy; stable equilibrium, immobility,
soundness, vitality, stabiliment, stiffness, ankylosis, solidity, aplomb.
establishment, fixture; rock, pillar, tower, foundation, leopard's
spots, Ethiopia's skin.
permanence &c. 141; obstinacy &c. 606.
V. be firm &c. adj.; stick fast; stand firm, keep firm, remain firm;
weather the storm, stay the course, stick to the course, keep the faith,
don't give in, don't buckle under.
settle, establish, stablish, ascertain, fix, set, stabilitate; retain,
keep hold; make good, make sure; fasten &c. (join) 43; set on its legs,
float; perpetuate.
settle down; strike roots, put down roots, take root; take up one's
abode &c. 184; build one's house on a rock.
Adj. unchangeable, immutable; unaltered, unalterable; not to be
changed, constant; permanent &c. 141; invariable, undeviating; stable,
durable; perennial &c. (diuturnal) 110.
fixed, steadfast, firm, fast, steady, balanced; confirmed, valid;
fiducial; immovable, irremovable, riveted, rooted; settled, established &c.
v.; vested; incontrovertible, stereotyped, indeclinable.
tethered, anchored, moored, at anchor, on a rock, rock solid, firm as
a rock; firmly seated, firmly established &c. v.; deep-rooted,
ineradicable; inveterate; obstinate &c. 606.
transfixed, stuck fast, aground, high and dry, stranded.
indefeasible, irretrievable, intransmutable, incommutable,
irresoluble, irrevocable, irreversible, reverseless, inextinguishable,
irreducible; indissoluble, indissolvable; indestructible, undying,
imperishable, incorruptible, indelible, indeciduous; insusceptible,
insusceptible of change.
Int. stet.
Phr. littera scripta manet.

Present Events

#151. Eventuality. -- N. eventuality, event, occurrence, incident,
affair, matter, thing, episode, happening, proceeding, contingency,
juncture, experience, fact; matter of fact; naked fact, bare facts, just
the facts; phenomenon; advent.
business, concern, transaction, dealing, proceeding; circumstance,
particular, casualty, accident, adventure, passage, crisis, pass,
emergency, contingency, consequence; opportunity (occasion) 143.
the world, life, things, doings, affairs in general; things in
general, affairs in general; the times, state of affairs, order of the day;
course of things, tide of things, stream of things, current of things, run
of things, march of things, course of events; ups and downs of life,
vicissitudes of life; chapter of accidents &c. (chance) 156; situation &c.
(circumstances) 8.
V. happen, occur; take place, take effect; come, become of; come off,
comeabout, come round, come into existence, come forth, come to pass, come
on; pass, present itself; fall; fall out, turn out; run, be on foot, fall
in; befall, betide, bechance; prove, eventuate, draw on; turn up, crop up,
spring up, pop up, arise, show up, show its face, appear, come forth, cast
up; supervene, survene; issue, arrive, ensue, arise, start, hold, take its
course; pass off &c. (be past) 122.
meet with; experience, enjoy, encounter, undergo, suffer, pass
through, go through, be subjected to, be exposed to; fall to the lot of; be
one's chance, be one's fortune, be one's lot; find; ; endure &c. (feel)
Adj. happening &c. v; going on, doing, current; in the wind, in the
air, afloat; on foot, afoot, on the tapis; at issue, in question;
eventful, stirring, bustling, full of incident; memorable, momentous,
Adv. eventually; in the event of, in case, just in case; in the course
of things; as things, times go; as the world goes, wags; as the tree falls,
cat jumps; as it may turn out, happen.
Phr. that's the way the ball bounces, that's the way the cookie
crumbles; you never know what may turn up, you never know what the future
will bring; the plot thickens; "breasts the blows of circumstance"
[Tennyson]; "so runs round of life from hour to hour" [Tennyson] "sprinkled
along the waste of years" [Keble].

<-- p. 44 -->

Future Events

#152. Destiny. -- N. destiny &c. (necessity) 601; future existence,
post existence; hereafter; future state, next world, world to come, after
life; futurity &c. 121; everlasting life, everlasting death; life beyond
the grave, world beyond the grave; prospect &c. (expectation) 507.
V. impend; hang over, lie over; threaten, loom, await, come on,
approach, stare one in the face; foreordain, preordain; predestine, doom,
have in store for.
Adj. impending &c. v.; destined; about to be, happen; coming, in
store, to come, going to happen, instant, at hand, near; near, close at
hand; over hanging, hanging over one's head, imminent; brewing, preparing,
forthcoming; int he wind, on the cards, in reserve; that will, is to be; in
prospect &c. (expected) 507; looming in the distance, horizon, future;
unborn, in embryo; int he womb of time, futurity; pregnant &c. (producing)
Adv. in time, the long run; all in good time; eventually &c. 151;
whatever may happen &c. (certainly) 474; as chance &c. 156 would have it.



#153. [Constant antecedent]. Cause.-- N. cause, origin, source,
principle, element; occasioner, prime mover, primum mobile; vera causa;
author &c. (producer) 164; mainspring; agent; leaven; groudwork, foundation
&c. (support) 215.
spring, fountain, well, font; fountainhead, spring head, wellhead;
fons et origo, genesis; descent &c. (paternity) 166; remote cause;
pivot, hinge, turning point, lever, crux, fulcrum; key; proximate
cause, causa causans; straw that breaks the camel's back.
ground; reason, reason why; why and wherefore, rationale, occasion,
derivation; final cause &c. (intention) 620; les dessous des cartes;
rudiment. egg, germ, embryo, bud, root, radix radical, etymon,
nucleus, seed, stem, stock, stirps, trunk, tap-root, gemmule, radicle,
semen, sperm.
nest, cradle, nursery, womb, nidus, birthplace, hotbed.
causality, causation; origination; production &c. 161.
V. be the cause &c. n of; originate; give origin to, give rise, to,
give occasion to; cause, occasion, sow the seeds of, kindle, suscitate;
bring on, bring to bring pass, bring about; produce; create &c. 161; set
up, set afloat, set on foot; found, broach, institute, lay the foundation
of; lie at the root of.
procure, induce, draw down, open the door to, superinduce, evoke,
entail, operate; elicit, provoke.
conduce to &c. (tend to) 176; contribute; have a hand in the pie, have
a finger in the pie; determine, decide, turn the scale; have a common
origin; derive its origin &c. (effect) 154.
Adj. caused &c. v; causal, original; primary, primitive, primordial;
aboriginal; protogenal; radical; embryonic, embryotic; in embryo, in ovo;
seminal, germinal; at the bottom of; connate, having a common origin.
Adv. because &c. 155; behind the scenes.
Phr. causa latet vis est notissima [Ovid]; felix qui potuit rerum
cognoscere causas [Vergil].

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#154. [Constant sequent.] Effect.-- N. effect, consequence;
aftergrowth, aftercome; derivative, derivation; result; resultant,
resultance; upshot, issue, denouement; end &c. 67; development, outgrowth,
fruit, crop, harvest, product, bud.
production, produce, work, handiwork, fabric, performance; creature,
creation; offspring, offshoot; firstfruits, firstlings; heredity, telegony;
premices premises.
V. be the effect of &c. n. ; be due to,be owing to; originate in,
originate from; rise -, arise, take its rise spring from, proceed from,
emanate from, come from, grow from, bud from, sprout from, germinate from,
issue from, flow from ,result from , follow from, derive its origin from,
accrue from; come to, come of, come out of; depend upon, hang upon, hinge
upon, turn upon.
take the consequences, sow the wind and reap the whirlwind.
Adj. owing to; resulting from &c. v.; derivable from; due to; caused
by &c. 153; ; dependent upon; derived from, evolved from; derivative;
hereditary; telegonous.
Adv. of course, it follows that, naturally, consequently; as a
consequence, in consequence; through, all along of, necessarily,
Phr. cela va sans dire, "thereby hangs a tale" [Taming of the Shrew].

#155. [Assignment of cause] Attribution -- N. attribution, theory,
etiology, ascription, reference to, rationale; accounting for &c. v,;
palaetiology1, imputation, derivation from.
filiation, affiliation; pedigree &c. (paternity) 166.
explanation &c. (interpretation) 522; reason why &c. (cause) 153.
V. attribute to, ascribe to, impute to, refer to, lay to, point to,
trace to, bring home to; put down to, set down to, blame; charge on,
ground on; invest with, assign as cause, lay at, the door of, father upon;
account for, derive from, point out the reason &c. 153; theorize; tell how
it comes; put the saddle on the right horse.
Adj. attributed &c. v.; attributable &c. v.; referable to, referible
to, due to, derivable from; owing to &c. (effect) 154; putative; ecbatic.
Adv. hence, thence, therefore, for, since, on account of, because,
owing to; on that account; from this cause, from that cause; thanks to,
forasmuch as; whence, propter hoc.
why? wherefore? whence? how comes it, how is it, how happens it? how
does it happen?
in some way, in some such way; somehow, somehow or other.
Phr. that is why; hinc illae lachrymae [Horace].
1. Whewell History of the inductive Sciences, book xviii vol. iii.p.
397 (3d edit.).
2 The word Chance has two distinct meanings: the first, the absence
of assignable cause, as above; and the second, the absence of design -- for
the latter see 621.

#156. [Absence of assignable cause.] Chance. 2 -- N. chance,
indetermination, accident, fortune, hazard, hap, haphazard, chance medley,
random, luck, raccroc, casualty, contingence, adventure, hit; fate &c.
(necessity) 601; equal chance; lottery; tombola; toss up &c. 621; turn of
the table, turn of the cards; hazard of the die, chapter of accidents,
fickle finger of fate; cast of the dice, throw of the dice; heads or tails,
flip of a coin, wheel of Fortune; sortes, sortes Virgilianae.
probability, possibility, odds; long odds, run of luck;
accidentalness; main chance, odds on, favorable odds.
contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; situation (circumstance) 8.
statistics, theory of Probabilities, theory of Chances; bookmaking;
assurance; speculation, gaming &c. 621.
V. chance, hap, turn up; fall to one's lot; be one's -fate &c. 601;
stumble on light upon; take one's chance &c. 621.
Adj. casual, fortuitous, accidental, adventitious, causeless,
incidental, contingent, uncaused, undetermined, indeterminate; random,
statistical; possible &c. 470; unintentional &c. 621.
Adv. by chance, accidentally, by accident; casually; perchance &c.
(possibly) 470; for aught one knows; as good would have it, as bad would
have it, as luck would have it, as ill-luck would have it, as chance would
have it; as it may be, as it may chance, as it may turn up, as it may
happen; as the case may be.
Phr. " grasps the skirts of happy chance " [Tennyson]; " the accident
of an accident " [Lord Thurlow]. "There but for the grace of God go I."

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#157. Power.-- N. power; potency, potentiality; jiva; puissance,
might, force, energy &c. 171; dint; right hand, right arm; ascendency,
sway, control; prepotency, prepollence|; almightiness, omnipotence;
authority &c. 737; strength &c. 159.
ability; ableness &c. adj.; competency; efficacy; efficiency;
validity, cogency; enablement; vantage ground; influence &c. 175.
pressure; conductivity; elasticity; gravity, electricity, magnetism,
galvanism, voltaic electricity, voltaism, electromagnetism; attraction;
vis inertiae, vis mortua, vis viva [Latin]; potential energy, dynamic
energy; dynamic friction, dynamic suction; live circuit, live rail, live
capability, capacity; quid valeant humeri quid ferre recusent [Latin];
faculty, quality, attribute, endowment, virtue, gift, property,
qualification, susceptibility.
V. be powerful &c. adj.; gain power &c. n.
belong to, pertain to; lie in one's power, be in one's power; can.
give power, confer power, exercise power &c. n.; empower, enable,
invest; indue, endue; endow, arm; strengthen &c. 159; compel &c. 744.
Adj. powerful, puissant; potential; capable, able; equal to, up to;
cogent, valid; efficient; effective, effectual, efficacious, adequate,
competent; multipotent, plenipotent, omnipotent; almighty.
forcible &c. adj. (energetic) 171; influential &c. 175; productive &c.
Adv. powerfully &c. adj.; by virtue of, by dint of.
Phr. a toute force; ; eripuit
coelo fulmen sceptrumque tyrannis [Latin]; fortis cadere cedere non potest

#158. Impotence.-- N. impotence; inability, disability; disablement,
impuissance, imbecility; incapacity, incapability; inaptitude, ineptitude,
incompetence; indocility; invalidity, disqualification; inefficiency.
telum imbelle, brutum fulmen, blank, blank cartridge, flash in the
pan, vox et proeterea nihil, dead letter, bit of waste paper, dummy;
Quaker gun.
inefficacy &c. (inutility) 645; failure &c. 732.
helplessness &c. adj.; prostration, paralysis, palsy, apoplexy,
syncope, sideration|, deliquium|, collapse, exhaustion, softening of the
brain, inanition; emasculation, orchotomy.
cripple, old woman, muff, mollycoddle.
V. be impotent &c. adj.; not have a leg to stand on.
vouloir rompre l'anguille au genou [French], vouloir prendre la lune
avec les dents [French].
collapse, faint, swoon, fall into a swoon, drop; go by the board, end
in smoke &c. (fail) 732.
render powerless &c. adj.; deprive of power; disable, disenable;
disarm, incapacitate, disqualify, unfit, invalidate, deaden, cramp, tie the
hands; double up, prostrate, paralyze, muzzle, cripple, becripple, maim,
lame, hamstring, draw the teeth of; throttle, strangle, garrotte, garrote;
ratten, silence, sprain, clip the wings of, put hors de combat, spike the
guns; take the wind out of one's sails, scotch the snake, put a spoke in
one's wheel; break the neck, break the back; unhinge, unfit; put out of
unman, unnerve, enervate; emasculate, castrate, geld, alter.
shatter, exhaust, weaken &c. 160.
Adj. powerless, impotent, unable, incapable, incompetent;
innefficient, ineffective; inept; unfit, unfitted; unqualified,
disqualified; unendowed; inapt, unapt; crippled, disabled &c. v.; armless.
harmless, unarmed, weaponless, defenseless, sine ictu, unfortified,
indefensible, vincible, pregnable, untenable.
paralytic, paralyzed; palsied, imbecile; nerveless, sinewless,
marrowless, pithless, lustless; emasculate, disjointed; out of joint, out
of gear; unnerved, unhinged; water-logged, on one's beam ends, rudderless;
laid on one's back; done up, dead beat, exhausted, shattered, demoralized;
graveled &c. (in difficulty) 704; helpless, unfriended, fatherless; without
a leg to stand on, hors de combat, laid on the shelf.
null and void, nugatory, inoperative, good for nothing; ineffectual
&c. (failing) 732; inadequate &c. 640; inefficacious &c. (useless) 645.
Phr. der kranke Mann; "desirous still but impotent to rise"

<-- p. 47 -->

#159. [Degree of power.] Strength.-- N. strength; power &c. 157;
energy &c. 171; vigor, force; main force, physical force, brute force;
spring, elasticity, tone, tension, tonicity.
stoutness &c. adj.; lustihood, stamina, nerve, muscle, sinew, thews
and sinews, physique; pith, pithiness; virtility, vitality.
athletics, athleticism; gymnastics, feats of strength.
adamant, steel, iron, oak, heart of oak; iron grip; grit, bone.
athlete, gymnast, acrobat; superman, Atlas, Hercules, Antaeus, Samson,
Cyclops, Goliath; tower of strength; giant refreshed.
strengthening &c. v.; invigoration, refreshment, refocillation.
[Science of forces] dynamics, statics.
V. be strong &c. adj., be stronger; overmatch.
render strong &c. adj.; give strength &c. n.; strengthen, invigorate,
brace, nerve, fortify, sustain, harden, case harden, steel, gird; screw up,
wind up, set up; gird up one's loins, brace up one's loins; recruit, set on
one's legs; vivify; refresh &c. 689; refect; reenforce &c. (restore) 660.
Adj. strong, mighty, vigorous, forcible, hard, adamantine, stout,
robust, sturdy, hardy, powerful, potent, puissant, valid.
resistless, irresistible, invincible, proof against, impregnable,
unconquerable, indomitable, dominating, inextinguishable, unquenchable;
incontestable; more than a match for; overpowering, overwhelming; all
powerful, all sufficient; sovereign.
able-bodied; athletic; Herculean, Cyclopean, Atlantean; muscular,
brawny, wiry, well-knit, broad-shouldered, sinewy, strapping, stalwart,
manly, man-like, manful; masculine, male, virile.
unweakened, unallayed, unwithered, unshaken, unworn, unexhausted; in
full force, in full swing; in the plenitude of power.
stubborn, thick-ribbed, made of iron, deep-rooted; strong as a lion,
strong as a horse, strong as brandy; sound as a roach; in fine feather, in
high feather; like a giant refreshed.
Adv. strongly &c. adj.; by force &c. n.; by main force & c. (by
compulsion) 744.
Phr. "our withers are unwrung" [Hamlet].
Blut und Eisen; coelitus mihi vires; du fort au diable; en habiles
gens; ex vi termini; flecti non frangi; "he that wrestles with us
strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill" [Burke]; "inflexible in
faith invincible in arms" [Beattie].

<-- p. 48 -->

#160. Weakness.-- N. weakness &c. adj.; debility, atony, relaxation,
languor, enervation; impotence &c. 158; infirmity; effeminacy, feminality;
fragility, flaccidity; inactivity &c. 683.
anaemia, bloodlessness, deficiency of blood, poverty of blood.
declension of strength, loss of strength, failure of strength;
delicacy, invalidation, decrepitude, asthenia, adynamy, cachexy, cachexia,
sprain, strain.
reed, thread, rope of sand, house of cards.
softling, weakling; infant &c. 129; youth &c. 127.
V. be weak &c. adj.; drop, crumble, give way, totter, tremble, shake,
halt, limp, fade, languish, decline, flag, fail, have one leg in the grave.
render weak &c. adj.; weaken, enfeeble, debilitate, shake, deprive of
strength, relax, enervate, eviscerate; unbrace, unnerve; cripple, unman &c.
(render powerless) 158; cramp, reduce, sprain, strain, blunt the edge of;
dilute, impoverish; decimate; extenuate; reduce in strength, reduce the
strength of; mettre de l'eau dans son vin.
Adj. weak, feeble, debile|; impotent &c. 158; relaxed, unnerved, &c.
v.; sapless, strengthless, powerless; weakly, unstrung, flaccid, adynamic,
asthenic; nervous.
soft, effeminate, feminate, womanly.
frail, fragile, shattery; flimsy, unsubstantial, gimcrack,
gingerbread; rickety, cranky; craichy; drooping, tottering &c. v.; broken,
lame, withered, shattered, shaken, crazy, shaky; palsied &c. 158; decrepit.
languid, poor, infirm; faint, faintish; sickly &c. (disease) 655;
dull, slack, evanid|, spent, short-winded, effete; weather-beaten; decayed,
rotten, worn, seedy, languishing, wasted, washy, laid low, pulled down, the
worse for wear.
unstrengthened &c. 159, unsupported, unaided, unassisted; aidless,
defenseless &c. 158.
on its last legs; weak as a child, weak as a baby, weak as a chicken,
weak as a cat, weak as a rat; weak as water, weak as water gruel, weak as
gingerbread, weak as milk and water; colorless &c. 429.
Phr. non sum qualis eram.


#161. Production.-- N. {ant. 162, 158} production, creation,
construction, formation, fabrication, manufacture; building, architecture,
erection, edification; coinage; diaster; organization; nisus formativus;
putting together &c. v.; establishment; workmanship, performance;
achievement &c. (completion) 729.
flowering, fructification; inflorescence.
bringing forth &c. v.: parturition, birth, birth-throe, childbirth,
delivery, confinement, accouchement, travail, labor, midwifery, obstetrics;
geniture; gestation &c. (maturation) 673; assimilation; evolution,
development, growth; entelechy; fertilization, gemination, germination,
heterogamy, genesis, generation, epigenesis, procreation, progeneration,
propagation; fecundation, impregnation; albumen &c. 357.
spontaneous generation; archegenesis, archebiosis; biogenesis,
abiogenesis, digenesis, dysmerogenesis, eumerogenesis, heterogenesis,
oogenesis, merogenesis, metogenesis, monogenesis, parthenogenesis,
homogenesis, xenogenesis1; authorship, publication; works, oeuvre.
biogeny, dissogeny, xenogeny; tocogony, vacuolization.
edifice, building, structure, fabric, erection, pile, tower, flower,
V. produce, perform, operate, do, make, gar, form, construct,
fabricate, frame, contrive, manufacture; weave, forge, coin, carve, chisel;
build, raise, edify, rear, erect, put together, set up, run up; establish,
constitute, compose, organize, institute; achieve, accomplish &c.
(complete) 729.
flower, bear fruit, fructify, teem, ean, yean, farrow, drop, pup,
kitten, kindle; bear, lay, whelp, bring forth, give birth to, lie in, be
brought to bed of, evolve, pullulate, usher into the world.
make productive &c. 168; create; beget, get, generate, fecundate,
impregnate; procreate, progenerate, propagate; engender; bring into being,
call into being, bring into existence; breed, hatch, develop, bring up.
induce, superinduce; suscitate|; cause &c. 153; acquire &c. 775.
Adj. produced, producing &c. v.; productive of; prolific &c. 168;
creative; formative, genetic, genial, genital; pregnant; enceinte, big
with, fraught with; in the family way, teeming, parturient, in the straw,
brought to bed of; puerperal, puerperous.
digenetic, heterogenetic, oogenetic, xenogenetic; ectogenous, gamic,
haematobious, sporogenous, sporophorous.
Phr. ex nihilo nihil; fiat lux; materiam superabat opus [Ovid]; nemo
dat quod non habet [Latin].

#162. [Nonproduction.] Destruction.-- N. {ant. 161} destruction;
waste, dissolution, breaking up; diruption, disruption; consumption;
fall, downfall, ruin, peridition, crash, eboulement, smash, havoc,
delabrement, debacle; break down, break up, fall apart; prostration;
desolation, bouleversement, wreck, wrack, shipwreck, cataclysm; washout.
extinction, annihilation; destruction of life &c. 361; knock-down
blow; doom, crack of doom.
destroying &c. v.; demolition, demolishment; overthrow, subversion,
suppression; abolition &c. (abrogation) 756; biblioclasm; sacrifice;
ravage, devastation, razzia; incendiarism; revolution &c. 146; extirpation
&c. (extraction) 301; commencement de la fin, road to ruin; dilapidation
&c. (deterioration) 659; sabotage.
V. be destroyed &c.; perish; fall to the ground; tumble, topple; go to
pieces, fall to pieces; break up; crumble to dust; go to the dogs, go to
the wall, go to smash, go to shivers, go to wreck, go to pot, go to wrack
and ruin; go by the board, go all to smash; be all over, be all up, be all
with; totter to its fall.
destroy; do away with, make away with; nullify; annual &c. 756;
sacrifice, demolish; tear up; overturn, overthrow, overwhelm; upset,
subvert, put an end to; seal the doom of, do in, do for, dish*, undo; break
up, cut up; break down, cut down, pull down, mow down, blow down, beat
down; suppress, quash, put down, do a job on; cut short, take off, blot
out; dispel, dissipate, dissolve; consume.
smash, crash, quell, squash, squelch, crumple up, shatter, shiver;
batter to pieces, tear to pieces, crush to pieces, cut to pieces, shake to
pieces, pull to pieces, pick to pieces; laniate; nip; tear to rags, tear to
tatters; crush to atoms, knock to atoms; ruin; strike out; throw over,
knock down over; fell, sink, swamp, scuttle, wreck, shipwreck, ingulf,
submerge; lay in ashes, lay in ruins; sweep away, erase, wipe out, expunge,
raze; level with the dust, level with the ground.
deal destruction, lay waste, ravage gut; disorganize; dismantle &c.
(render useless) 645; devour, swallow up, desolate, devastate, sap, mine,
blast, bomb, blow to smithereens, drop the big one, confound; exterminate,
extinguish, quench, annihilate; snuff out, put out, stamp out, trample out;
lay in the dust, trample in the dust; prostrate; tread under foot; crush
under foot, trample under foot; lay the ax to the root of; make short work
of, make clean sweep of, make mincement of; cut up root and branch, chop
into pieces; fling to the winds, scatter to the winds; throw overboard;
strike at the root of, sap the foundations of, spring a mine, blow up,
ravage with fire and sword; cast to the dogs; eradicate &c. 301.
Adj. destroyed & c. v.; perishing &c. v.; trembling to its fall,
nodding to its fall, tottering to its fall; in course of -destruction &c.
n.; extinct; all-destroying, all-devouring, all-engulfing.
destructive, subversive, ruinous, incendiary, deletory|; destroying
&c. n. suicidal; deadly &c. (killing) 361.
Adv. with crushing effect, with a sledge hammer.
Phr. delenda est Carthago; dum Roma deliberat Saguntum perit; ecrasez
l'infame [Voltaire].

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#163. Reproduction.-- N. reproduction, renovation; restoration &c.
660; renewal; new edition, reprint, revival, regeneration, palingenesis,
revivication; apotheosis; resuscitation, reanimation, resurrection,
reappearance; regrowth; Phoenix.
generation &c. (production) 161; multiplication.
V. reproduce; restore &c. 660; revive, renovate, renew, regenerate,
revivify, resuscitate, reanimate, refashion, stir the embers, put into the
crucible; multiply, repeat; resurge.
crop up, spring up like mushrooms.
Adj. reproduced &c. v.; renascent, reappearing; reproductive;

#164. Producer.-- N. producer, originator, inventor, author, founder,
generator, mover, architect, creator, prime mover; maker &c. (agent) 690;
prime mover.

#165. Destroyer.-- N. destroyer &c. (destroy &c. 162); cankerworm &c.
(bane) 663; assassin &c. (killer) 361; executioner &c. (punish) 975;
biblioclast, eidoloclast, iconoclast, idoloclast; nihilist.

#166. Paternity.-- N. paternity; parentage; consanguinity &c. 11.
parent; father, sire, dad, papa, paterfamilias, abba; genitor,
progenitor, procreator; ancestor; grandsire, grandfather; great-
grandfather; fathership, fatherhood; mabap.
house, stem, trunk, tree, stock, stirps, pedigree, lineage, line,
family, tribe, sept, race, clan; genealogy, descent, extraction, birth,
ancestry; forefathers, forbears, patriarchs.
motherhood, maternity; mother, dam, mamma, materfamilias, grandmother.
Adj. paternal, parental; maternal; family, ancestral, linear,
Phr. avi numerantur avorum; "happy he with such a mother" [Tennyson];
hombre bueno no le busquen abolengo; philosophia stemma non inspicit

<-- p. 50 -->

#167. Posterity.-- N. posterity, progeny, breed, issue, offspring,
brood, litter, seed, farrow, spawn, spat; family, grandchildren, heirs;
child, son, daughter; butcha; bantling, scion; acrospire, plumule,
shoot, sprout, olive-branch, sprit, branch; off-shoot, off-set;
ramification; descendant; heir, heiress; heir-apparent, heir-presumptive;
chip off the old block; heredity; rising generation.
straight descent, sonship, line, lineage, filiation, primogeniture.
Adj. filial; diphyletic.
Phr. "the child is father of the man" [Wordsworth].

#168. Productiveness -- N. productiveness &c. adj.; fecundity,
fertility, luxuriance, uberty|.
pregnancy, pullulation, fructification, multiplication, propagation,
procreation; superfetation.
milch cow, rabbit, hydra, warren, seed plot, land flowing with milk
and honey; second crop, aftermath; aftercrop, aftergrowth; arrish, eddish,
rowen; protoplasm; fertilization.
V. make -productive &c. adj.; fructify; procreate, generate,
fertilize, spermative, impregnate; fecundate, fecundify; teem, multiply;
produce &c. 161; conceive.
Adj. productive, prolific; teeming, teemful; fertile, fruitful,
frugiferous, fruit-bearing; fecund, luxuriant; pregnant, uberous.
procreant, procreative; generative, life-giving, spermatic;
multiparous; omnific, propagable.
parturient &c. (producing) 161; profitable &c. (useful) 644.

#169. Unproductiveness.-- N. unproductiveness &c. adj.; infertility,
sterility, infecundity; impotence &c. 158; unprofitableness &c.
(inutility) 645.
waste, desert, Sahara, wild, wilderness, howling wilderness.
V. be - unproductive &c. adj.; hang fire, flash in the pan, come to
[make unproductive] sterilize, addle; disable, inactivate.
Adj. unproductive, acarpous, inoperative, barren, addled, unfertile,
unprolific, arid, sterile, unfruitful, infecund; sine prole; fallow;
teemless, issueless, fruitless; unprofitable &c. (useless) 645; null and
void, of no effect.

#170. Agency.-- N. agency, operation, force, working, strain,
function, office, maintenance, exercise, work, swing, play; interworking,
interaction; procurement.
causation &c. 153; instrumentality &c. 631; influence &c. 175; action
&c. (voluntary) 680; modus operandi &c. 627.
quickening power, maintaining power, sustaining power; home stroke.
V. be -in action &c. adj.; operate, work; act, act upon; perform,
play, support, sustain, strain, maintain, take effect, quicken, strike.
come play, come bring into operation; have play, have free play; bring
to bear upon.
Adj. operative, efficient, efficacious, practical, effectual.
at work, on foot; acting &c. (doing) 680; in operation, in force, in
action, in play, in exercise; acted upon, wrought upon.
Adv. by the -agency &c. n.- of; through &c. (instrumentality) 631; by
means of &c. 632.
Phr. "I myself must mix with action lest I wither by despair"

#171. Physical Energy.-- N. energy, physical energy, force, keenness
&c. adj.; intensity, vigor, strength, elasticity; go; high pressure; fire;
acrimony, acritude; causiticity, virulence; poignancy; harshness &c.
adj.; severity, edge, point; pungency &c. 392.
cantharides; seasoning &c. (condiment) 393.
activity, agitation, effervescence; ferment, fermentation; ebullition,
splutter, perturbation, stir, bustle; voluntary energy &c. 682;
resolution &c. (mental energy) 604; exertion &c. (effort) 686;
excitation &c. (mental) 824.
V. give -energy &c. n.; energize, stimulate, kindle, excite, exert;
sharpen, intensify; inflame &c. (render violent) 173; wind up &c.
(strengthen) 159.
strike home, into home, hard home; make an impression.
Adj. strong, energetic, forcible, active; intense, deep-dyed, severe,
keen, vivid, sharp, acute, incisive, trenchant, brisk.
rousing, irritation; poignant; virulent, caustic, corrosive, mordant,
harsh, stringent; double-edged, double-shotted, double-distilled; drastic,
escharotic|; racy &c. (pungent) 392.
potent &c. (powerful) 157; radioactive.
Adv. strongly &c. adj.; fortiter in re; with telling effect.
Phr. the steam is up; vires acquirit eundo; "the race by vigor not by
vaunts is won" [Pope].

<-- p. 51 -->

#172. Physical Inertness.-- N. inertness, dullness &c. adj.; inertia,
vis inertioe, inertion, inactivity, torpor, languor; quiescence &c. 265;
latency, inaction; passivity.
mental inertness; sloth &c. (inactivity) 683; inexcitability &c. 826;
irresolution &c. 605; obstinacy &c. 606; permanence &c. 141.
V. be -inert &c. adj.; hang fire, smolder.
Adj. inert, inactive, passive; torpid &c. 683; sluggish, dull, heavy,
flat, slack, tame, slow, blunt; unreactive; lifeless, dead, uninfluential.
latent, dormant, smoldering, unexerted.
Adv. inactively &c. adj.; insuspense, inabeyance.

#173. Violence.-- N. violence, inclemency, vehemence, might,
impetuosity; boisterousness &c. adj.; effervescence, ebullition;
turbulence, bluster; uproar, callithump [U. S.], riot, row, rumpus, le
diable a quatre, devil to pay, all the fat in the fire.
severity &c. 739; ferocity, rage, fury; exacerbation, exasperation,
malignity; fit, paroxysm; orgasm, climax, aphrodisia; force, brute force;
outrage; coup de main; strain, shock, shog; spasm, convulsion, throe;
hysterics, passion &c. (state of excitability) 825.
outbreak, outburst; debacle; burst, bounce, dissilience, discharge,
volley, explosion, blow up, blast, detonation, rush, eruption, displosion|,
turmoil &c. (disorder) 59; ferment &c. (agitation) 315; storm,
tempest, rough weather; squall &c. (wind) 349; earthquake, volcano,
berserk, berserker; fury, dragon, demon, tiger, beldame, Tisiphone,
Megaera, Alecto, madcap, wild beast; fire eater &c. (blusterer) 887.
V. be -violent &c. adj.; run high; ferment, effervesce; romp, rampage;
run wild, run amuck, run riot; break the peace; rush, tear; rush headlong,
rush foremost; raise a storm, make a riot, make a row, kick up a row; ;
rough house*; bluster, rage, roar, riot, storm; boil, boil over; fume,
foam, come on like a lion; wreak, bear down, ride roughshod, out Herod,
Herod; spread like wildfire.
break out, fly out, burst out; bounce, explode, go off, displode|,
fly, detonate, thunder, blow up, flash, flare, burst; shock, strain; break
open, force open, prize open.
render -violent &c. adj.; sharpen, stir up, quicken, excite, incite,
annoy, urge, lash, stimulate, turn on; irritate, inflame, kindle,
suscitate|, foment; accelerate, aggravate, exasperate, exacerbate,
convulse, infuriate, madden, lash into fury; fan the flame; add fuel to the
flame, pour oil on the fire, oleum addere camino.
explode; let fly, fly off; discharge, detonate, set off, detonize,
Adj. violent, vehement; warm; acute, sharp; rough, rude, ungentle,
bluff, boisterous, wild; brusque, abrupt, waspish; impetuous; rampant.
turbulent; disorderly; blustering, raging &c. v.; troublous, riotous;
tumultuary, tumultuous; obstreperous, uproarious; extravagant; unmitigated;
ravening, tameless; frenzied &c. (insane) 503. desperate &c. (rash) 863;
infuriate, furious, outrageous, frantic, hysteric, in hysterics.
fiery, flaming, scorching, hot, red-hot, ebullient.
savage, fierce, ferocious, fierce as a tiger.
excited &c. v.; unquelled, unquenched, unextinguished, unrepressed,
unbridled, unruly; headstrong, ungovernable, unappeasable, unmitigable;
uncontrollable, incontrollable; insuppressible, irrepressible; orgastic.
spasmodic, convulsive, explosive; detonating &c. v.; volcanic,
meteoric; stormy &c. (wind) 349.
Adv. violently &c. adj.; amain; by storm, by force, by main force;
with might and main; tooth and nail, vi et armis, at the point of the
sword, at the point of the bayonet; at one fell swoop; with a high hand,
through thick and thin; in desperation, with a vengeance; a outrance, a
toute outrance; headlong, head foremost.
Phr. furor arma ministrat; "blown with restless violence round about
the pendent world" [Measure for Measure].

<-- p. 52 -->

#174. Moderation.-- N. moderation, lenity &c. 740; temperateness,
gentleness &c. adj.; sobriety; quiet; mental calmness &c. (inexcitability)
moderating &c. v.; anaphrodisia; relaxation, remission, mitigation,
tranquilization, assuagement, contemporation, pacification.
measure, juste milieu, golden mean, .
moderator; lullaby, sedative, lenitive, demulcent, antispasmodic,
carminative, laudanum; rose water, balm, poppy, opiate, anodyne, milk,
opium, "poppy or mandragora"; wet blanket; palliative.
V. be -moderate &c. adj.; keep within bounds, keep within compass;
sober down, settle down; keep the peace, remit, relent, take in sail.
moderate, soften, mitigate, temper, accoy|; attemper, contemper;
mollify, lenify, dulcify, dull, take off the edge, blunt, obtund, sheathe,
subdue, chasten; sober down, tone down, smooth down; weaken &c. 160; lessen
&c. (decrease) 36; check palliate.
tranquilize, pacify, assuage, appease, swag, lull, soothe, compose,
still, calm, calm down, cool, quiet, hush, quell, sober, pacify, tame,
damp, lay, allay, rebate, slacken, smooth, alleviate, rock to sleep,
deaden, smooth, throw cold water on, throw a wet blanket over, turn off;
slake; curb &c. (restrain) 751; tame &c. (subjugate) 749; smooth over; pour
oil on the waves, pour oil on the troubled waters; pour balm into, mattre
de l'eau dans son vin.
go out like a lamb, "roar you as gently as any sucking dove,"
[Midsummer-Night's Dream].
Adj. moderate; lenient &c. 740; gentle, mild, mellow; cool, sober,
temperate, reasonable, measured; tempered &c. v.; calm, unruffled, quiet,
tranquil, still; slow, smooth, untroubled; tame; peaceful, peaceable;
pacific, halcyon.
unexciting, unirritating; soft, bland, oily, demulcent, lenitive,
anodyne; hypnotic &c. 683; sedative; antiorgastic, anaphrodisiac.
mild as mother's milk; milk and water.
Adv. moderately &c. adj.; gingerly; piano; under easy sail, at half
speed; within bounds, within compass; in reason.
Phr. est modue in rebus.

4. Indirect Power

#175. Influence.-- N. influence; importance &c. 642; weight, pressure,
preponderance, prevalence, sway; predominance, predominancy; ascendency;
dominance, reign; control, domination, pull*; authority &c.737; capability
&c. (power) 157; effect &c. 154; interest.
footing; purchase &c. (support) 215; play, leverage, vantage ground.
tower of strength, host in himself; protection, patronage, auspices.
V. have -influence &c. n.; be -influential &c. adj.; carry weight,
weigh, tell; have a hold upon, magnetize, bear upon, gain a footing, work
upon; take root, take hold; strike root in.
run through, pervade; prevail, dominate, predominate; out weigh, over
weigh; over-ride, over-bear; gain head; rage; be -rife &c. adj.; spread
like wildfire; have the upper hand, get the upper hand, gain the upper
hand, have full play, get full play, gain full play.
be recognized, be listened to; make one's voice heard, gain a hearing;
play a part, play a leading part, play a leading part in; take the lead,
pull the strings; turn the scale, throw one's weight into the scale; set
the fashion, lead the dance.
Adj. influential, effective; important &c. 642; weighty; prevailing
&c. v.; prevalent, rife, rampant, dominant, regnant, predominant, in the
ascendant, hegemonical.
Adv. with telling effect.
Phr. tel maure tel valet.

#175a. Absence of Influence.-- N. impotence &c. 158; powerlessness;
inertness &c. 172; irrelevancy &c. 10.
V. have no -influence &c. 175.
Adj. uninfluential, ineffective; unconducing, unconducive,
unconducting to; powerless &c. 158; irrelevant &c. 10.

<-- p. 53 -->

#176. Tendency.-- N. tendency; aptness, aptitude; proneness,
proclivity, bent, turn, tone, bias, set, leaning to, predisposition,
inclination, propensity, susceptibiliy; conatus, nisus; liability &c. 177;
quality, nature, temperament; idiocrasy, idiosyncrasy; cast, vein, grain;
humor, mood; drift &c. (direction) 278; conduciveness, conducement;
applicability &c. (utility) 644; subservience &c. (instrumentality) 631.
V. tend, contribute, conduce, lead, dispose, incline, verge, bend to,
trend, affect, carry, redound to, bid fair to, gravitate towards; promote
&c. (aid) 707.
Adj. tending &c. v.; conducive, working towards, in a fair way to,
calculated to; liable &c. 177; subservient &c. (instrumental) 631; useful
&c. 644; subsidiary &c. (helping) 707.
Adv. for, whither.

#177. Liability.-- N. liability, liableness; possibility, contingency;
susceptivity, susceptibility.
V. be -liable &c. adj.; incur, lay oneself open to; run the chance,
stand a chance; lie under, expose oneself to, open a door to.
Adj. liable, subject; in danger &c. 665; open to, exposed to,
obnoxious to; answerable; unexempt from; apt to; dependent on; incident to.
contingent, incidental, possible, on the cards, within range of, at
the mercy of.

5. Combinations of Causes

#178. Concurrence.-- N. concurrence, cooperation, coagency; union;
agreement &c. 23; consilience; consent, coincidence &c. (assent) 488;
alliance; concert &c. 709; partnership &c. 712.
V. concur, conduce, conspire, contribute; agree, unite; hang together,
pull together.
&c. (cooperate) 709; help to &c. (aid) 707.
keep pace with, run parallel; go with, go along with, go hand in hand
Adj. concurring &c. v.; concurrent, in alliance with, banded together,
of one mind, at one with.
Adv. with one consent.

#179. Counteraction.-- N. counteraction, opposition; contrariety &c.
14; antagonism, polarity; clashing &c. v.; collision, interference,
inhibition, resistance, renitency, friction; reaction; retroaction &c.
(recoil) 277; counterblast; neutralization &c. (compensation) 30; vis
inertiae; check & c. (hindrance) 706.
voluntary opposition &c. 708, voluntary resistance &c. 719; repression
&c. (restraint) 751.
V. counteract; run counter, clash, cross; interfere with, conflict
with; contravene; jostle; go against, run against, beat against, militate
against; stultify; antagonize, block, oppose &c. 708; traverse; withstand
&c. (resist) 719; hinder &c. 706; repress &c. (restrain) 751; react &c.
(recoil) 277.
undo, neutralize; counterpoise &c. (compensate) 30; overpoise.
Adj. counteracting &c. v.; antagonistic, conflicting, retroactive,
renitent, reactionary; contrary &c. 14.
Adv. although &c. 30; in spite of &c. 708; against.

<-- p. 54 -->





#180. [Indefinite space.] Space.-- N. space, extension, extent,
superficial extent, expanse, stretch; room, scope, range, field, way,
expansion, compass, sweep, swing, spread.
latitude, play.
spare room, elbow room, house room; stowage, roomage, margin; opening,
sphere, arena.
open space, free space; void &c. (absence) 187; waste; wildness,
wilderness; moor, moorland; campagna.
abyss &c. (interval) 198; unlimited space; infinity &c. 105; world;
ubiquity &c. (presence) 186; length and breadth of the land.
proportions, acreage; acres, acres and perches, roods and perches;
square inches, square yards&c.; ares, arpents.
Adj. spacious, roomy, extensive, expansive, capacious, ample;
widespread, vast, world-wide, uncircumscribed; boundless &c. (infinite)
105; shoreless, trackless, pathless; extended.
Adv. extensively &c. adj.; wherever; everywhere; far and near, far and
wide; right and left, all over, all the world over; throughout the world,
throughout the length and breadth of the land; under the sun, in every
quarter; in all quarters, in all lands; here there and everywhere; from
pole to pole, from China to Peru [Johnson], from Indus to the pole [Pope],
from Dan to Beersheba, from end to end; on the face of the earth, in the
wide world, from all points of the compass; to the four winds, to the
uttermost parts of the earth.

#180a. Inextension.-- N. inextension, nonextension, point; dot; atom
&c. (smallness) 32.

#181. [Definite space.] Region.-- N. region, sphere, ground, soil,
area, realm, hemisphere, quarter, district, beat, orb, circuit, circle;
pale &c. (limit) 233; compartment, department; clearing; domain, tract,
territory, country, canton, county, shire, province, arrondissement,
mofussil, parish, township, commune, ward; wapentake, hundred, riding,
lathe, garth, soke, tithing, bailiwick; principality, duchy, kingdom;
archduchy, archdukedom.
arena, precincts, enceinte, walk, march; patch, plot, inclosure,
close, enclave, field, court; street &c. (abode) 189.
clime, climate, zone, meridian, latitude.
Adj. territorial, local, parochial, provincial, regional.

#182. [Limited space.] Place.-- N. place, lieu, spot, point, dot;
niche, nook &c. (corner) 244; hole; pigeonhole &c. (receptacle) 191;
compartment; premises, precinct, station; area, courtyard, square; abode
&c. 189; locality &c. (situation) 183.
ins and outs; every hole and corner.
Adv. somewhere, in some place, wherever it may be, here and there, in
various places, passim.


#183. Situation.-- N. situation, position, locality, locale, status,
latitude and longitude; footing, standing, standpoint, post; stage; aspect,
attitude, posture, pose.
place, site, station, seat, venue, whereabouts; ground; bearings &c.
(direction) 278; spot &c. (limited space) 182.
topography, geography, chorography; map &c. 554.
V. be situated, be situate; lie, have its seat in.
Adj. situate, situated; local, topical, topographical &c. n.
Adv. in situ, in loco; here and there, passim; here abouts, there
abouts, where abouts; in place, here, there.
in such and such surroundings, in such and such environs, in
such and such entourage, amidst such and such surroundings, amidst such and
such environs, amidst such and such entourage.

<-- p. 55 -->

#184. Location.-- N. location, localization; lodgment; deposition,
reposition; stowage, package; collocation; packing, lading; establishment,
settlement, installation; fixation; insertion &c. 300.
anchorage, mooring, encampment.
plantation, colony, settlement, cantonment; colonization,
domestication, situation; habitation &c. (abode) 189; cohabitation; "a
local habitation and a name" [Midsummer Night's Dream]; endenization,
V. place, situate, locate, localize, make a place for, put, lay, set,
seat, station, lodge, quarter, post, install; house, stow; establish, fix,
pin, root; graft; plant &c. (insert) 300; shelve, pitch, camp, lay down,
deposit, reposit; cradle; moor, tether, picket; pack, tuck in; embed,
imbed; vest, invest in.
billet on, quarter upon, saddle with; load, lade, freight; pocket, put
up, bag.
inhabit &c. (be present) 186; domesticate, colonize; take root, strike
root; anchor; cast anchor, come to an anchor; sit down, settle down;
settle; take up one's abode, take up one's quarters; plant oneself,
establish oneself, locate oneself; squat, perch, hive, se nicher, bivouac,
burrow, get a footing; encamp, pitch one's tent; put up at, put up one's
horses at; keep house.
endenizen, naturalize, adopt.
put back, replace &c. (restore) 660.
Adj. placed &c. v.; situate, posited, ensconced, imbedded, embosomed,
rooted; domesticated; vested in, unremoved.
moored &c. v.; at anchor.

#185. Displacement.-- N. displacement, elocation, transposition.
ejectment &c. 297; exile &c. (banishment) 893; removal &c.
(transference) 270.
misplacement, dislocation &c. 61; fish out of water.
V. displace, displant, dislodge, disestablish; exile &c. (seclude)
893; ablegate, set aside, remove; take away, cart away; take off, draft
off; lade &c. 184.
unload, emply &c. (eject) 297; transfer &c. 270; dispel.
vacate; depart &c. 293.
Adj. displaced &c. v.; unplaced, unhoused, unharbored, unestablished,
unsettled; houseless, homeless; out of place, out of a situation.
misplaced, out of its element.


#186. Presence.-- N. presence; occupancy, occupation; attendance;
permeation, pervasion; diffusion &c. (dispersion) 73.
ubiety, ubiquity, ubiquitariness; omnipresence.
bystander &c. (spectator) 444.
V. exist in space, be present &c. adj.; assister; make one of, make
one at; look on, attend, remain; find oneself, present oneself; show one's
face; fall in the way of, occur in a place; lie, stand; occupy.
people; inhabit, dwell, reside, stay, sojourn, live, abide, lodge,
nestle, roost, perch; take up one's abode &c. (be located) 184; tenant.
resort to, frequent, haunt; revisit.
fill, pervade, permeate; be diffused, be disseminated, be through;
over spread, overrun; run through; meet one at every turn.
Adj. present; occupying, inhabiting &c. v.; moored &c. 184; resiant,
resident, residentiary; domiciled.
ubiquitous, ubiquitary; omnipresent; universally present.
peopled, populous, full of people, inhabited.
Adv. here, there, where, everywhere, aboard, on board, at home,
afield; here there and everywhere &c. (space) 180; in presence of, before;
under the eyes of, under the nose of; in the face of; in propria persona.
on the spot.
Phr. nusquam est qui ubique est [Seneca].

<-- p. 56 -->

#187. [Nullibiety.1] <-- 1 Bishop Wilkins. --> Absence.-- N. absence;
inexistence &c. 2; nonresidence, absenteeism; nonattendance, alibi.
emptiness &c. adj.; void, vacuum; vacuity, vacancy; tabula rasa;
exemption; hiatus &c. (interval) 198; lipotype|!.
truant, absentee.
nobody; nobody present, nobody on earth; not a soul; ame qui vive.
V. be absent &c. adj.; keep away, keep out of the way; play truant,
absent oneself, stay away; keep aloof, hold aloof.
withdraw, make oneself scarce, vacate; go away &c. 293.
Adj. absent, not present, away, nonresident, gone, from home; missing;
lost; wanting; omitted; nowhere to be found; inexistence &c. 2.
empty, void; vacant, vacuous; untenanted, unoccupied, uninhabited;
tenantless; desert, deserted; devoid; uninhabitable.
Adv. without, minus, nowhere; elsewhere; neither here nor there; in
default of; sans; behind one's back.
Phr. the bird has flown, non est inventus.
"absence makes the heart grow fonder" [Bayley]; "absent in body but
present in spirit" [1 Corinthians v, 3]; absento nemo ne nocuisse velit
[Propertius]; "Achilles absent was Achilles still" [Homer]; aux absents les
os; briller par son absence; "conspicious by his absence" [Russell]; "in
the hope to meet shortly again and make our absence sweet" [B. Jonson].

#188. Inhabitant.-- N. inhabitant; resident, residentiary; dweller,
indweller; addressee; occupier, occupant; householder, lodger, inmate,
tenant, incumbent, sojourner, locum tenens, commorant; settler, squatter,
backwoodsman, colonist; islander; denizen, citizen; burgher, oppidan,
cockney, cit, townsman, burgess; villager; cottager, cottier, cotter;
compatriot; backsettler, boarder; hotel keeper, innkeeper; habitant; paying
guest; planter.
native, indigene, aborigines, autochthones; Englishman, John Bull;
newcomer &c. (stranger) 57.
aboriginal, American, Caledonian, Cambrian, Canadian, Canuck*,
downeaster [U.S.], Scot, Scotchman, Hibernian, Irishman, Welshman, Uncle
Sam, Yankee, Brother Jonathan.
garrison, crew; population; people &c. (mankind) 372; colony,
settlement; household; mir.
V. inhabit &c. (be present) 186; endenizen &c. (locate oneself) 184.
Adj. indigenous; native, natal; autochthonal, autochthonous; British;
English; American; Canadian, Irish, Scotch, Scottish, Welsh; domestic;
domiciliated, domiciled; naturalized, vernacular, domesticated;
in the occupation of; garrisoned by, occupied by.

<-- p. 57 -->

#189. [Place of habitation, or resort.] Abode.-- N. abode, dwelling,
lodging, domicile, residence, address, habitation, where one's lot is
cast, local habitation, berth, diggings, seat,
lap, sojourn, housing, quarters, headquarters, resiance|, tabernacle,
throne, ark.
home, fatherland; country; homestead, homestall; fireside; hearth,
hearth stone; chimney corner, ingleside; harem, seraglio, zenana; household
gods, lares et penates, roof, household, housing, dulce domum, paternal
domicile; native soil, native land.
nest, nidus, snuggery; arbor, bower, &c. 191; lair, den, cave, hole,
hiding place, cell, sanctum sanctorum, aerie, eyry, rookery, hive; covert,
resort, retreat, perch, roost; nidification; kala jagah.
bivouac, camp, encampment, cantonment, castrametation; barrack,
casemate, casern.
tent &c. (covering) 223; building &c. (construction) 161; chamber &c.
(receptacle) 191; xenodochium.
tenement, messuage, farm, farmhouse, grange, hacienda, toft.
cot, cabin, hut, chalet, croft, shed, booth, stall, hovel, bothy,
shanty, dugout [U.S.], wigwam; pen &c. (inclosure) 232; barn, bawn; kennel,
sty, doghold, cote, coop, hutch, byre; cow house, cow shed; stable,
dovecote, columbary, columbararium; shippen; igloo, iglu, jacal; lacustrine
dwelling, lacuslake dwelling, lacuspile dwelling; log cabin, log house;
shack, shebang*, tepee, topek.
house, mansion, place, villa, cottage, box, lodge, hermitage, rus in
urbe, folly, rotunda, tower, chateau, castle, pavilion, hotel, court,
manor-house, capital messuage, hall, palace; kiosk, bungalow; casa, country
seat, apartment house, flat house, frame house, shingle house, tenement
house; temple &c. 1000.
hamlet, village, thorp, dorp, ham, kraal; borough, burgh, town, city,
capital, metropolis; suburb; province, country; county town, county seat;
courthouse [U.S.]; ghetto.
street, place, terrace, parade, esplanade, alameda, board walk,
embankment, road, row, lane, alley, court, quadrangle, quad, wynd, close,
yard, passage, rents, buildings, mews.
square, polygon, circus, crescent, mall, piazza, arcade, colonnade,
peristyle, cloister; gardens, grove, residences; block of buildings, market
place, place, plaza.
anchorage, roadstead, roads; dock, basin, wharf, quay, port, harbor.
quarter, parish &c. (region) 181.
assembly room, meetinghouse, pump room, spa, watering place; inn;
hostel, hostelry; hotel, tavern, caravansary, dak bungalow, khan, hospice;
public house, pot house, mug house; gin palace; bar, bar room; barrel
house* [U.S.], cabaret, chophouse; club, clubhouse; cookshop, dive [U.S.],
exchange [euphemism, U.S.]; grill room, saloon [U.S.], shebeen; coffee
house, eating house; canteen, restaurant, buffet, cafe, estaminet, posada;
almshouse, poorhouse, townhouse [U.S.].
garden, park, pleasure ground, plaisance, demesne.
V. take up one's abode &c. (locate oneself) 184; inhabit &c. (be
present) 186.
Adj. urban, metropolitan; suburban; provincial, rural, rustic;
domestic; cosmopolitan; palatial.
Phr. eigner Hert ist goldes Werth; "even cities have their graves"
[Longfellow]; ubi libertas ibi partria.

#190. [Things contained.] Contents.-- N. contents; cargo, lading,
freight, shipment, load, bale, burden, jag; cartload, shipload; cup of,
basket of, &c. (receptacle) 191 of; inside &c. 221.
stuffing, ullage.
V. load, lade, ship, charge, fill, stuff.

#191. Receptacle.-- N. receptacle; inclosure &c. 232; recipient,
receiver, reservatory.
compartment; cell, cellule; follicle; hole, corner, niche, recess,
nook; crypt, stall, pigeonhole, cove, oriel; cave &c. (concavity) 252.
capsule, vesicle, cyst, pod, calyx, cancelli, utricle, bladder;
pericarp, udder.
stomach, paunch, venter, ventricle, crop, craw, maw, gizzard,
breadbasket; mouth.
pocket, pouch, fob, sheath, scabbard, socket, bag, sac, sack, saccule,
wallet, cardcase, scrip, poke, knit, knapsack, haversack, sachel, satchel,
reticule, budget, net; ditty bag, ditty box; housewife, hussif; saddlebags;
portfolio; quiver &c. (magazine) 636.
chest, box, coffer, caddy, case, casket, pyx, pix, caisson, desk,
bureau, reliquary; trunk, portmanteau, band-box, valise; grip, grip sack
[U.S.]; skippet, vasculum; boot, imperial; vache; cage, manger, rack.
vessel, vase, bushel, barrel; canister, jar; pottle, basket, pannier,
buck-basket, hopper, maund|, creel, cran, crate, cradle, bassinet, wisket,
whisket, jardiniere, corbeille, hamper, dosser, dorser, tray, hod, scuttle,
utensil; brazier; cuspidor, spittoon.
[For liquids] cistern &c. (store) 636; vat, caldron, barrel, cask,
puncheon, keg, rundlet, tun, butt, cag, firkin, kilderkin, carboy, amphora,
bottle, jar, decanter, ewer, cruse, caraffe, crock, kit, canteen, flagon;
demijohn; flask, flasket; stoup, noggin, vial, phial, cruet, caster; urn,
epergne, salver, patella, tazza, patera; pig gin, big gin; tyg, nipperkin,
pocket pistol; tub, bucket, pail, skeel, pot, tankard, jug, pitcher, mug,
pipkin; galipot, gallipot; matrass, receiver, retort, alembic, bolthead,
capsule, can, kettle; bowl, basin, jorum, punch bowl, cup, goblet, chalice,
tumbler, glass, rummer, horn, saucepan, skillet, posnet|, tureen.
bail, beaker, billy, canakin; catch basin, catch drain; chatti,
lota, mussuk, schooner [U.S.], spider, terrine, toby, urceus.
plate, platter, dish, trencher, calabash, porringer, potager, saucer,
pan, crucible; glassware, tableware; vitrics.
shovel, trowel, spoon, spatula, ladle, dipper, tablespoon, watch
glass, thimble.
closet, commode, cupboard, cellaret, chiffonniere, locker, bin,
bunker, buffet, press, clothespress, safe, sideboard, drawer, chest of
drawers, till, scrutoire|, secretaire, davenport, bookcase, cabinet,
canterbury; escritoire, etagere, vargueno, vitrine.
chamber, apartment, room, cabin; office, court, hall, atrium; suite of
rooms, apartment [U.S.], flat, story; saloon, salon, parlor; by-room,
cubicle; presence chamber; sitting room, best room, keeping room, drawing
room, reception room, state room; gallery, cabinet, closet; pew, box;
boudoir; adytum, sanctum; bedroom, dormitory; refectory, dining room,
salle-a-manger; nursery, schoolroom; library, study; studio; billiard room,
bath room, smoking room; den; stateroom, tablinum, tenement.
attic, loft, garret, cockloft, clerestory; cellar, vault, hold,
cockpit; cubbyhole; cook house; entre-sol; mezzanine floor; ground floor,
rez-de-chaussee; basement, kitchen, pantry, bawarchi-khana, scullery,
offices; storeroom &c. (depository) 636; lumber room; dairy, laundry, coach
house; garage; hangar; outhouse, penthouse; lean-to.
portico, porch, stoop, stope, veranda, lobby, court,
hall, vestibule, corridor, passage; ante room, ante chamber; lounge;
piazza [=veranda, U.S.].
conservatory, greenhouse, bower, arbor, summerhouse, alcove, grotto,
lodging &c. (abode) 189; bed &c. (support) 215; carriage &c. (vehicle)
Adj. capsular; saccular, sacculated; recipient; ventricular, cystic,
vascular, vesicular, cellular, camerated, locular, multilocular,
polygastric; marsupial; siliquose, siliquous.

<-- p. 58 -->



#192. Size.-- N. size, magnitude, dimension, bulk, volume; largeness
&c. adj.; greatness &c. (of quantity) 31; expanse &c. (space) 180;
amplitude, mass; proportions.
capacity, tonnage, tunnage; cordage; caliber, scantling.
turgidity &c. (expansion) 194; corpulence, obesity; plumpness &c.
adj.; embonpoint, corporation, flesh and blood, lustihood.
hugeness &c. adj.; enormity, immensity, monstrosity.
giant, Brobdingnagian, Antaeus, Goliath, Gog and Magog, Gargantua,
monster, mammoth, Cyclops; cachalot, whale, porpoise, behemoth, leviathan,
elephant, hippopotamus; colossus; tun, cord, lump, bulk, block, loaf, mass,
swad, clod, nugget, bushel, thumper, whooper, spanker, strapper; "Triton
among the minnows" [Coriolanus].
mountain, mound; heap &c. (assemblage) 72.
largest portion &c. 50; full size, life size.
V. be large &c. adj.; become large &c. (expand) 194.
Adj. large, big; great &c. (in quantity) 31; considerable, bulky,
voluminous, ample, massive, massy; capacious, comprehensive; spacious &c.
180; mighty, towering, fine, magnificent.
corpulent, stout, fat, plump, squab, full, lusty, strapping,
bouncing; portly, burly, well-fed, full-grown; corn fed, gram fed;
stalwart, brawny, fleshy; goodly; in good case, in good condition; in
condition; chopping, jolly; chub faced, chubby faced.
lubberly, hulky, unwieldly, lumpish, gaunt, spanking, whacking,
whopping, thumping, thundering, hulking; overgrown; puffy &c. (swollen)
huge, immense, enormous, mighty; vast, vasty; amplitudinous,
stupendous; monster, monstrous, jumbo, mammoth, gigantean; prodigious,
colossal, Cyclopean, Brobdingnagian, Gargantuan; infinite &c. 105.
large as life; plump as a dumpling, plump as a partridge; fat as a
pig, fat as a quail, fat as butter, fat as brawn, fat as bacon.

<-- p. 59 -->

#193. Littleness.-- N. littleness &c. adj.; smallness &c. (of
quantity) 32; exiguity, inextension; parvitude, parvity; duodecimo; Elzevir
edition, epitome, microcosm; rudiment; vanishing point; thinness &c. 203.
dwarf, pigmy, Liliputian, chit, pigwidgeon, urchin, elf; atomy,
dandiprat; doll, puppet; Tom Thumb, Hop-o'-my-thumb; manikin, mannikin;
homunculus, dapperling, cock-sparrow.
animalcule, monad, mite, insect, emmet, fly, midge, gnat, shrimp,
minnow, worm, maggot, entozoon; bacteria; infusoria; microzoa; phytozoaria;
microbe; grub; tit, tomtit, runt, mouse, small fry; millet seed, mustard
seed; barleycorn; pebble, grain of sand; molehill, button, bubble.
point; atom &c. (small quantity) 32; fragment &c. (small part) 51;
powder &c. 330; point of a pin, mathematical point; minutiae &c.
(unimportance) 643.
micrography, micrometer, microscope; vernier; scale.
V. be little &c. adj.; lie in a nutshell; become small &c. (decrease)
36, (contract) 195.
Adj. little; small &c. (in quantity) 32; minute, diminutive,
microscopic; microzeal; inconsiderable &c. (unimportant) 643; exiguous,
puny, tiny, wee, petty, minikin, minature, pigmy, elfin; undersized; dwarf,
dwarfed, dwarfish; spare, stunted, limited; cramp, cramped; pollard,
Liliputian, dapper, pocket; portative, portable; duodecimo; dumpy, squat;
short &c. 201.
impalpable, intangible, evanescent, imperceptible, invisible,
inappreciable; infinitesimal, homoeopathic; atomic, corpuscular, molecular;
rudimentary, rudimental; embryonic, vestigial.
weazen|!, scant, scraggy, scrubby; thin &c. (narrow) 203; granular &c.
(powdery) 330; shrunk &c. 195; brevipennate.
Adv. in a small compass, in a nutshell; on a small scale.

#194. Expansion.-- N. expansion; increase &c. 35 of size; enlargement,
extension, augmentation; amplification, ampliation; aggrandizement, spread,
increment, growth, development, pullulation, swell, dilation, rarefaction;
turgescence, turgidness, turgidity; dispansion|; obesity &c. (size) 192;
hydrocephalus, hydrophthalmus; dropsy, tumefaction, intumescence, swelling,
tumor, diastole, distension; puffing, puffiness; inflation; pandiculation.
dilatability, expansibility.
germination, growth, upgrowth; accretion &c. 35; budding, gemmation.
overgrowth, overdistension; hypertrophy, tympany.
bulb &c. (convexity) 250; plumper; superiority of size.
V. become larger &c. (large &c. 192); expand, widen, enlarge, extend,
grow, increase, incrassate, swell, gather; fill out; deploy, take open
order, dilate, stretch, spread; mantle, wax; grow up, spring up; bud,
bourgeon, shoot, sprout, germinate, put forth, vegetate, pullulate, open,
burst forth; gain flesh, gather flesh; outgrow; spread like wildfire,
be larger than; surpass &c. (be superior) 33.
render larger &c. (large &c. 192); expand, spread, extend, aggrandize,
distend, develop, amplify, spread out, widen, magnify, rarefy, inflate,
puff, blow up, stuff, pad, cram; exaggerate; fatten.
Adj. expanded &c. v.; larger &c. (large &c. 192; swollen; expansive;
wide open, wide spread; flabelliform; overgrown, exaggerated, bloated, fat,
turgid, tumid, hypertrophied, dropsical; pot bellied, swag bellied|;
oedematous, obese, puffy, pursy, blowzy, bigswoln, distended; patulous;
bulbous &c. (convex) 250; full blown, full grown, full formed; big &c. 192;
abdominous, enchymatous, rhipidate; tumefacient, tumefying.

<-- p. 60 -->

#195. Contraction.-- N. contraction, reduction, diminution; decrease
&c. 36 of size; defalcation, decrement; lessening, shrinking &c. v.;
compaction; tabes, collapse, emaciation, attenuation, tabefaction,
consumption, marasmus, atrophy; systole, neck, hourglass.
condensation, compression, compactness; compendium &c. 596; squeezing
&c. v.; strangulation; corrugation; astringency; astringents, sclerotics;
contractility, compressibility; coarctation.
inferiority in size.
V. become small, become smaller; lessen, decrease &c. 36; grow less,
dwindle, shrink, contract, narrow, shrivel, collapse, wither, lose flesh,
wizen, fall away, waste, wane, ebb; decay &c. (deteriorate) 659.
be smaller than, fall short of; not come up to &c. (be inferior) 34.
render smaller, lessen, diminish, contract, draw in, narrow,
coarctate; boil down; constrict, constringe; condense, compress, squeeze,
corrugate, crush, crumple up, warp, purse up, pack, stow; pinch, tighten,
strangle; cramp; dwarf, bedwarf; shorten &c. 201; circumscribe &c. 229;
restrain &c. 751.
pare, reduce, attenuate, rub down, scrape, file, grind, chip, shave,
Adj. contracting &c. v.; astringent; shrunk, contracted &c. v.;
strangulated, tabid, wizened, stunted; waning &c. v.; neap, compact.
unexpanded &c. (expand &c. 194); contractile; compressible; smaller
&c. (small &c.193).

#196. Distance.-- N. distance; space &c. 180; remoteness, farness,
far-cry to; longinquity, elongation; offing, background; remote region;
removedness; parallax; reach, span, stride.
outpost, outskirt; horizon; aphelion; foreign parts, ultima Thule, ne
plus ultra, antipodes; long range, giant's stride.
dispersion &c.73.
V. be distant &c. adj.; extend to, stretch to, reach to, spread to, go
to, get to, stretch away to; range.
remain at a distance; keep away, keep off, keep aloof, keep clear of,
stand away, stand off, stand aloof, stand clear of.
Adj. distant; far off, far away; remote, telescopic, distal, wide of;
stretching to &c. v.; yon, yonder; ulterior; transmarine, transpontine,
transatlantic, transalpine; tramontane; ultramontane, ultramundane;
hyperborean, antipodean; inaccessible, out of the way; unapproached,
unapproachable; incontiguous.
Adv. far off, far away; afar, afar off; off; away; a long way off, a
great way off, a good way off; wide away, aloof; wide of, clear of; out of
the way, out of reach; abroad, yonder, farther, further, beyond; outre mer,
over the border, far and wide, "over the hills and far away [Gay]; from
pole to pole &c. (over great space) 180; to the uttermost parts, to the
ends of the earth; out of hearing, nobody knows where, a perte de vue, out
of the sphere of, wide of the mark; a far cry to.
apart, asunder; wide apart, wide asunder; longo intervallo; at arm's
Phr. "distance lends enchantment" [Campbell].

#197. Nearness.-- N. nearness &c. adj.; proximity, propinquity;
vicinity, vicinage; neighborhood, adjacency; contiguity &c. 199.
short distance, short step, short cut; earshot, close quarters,
stone's throw; bow shot, gun shot, pistol shot; hair's breadth, span.
purlieus, neighborhood, vicinage, environs, alentours, suburbs,
confines, banlieue, borderland; whereabouts.
bystander; neighbor, borderer.
approach &c. 286; convergence 7c. 290; perihelion.
V. be near &c. adj.; adjoin, hang about, trench on; border upon, verge
upon; stand by, approximate, tread on the heels of, cling to, clasp, hug;
huddle; hang upon the skirts of, hover over; burn.
bring near, draw near &c. 286; converge &c. 290; crowd &c. 72; place
side by side &c. adv.
Adj. near, nigh; close at hand, near at hand; close, neighboring;
bordering upon, contiguous, adjacent, adjoining; proximate, proximal; at
hand, handy; near the mark, near run; home, intimate.
Adv. near, nigh; hard by, fast by; close to, close upon; hard upon; at
the point of; next door to; within reach, within call,
within hearing, within earshot; within an ace of; but a step, not far
from, at no great distance; on the verge of, on the brink of, on the skirts
of; in the environs &c. n.; at one's door, at one's feet, at one's elbow,
at one's finger's end, at one's side; on the tip of one's tongue; under
one's nose; within a stone's throw &c. n.; in sight of, in presence of; at
close quarters; cheek by jole, cheek by jowl; beside, alongside, side by
side, tete-a-tete; in juxtaposition &c. (touching) 199; yardarm to yardarm,
at the heels of; on the confines of, at the threshold, bordering upon,
verging to; in the way.
about; here abouts, there abouts; roughly, in round numbers;
approximately, approximatively; as good as, well-nigh.

<-- p. 61 -->

#198. Interval.-- N. interval, interspace; separation &c. 44; break,
gap, opening; hole &c. 260; chasm, hiatus, caesura; interruption,
interregnum; interstice, lacuna, cleft, mesh, crevice, chink, rime, creek,
cranny, crack, chap, slit, fissure, scissure, rift, flaw, breach, rent,
gash, cut, leak, dike, ha-ha.
gorge, defile, ravine, canon, crevasse, abyss, abysm; gulf; inlet,
frith, strait, gully; pass; furrow &c. 259; abra; barranca, barranco; clove
[U.S.], gulch [U.S.], notch [U.S.]; yawning gulf; hiatus maxime, hiatus
valde deflendus; parenthesis &c. (interjacence) 228; void 7c. (absence)
187; incompleteness &c. 53.
V. gape &c. (open) 260.
Adj. with an interval, far between; breachy, rimose, rimulose.
Adv. at intervals &c. (discontinuously) 70; longo intervallo.

#199. Contiguity.-- N. contiguity, contact, proximity, apposition,
abuttal, juxtaposition; abutment, osculation; meeting, appulse, rencontre,
rencounter, syzygy, coincidence, coexistence; adhesion &c. 46; touching &c.
v. (see touch 379).
borderland; frontier &c. (limit) 233; tangent; abutter.
V. be contiguous &c. adj.; join, adjoin, abut on, march with; graze,
touch, meet, osculate, come in contact, coincide; coexist; adhere &c. 46.
Adj. contiguous; touching &c. v.; in contact &c. n.; conterminous, end
to end, osculatory; pertingent|; tangential.
hand to hand; close to &c. (near) 197; with no interal &c. 198.


#200. Length.-- N. length, longitude, span; mileage.
line, bar, rule, stripe, streak, spoke, radius.
lengthening &c. v.; prolongation, production, protraction; tension,
tensure; extension.
[Measures of length] line, nail, inch, hand, palm, foot, cubit, yard,
ell, fathom, rood, pole, furlong, mile, league; chain; arpent, handbreadth,
jornada [U.S.], kos, vara.
pedometer, perambulator; scale &c. (measurement) 466.
V. be long &c. adj.; stretch out, sprawl; extend to, reach to, stretch
to; make a long arm, "drag its slow length along."
render long &c. adj.; lengthen, extend, elongate; stretch; prolong,
produce, protract; let out, draw out, spinout; drawl.
enfilade, look along, view in perspective.
Adj. long, longsome; lengthy, wiredrawn, outstretched; lengthened &c.
v.; sesquipedalian &c. (words) 577; interminable, no end of; macrocolous.
linear, lineal; longitudinal, oblong.
as long as my arm, as long as today and tomorrow; unshortened &c.
(shorten &c. 201).
Adv. lengthwise, at length, longitudinally, endlong, along; tandem; in
a line &c. (continuously) 69; in perspective.
from end to end, from stem to stern, from head to foot, from the crown
of the head to the sole of the foot, from top to toe; fore and aft.

#201. Shortness.-- N. shortness &c. adj.; brevity; littleness &c. 193;
a span.
shortening &c. v.; abbreviation, abbreviature; abridgment, concision,
retrenchment, curtailment, decuration|; reduction &c. (contraction) 195;
epitome &c. (compendium) 596.
elision, ellipsis; coonciseness &c. (in style) 572.
abridger, epitomist, epitomizer.
V. be short &c. adj.; render short &c. adj.; shorten, curtail,
abridge, abbreviate, take in, reduce; compress &c. (contract) 195;
epitomize &c. 596.
retrench, cut short, obtruncate; scrimp, cut, chop up, hack, hew; cut
down, pare down; clip, dock, lop, prune, shear, shave, mow, reap, crop;
snub; truncate, pollard, stunt, nip, check the growth of; [in drawing]
Adj. short, brief, curt; compendious, compact; stubby, scrimp; shorn,
stubbed; stumpy, thickset, pug; chunky [U.S.], decurtate; retrousse;
stocky; squab, squabby; squat, dumpy; little &c. 193; curtailed of its fair
proportions; short by; oblate; concise &c. 572; summary.
Adv. shortly &c. adj.; in short &c. (concisely) 572.

<-- p. 62 -->

#202. Breadth, Thickness.-- N. breadth, width, latitude, amplitude;
diameter, bore, caliber, radius; superficial extent &c. (space) 180.
thickness, crassitude; corpulence &c. (size) 192; dilation &c.
(expansion) 194.
V. be broad &c. adj.; become broad, render broad &c. adj.; expand &c.
194; thicken, widen, calibrate.
Adj. broad, wide, ample, extended; discous; fanlike; outspread,
outstretched; "wide as a church-door" [Romeo and Juliet]; latifoliate,
thick, dumpy, squab, squat, thickset; thick as a rope.

#203. Narrowness. Thinness.-- N. narrowness &c. adj.; closeness,
exility; exiguity 7c. (little) 193.
line; hair's breadth, finger's breadth; strip, streak, vein.
thinness &c. adj.; tenuity; emaciation, macilency, marcor|.
shaving, slip &c. (filament) 205; thread paper, skeleton, shadow,
anatomy, spindleshanks, lantern jaws, mere skin and bone.
middle constriction, stricture, neck, waist, isthmus, wasp, hourglass;
ridge, ghaut, ghat, pass; ravine &c. 198.
narrowing, coarctation, angustation, tapering; contraction &c. 195.
V. be narrow &c. adj.; narrow, taper, contract &c. 195; render narrow
&c. adj.
Adj. narrow, close; slender, thin, fine; thread-like &c. (filament)
205; finespun; taper, slim, slight-made; scant, scanty; spare, delicate,
incapacious; contracted &c. 195; unexpanded &c. (expand &c. 194); slender
as a thread.
[in reference to people or animals] emaciated, lean, meager, gaunt,
macilent; lank, lanky; weedy, skinny; scrawny [U.S.] slinky; starved,
starveling; herring gutted; worn to a shadow, lean as a rake [Chaucer];
thin as a lath, thin as a whipping post, thin as a wafer; hatchet-faced;
attenuated, shriveled, extenuated, tabid, marcid|, barebone, rawboned.

#204. Layer.-- N. layer, stratum, course, bed, zone, substratum,
floor, flag, stage, story, tier, slab, escrapment; table, tablet; dess;
flagstone; board, plank; trencher, platter.
plate; lamina, lamella; sheet, foil; wafer; scale, flake, peel;
coat, pellicle; membrane, film; leaf; slice, shive, cut, rasher, shaving,
integument &c. (covering) 223; eschar.
stratification, scaliness, nest of boxes, coats of an onion.
V. slice, shave, pare, peel; delaminate; plate, coat, veneer; cover
&c. 223.
Adj. lamellar, lamellated, lamelliform; laminated, laminiferous;
micaceous; schistose, schistous; scaly, filmy, membranous, flaky,
squamous; foliated, foliaceous; stratified, stratiform; tabular, discoid;
spathic, spathose.

#205. Filament.-- N. filament, line; fiber, fibril; funicle, vein;
hair, capillament, cilium, tendril, gossamer; hair stroke; veinlet, venula,
wire, string, thread, packthread, cotton, sewing silk, twine, twist,
whipcord, tape, ribbon, cord, rope, yarn, hemp, oakum, jute.
strip, shred, slip, spill, list, band, fillet, fascia, ribbon, riband,
roll, lath, splinter, shiver, shaving.
beard &c. (roughness) 256; ramification; strand.
Adj. filamentous, filamentiferous, filaceous, filiform; fibrous,
fibrillous; thread-like, wiry, stringy, ropy; capillary, capilliform;
funicular, wire-drawn; anguilliform; flagelliform; hairy &c. (rough) 256;
taeniate, taeniform, taenioid; venose, venous.

<-- p. 63 -->

#206. Height. -- N. height, altitude, elevation; eminence, pitch;
loftiness &c. adj.; sublimity.
tallness &c. adj.; stature, procerity; prominence &c. 250.
colussus &c. (size) 192; giant, grenadier, giraffe, camelopard.
mount, mountain; hill alto, butte [U.S.], monticle, fell, knap; cape;
headland, foreland; promontory; ridge, hog's back, dune; rising ground,
vantage ground; down; moor, moorland; Alp; uplands, highlands; heights &c.
(summit), 210; knob, loma, pena [U.S.], picacho, tump; knoll, hummock,
hillock, barrow, mound, mole; steeps, bluff, cliff, craig, tor, peak, pike,
clough; escarpment, edge, ledge, brae; dizzy height.
tower, pillar, column, obelisk, monument, steeple, spire, minaret,
campanile, turret, dome, cupola.
pole, pikstaff, maypole, flagstaff; top mast, topgallant mast.
ceiling &c. (covering) 223.
high water; high tide, flood tide, spring tide.
altimetry &c. (angel) 244; batophobia.
V. be high &c. adj.; tower, soar, command; hover; cap, culminate;
overhang, hang over, impend, beetle, bestride, ride, mount; perch,
surmount; cover &c. 223; overtop &c. (be superior) 33; stand on tiptoe.
become high &c. adj.; grow higher, grow taller; upgrow; rise &c.
(ascend) 305.
render high &c. adj.; heighten &c. (elevate) 307.
Adj. high, elevated, eminent, exalted, lofty, tall; gigantic &c. (big)
192; Patagonian; towering, beetling, soaring, hanging [gardens]; elevated
&c. 307; upper; highest &c. (topmost) 210; high reaching, insessorial,
upland, moorland; hilly, knobby [U.S.]; mountainous, alpine,
subalpine, heaven kissing; cloudtopt, cloudcapt, cloudtouching; aerial.
overhanging &c. v. ; incumbent, overlying, superincumbent,
supernatant, superimposed; prominent &c. c. 250.
tall as a maypole, tall as a poplar, tall as a steeple, lanky &c.
(thin) 203.
Adv. on high, high up, aloft, up, above, aloof, overhead; airwind;
upstairs, abovestairs; in the clouds; on tiptoe, on stilts, on the
shoulders of; over head and ears; breast high.
over, upwards; from top to bottom &c. (completely) 52.
Phr. e meglio cader dalle finistre che dal tetto.

#207. Lowness. -- N. lowness &c. adj.; debasement, depression,
prostration &c. (horizontal) 213; depression &c. (concave) 252.
molehill; lowlands; basement floor, ground floor; rez de chaussee;
cellar; hold; feet, heels.
low water; low tide, ebb tide, neap tide, spring tide.
V. be low &c. adj.; lie low, lie flat; underlie; crouch, slouch,
wallow, grovel; lower &c. (depress) 308.
Adj. low, neap, debased; eether most; flat, level with the ground;
lying low &c. v.; crouched, subjacent, squat, prostrate &c. (horizontal)
Adv. under; beneath, underneath; below; downwards; adown, at the foot
of; under foot, under ground; down stairs, below stairs; at a low ebb;
below par.

#208. Depth. -- N. depth; deepness &c. adj.; profundity, depression
&c. (concavity) 252.
hollow, pit, shaft, well, crater; gulf &c. 198; bowels of the earth,
botttomless pit, hell.
soundings, depth of water, water, draught, submersion; plummet, sound,
probe; sounding rod, sounding line; lead.
V. be deep &c. adj.; render deep &c. adj.; deepen.
plunge &c. 310; sound, heave th elead, take soundings; dig &c.
(excavate) 252.
Adj. deep, deep seated; profound, sunk, burried; submerged &c. 310;
subaqueous, submarine, subterranean, subterrene; underground.
bottomless, soundless, fathomless; unfathomed, unfathomable; abysmal;
deep as a well; bathycolpian; benthal, benthopelagic; downreaching,
knee deep, ankel deep.
Adv. beyond one's depth, out of one's depth; over head and ears.

#209. Shallowness. -- N. shallowness &c. adj.; shoals; mere scratch.
Adj. shallow, slight, superficial; skin deep, ankle deep, knee deep;
just enough to wet one's feet; shoal, shoaly.

<-- p. 64 -->

#210. Summit. -- N. summit, summity|; top, vertex, apex, zenith,
pinnacle, acme, culmination, meridian, utmost height, ne plus utra, height,
pitch, maximum, climax, culminating point, crowning point, turning point;
turn of the tide, fountain head; water shed, water parting; sky, pole.
tip, tip top; crest, crow's nest, cap, truck, peak, nib; end &c. 67;
crown, brow; head, nob, noddle, pate; capsheaf.
high places, heights.
topgallant mast, sky scraper; quarter deck, hurricane deck.
architrave, frieze, cornice, coping stone, zoophorus, capital,
epistyle, sconce, pediment, entablature; tympanum; ceiling &c. (covering)
attic, loft, garret, house top, upper story.
V. culminate, crown, top; overtop &c. (be superior to) 33.
Adj. highest &c. (high &c. 206); top; top most, upper most; tiptop;
culminating &c. v.; meridian, meridional; capital, head, polar, supreme,
supernal, topgallant.
Adv. atop, at the top of the tree.
Phr. en flute; fleur deau.

#211. Base. -- N. base, basement; plinth, dado, wainscot; baseboard,
mopboard; bedrock, hardpan [U.S.]; foundation &c. (support) 215;
substructure, substratum, ground, earth, pavement, floor, paving, flag,
carped, ground floor, deck; footing, ground work, basis; hold, bilge.
bottom, nadir, foot, sole, toe, hoof, keel, root; centerboard.
Adj. bottom, undermost, nethermost; fundamental; founded on, based on,
grounded on, built on.

#212. Verticality. -- N. verticality; erectness &c. adj.;
perpendicularity &c. 216a; right angle, normal; azimuth circle.
wall, precipice, cliff.
elevation, erection; square, plumb line, plummet.
V. be verticle &c. adj.; stand up, stand on end, stand erect, stand
upright; stick up, cock up.
render verticle &c. adj.; set up, stick up, raise up, cock up; erect,
rear, raise on its legs.
Adj. verticle, upright, erect, perpendicular, plumb, nornal, straight,
bolt, upright; rampant; standing up &c. v.; rectangular, orthogonal &c.
Adv. vertically &c. adj.; up, on end; up on end, right on end; a
plomb, endwise; one one's legs; at right angles.

#213. Horizontality. -- N. horizontality; flatness; level, plane;
stratum &c. 204; dead level, dead flat; level plane.
recumbency, lying down &c. v.; reclination, decumbence; decumbency,
discumbency|; proneness &c. adj.; accubation, supination, resupination,
prostration; azimuth.
plain, floor, platform, bowling green; cricket ground; croquet ground,
croquet lawn; billiard table; terrace, estrade, esplanade, parterre, table
land, plateau, ledge.
V. be horizontal &c. adj.; lie, recline, couch; lie down, lie flat,
lie prostrate; sprawl, loll, sit down.
render horizontal &c. adj.; lay down, lay out; level, flatten;
prostrate, knock down, floor, fell.
Adj. horizontal, level, even, plane; flat &c. 251; flat as a billiard
tabble, flat as a bowling green; alluvial; calm, calm as a mill pond;
smooth, smooth as glass.
recumbent, decumbent, procumbent, accumbent; lying &c. v.; prone,
supine, couchant, jacent, prostrate, recubant.
Adv. horizontally &c. adj.; on one's back, on all fours, on its beam

#214. Pendency. -- N. pendency, dependency; suspension, hanging &c.
v.; pedicel, pedicle, peduncle; tail, train, flap, skirt, pigtail,
pendulum; hangnail
peg, knob, button, hook, nail, stud, ring, staple, tenterhook;;
fastening &c. 45; spar, horse.
V. be pendent &c. adj.; hang, depend, swing, dangle; swag; daggle,
flap, trail, flow; beetle.
suspend, hang, sling, hook up, hitch, fasten to, append.
Adj. pendent, pendulous; pensile; hanging &c. v.; beetling, jutting
over, overhanging, projecting; dependent; suspended &c. v.; loose, flowing.
having a peduncle &c. n.; pedunculate, tailed, caudate.

<-- p. 65 -->

#215. Support. -- N. support, ground, foundation, base, basis; terra
firma; bearing, fulcrum, bait [U.S.], caudex crib; point d'appui, sto/gr>, purchase footing, hold, locus standi; landing place, landing
stage; stage, platform; block; rest, resting place; groundwork, substratum,
riprap, sustentation, subvention; floor &c. (basement) 211.
supporter; aid &c. 707; prop, stand, anvil, fulciment|; cue rest,
jigger; monkey; stay, shore, skid, rib, truss, bandage; sleeper; stirrup,
stilts, shoe, sole, heel, splint, lap, bar, rod, boom, sprit, outrigger;
staff, stick, crutch, alpenstock, baton, staddle; bourdon, cowlstaff,
lathi, mahlstick.
post, pillar, shaft, thill, column, pilaster; pediment, pedicle;
pedestal; plinth, shank, leg, socle, zocle; buttress, jamb, mullion,
abutment; baluster, banister, stanchion; balustrade; headstone.
frame, framework; scaffold, skeleton, beam, rafter, rirder, lintel,
joist, travis, trave, corner stone, summer, transom; rung, round, step,
sill; angle rafter, hip rafter; cantilever, modillion;; crown post, king
post; vertebra.
columella, backbone; keystone; axle, axletree; axis; arch, mainstay.
trunnion, pivot, rowlock; peg &c. (pendency) 214; tiebeam &c.
(fastening) 45; thole pin.
board, ledge, shelf, hob, bracket, trevet, trivet, arbor, rack;
mantel, mantle piece, mantleshelf; slab, console; counter, dresser; flange,
corbel ; table, trestle; shoulder; perch; horse; easel, desk; clotheshorse,
hatrack; retable; teapoy.
seat, throne, dais; divan, musnud; chair, bench, form, stool, sofa,
settee, stall; arm chair, easy chair, elbow chair, rocking chair; couch,
fauteuil, woolsack, ottoman, settle, squab, bench; aparejo, faldstool,
horn; long chair, long sleeve chair, morris chair; lamba chauki, lamba
kursi; saddle, pannel, pillion; side saddle, pack saddle; pommel.
bed, berth, pallet, tester, crib, cot, hammock, shakedown, trucklebed,
cradle, litter, stretcher, bedstead; four poster, French bed, bunk, kip,
palang; bedding, bichona, mattress, paillasse; pillow, bolster; mat, rug,
footstool, hassock; tabouret; tripod.
Atlas, Persides, Atlantes, Caryatides, Hercules.
V. be supported &c.; lie on, sit on, recline on, lean on, loll on,
rest on, stand on, step on, repose on, abut on, bear on, be based on &c.;
have at one's back; bestride, bestraddle.
support, bear, carry, hold, sustain, shoulder; hold up, back up,
bolster up, shore up; uphold, upbear; prop; under prop, under pin, under
set; riprap; bandage &c. 43.
give support, furnish support, afford support, supply support, lend
support, give foundations, furnish foundations, afford foundations, supply
foundations, lend foundations; bottom, found, base, ground, imbed, embed.
maintain, keep on foot; aid &c. 707.
Adj. supporting, supported &c. v.; fundamental; dorsigerous.
Adv. astride on, straddle.

#216. Parallelism. -- N. {ant. 216a} parallelism; coextension;
Adj. parallel; coextensive; equidistant.
Adv. alongside &c. (laterally) 236.

<-- p. 66 -->

#217. Obliquity. -- N. obliquity, inclination, slope, slant,
crookedness &c. adj.; slopeness; leaning &c. v.; bevel, tilt; bias, list,
twist, swag, cant, lurch; distortion &c. 243; bend &c. (curve) 245; tower
of Pisa.
acclivity, rise, ascent, gradient, khudd, rising ground, hill, bank,
declivity, downhill, dip, fall, devexity|; gentle slope, rapid slope, easy
ascent, easy descent; shelving beach; talus; monagne Russe; facilis
descensus cerni.
steepness &c. adj.; cliff, precipice &c. (vertical) 212; escarpment,
[measure of inclination] clinometer; sine, cosine, cotangent, angle,
diagonal, zigzag.
V. be oblique &c. adj.; slope, slant, lean, incline, shelve, stoop,
decline, descend, bend, keel, careen, sag, swag, seel|, slouch, cant,
render oblique &c. adj.; sway, bias; slope, slant; incline, bend,
crook; cant, tilt; distort &c. 243.
Adj. oblique, inclined; sloping &c. v.; tilted &c. v.; recumbent,
clinal, skew, askew, slant, aslant, plagihedral, indirect, wry, awry, ajee,
crooked; knock-kneed &c. (distorted) 243; bevel, out of the perpendicular;
aslope; asquint, backhanded; recubant.
uphill, rising, ascending, acclivous; downhill, falling, descending;
declining, declivous, devex|, anticlinal; steep, abrupt, precipitous,
diagonal; transverse, transversal; athwart, antiparallel; curved &c.
Adv. obliquely &c. adj.; on one side, all on one side; askew, askant,
askance, edgewise, at an angle; sidelong, sideways; slopewise, slantwise;
by a side wind.

#218. Inversion. -- N. inversion, eversion, subversion, reversion,
retroversion, introversion; contraposition &c. 237; contrariety &c. 14;
reversal; turn of the tide.
overturn; somersault, somerset; summerset; culbute; revulsion;
transposition, transposal, anastrophy, metastasis, hyperbaton,
anastrophe, , hypallage, synchysis, tmesis,
parenthesis; metathesis; palindrome.
pronation and supination.
V. be inverted &c.; turn round, turn about, turn to the right about,
go round, go about, go to the right about, wheel round, wheel about, wheel
to the right about; turn over, go over, tilt over, topple over; capsize,
turn turtle.
invert, subvert, retrovert, introvert; reverse; up turn, over turn, up
set, over set; turn topsy turvy &c. adj.; culbuter; transpose, put the cart
before the horse, turn the tables.
Adj. inverted &c. v.; wrong side out, wrong side up; inside out,
upside down; bottop upwards, keel upwards; supine, on one's head, topsy-
turvy, sens dessus dessous.
inverse; reverse &c. (contrary) 14; opposite &c. 237.
top heavy.
Adv. inversely &c. adj.; hirdy-girdy; heels over head, head over

#219. Crossing. -- N. crossing &c. v.; intersection, interdigitation;
decussation, transversion; convolution &c. 248; level crossing.
reticulation, network;; inosculation, anastomosis, intertertexture,
net, plexus, web, mesh, twill, skein, sleeve, felt, lace; wicker; mat,
matting; plait, trellis, wattle, lattice, grating, grille, gridiron,
tracery, fretwork, filigree, reticle; tissue, netting, mokes; rivulation.
cross, chain, wreath, braid, cat's cradle, knot; entangle &c.
(disorder) 59.
[woven fabrics] cloth, linen, muslin, cambric &c.
V. cross, decussate; intersect, interlace, intertwine, intertwist,
interweave, interdigitate, interlink.
twine, entwine, weave, inweave, twist, wreathe; anastomose,
inosculate, dovetail, splice, link.
mat, plait, plat, braid, felt, twill; tangle, entangle, ravel; net,
knot; dishevel, raddle.
Adj. crossing &c. v.; crossed, matted &c, v. transverse.
cross, cruciform, crucial; retiform, reticular, reticulated; areolar,
cancellated, grated, barred, streaked; textile; crossbarred, cruciate,
palmiped, secant; webfooted.
Adv. cross, thwart, athwart, transversely; at grade [U.S.]; crosswise.

<-- p. 67 -->

3. Centrical Dimensions
<-- That is, dimensions having reference to a center -->
1. General

#220. Exteriority. -- N. exteriority; outside, exterior; surface,
superficies; skin &c. (covering) 223; superstratum; disk, disc; face,
facet; extrados.
excentricity; eccentricity; circumjacence &c. 227.
V. be exterior &c. adj.; lie around &c. 227.
place exteriorly, place outwardly, place outside; put out, turn out.
Adj. exterior, external; outer most; outward, outlying, outside,
outdoor; round about &c. 227; extramural; extralimitary, extramundane.
superficial, skin-deep; frontal, discoid.
extraregarding; excentric, eccentric; outstanding; extrinsic &c. 6;
ecdemic, exomorphic.
Adv. externally &c. adj.; out, with out, over, outwards, ab extra, out
of doors; extra muros.
in the open air; sub Jove, sub jio; a ala belle etoile, al fresco.

#221. Interiority. -- N. interiority; inside, interior; interspace,
subsoil, substratum; intrados.
contents &c. 190; substance, pith, marrow; backbone &c. (center) 222;
heart, bosom, breast; abdomen; vitals, viscera, entrails, bowels, belly,
intestines, guts, chitterings, womb, lap; penetralia, recesses, innermost
recesses; cave &c. (concavity) 252.
V. be inside &c. adj.; within &c. adv.
place within, keep within; inclose &c. (circumscribe) 229; intern;
imbed &c. (insert) 300.
Adj. interior, internal; inner, inside, inward, intraregarding;
inmost, innermost; deep seated; intesting, intestinal; inland;
subcutaneous; abdominal, coeliac, endomorphic; interstitial &c.
(interjacent) 228; inwrought &c. (intrinsic) 5; inclosed &c. v.
home, domestic, indoor, intramural, vernacular; endemic.
Adv. internally &c. adj.; inwards, within, in, inly; here in, there
in, where in; ab intra, withinside; in doors, within doors; at home, in the
bosom of one's family.

#222. Centrality. -- N. centrality, centricalness, center; middle &c.
68; focus &c. 74.
core, kernel; nucleus, nucleolus; heart, pole axis, bull's eye; nave,
navel; umbilicus, backbone, marrow, pith; vertebra, vertebral column;
hotbed; concentratin &c. (convergence) 290; centralization; symmetry.
center of gravity, center of pressure, center of percussion, center of
oscillation, center of buoyancy &c.; metacenter.
V. be central &c. adj.; converge &c. 290.
render central, centralize, concentrate; bring to a focus.
Adj. central, centrical; middle &c. 68; azygous, axial, focal,
umbilical, cocentric; middlemost; rachidian; spinal, vertebral.
Adv. middle; midst; centrally &c. adj.

223. Covering. -- N. covering, cover; baldachin, baldachino,
baldaquin; canopy, tilt, awning, tent, marquee, tente d'abri, umbrella,
parasol, sunshade; veil (shade) 424; shield &c. (defense) 717.
roof, ceiling, thatch, tile; pantile, pentile; tiling, slates,
slating, leads; barrack [U.S.], plafond, planchment [U.S.], tiling, shed
&c. (abode) 189.
top, lid, covercle|, door, operculum; bulkhead [U.S.].
bandage, plaster, lint, wrapping, dossil, finger stall.
coverlet, counterpane, sheet, quilt, tarpaulin, blanket, rug, drugget;
housing; antimacassar, eiderdown, numdah, pillowcase, pillowslip; linoleum;
saddle cloth, blanket cloth; tidy; tilpah [U.S.], apishamore [U.S.].
integument , tegument; skin, pellicle, fleece, fell, fur, leather,
shagreen, hide; pelt, peltry; cordwain; derm; robe, buffalo robe [U.S.];
cuticle, scarfskin, epidermis.
clothing &c. 225; mask &c. (concealment) 530.
peel, crust, bark, rind, cortex, husk, shell, coat; eggshell, glume.
capsule; sheath, sheathing; pod, cod; casing, case, theca; elytron;
elytrum; involucrum; wrapping, wrapper; envelope, vesicle; corn husk, corn
shuck [U.S.]; dermatology, conchology; testaceology.
veneer, facing; engobe; pavement; scale &c. (layer) 204; coating,
paint; varnish &c. (resin) 356a; anointing &c. v.; inunction; incrustation,
superposition, obduction|; ground, enamel, whitewash, plaster, stucco,
compo; cerement; ointment &c. (grease) 356.
V. cover; superpose, superimpose; overlay, overspread; wrap &c. 225;
incase; face, case, veneer, pave, paper; tip, cap, bind; bulkhead, bulkhead
in; clapboard [U.S.].
coat, paint, varnish, pay, incrust, stuccco, dab, plaster, tar; wash;
besmear, bedaub; anoint, do over; gild, plate, japan, lacquer, lacker,
enamel, whitewash; parget; lay it on thick.
overlie, overarch; endome; conceal &c. 528.
Adj. covering &c. v.; cutaneous, dermal, cortical, cuticular,
tegumentary, skinny, scaly, squamous; covered &c. v.; imbricated,
loricated, armor plated, ironclad; under cover; cowled, cucullate,
dermatoid, encuirassed, hooded, squamiferous, tectiform; vaginate.

#224. Lining. -- N. lining, inner coating; coating &c. (covering) 223;
stalactite, stalagamite.
filling, stuffing, wadding, padding.
wainscot, parietes, wall.
V. line, stuff, incrust, wad, pad, fill.
Adj. lined &c. v..

<-- p. 68 -->

#225. Investment. -- N. investment; covering &c. 223; dress, clothing,
raiment, drapery, costume, attire, guise, toilet, toilette, trim;
habiliment; vesture, vestment; garment, garb, palliament|, apparel,
wardrobe, wearing apparel, clothes, things.
array; tailoring, millinery; finery &c. (ornament) 847; full dress &c.
(show) 882; garniture; theatrical properties.
outfit, equipment, trousseau; uniform, regimentals; continentals [Am.
Hist.]; canonicals &c. 999; livery, gear, harness, turn-out, accouterment,
caparison, suit, rigging, trappings, traps, slops, togs, toggery;
dishabille, morning dress, neglige, dressing gown, undress; kimono;
lungi; shooting-coat; mufti; rags, tatters, old clothes; mourning, weeds;
duds; slippers.
robe, tunic, paletot, habit, gown, coat, frock, blouse, toga, smock
frock, claw coat, hammer coat, Prince Albert coat, sack coat, tuxedo coat,
frock coat, dress coat, tail coat.
cloak, pall, mantle, mantlet mantua, shawl, pelisse, wrapper; veil;
cape, tippet, kirtle, plaid, muffler, comforter, haik, huke|, chlamys,
mantilla, tabard, housing, horse cloth, burnoose, burnous, roquelaure;
houppelande; surcoat, overcoat, great coat; surtout, spencer; mackintosh,
waterproof; ulster, P-coat, dreadnought, wraprascal, poncho, cardinal,
pelerine; barbe, chudder, jubbah, oilskins, pajamas, pilot jacket, talma
jacket, vest, jerkin, waistcoat, doublet, camisole, gabardine; stays,
corsage, corset, corselet, bodice; stomacher; skirt, petticoat,
farthingale, kilt, jupe, crinoline, bustle, panier, apron, pinafore;
bloomer, bloomers; chaqueta, songtag, tablier.
trousers, trowsers; breeches, pantaloons, inexpressibles, overalls,
smalls, small clothes; pants, shintiyan; shorts; tights, drawers;
knickerbockers; philibeg, fillibeg.
headdress, headgear; chaepau, crush hat, opera hat; kaffiyeh;
sombrero, jam. tam-o'-shanter, tarboosh, topi, sola topi, pagri, puggaree;
cap, hat, beaver, castor, bonnet, tile, ideawake, billycock, wimple;
nightcap, mobcap, skullcap; hood, coif; capote, calash; kerchief, snood;
head, coiffure; crown &c. (circle) 247; chignon, pelt, wig, front, peruke,
periwig, caftan, turban, fez, shako, csako, busby; kepi, forage cap,
bearskin; helmet &c. 717; mask, domino.
body clothes; linen; hickory shirt [U.S.]; shirt, sark, smock, shift,
chemise; night gown, night shirt; bedgown, sac de nuit; jersey;
underclothing under waistcoat.
neckerchief, neckcloth; tie, ruff, collar, cravat, stock,
handkerchief, scarf; bib, tucker; boa; girdle &c. (circle) 247; cummerbund,
rumal, rabat.
shoe, pump, boot, slipper, sandal, galoche, goloshes, patten, clog;
high-low; Blucher boot, wellington boot, Hessian boot, jack boot, top boot;
Balmoral; artics, bootee, bootikin, brogan, chaparajos; chavar, chivarras,
chivarros; gums [U.S.], larrigan [N. Am.], rubbers, showshoe, stogy,
veldtschoen, legging, buskin, greave, galligaskin, gamache, gamashes,
moccosin, gambado, gaiter, spatterdash, brogue, antigropelos; stocking,
hose, gaskins, trunk hose, sock; hosiery.
glove, gauntlet, mitten, cuff, wristband, sleeve.
swaddling cloth, baby linen, layette; pocket handerchief; ice wool;
clothier, tailor, milliner, costumier, sempstress, snip; dressmaker,
habitmaker, breechesmaker, shoemaker; crospin; friseur; cordwainer,
cobbler, hosier, hatter; draper, linen draper, haberdasher, mercer.
V. invest; cover &c. 223; envelope, lap, involve; inwrap, enwrap;
wrap; fold up, wrap up, lap up, muffle up; overlap; sheath, swathe,
swaddle, roll up in, circumbest.
vest, clothe, array, dress, dight, drape, robe, enrobe, attire,
apparel, accounter, rig, fit out; deck &c. (ornament) 847; perk, equip,
harness, caparison.
wear; don; put on, huddle on, slip on; mantle.
Adj. invested &c. v.; habited; dighted; barbed, barded; clad, costume,
shod, chausse; en grande tenue &c. (show) 882.
Phr. "the soul of this man is his clothes" [All's Well].

<-- p. 69 -->

#226. Divestment. -- N. divestment; taking off &c. v..
nudity; bareness &c. adj.; undress; dishabille &c. 225; the
altogether; nudation, denudation; decortication, depilation, excoriation,
desquamation; molting; exfoliation; trichosis.
V. divest; uncover &c. (cover &c. 223); denude, bare, strip;
disfurnish; undress, disrobe &c. (dress, enrobe &c. 225); uncoif;
dismantle; put off, take off, cast off; doff; peel, pare, decorticate,
excoriate, skin, scalp, flay; expose, lay open; exfoliate, molt, mew; cast
the skin.
Adj. divested &c. v.; bare, naked, nude; undressed, undraped;
exposed; in dishabille; bald, threadbare, ragged, callow, roofless.
in a state of nature, in nature's garb, in the buff, in native buff,
in birthday suit; in puris naturalibus; with nothing on, stark naked; bald
as a coot, bare as the back of one's hand; out at elbows; barefoot;
bareback, barebacked; leafless, napless, hairless.

#227. Circumjacence. -- N. circumjacence, circumambience; environment,
encompassment; atmosphere, medium, surroundings.
outpost; border &c. (edge) 231; girdle &c. (circumference) 230;
outskirts, boulebards, suburbs, purlieus, precincts, faubourgs, environs,
entourage, banlieue; neighborhood, vicinage, vicinity.
V. lie around &c. adv.; surround, beset, compass, encompass, environ,
inclose, enclose, encircle, embrace, circumvent, lap, gird; belt; begird,
engird; skirt, twine round; hem in &c. (circumscribe) 229.
Adj. circumjacent, circumambient, circumfluent; ambient; surrounding
&c. v.; circumferential, suburban.
Adv. around, about; without; on every side; on all sides; right and
left, all round, round about.

#228. Interjacence. -- N. interjacence, intercurrence, intervenience,
interlocation, interdigitation, interpenetration; permeation.
interjection, interpolation, interlineation, interspersion,
intercalation; embolism.
intervention, interference, interposition; intrusion, obtrusion;
insinuation; insertion &c. 300; dovetailing; infiltration.
intermedium, intermediary; go between, bodkin, intruder, interloper;
parenthesis, episode, flyleaf.
partition, septum, diaphragm, midriff; dissepiment; party, wall,
panel; halfway house.
V. lie between, come between, get between; intervene, slide in,
interpenetrate, permeate.
put between, introduce, import, throw in, wedge in, edge in, jam in,
worm in, foist in, run in, plow in, work in; interpose, interject,
intercalate, interpolate, interline, interleave, intersperse, interweave,
interlard, interdigitate; let in, dovetail, splice, mortise; insinuate,
smuggle; infiltrate, ingrain.
interfere, put in an oar, thrust one's nose in; intrude, obtrude; have
a finger in the pie; introduce the thin end of the wedge; thrust in &c.
(insert) 300.
Adj. interjacent, intercurrent, intervenient, intervening &c. v.,
intermediate, intermediary, intercalary, interstitial; embolismal.
parenthetical, episodic; mediterranean; intrusive; embosomed; merged.
Adv. between, betwixt; twixt; among, amongst; amid, amidst; mid,
midst; in the thick of; betwixt and between; sandwich-wise; parenthically,
obiter dictum.

<-- p. 70 -->

#229. Circumscription. -- N. circumscription, limitation, inclosure;
confinement &c. (restraint) 751; circumvallation; encintcture; envelope &c.
container (receptacle) 191.
V. circumscribe, limit, bound, confine, inclose; surround &c. 227;
compass about; imprison &c. (restrain) 751; hedge in, wall in, rail in;
fence round, hedge round; picket; corral.
enfold, bury, incase, pack up, enshrine, inclasp; wrap up &c. (invest)
225; embay, embosom.
Adj. circumscribed &c. v.; begirt, lapt; buried in, immersed in;
embosomed, in the bosom of, imbedded, encysted, mewed up; imprisoned &c.
751; landlocked, in a ring fence.

#230. Outline. -- N. outline, circumference; perimeter, periphery,
ambit, circuit, lines tournure, contour, profile, silhouette; bounds; coast
zone, belt, girth, band, baldric, zodiac, girdle, tyre, cingle, clasp,
girt; cordon &c. (inclosure) 232; circlet, &c. 247..

#231. Edge. -- N. edge, verge, brink, brow, brim, margin, border,
confine, skirt, rim, flange, side, mouth; jaws, chops, chaps, fauces; lip,
threshold, door, porch; portal &c. (opening) 260; coast, shore.
frame, fringe, flounce, frill, list, trimming, edging, skirting, hem,
selvedge, welt, furbelow, valance.
Adj. border, marginal, skirting; labial, labiated, marginated.

#232. Inclosure. -- N. inclosure, envelope; case &c. (receptacle) 191;
wrapper; girdle &c. 230.
pen, fold; pen fold, in fold, sheep fold; paddock, pound; corral;
yard; net, seine net.
wall, hedge, hedge row; espalier; fence &c. (defense) 717; pale,
paling, balustrade, rail, railing, quickset hedge, park paling,
circumvallation, enceinte, ring fence.
barrier, barricade; gate, gateway; bent, dingle [U.S.]; door, hatch,
cordon; prison &c. 752.
dike, dyke, ditch, fosse, moat.
V. inclose, circumscribe &c. 229.

#233. Limit. -- N. limit, boundary, bounds, confine, enclave, term,
bourn, verge, curbstone, but, pale; termination, terminus; stint, frontier,
precinct, marches; backwoods.
boundary line, landmark; line of demarcation, line of circumvallation;
pillars of Hercules; Rubicon, turning point; ne plus ultra; sluice,
Adj. definite; conterminate|, conterminable; terminal, frontier;
Adv. thus far, thus far and no further.

<-- p. 71 -->

2. Special

#234. Front. -- N. front; fore, forepart; foreground; face, disk,
disc, frontage; facade, proscenium, facia, frontispiece; anteriority;
obverse [of a medal or coin].
fore rank, front rank; van, vanguard; advanced guard; outpost; first
line; scout.
brow, forehead, visage, physiognomy, phiz, countenance, mut*; rostrum,
beak, bow, stem, prow, prore, jib.
pioneer &c. (precursor) 64; metoposcopy.
V. be in front, stand in front &c. adj.; front, face, confront; bend
forwards; come to the front, come to the fore.
Adj. fore, anterior, front, frontal.
Adv. before; in front, in the van, in advance; ahead, right ahead;
forehead, foremost; in the foreground, in the lee of; before one's face,
before one's eyes; face to face, vis-a-vis; front a front.
Phr. formosa muta commendatio est [Syrus]; frons est animi janua
[Cicero]; "Human face divine" [Milton]; imago animi vultus est indices
oculi [Cicero]; "sea of upturned faces" [Scott].

#235. Rear. -- N. rear, back, posteriority; rear rank, rear guard;
background, interland.
occiput, nape, chine; heels; tail, rump, croup, buttock, posteriors,
backside scut, breech, dorsum, loin; dorsal region, lumbar region; hind
quarters; aitchbone; natch, natch bone.
stern, poop, afterpart, heelpiece, crupper.
wake; train &c. (sequence) 281.
reverse; other side of the shield.
V. be behind &c. adv.; fall astern; bend backwards; bring up the rear.
Adj. back, rear; hind, hinder, hindmost, hindermost; postern,
posterior; dorsal, after; caudal, lumbar; mizzen, tergal.
Adv. behind; in the rear, in the background; behind one's back; at the
heels of, at the tail of, at the back of; back to back.
after, aft, abaft, astern, sternmost, aback, rearward.
Phr. ogni medaglia ha il suo rovescio.

#236. Laterality. -- N. laterality; side, flank, quarter, lee; hand;
cheek, jowl, jole, wing; profile; temple, parietes, loin, haunch, hip;
gable, gable end; broadside; lee side.
points of the compass; East, Orient, Levant; West; orientation.
V. be on one side &c. adv.; flant, outflank; sidle; skirt; orientate.
Adj. lateral, sidelong; collateral; parietal, flanking, skirting;
flanked; sideling.
many sided; multilateral, bilateral, trilateral, quadrilateral.
Eastern; orient, oriental; Levantine; Western, occidental, Hesperian.
Adv. sideways, sidelong; broadside on; on one side, abreast,
alongside, beside, aside; by the side of; side by side; cheek by jown &c.
(near) 197; to windward, to leeward; laterally &c. adj.; right and left; on
her beam ends.
Phr. "his cheek the may of days outworn" [Shakespeare].
#237. Contraposition. -- N. contraposition, opposition; polarity;
inversion &c. 218; opposite side; reverse, inverse; counterpart; antipodes;
opposite poles, North and South.
antonym, opposit (contrariety) 14.
V. be opposite &c. adj.; subtend.
Adj. opposite; reverse, inverse; converse, antipodal, subcontrary;
fronting, facing, diametrically opposite.
Northern, septentrional, Boreal, arctic; Southern, Austral, antarctic.
Adv. over, over the way, over against; against; face to face, vis-a-
vis; as poles asunder.

#238. Dextrality. -- N. dextrality; right, right hand; dexter,
offside, starboard.
Adj. dextral, right-handed; dexter, dextrorsal, dextrorse;
Adv. dextrad, dextrally.

#239. Sinistrality. -- N. sinistrality; left, left hand; sinister,
nearside, larboard, port.
Adj. left-handed; sinister; sinistral, sinistrorsal, sinistrorse,
Adv. sinistrally, sinistrously.

<-- p. 72 -->

Section III. FORM
1. General Form

#240. Form. -- N. form, figure, shape; conformation, configuration;
make, formation, frame, construction, cut, set, build, trim, cut of one's
jib; stamp, type, cast, mold; fashion; contour &c. (outline) 230; structure
&c. 329; plasmature.
feature, lineament, turn; phase &c. (aspect) 448; posture, attitude,
[Science of form] morphism.
[Similarity of form] isomorphism.
forming &c. v.; formation, figuration, efformation; sculpture;
V. form, shape, figure, fashion, efform, carve, cut, chisel, hew,
cast; rough hew, rough cast; sketch; block out, hammer out; trim; lick into
shape, put into shape; model, knead, work up into, set, mold, sculpture;
cast, stamp; build &c. (construct) 161.
Adj. formed &c. v.
[Receiving form] plastic, fictile; formative.
[Give form] plasmic.
[Similar in form] isomorphous.

#241. [Absence of form.] Amorphism. -- N. amorphism, informity;
unlicked cub; rudis indigestaque moles; disorder &c. 59; deformity &c. 243.
disfigurement, defacement; mutilation; deforming.
V. [Destroy form] deface, disfigure, deform, mutilate, truncate;
derange &c. 61; blemish, mar.
Adj. shapeless, amorphous, formless; unformed, unhewn, unfashioned,
shapen; rough, rude, Gothic, barbarous, rugged.

#242. [Regularity of form.] Symmetry. -- N. symmetry, shapeliness,
finish; beauty &c. 845; proportion, eurythmy, uniformity, parallelism;
bilateral symmetry, trilateral symmetry, multilateral symmetry; centrality
&c. 222.
arborescence, branching, ramification; arbor vitae.
Adj. symmetrical, shapeley, well set, finished; beautiful &c. 845;
classic, chaste, severe.
regular, uniform, balanced; equal &c. 27; parallel, coextensive.
arborescent, arboriform; dendriform, dendroid; branching; ramous,
ramose; filiciform, filicoid; subarborescent; papilionaceous.

#243. [Irregularity of form.] Distortion. -- N. distortion, detortion,
contortion; twist, crookedness &c. (obliquity) 217; grimace; deformity;
malformation, malconformation; harelip; monstrosity, misproportion, want of
symmetry, anamorphosis; ugliness &c. 846; talipes; teratology.
V. distort, contort, twist, warp, wrest, writhe, make faces, deform,
Adj. distorted &c. v.; out of shape, irregular, unsymmetric, awry,
wry, askew, crooked; not true, not straight; on one side, crump, deformed;
harelipped; misshapen, misbegotten; misproportioned, ill proportioned; ill-
made; grotesque, crooked as a ram's horn; camel backed, hump backed, hunch
backed, bunch backed, crook backed; bandy; bandy legged, bow legged; bow
kneed, knock kneed; splay footed, club footed; round shouldered; snub
nosed; curtailed of one's fair proportions; stumpy &c. (short) 201; gaunt
&c. (thin) 203; bloated &c. 194; scalene; simous; taliped, talipedic.
Adv. all manner of ways.
Phr. crooked as a Virginia fence [U.S.].

<-- p. 73 -->

2. Special Form

#244. Angularity. -- N. angularity, angularness; aduncity; angle,
cusp, bend; fold &c. 258; notch &c. 257; fork, bifurcation.
elbow, knee, knuckle, ankle, groin, crotch, crutch, crane, fluke,
scythe, sickle, zigzag, kimbo, akimbo.
corner, nook, recess, niche, oriel, coign.
right angle &c. (perpendicular) 216a, 212; obliquity &c. 217; angle
of 45ø, miter; acute angle, obtuse angle, salient angle, reentering angle,
spherical angle.
angular measurement, angular elevation, angular distance, angular
velocity; trigonometry, goniometry; altimetry; clinometer, graphometer,
goniometer; theodolite; sextant, quadrant; dichotomy.
triangle, trigon, wedge; rectangle, square, lozenge, diamond; rhomb,
rhombus; quadrangle, quadrilateral; parallelogram; quadrature; polygon,
pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, oxygon, decagon.
Platonic bodies; cube, rhomboid; tetrahedron, pentahedron, hexahedron,
octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, eicosahedron; prism, pyramid;
parallelopiped; curb roof, gambrel roof, mansard roof.
V. bend, fork, bifurcate, crinkle.
Adj. angular, bent, crooked, aduncous, uncinated, aquiline, jagged,
serrated; falciform, falcated; furcated, forked, bifurcate, zigzag;
furcular; hooked; dovetailed; knock kneed, crinked, akimbo, kimbo,
geniculated; oblique &c. 217.
fusiform, wedge-shaped, cuneiform; cuneate, multangular, oxygonal;
triangular, trigonal, trilateral; quadrangular, quadrilateral; foursquare;
rectangular, square, multilateral; polygonal &c. n.; cubical, rhomboidal,

#245. Curvature. -- N. curvature, curvity, curvation; incurvature,
incurvity|; incurvation; bend; flexure, flexion; conflexure|; crook, hook,
bought, bending; deflexion, inflexion; concameration; arcuation, devexity|,
turn, deviation, detour, sweep; curl, curling; bough; recurvity,
recurvation; sinuosity &c. 248.
carve, arc, arch, arcade, vault, bow, crescent, half-moon, lunule,
horseshoe, loop, crane neck; parabola, hyperbola; catenary, festoon;
conchoid, cardioid; caustic; tracery; arched ceiling, arched roof; bay
window, bow window.
V. be curved &c. adj.; sweep, swag, sag; deviate &c. 279; turn;
render curved &c. &c. adj.; bend, curve, incurvate; deflect, inflect;
crook; turn, round, arch, arcuate, arch over, concamerate; bow, curl,
recurve, frizzle.
Adj. curved &c. v.; curviform, curvilineal, curvilinear; devex|,
devious; recurved, recurvous; crump; bowed &c. v.; vaulted, hooked;
falciform, falcated; semicircular, crescentic; luniform, lunular;
semilunar, conchoidal; cordiform, cordated; cardioid; heart shaped, bell
shaped, boat shaped, crescent shaped, lens shaped, moon shaped, oar shaped,
shield shaped, sickle shaped, tongue shaped, pear shaped, fig shaped;
reniform; lentiform, lenticular; bow-legged &c. (distored) 243; oblique &c.
217; circular &c. 247.
aduncated, arclike, arcuate, beaked; bicorn, bicornuous, bicornute;
clypeate, clypeiform; cymbiform, embowed, galeiform; hamate, hamiform,
hamous; hooked; linguiform, lingulate; lobiform, lunate, navicular,
peltate, remiform, rhamphoid; rostrate, rostiferous, rostroid; scutate,
scaphoid, uncate; unguiculate, unguiform.

#246. Straightness. -- N. straightness, rectilinearity, directness;
inflexibility &c. (stiffness) 323; straight line, right line, direct line;
short cut.
V. be straight &c. adj.; have no turning; not incline to either side,
not bend to either side, not turn to either side, not deviate to either
side; go straight; steer for &c. (directions) 278.
render straight, straighten, rectify; set straight, put straight;
unbend, unfold, uncurl &c. 248, unravel &c. 219, unwrap.
Adj. straight; rectilinear, rectilineal; direct, even, right, true, in
a line; unbent, virgate &c. v.; undeviating, unturned, undistorted,
unswerving; straight as an arrow &c. (direct) 278; inflexible &c. 323.

#247. [Simple circularity.] Circularity. -- N. circularity, roundness;
rotundity &c. 249.
circle, circlet, ring, areola, hoop, roundlet, annulus, annulet,
bracelet, armlet; ringlet; eye, loop, wheel; cycle, orb, orbit, rundle,
zone, belt, cordon, band; contrate wheel, crown wheel; hub; nave; sash,
girdle, cestus, cincture, baldric, fillet, fascia, wreath, garland; crown,
corona, coronet, chaplet, snood, necklace, collar; noose, lasso, lassoo.
ellipse, oval, ovule; ellipsoid, cycloid; epicycloid, epicycle;
semicircle; quadrant, sextant, sector.
V. make round &c. adj.; round.
go round; encircle &c. 227; describe a circle &c. 311.
Adj. round, rounded, curcular, annular, orbicular; oval, ovate;
elliptic, elliptical; egg-shaped; pear-shaped &c. 245; cycloidal &c. n.;
spherical &c. 249.
Phr. "I watched the little circles die" [Tennyson].

<-- p. 74 -->

#248. [Complex curvature.] Convolution. -- N. winding &c. v.;
convolution, involution, circumvolution; wave, undulation, tortuosity,
anfractuosity; sinuosity, sinuation; meandering, circuit, circumbendibus,
twist, twirl, windings and turnings, ambages; torsion; inosculation;
reticulation &c. (crossing) 219; rivulation; roughness &c. 256.
coil, roll, curl; buckle, spiral, helix, corkscrew, worm, volute,
rundle; tendril; scollop, scallop, escalop; kink; ammonite, snakestone.
serpent, eel, maze, labyrinth.
V. be convoluted &c. adj.;wind, twine, turn and twist, twirl; wave,
undulate, meander; inosculate; entwine, intwine; twist, coil, roll;
wrinkle, curl, crisp, twill; frizzle; crimp, crapek, indent, scollop,
scallop, wring, intort; contort; wreathe &c. (cross) 219.
Adj. convoluted; winding, twisted &c. v.; tortile, tortive|; wavy;
undated, undulatory; circling, snaky, snake-like, serpentine; serpent,
anguill, vermiform; vermicular; mazy, tortuous, sinuous, flexuous,
anfractuous, reclivate, rivulose, scolecoid; sigmoid, sigmoidal;
spiriferous, spiroid;
involved, intricate, complicated, perplexed; labyrinth, labyrinthic,
labyrinthian, labyrinthine; peristaltic; daedalian; kinky.
wreathy, frizzly, crepe, buckled; raveled &c. (in disorder) 59.
spiral, coiled, helical; cocheleate, cochelous; screw-shaped;
turbinated, turbiniform.
Adv. in and out, round and round.

#249.. Rotundity. -- N. rotundity; roundness &c. adj.; cylindricity;
sphericity, spheroidity; globosity.
cylinder, cylindroid, cylindrical; barrel, drum; roll, roller;
rouleau, column, rolling-pin, rundle.
cone, conoid; pear shape, egg shape, bell shape.
sphere, globe, ball, boulder, bowlder; spheroid, ellipsoid; oblong
spheroid; oblate spheroid; drop, spherule, globule, vesicle, bulb, bullet,
pellet, pelote, clew, pill, marble, pea, knob, pommel, horn; knot
(convolution) 248.
V. render spherical &c.adj.; form into a sphere, sphere, roll into a
ball; give rotundity &c. n.; round.
Adj. rotund; round &c. (circular) 247; cylindric, cylindrical,
cylindroid; columnar, lumbriciform; conic, conical; spherical, spheroidal;
globular, globated, globous, globose; egg shaped, bell shaped, pear shaped;
ovoid, ofiform; gibbous; rixiform; campaniform, campanulate, campaniliform;
fungiform, bead-like, moniliform, pyriform, bulbous; tres atque rotundus;
round as an orange, round as an apple, round as a ball, round as a billiard
ball, round as a cannon ball.

3. Superficial Form

#250. Convexity. -- N. convexity, prominence, projection, swelling,
gibbosity, bilge, bulge, protuberance, protrusion; camber, cahot [N. Am.],
thank-ye-ma'am [U.S.]. swell.
intumescence; tumour, tumor; tubercle, tuberosity; excrescence; hump,
hunch, bunch.
tooth, knob, elbow, process, apophysis, condyle, bulb, node, nodule,
nodosity, tongue, dorsum, boss, embossment, bump, clump; sugar loaf &c.
(sharpness) 253; bow; mamelon; hub, hubble [U.S.]; molar.
pimple; wen, wheel, papula, pustule, pock, proud flesh, growth,
sarcoma, caruncle, corn, wart, furuncle, polypus, fungus, fungosity,
exostosis, bleb, blister, blain; boil &c. (disease) 655; airbubble, blob,
papule, verruca.
papilla, nipple, teat, pap, breast, dug, mammilla; proboscis, nose,
neb, beak, snout, nozzle; belly, corporation; withers, back, shoulder, lip,
peg, button, stud, ridge, rib, jutty, trunnion, snag.
cupola, dome, arch, balcony, eaves; pilaster.
relief, relievo, cameo; bassorilievo, mezzorilevo, altorivievo; low
relief, bas relief, high relief.
hill &c. (height) 206; cape, promontory, mull; forehead, foreland;
point of land, mole, jetty, hummock, ledge, spur; naze, ness.
V. be prominent &c. adj.; project, bulge, protrude, pout, bouge|,
bunch; jut out, stand out, stick out, poke out; stick up, bristle up, start
up, cock up, shoot up; swell over, hang over, bend over; beetle.
render prominent &c. adj.; raise 307; emboss, chase.
Adj. convex, prominent, protuberant, projecting &c. v.; bossed,
bossy, nodular, bunchy; clavate, clavated, claviform; hummocky, moutonne,
mammiliform; papulous, papilose; hemispheric, bulbous; bowed, arched; bold;
bellied; tuberous, tuberculous; tumous; cornute, odontoid; lentiform,
lenticular; gibbous; club shaped, hubby [U.S.], hubbly [U.S.], knobby,
papillose, saddle-shaped, selliform, subclavate, torose, ventricose,
salient, in relief, raised, repousse; bloated &c, (expanded) 194.

<-- p. 75 -->

#251. Flatness. -- N. flatness &c. adj.; smoothness &c. 255.
plane; level &c. 213; plate, platter, table, tablet, slab.
V. render flat, flatten; level &c. 213.
Adj. flat, plane, even, flush, scutiform, discoid; level &c.
(horizontal) 213; flat as a pancake, flat as a fluke, flat as a flounder,
flat as a board, flat as my hand.

#252. Concavity. -- N. concavity, depression, dip; hollow, hollowness;
indentation, intaglio, cavity, dent, dint, dimple, follicle, pit, sinus,
alveolus, lacuna; excavation; trough &c. (furrow) 259; honeycomb.
cup, basin, crater, punch bowl; cell &c. (receptacle) 191; socket.
valley, vale, dale, dell, dingle, combe, bottom, slade, strath, glade,
grove, glen, cave, cavern, cove; grot, grotto; alcove, cul-de-sac; gully
&c. 198; arch &c. (curve) 245; bay &c. (of the sea) 343.
excavator, sapper, miner.
V. be concave &c. adj.; retire, cave in.
render concave &c. adj.; depress, hollow; scoop, scoop out; gouge,
dig, delve, excavate, dent, dint, mine, sap, undermine, burrow, tunnel,
stave in.
Adj. depressed &c. v.; alveolate, calathiform, cup-shaped, dishing;
favaginous, faveolate, favose; scyphiform, scyphose; concave, hollow, stove
in; retiring; retreating; cavernous; porous &c. (with holes) 260;
infundibul, infundibular, infundibuliform; funnel shaped, bell shaped;
campaniform, capsular; vaulted, arched.

#253. Sharpness. -- N. sharpness &c. adj.; acuity, acumination;
point, spike, spine, spiculum, needle, pin; prick, prickle; spur,
rowel, barb; spit, cusp; horn, antler; snag; tag thorn, bristle; Adam's
needle, bear grass [U.S.], tine, yucca.
nib, tooth, tusk; spoke, cog, ratchet.
crag, crest, arete, cone peak, sugar loaf, pike, aiguille; spire,
pyramid, steeple.
beard, chevaux de frise, porcupine, hedgehog, brier, bramble, thistle;
comb; awn, beggar's lice, bur, burr, catchweed, cleavers, clivers, goose,
grass, hairif, hariff, flax comb, hackle, hatchel, heckle.
wedge; knife edge, cutting edge; blade, edge tool, cutlery, knife,
penknife, whittle, razor; scalpel; bistoury, lancet; plowshare, colter;
hatchet, ax, pickax, mattock, pick, adze, gill; billhook, cleaver, cutter;
scythe, sickle; scissors, shears; sword &c. (arms) 727; bodkin &c.
(perforator) 262; belduque, bowie knife, paring knife; bushwhacker [U.S.];
drawing knife, drawing shave.
sharpener, hone, strop; grindstone, whetstone; novaculite; steel,
V. be sharp &c. adj.; taper to a point; bristle with.
render sharp &c. adj.; sharpen, point, aculeate, whet, barb,
spiculate, set, strop, grind.
cut &c. (sunder) 44.
Adj. sharp, keen; acute; acicular, aciform; aculeated, acuminated;
pointed; tapering; conical, pyramidal; mucronate, mucronated; spindle
shaped, needle shaped; spiked, spiky, ensiform, peaked, salient; cusped,
cuspidate, cuspidated; cornute, cornuted, cornicultate; prickly; spiny,
spinous; thorny, bristling, muricated, pectinated, studded, thistly,
briary; craggy &c. (rough) 256; snaggy, digitated, two-edged, fusiform;
dentiform, denticulated; toothed; odontoid; starlike; stellated,
stelliform; sagittate, sagittiform; arrowheaded; arrowy, barbed, spurred.
acinaform; apiculate, apiculated; aristate, awned, awny, bearded,
calamiform, cone-shaped, coniform, crestate, echinate, gladiate;
lanceolate, laciform; awl, awl-shaped, lance-shaped, awl-shaped, scimitar-
shaped, sword-shaped; setarious, spinuliferous, subulate, tetrahedral,
cutting; sharp edged, knife edged; sharp as a razor, keen as a razor;
sharp as a needle; sharpened &c. v.; set

<-- p. 76 -->

#254. Bluntness. -- N. bluntness &c. adj.
V. be blunt, render blunt &c. adj.; obtund, dull; take off the point,
take off the edge; turn.
Adj. blunt, obtuse, dull, bluff; edentate, toothless.

#255. Smoothness. -- N. smoothness &c. adj.; polish, gloss; lubricity,
down, velvet, silk, satin; velveteen, velumen; slide; bowling green
&c. (level) 213; glass, ice; asphalt, wood pavement, flags.
roller, steam roller; sand paper, emery paper; flat iron, sad iron;
burnisher, turpentine and beeswax.

V. smooth, smoothen; plane; file; mow, shave; level, roll; macadamize;
polish, burnish, calender, glaze; iron, hot-press, mangle; lubricate &c.
(oil) 332.
Adj. smooth; polished &c. v.; leiodermatous, slick, velutinous; even;
level &c. 213; plane &c. (flat) 251; sleek, glossy; silken, silky; lanate,
downy, velvety; glabrous, slippery , glassy, lubricous, oily, soft,
unwrinkled; smooth as glass, smooth as ice, smooth as monumental alabaster,
smooth as velvet, smooth as oil; slippery as an eel; woolly &c. (feathery)

#256. Roughness. -- N. roughness &c. adj.; tooth, grain, texture,
ripple; asperity, rugosity, salebrosity|, corrugation, nodosity;
arborescence &c. 242; pilosity.
brush, hair, beard, shag, mane, whisker, moustache, imperial, tress,
lock, curl, ringlet; fimbriae, pili, cilia, villi; lovelock; beaucatcher;
curl paper; goatee; papillote, scalp lock.
plumage, plumosity; plume, panache, crest; feather, tuft, fringe,
wool, velvet, plush, nap, pile, floss, fur, down; byssus, moss, bur;
knot (convolution) 248.
V. be rough &c. adj.; go against the grain.
render-rough &c. adj.; roughen, ruffle, crisp, crumple, corrugate, set
on edge, stroke the wrong way, rumple.
Adj. rough, uneven, scabrous, knotted; rugged, rugose, rugous; knurly;
asperous, crisp, salebrous|, gnarled, unpolished, unsmooth, roughhewn;
craggy, cragged; crankling, scraggy; prickly &c. (sharp 253; arborescent
&c. 242; leafy, well-wooded; feathery; plumose, plumigerous; laciniate,
laciniform, laciniose; pappose; pileous, pilose; trichogenous, trichoid;
tufted, fimbriated, hairy, ciliated, filamentous, hirsute; crinose,
crinite; bushy, hispid, villous, pappous, bearded, pilous, shaggy, shagged;
fringed, befringed; setous|, setose, setaceous; "like quills upon the
fretful porcupine" [Hamlet]; rough as a nutmeg grater, rough as a bear.
downy, velvety, flocculent, woolly; lanate, lanated; lanuginous,
lanuginose; tomentose; fluffy.
Adv. against the grain.
Phr. cabello luengo y corto el seso.

#257. Notch. -- N. notch, dent, nick, cut; indent, indentation;
embrasure, battlement, machicolation; saw, tooth, crenelle, scallop,
scollop, vandyke; depression; jag.
V. notch, nick, cut, dent, indent, jag, scarify, scotch, crimp,
scollop, crenulate, vandyke.
Adj. notched &c. v.; crenate, crenated; denate, denated; denticulate,
denticulated; toothed, palmated, serrated.

<-- p. 77 -->

#258. Fold. -- N. fold, plicature, plait, ply, crease; tuck, gather;
flexion, flexure, joint, elbow, double, doubling, duplicature, gather,
wrinkle, rimple, crinkle, crankle, crumple, rumple, rivel, ruck, ruffle,
dog's ear, corrugation, frounce, flounce, lapel; pucker, crow's feet;
V. fold, double, plicate, plait, crease, wrinkle, crinkle, crankle,
curl, cockle up, cocker, rimple, rumple, frizzle, frounce, rivel, twill,
corrugate, ruffle, crimple|, crumple, pucker; turn down, double down, down
under; tuck, ruck, hem, gather.
Adj. folded, fluted, pleated &c. v..

#259. Furrow. -- N. furrow, groove, rut, sulcus, scratch, streak,
striae, crack, score, incision, slit; chamfer, fluting; corduroy road,
cradle hole.
channel, gutter, trench, ditch, dike, dyke; moat, fosse, trough,
kennel; ravine &c. (interval) 198; tajo [U.S.], thank-ye-ma'am [U.S.].
V. furrow &c. n.; flute, plow; incise, engrave, etch, bite in.
Adj. furrowed &c. v.; ribbed, striated, sulcated, fluted,
canaliculated; bisulcous, bisulcate, bisulcated; canaliferous; trisulcate;
curduroy; unisulcate; costate, rimiform.

#260. Opening -- N. hole, foramen; puncture, perforation; fontanel;
transforation; pinhole, keyhole, loophole, porthole, peephole, mousehole,
pigeonhole; eye of a needle; eyelet; slot.
opening; aperture, apertness; hiation, yawning, oscitancy, dehiscence,
patefaction|, pandiculation; chasm &c. (interval) 198.
embrasure, window, casement; abatjour; light; sky light, fan light;
lattice; bay window, bow window; oriel; dormer, lantern.
outlet, inlet; vent, vomitory; embouchure; orifice, mouth, sucker,
muzzle, throat, gullet, weasand, wizen, nozzle; placket.
portal, porch, gate, ostiary|, postern, wicket, trapdoor, hatch, door;
arcade; cellarway, driveway, gateway, doorway, hatchway, gangway; lich
way, path &c. 627; thoroughfare; channel; passage, passageway; tube,
pipe; water pipe &c. 350; air pipe &c. 351; vessel, tubule, canal, gut,
fistula; adjutage, ajutage; ostium; smokestack; chimney, flue, tap, funnel,
gully, tunnel, main; mine, pit, adit, shaft; gallery.
alley, aisle, glade, vista.
bore, caliber; pore; blind orifice; fulgurite, thundertube.
porousness, porosity; sleve, cullender, colander; cribble, riddle,
screen; honeycomb.
apertion, perforation; pierching &c. v.; terebration, empalement,
pertusion|, puncture, acupuncture, penetration.
opener, key, master key, passe-partout.
V. open, ope, gape, yawn, bilge; fly open.
perforate, pierce, empierce|, tap, bore, drill; mine &c. (scoop out)
252; tunnel; transpierce, transfix; enfilade, impale, spike, spear, gore,
spit, stab, pink, puncture, lance, stick, prick, riddle, punch; stave in.
cut a passage through; make way for, make room for.
uncover, unclose, unrip; lay open, cut open, rip open, throw open.
Adj. open; perforated &c. v.; perforate; wide open, ajar, unclosed,
unstopped; oscitant, gaping, yawning; patent.
tubular, cannular, fistulous; pervious, permeable; foraminous;
vesicular, vasicular; porous, follicular, cribriform, honeycombed,
infundibular, riddled; tubulous, tubulated; piped, tubate.
opening &c. v.; aperient.
Int. open sesame!

#261. Closure. -- N. closure, occlusion, blockade; shutting up &c. v.;
obstruction &c. (hindrance) 706; embolus; contraction &c. 195; infarction;
constipation, obstipation; blind alley, blind corner; keddah; cul-de-sac,
caecum; imperforation, imperviousness &c. adj.; impermeability; stopper &c.
V. close, occlude, plug; block up, stop up, fill up, bung up, cork up,
button up, stuff up, shut up, dam up; blockade, obstruct &c.
(hinder) 706; bar, bolt, stop, seal, plumb; choke, throttle; ram down,
dam, cram; trap, clinch; put to the door, shut the door.
Adj. closed &c. v.; shut, operculated; unopened.
unpierced, imporous, caecal; closable; imperforate, inpervious,
impermeable; impenetrable; unpassable, impassable; invious|; pathless,
wayless; untrodden.
unventilated; air tight, water tight; hermetically sealed; tight,

<-- p. 78 -->

#262. Perforator. -- N. perforator, piercer, borer, auger, chisel,
gimlet, stylet, drill, wimble, awl, bradawl, scoop, terrier, crokscrew,
dibble, trocar, trepan, probe, bodkin, needle, stiletto, rimer, warder,
lancet; punch, puncheon; spikebit, gouge; spear &c. (weapon) 727; puncher;
punching machine, punching press; punch pliers.

#263. Stopper. -- N. stopper, stopple; plug, cork, bung, spike, spill,
stopcock, tap; rammer; ram, ramrod; piston; stop-gap; wadding, stuffing,
padding, stopping, dossil, pledget, tompion, tourniquet.
cover &c. 223; valve, vent peg, spigot, slide valve.
janitor, doorkeeper, porter, warder, beadle, cerberus, ostiary.

Section IV. MOTION
1. Motion in General

#264 [Successive change of place.] Motion. -- N. motion, movement,
move; going &c. v.; unrest.
stream, flow, flux, run, course, stir; evolution; kinematicss;
step, rate, pace, tread, stride, gait, port, footfall, cadence,
carriage, velocity, angular velocity; clip, progress, locomotion; journey
&c. 266; voyage &c. 267; transit &c. 270.
restlessness &c. (changeableness) 149; mobility; movableness, motive
power; laws of motion; mobilization.
V. be in motion &c. adj.; move, go, hie, gang, budge, stir, pass,
flit; hover about, hover round, hover about; shift, slide, glide; roll,
roll on; flow, stream, run, drift, sweep along; wander &c. (deviate) 279;
walk &c. 266; change one's place, shift one's place, change one's quarters,
shift one's quarters; dodge; keep going, keep moving;.
put in motion, set in motion; move; impel &c. 276; propel &c. 284;
render movable, mobilize.
Adj. moving &c. v.; in motion; transitional; motory, motive; shifting,
movable, mobile, mercurial, unquiet; restless &c. (changeable) 149; nomadic
&c. 266; erratic &c. 279.
Adv. under way; on the move, on the wing, on the tramp, on the march.
Phr. eppur si muove [Galileo]; es bildet ein Talent sich in der
Stille, sich ein Charakter in dem Strom derr Welt.

#265. Quiescence. -- N. rest; stillness &c. adj.; quiescence;
stagnation, stagnancy; fixity, immobility, catalepsy; indisturbance;
quiet, tranquillity, calm; repose &c. 687; peace; dead calm,
anticyclone; statue-like repose; slience &c. 203; not a breath of air, not
a mouse stirring; sleep &c. (inactivity) 683.
pause, lull &c. (cessation) 142; stand still; standing still &c. v.;
lock; dead lock, dead stop, dead stand; full stop; fix; embargo.
resting place; gite; bivouac; home &c. (abode) 189; pillow &c.
(support) 215; haven &c. (refuge) 666' gpa; &c. (arrival) 292.
V. be quiescent &c. adj.; stand still, lie still; keep quiet, repose,
hold the hreath.
remain, stay; stand, lie to, ride at anchor, remain in situ, tarry,
mark time; bring to, heave to, lay to; pull up, draw up; hold, halt; stop,
stop short; rest, pause, anchor; cast to an anchor, come to an anchor; rest
on one's oars; repose on one's laurels, take breath; stop &c. (discontinue)
stagnate; quieta non movere; let alone; abide, rest and be thankful;
keep within doors, stay at home, go to bed.
dwell &c. (be present) 186; settle &c. (be located) 184; alight &c.
(arrive) 292 stick, stick fast; stand like a post; not stir a peg, not stir
a step; be at a stand &c. n. quell, becalm, hush, stay, lull to sleep, lay
an embargo on.
Adj. quiescent, still; motionless, moveless; fixed; stationary;
immotile; at rest at a stand, at a standstill, at anchor; stock, still;
standing still &c. v.; sedentary, untraveled, stay-at-home; becalmed,
stagnant, quiet; unmoved, undisturbed, unruffled; calm, restful;
cataleptic; immovable &c. (stable) 150; sleeping &c. (inactive) 683; silent
&c. 403; still as a statue, still as a post, still as a mouse, still as
Adv. at a stand &c. adj.; tout court; at the halt.
Int. stop! stay! avast! halt! hold hard! whoa! hold! sabr karo!.
Phr. requiescat in pace; Deus nobis haec otia fecit [Vergil]; "the
noonday quiet holds the hill" [Tennyson}.

<-- p. 79 -->

#266. [Locomotion by land.] Journey. -- N. travel; traveling &c. v.
wayfaring, campaigning.
journey, excursion, expedition, tour, trip, grand tour, circuit,
peregrination, discursion|, ramble, pilgrimage, hajj, trek, course,
ambulation, march, walk, promenade, constitutional, stroll, saunter, tramp,
jog trot, turn, stalk, perambulation; noctambulation, noctambulism;
somnambulism; outing, ride, drive, airing, jaunt.
equitation, horsemanship, riding, manege, ride and tie; basophobia.
roving, vagrancy, pererration|; marching and countermarching;
nomadism; vagabondism, vagabondage; hoboism [U.S.]; gadding; flit,
flitting, migration; emigration, immigration, demigration|, intermigration;
plan, itinerary, guide; handbook, roadbook; Baedeker, Bradshaw,
procession, cavalcade, caravan, file, cortege, column.
[Organs and instruments of locomotion] vehicle &c. 272; automobile,
'train, bus, airplane, plane, autobus, omnibus, subway, motorbike, dirt
bike, off-road vehicle, van, minivan, motor scooter',trolley, locomotive;
legs, feet, pegs, pins, trotters.
traveler &c. 268.
depot [U.S.], railway station, station.
V. travel, journey, course; take a journey, go a journey; take a walk,
go out for walk &c. n.; have a run; take the air.
flit, take wing; migrate, emigrate; trek; rove, prowl, roam, range,
patrol, pace up and down, traverse; scour the country, traverse the
country; peragrate|; circumambulate, perambulate; nomadize, wander, ramble,
stroll, saunter, hover, go one's rounds, straggle; gad, gad about;
walk, march, step, tread, pace, plod, wend, go by shank's mare;
promenade; trudge, tramp; stalk, stride, straddle, strut, foot it, stump,
bundle, bowl along, toddle; paddle; tread a path.
take horse, ride, drive, trot, amble, canter, prance, fisk, frisk,
caracoler, caracole; gallop &c. (move quickly) 274.
peg on, jog on, wag on, shuffle on; stir one's stumps; bend one's
steps, bend one's course; make one's way, find one's way, wend one's way,
pick one's way, pick one's way, thread one's way, plow one's way; slide,
glide, coast, skim, skate; march in procession, file on, defile.
go to, repair to, resort to, hie to, betake oneself to.
Adj. traveling &c. v.; ambulatory, intinerant, peripatetic, roving,
rambling, gadding, discursive, vagrant, migratory, monadic; circumforanean,
circumforaneous; noctivagrant, mundivagrant; locomotive.
wayfaring, wayworn; travel-stained.
Adv. on foot, on horseback, on Shanks's mare; by the Marrowbone stage:
in transitu &c. 270; en route &c. 282.
Int. come along!

#267. [Locomotion by water, or air.] Navigation. -- N. navigation;
aquatics; boating, yachting; ship &c. 273; oar, paddle, screw, sail,
canvas, aileron.
natation, swimming; fin, flipper, fish's tail.
aerostation, aerostatics, aeronautics; balloonery; balloon &c. 273;
ballooning, aviation, airmanship; flying, flight, volitation; wing, pinion.
voyage, sail, cruise, passage, circumnavigation, periplus; headway,
sternway, leeway; fairway.
mariner &c. 269.
V. sail; put to sea &c. (depart) 293; take ship, get under way; set
sail, spread sail, spread canvas; gather way, have way on; make sail, carry
sail; plow the waves, plow the deep, plow the main, plow the ocean; walk
the waters.
navigate, warp, luff, scud, boom, kedge; drift, course, cruise, coast;
hug the shore, hug the land; circumnavigate.
ply the oar, row, paddle, pull, scull, punt, steam.
swim, float; buffet the waves, ride the storm, skim, effleurer, dive,
fly, be wafted, hover, soar, flutter; take wing, take a flight; wing
one's flight, wing one's way; aviate.
Adj. sailing &c. v.; volant, aerostatic; seafaring, nautical,
maritiime, naval; seagoing, coasting; afloat; navigable; aerial,
aeronautic; grallatory.
Adv. under way, under sail, under canvas, under steam; on the wing.
Phr. bon voyage; "spread the thin oar and catch the driving gale"

<-- p. 80 -->

#268. Traveler. -- N. traveler, wayfarer, voyager, itinerant,
passenger, commuter.
tourist, excursionist, explorer, adventurer, mountaineer, Alpine
Club; peregrinator, wanderer, rover, straggler, rambler; bird of passage;
gadabout, gadling; vagrant, scatterling, landloper, waifs and estrays,
wastrel, foundling; loafer; tramp, tramper; vagabond, nomad, Bohemian,
gypsy, Arab, Wandering Jew, Hadji, pilgrim, palmer; peripatetic;
somnambulist, emigrant, fugitive, refugee; beach comber, booly;
globegirdler, globetrotter; hobo [U.S.], night walker, sleep walker;
noctambulist, runabout, straphanger, swagman, swagsman [Aust.]; trecker,
trekker, zingano, zingaro.
runner, courier; Mercury, Iris, Ariel, comet.
pedestrian, walker, foot passenger; cyclist; wheelman.
rider,horseman, equestrian, cavalier, jockey, roughrider, trainer,
driver, coachman, whip, Jehu, charioteer, postilion, postboy, carter,
wagoner, drayman; cabman, cabdriver; voiturier, vetturino, condottiere;
engine driver; stoker, fireman, guard; chauffeur, conductor, engineer,
gharry-wallah, gari-wala, hackman, syce, truckman.
Phr. on the road

#269. Mariner. -- N. sailor, mariner, navigator; seaman, seafarer,
seafaring man; dock walloper*; tar, jack tar, salt, able seaman, A. B.;
man-of-war's man, bluejacket, galiongee, galionji, marine, jolly,
midshipman, middy; skipper; shipman, boatman, ferryman, waterman,
lighterman, bargeman, longshoreman; bargee, gondolier; oar, oarsman; rower;
boatswain, cockswain; coxswain; steersman, pilot; crew.
aerial navigator, aeronaut, balloonist, Icarus; aeroplanist, airman,
aviator, birdman, man-bird, wizard of the air.

#270. Transference. -- N. transfer, transference; translocation,
elocation|; displacement; metastasis, metathesis; removal; remotion,
amotion; relegation; deportation, asportation; extradition, conveyance,
draft, carrying, carriage; convection, conduction, contagion; transfer &c.
(of property) 783.
transit, transition; passage, ferry, gestation; portage, porterage,
carting, cartage; shoveling &c. v.; vection|, vecture|, vectitation|;
shipment, freight, wafture; transmission, transport, transportation,
transumption, transplantation, translation; shifting, dodging; dispersion
&c. 73; transposition &c. (interchange) 148; traction &c. 285.
[Thing transferred] drift.
V. transfer, transmit, transport, transplace, transplant; convey,
carry, bear, fetch and carry; carry over, ferry over; hand pass, forward;
shift; conduct, convoy, bring, fetch, reach; tote [U.S.].
send, delegate, consign, relegate, turn over to, deliver; ship,
embark; waft; shunt; transpose &c. (interchange) 148; displace &c. 185;
throw &c. 284; drag &c. 285; mail, post.
shovel, ladle, decant, draft off, transfuse.
Adj. transferred &c. v.; drifted, movable; portable, portative;
mailable [U.S.]; contagious.
Adv. from hand to hand, from pillar to post.
on the way, by the way; on the road, on the wing; as one goes; in
transitu, en route, chemin faisant, en passant, in mid progress.

<-- p. 81 -->

#271. Carrier. -- N. carrier, porter, bearer, tranter|, conveyer;
cargador; express, expressman; stevedore, coolie; conductor, locomotive,
beast, beast of burden, cattle, horse, nag, plafrey, Arab, blood hose,
throughbred, galloway, charger, courser, racer, hunter, jument, pony,
filly, colt, foal, barb, roan, jade, hack, bidet, pad, cob, tit, punch,
roadster, goer; racehorse, pack horse, draft horse, cart horse, dray horse,
post horse; ketch, sheltie; garran, garron; jennet, genet, bayard, marek,
stallion, gelding; bronco, broncho, cayuse [U.S.]; creature, critter [rural
U.S.]; cow pony, mustang, Narraganset, waler; stud.
Pegasus, Bucephalus, Rocinante.
ass, donkey, jackass, mule, hinny; sumpter horse, sumpter mule; burro,
cuddy, ladino [U.S.]; reindeer; camel, dromedary, llama, elephant; carrier
carriage &c. (vehicle) 272; ship &c. 273.
Adj. equine, asinine.

#272. Vehicle. -- N. vehicle, conveyance, carriage, caravan, van;
wagon, waggon, wain, dray, cart, lorry.
carriole; truck, tram; limber, tumbrel, pontoon; barrow; wheel barrow,
hand barrow; perambulator; Bath chair, wheel chair, sedan chair; chaise;
palankeen, pananquin; litter, brancard, crate, hurdle, stretcher,
ambulance; black Maria; conestoga wagon, conestoga wain; jinrikisha,
ricksha, brett, dearborn [U.S.], dump cart, hack, hackery, jigger,
kittereen, mailstate, manomotor, rig, rockaway, prairie schooner [U.S.],
shay, sloven [Can.], team, tonga, wheel; velocipede, hobbyhorse, gocart;
cycle; bicycle, tricycle, quadricycle; bike.
equipage, turnout; coach, chariot, phaeton, break, mail phaeton,
wagonette, grag, curricle, tilbury, whissky, landau, barouche, victoria,
brougham, clarence, calash, caleche, britzka, araba, kibitka; berlin;
sliky, desobligeant, sociable, vis-a-vis, dormeuse; jaunting car, outside
car; dandi; doolie, dooly; munchil, palki; roller skates, skate; runabout;
ski; tonjon; vettura.
post chaise, diligence, stage; stage coach, mail coach, hackney coach,
glass coach; stage wagon, car, omnibus, fly, cabriolet, cab, hansom,
shofle, four-wheeler, growler, droshki, drosky.
dogcart, trap, whitechapel, buggy, four-in-hand, unicorn, random,
tandem; shandredhan, char-a-bancs.
motor car, automobile, limousine, motorcycle, taxicab, taxicoach.
bob, bobsled, bobsleigh; cutter; double ripper, double runner [U.S.];
jumber, sled, sledge, sleigh, toboggan.
train; accomodation train, passenger train, express trail, special
train, corridor train, parliamentary train, luggage train, freight train,
goods train; 1st class train, 2nd class train, 3rd class train, 1st class
carriage, 2nd class carriage, 3rd class carriage, 1st class compartment,
2nd class compartment, 3rd class compartment; crolling stock; horse box,
cattle truck; baggage car, express car, freight car, parlor car, Pullman
car, sleeping car, sleeper, dome car; surface car, tram car, trolley car;
box car, box wagon; horse car [U.S.]; lightning express; luggage van;
mail, mail car, mail van.
shovel, spool, spatula, ladle, hod, hoe; spade, spaddle, loy; spud;

#273. Ship. -- N. ship, vessel, sail; craft, bottom.
navy, marine, fleet, flotilla; shipping.
man of war &c. (combatant) 726; transport, tender, storeship; merchang
ship, merchangman; packet, liner; whaler, slaver, collier, coaster,
lighter; fishing boat, pilot boat; trawler, hulk; yacht; baggala; floating
hotel, floating palace; ocean greyhound.
ship, bark, barque, brig, snow, hermaphrodite brig; brigantine,
barkantine; schooner; topsail schooner, for and aft schooner, three masted
schooner; chasse-maree; sloop, cutter, corvette, clipper, foist, yawl,
dandy, ketch, smack, lugger, barge, hoy, cat, buss; sailer, sailing vessel;
windjammer; steamer, steamboat, steamship, liner, ocean liner, cruise ship;
mail steamer, riverboat, showboat, paddle steamer, paddle wheeler,
sidewheeler, screw steamer tug; line of steamer.
boat, pinnace, launch; life boat, long boat, jolly boat, bum boat, fly
boat, cock boat, ferry oat, canal boat; swamp boat, ark, bully [Nfld.],
bateau [Can.] battery, broadhorn, dory, droger, droughter; dugout, durham
boat, flatboat, galiot; shallop, gig, funny, skiff, dingy, scow,
cockleshell, wherry, coble, punt, cog, kedge, lerret; eight oar, four oar,
pair oar; randan; outrigger; float, raft, pontoon; prame; iceboat, ice
canoe, ice yacht.
catamaran, coracle, gondola, carvel, caravel; felucca, caique, canoe;
galley, galleyfoist; bilander, dogger, hooker, howker; argosy, carack;
galliass, galleon; polacca, polacre, tartane, junk, lorcha, praam, proa,
prahu, saick, sampan, xebec, dhow; dahabeah; nuggah; kayak, keel boat
[U.S.], log canoe, pirogue; quadrireme, trireme; stern-wheeler [U.S.];
wanigan, wangan [U.S.], warf boat.
balloon; airship, aeroplane; biplane, monoplane, triplane; hydroplane;
aerodrome; air balloon, pilot balloon, fire balloon; aerostat, Montgolfier;
kite, parachute.
Adv. afloat, aboard; on board, on ship board; hard a lee, hard a port,
hard a starboard, hard a weather.

<-- p. 82 -->

2. Degrees of Motion

#274. Velocity. -- N. velocity, speed, celerity; swiftness &c. adj.;
rapidity, eagle speed; expedition &c. (activity) 682; pernicity|;
acceleration; haste &c. 684.
spurt, rush, dash, race, steeple chase; smart rate, lively rate, swift
rate &c. adj.; rattling rate, spanking rate, strapping rate, smart pace,
lively pace, swift pace, rattling pace, spanking pace, straping pace; round
pace; flying, flight.
lightning, light, electricity, wind; cannon ball, rocket, arrow, dart,
hydrargyrum, quicksilver; telegraph, express train; torrent.
eagle, antelope, courser, race horse, gazelle, greyhound, hare, doe,
squirrel, camel bird, chickaree, chipmunk, hackee [U.S.], ostrich,
Mercury, Ariel, Camilla, Harlequin.
[Measurement of velocity] log, log line.
V. move quickly, trip, fisk|; speed, hie, hasten, post, spank,
scuttle; scud, scuddle; scour, scour the plain; scamper; run like mad, beat
it; fly, race, run a race, cut away, shot, tear, whisk, sweep, skim, brush;
cut along, bowl along; scorch; rush &c. (be violent) 173; dash on, dash
off, dash forward; bolt; trot, gallop, amble, troll, bound, flit, spring,
dart, boom; march in quick time, march in double time; ride hard, get over
the ground.
hurry &c. (hasten) 684; accelerate, put on; quicken; quicken one's
pace, mend one's pace; clap spurs to one's horse; make haste, make rapid
strides, make forced marches, make the best of one's way; put one's best
leg foremost, stir one's stumps, wing one's way, set off at a score; carry
sail, crowd sail; go off like a shot, go like a shot, go ahead, gain
ground; outstrip the wind, fly on the wings of the wind.
keep up with, keep pace with; outstrip &c. 303; outmarch.
Adj. fast, speedy, swift, rapid, quick, fleet; aliped; nimble, agile,
expeditious; express; active &c. 682; flying, galloping &c. v.; light
footed, nimble footed; winged, eagle winged, mercurial, electric,
telegraphic; light-legged, light of heel; swift as an arrow &c. n.; quick
as lightning &c. n., quick as a thought.
Adv. swiftly &c. adj.; with speed &c. n.; apace; at a great rate, at
full speed, at railway speed; full drive, full gallop; posthaste, in full
sail, tantivy; trippingly; instantaneously &c. 113.
under press of sail, under press of canvas, under press of sail and
steam; velis et remis, on eagle's wing, in double quick time; with rapid
strides, with giant strides; a pas de geant; in seven league boots; whip
and spur; ventre a terre; as fast as one's legs will carry one, as fast as
one's heels will carry one; as fast as one can lay legs to the grount, at
the top of one;s speed; by leaps and bounds; with haste &c. 684.
Phr. vires acquirit eundo; "I'll put a girdle about the earth in forty
minutes" [M.N.D.]; "swifter than arrow from the Tartar's bow" [M.N.D.]; go
like a bat out of hell; tempus fugit.

#275. Slowness. -- N. slowness &c. adj.; languor &c. (inactivity) 683;
drawl; creeping &c. v., lentor.
retardation; slackening &c. v.; delay &c. (lateness) 133;
jog trot, dog trot; mincing steps; slow march, slow time.
slow goer, slow coach, slow back; lingerer, loiterer, sluggard,
tortoise, snail; poke* [U.S.]; dawdle &c. (inactive) 683.
V. move slowly &c. adv.; creep, crawl, lag, slug, drawl, linger,
loiter, saunter; plod, trudge, stump along, lumber; trail, drag; dawdle &c.
(be inactive) 683; grovel, worm one's way, steal along; job on, rub on,
bundle on; toddle, waddle, wabble, slug, traipse, slouch, shuffle, halt,
hobble, limp, caludicate|, shamble; flag, falter, trotter, stagger; mince,
step short; march in slow time, march in funeral procession; take one's
time; hang fire &c. (be late) 133.
retard, relax; slacken, check, moderate, rein in, curb; reef; strike
sail, shorten sail, take in sail; put on the drag, apply the brake; clip
the wings; reduce the speed; slacken speed, slacken one's pace; lose
Adj. slow, slack; tardy; dilatory &c. (inactive) 683; gentle, easy;
leisurely; deliberate, gradual; insensible, imperceptible; glacial,
languid, sluggish, slow paced, tardigrade, snail-like; creeping &c. v.;
Adv. slowly &c. adj.; leisurely; piano, adagio; largo, larghetto; at
half speed, under easy sail; at a foots pace, at a snail's pace, at a
funeral pace; in slow time, with mincing steps, with clipped wings; haud
passibus aequis [Vergil].
gradually &c. adj.; gradatim; by degrees, by slow degrees, by inches,
by little and little; step by step, one step at a time; inch by inch, bit
by bit, little by little, seriatim; consecutively.
Phr. dum Roma deliberat Saguntum perit; at a glacial pace.

<-- p. 83 -->

3. Motion conjoined with Force

#276. Impulse. -- N. impulse, impulsion, impetus; momentum; push,
pulsion, thrust, shove, jog, jolt, brunt, booming, boost [U.S.], throw;
explosion &c. (violence) 173; propulsion &c. 284.
percussion, concussion, collision, occursion|, clash, encounter,
cannon, carambole, appulse, shock, crash, bump; impact; elan; charge &c.
(attack) 716; beating &c. (punishment) 972.
blow, dint, stroke, knock, tap, rap, slap, smack, pat, dab; fillip;
slam, bang; hit, whack, thwack; cuff &c. 972; squash, dowse, swap, whap,
punch, thump, pelt, kick, punce|, calcitration; ruade; arietation|; cut,
thrust, lunge, yerk|; carom, carrom, clip *, jab, plug ù, sidewinder ù
[U.S.], sidewipe ù [U.S.].
hammer, sledge hammer, mall, maul, mallet, flail; ram, rammer;
battering ram, monkey, pile-driving engine, punch, bat; cant hook; cudgel
&c. (weapon) 727; ax &c. (sharp) 253.
[Science of mechanical forces] dynamics; seismometer, accelerometer,
earthquake detector.
V. give an impetus &c. n.; impel, push; start, give a start to, set
going; drive, urge, boom; thrust, prod, foin; cant; elbow, shoulder,
jostle, justle, hustle, hurtle, shove, jog, jolt, encounter; run against,
bump against, butt against; knock one's head against, run one's head
against; impinge; boost [U.S.]; bunt, carom, clip ù; fan, fan out; jab,
plug *.
strike, knock, hit, tap, rap, slap, flap, dab, pat, thump, beat, blow,
bang, slam, dash; punch, thwack, whack; hit hard, strike hard; swap,
batter, dowse|, baste; pelt, patter, buffet, belabor; fetch one a blow;
poke at, pink, lunge, yerk; kick, calcitrate; butt, strike at &c. (attack)
716; whip *c. (punish) 972.
come into a collision, enter into collision; collide; foul; fall foul
of, run foul of; telescope.
throw &c. (propel) 284.
Adj. impelling &c. v.; impulsive, impellent; booming; dynamic,
dynamical; impelled &c. v.
Phr. "a hit, a very palpable hit" [Hamlet].

#277. Recoil. -- N. recoil; reaction, retroaction; revulsion; bounce,
rebound, ricochet; repercussion, recalcitration; kick, contrecoup;
springing back &c. v.; elasticity &c. 325; reflexion, reflex, reflux;
reverberation &c. (resonance) 408; rebuff, repulse; return.
ducks and drakes; boomerang; spring, reactionist.
V. recoil, react; spring back, fly back, bounce back, bound back;
rebound, reverberate, repercuss, recalcitrate; echo, ricochet.
Adj. recoiling &c. v.; refluent, repercussive, recalcitrant,
reactionary; retroactive.
Adv. on the rebound, on the recoil &c. n.

<-- p. 84 -->

4. Motion with reference to Direction

#278. Direction. -- N. direction, bearing, course, vector; set, drift,
tenor; tendency &c. 176; incidence; bending, trending &c. v.; dip, tack,
aim, collimation; steering steerage.
point of the compass, cardinal points; North East, South, West; N by
E, ENE, NE by N, NE, &c; rhumb, azimuth, line of collimation.
line, path, road, range, quarter, line of march; alignment,
allignment; air line, beeline; straight shoot.
V. tend towards, bend towards, point towards; conduct to, go to; point
to, point at; bend, trend, verge, incline, dip, determine.
steer for, steer towards, make for, make towards; aim at, level at;
take aim; keep a course, hold a course; be bound for; bend one's steps
towards; direct one's course, steer one's course, bend one's course, shape
one's course; align one's march, allign one's march; to straight, go
straight to the point; march on, march on a point.
ascertain one's direction &c. n.; s'o rienter, see which way the wind
blows; box the compass; take the air line.
Adj. directed &c. v. directed towards; pointing towards &c. v.; bound
for; aligned, with alligned with; direct, straight; undeviating,
unswerving; straightforward; North, Northern, Northerly, &c. n.
Adv. towards; on the road, on the high road to; en avant; versus, to;
hither, thither, whither; directly; straight as an arrow, forwards as an
arrow; point blank; in a bee line to, in a direct line to, as the crow
flies, in a straight line to, in a bee line for, in a direct line for, in a
straight line for, in a bee line with, in a direct line with, in a straight
line with; in a line with; full tilt at, as the crow flies.
before the wind, near the wind, close to the wind, against the wind;
windwards, in the wind's eye.
through, via, by way of; in all directions, in all manner of ways;
quaquaversum, from the four winds.

#279. Deviation. -- N. deviation; swerving &c. v.; obliquation|, warp,
refraction; flection, flexion; sweep; deflection, deflexure; declination.
diversion, digression, depart from, aberration; divergence &c. 291;
zigzag; detour &c. (circuit) 629; divagation.
[Desultory motion] wandering &c. v.; vagrancy, evagation; bypaths and
crooked ways; byroad.
[Motion sideways, oblique motion] sidling &c. v.; knight's move at
V. alter one's course, deviate, depart from, turn, trend; bend, curve
&c. 245; swerve, heel, bear off; gybe, wear.
intervert; deflect; divert, divert from its course; put on a new
scent, shift, shunt, draw aside, crook, warp.
stray, straggle; sidle; diverge &c. 291; tralineate|; digress, wander;
wind, twist, meander; veer, tack; divagate; sidetrack; turn aside, turn a
corner, turn away from; wheel, steer clear of; ramble, rove, drift; go
astray, go adrift; yaw, dodge; step aside, ease off, make way for, shy.
fly off at a tangent; glance off; wheel about, face about; turn to the
right about, face to the right about; waddle &c. (oscillate) 314; go out of
one's way &c. (perform a circuit) 629; lose one's way.
Adj. deviating &c. v.; aberrant, errant; excursive, discursive;
devious, desultory, loose; rambling; stray, erratic, vagrant, undirected,
curcuitous, indirect, zigzag; crab-like.
Adv. astray from, round about, wide of the mark; to the right about;
all manner of ways; circuitously &c. 629.
obliquely, sideling, like the move of the knight on a chessboard.

#280. [Going before.] Precession. -- N. precession, leading, heading;
precedence &c. 62; priority &c. 116; the lead, le pas; van &c. (front) 234;
precursor &c. 64.
V. go before, go ahead, go in the van, go in advance; precede,
forerun; usher in, introduce, herald, head, take the lead; lead the way,
lead the dance; get the start, have the start; steal a march; get before,
get ahead, get in front of; outstrip &c. 303; take precedence &c. (first in
order) 62.
Adj. leading, precedent &c. v.
Adv. in advance, before, ahead, in the van, in the lead; foremost,
headmost; in front.
Phr. seniores priores.

#281. [Going after.] Sequence. -- N. sequence; coming after &c.
(order) 63; (time) 117; following pursuit &c. 622.
follower, attendant, satellite, shadow, dangler, train.
V. follow; pursue &c. 622; go after, gly after.
attend, beset, dance attendance on, dog; tread in the steps of, tread
close upon; be in the wake of, be in the trail of, be in the rear of, go in
the wake of, go in the trail of, go in the rear of, follow in the wake of,
follow in the trail of, follow in the rear of; follow as a shadow, hang on
the skirts of; tread on the heels of, follow on the heels of; camp on the
Adj. following &c. v..
Adv. behind; in the rear &c. 235, in the train of, in the wake of;
after &c. (order) 63, (time) 117.

<-- p. 85 -->

#282. [Motion forward; progressive motion.] Progression. -- N.
progress, progression, progressiveness; advancing &c. v.; advance,
advancement; ongoing; flood, tide, headway; march &c. 266; rise;
improvement &c. 658.
V. advance; proceed, progress; get on, get along, get over the ground;
gain ground; forge ahead; jog on, rub on, wag on; go with the stream; keep
one;s course, hold on one's course; go on, move on, come one, get on, pass
on, push on, press on, go forward, move forward, come forward, get forward,
pass forward, push forward, press forward, go forwards, move forwards, come
forwards, get forwards, pass forwards, push forwards, press forwards, go
ahead, move ahead, come ahead, get ahead, pass ahead, push ahead, press
ahead; make one's way, work one's way, carve one's way, push one's way,
force one's way, edge one's way, elbow one's way; make progess, make head,
make way, make headway, make advances, make strides, make rapid strides &c.
(velocity) 274; go ahead, shoot ahead; distance; make up leeway.
Adj. advancing &c. v.; progressive, profluent; advanced.
Adv. forward, onward; forth, on, ahead, under way, en route for, on
one's way, on the way, on the road, on the high road, on the road to; in
progress; in mid progress; in transitu &c. 270.
Phr. vestigia nulla retrorsum; "westward the course of empire takes
its way" [Berkeley].

#283. [Motion backwards.] Regression. -- N. regress, regression;
retrocession, retrogression, retrograduation, retroaction; reculade;
retreat, withdrawal, retirement, remigration; recession &c. (motion from)
287; recess; crab-like motion.
refluence, reflux; backwater, regurgitation, ebb, return; resilience
reflexion (recoil) 277; volte-face.
counter motion, counter movement, counter march; veering,
tergiversation, recidivation|, backsliding, fall; deterioration &c. 659;
recidivism, recidivity.
turning point &c.(reversion) 145.
V. recede, regrade, return, revert, retreat, retire; retrograde,
retrocede; back out; back down; balk; crawfish* [U.S.], crawl*; withdraw;
rebound &c. 277; go back, come back, turn back, hark back, draw back, fall
back, get back, put back, run back; lose ground; fall astern, drop astern;
backwater, put about; take the back track; veer round; double, wheel,
countermarch; ebb, regurgitate; jib, shrink, shy.
turn tail, turn round, turn upon one's heel, turn one's back upon;
retrace one's steps, dance the back step; sound a retreat, beat a retreat;
go home.
Adj. receding &c. v.; retrograde, retrogressive; regressive, refluent,
reflex, recidivous, resilient; crab-like; balky; reactionary &c. 277.
Adv. back, backwards; reflexively, to the right about; a reculons, a
Phr. revenouns a nos moutons, as you were.

#284. [Motion given to an object situated in front.] Propulsion. -- N.
propulsion, projection; propelment; vis a tergo; push, shove &c. (impulse)
276; ejaculate; ejection &c. 297; throw, fling, toss, shot, discharge, shy.
[Science of propulsion] projectiles, ballistics, archery.
[devices to give propulsion] propeller, screw, twin screws, turbine.
[objects propelled] missile, projectile, ball, discus, quoit,
brickbat, shot;
[weapons which propel] arrow, gun, ballista &c. (arms) 727.
shooter; shot; archer, toxophilite; bowman, rifleman, marksman; good
shot, crack shot; sharpshooter &c. (combatant) 726.
V. propel, project, throw, fling, cast, pitch, chuck, toss, jerk,
heave, shy, hurl; flirt, fillip.
dart, lance, tilt; ejaculate, jaculate; fulminate, bolt, drive, sling,
send; send off, let off, fire off; discharge, shoot; launch, send
forth, let fly; dash.
put in motion, set in motion; set agoing, start; give a start, give an
impulse to; impel &c. 276; trundle &c. (set in rotation) 312; expel &c.
carry one off one's legs; put to flight.
Adj. propelled &c. v.; propelling &c. v..; propulsive, projectile.

#285. [Motion given to an object situated behind.] Traction. -- N.
traction; drawing &c. v.; draught, pull, haul; rake; "a long pull a strong
pull and a pull all together"; towage, haulage.
V. draw, pull, haul, lug, rake, drag, tug, tow, trail, train; take in
wrench, jerk, twitch, touse|; yank [U.S.].
Adj. drawing &c. v.; tractile, tractive.

<-- p. 86 -->

#286. [Motion towards.] Approach. -- N. approach, approximation,
appropinquation; access; appulse; afflux, affluxion; advent &c. (approach
of time) 121; pursuit &c. 622.
V. approach, approximate, appropinquate; near; get near, go near, draw
near; come to close quarters, come near; move towards, set in towards;
drift; make up to; gain upon; pursue &c. 622; tread on the heels of; bear
up; make the land; hug the shore, hug the land.
Adj. approaching &c. v.; approximative; affluent; impending, imminent
&c. (destined 152.
Adv. on the road.
Int. come hither! approach! here! come! come near! forward!

#287. [Motion from.] Recession. -- N. recession, retirement,
withdrawal; retreat; retrocession &c. 283; departure, &c. 293; recoil &c.
277; flight &c. (avoidance) 623.
V. recede, go, move back, move from, retire; withdraw, shirink; come
away, move away, go away, get away, drift away; depart &c. 293; retreat &c.
283; move off, stand off, sheer off; fall back, stand aside; run away &c.
(avoid) 623.
remove, shunt.
Adj. receding &c. v.

#288. [Motion towards, actively] Attraction. -- N. attraction,
attractiveness; attractivity; drawing to, pulling towards, adduction,
magnetism, gravity, attraction of gravitation.
loadstone, loadstar; magnet, siderite.
V. attract; draw towards, pull towards, drag towars; adduce.
Adj. attracting &c. v.; attrahent, attractive, adducent, adductive.
Phr. ubi mel ibi apes [Plautus].

#289. [Motion from, actively; force driving apart.] Repulsion. -- N.
repulsion; driving from &c. v.; repulse, abduction.
V. repel, push from, drive from &c. 276; chase, dispel; retrude;
abduce, abduct; send away; repulse.
keep at arm's length, turn one's back upon, give the cold shoulder;
send off, send away with a flea in one's ear.
Adj. repelling &c. v.; repellent, repulsive; abducent, abductive.

#290. [Motion nearer to.] Convergence. -- N. convergence, confluence,
concourse, conflux, congress, concurrence, concentration; convergency;
appulse, meeting; corradiation.
assemblage &c. 72; resort &c. (focus) 74; asymptote.
V. converge, concur, come together, unite, meet, fall in with; close
with, close in upon; center round, center in; enter in; pour in.
gather together, unite, concentrate, bring into a focus.
Adj. converging &c. v.; conbergent, confluent, concurrent;
centripetal; asymptoptical, asymptoptic; confluxible.

#291. [Motion further off.] Divergence. -- N. divergence, divergency;
divarication, ramification, forking; radiation; separation &c.
(disjunction) 44; dispersion &c. 73; deviation &c. 279; aberration.
V. diverge, divaricate, radiate; ramify; branch off, glance off, file
off; fly off, fly off at a tangent; spread, scatter, disperse &c. 73;
deviate &c. 279; part &c. (separate) 44.
Adj. diverging &c. v.; divergent, radiant, centrifugal; aberrant.

#292. [Terminal motion at.] Arrival. -- N. arrival, advent; landing;
debarkation, disembarkation; reception, welcome, vin d'honneur.
home, goal; landing place, landing stage; bunder; resting place;
destination, harbor, haven, port; terminus, halting place, halting ground;
journey's end; anchorage &c. (refuge) 666.
return, recursion|, remigration; meeting; rencounter, encounter.
completion &c. 729.
V. arrive; get to, come to; come; reach, attain; come up with, come up
to; overtake, make, fetch; complete &c. 729; join, rejoin.
light, alight, dismount; land, go ashore; debark, disembark; put in,
put into; visit, cast anchor, pitch one's tent; sit down &c. (be located)
184; get to one's journey's end; make the land; be in at the death; come
back, get back, come home, get home; return; come in &c. (ingress) 294;
make one's appearance &c. (appear) 446; drop in; detrain; outspan.
come to hand; come at, come across; hit; come upon, light upon, pop
upon, bounce upon, plump upon, burst upon, pitch upon; meet; encounter,
rencounter; come in contact.
Adj. arriving &c. v.; homeward bound.
Adv. here, hither.
Int. welcome! hail! all Hail! good-day, good morrow!

<-- p. 87 -->

#293. [Initial motion from.] Departure. -- N. departure, decession,
decampment; embarkation; outset, start; removal; exit &c. (egress) 295;
exodus, hejira, flight.
leave taking, valediction, adieu, farewell, goodbye, auf wiedersehen,
sayonara, dosvidanya, ciao, aloha, hasta la vista; stirrup cup;
starting point, starting post; point of departure, point of
embarkation, place of departure, place of embarkation; port of embarkation.
V. depart; go away; take one's departure, set out; set off, march off,
put off, strt off, be off, move off, get off, whip off, pack off, go off,
take oneself off; start, issue, march out, debouch; go forth, sally forth;
sally, set forward; be gone; hail from.
leave a place, quit, vacate, evacuate, abandon; go off the stage, make
one's exit; retire, withdraw, remove; vamoose*, vamose* [U.S.]; go one's
way, go along, go from home; take flight, take wing; spring, fly, flit,
wing one's flight; fly away, whip away; embark; go on board, go aboard; set
sail' put to sea, go to sea; sail, take ship; hoist blue Peter; get under
way, weigh anchor; strike tents, decamp; walk one's chalks, cut one's
stick; take leave; say good bye, bid goodbye &c. n.; disappear &c. 449;
abscond &c. (avoid) 623; entrain; inspan.
Adj. departing &c. v.; valedictory; outward bound.
Adv. whence, hence, thence; with a foot in the stirrup; on the wing,
on the move.
Int. begone! &c. (ejection) 297; farewell! adieu! goodbye! good day!
au revoir! fare you well! God bless you! God speed! all aboard! auf
wiedersehen! au plaisir de vous revoir! bon voyage! gluckliche Reise! vive

#294 [Motion into.] Ingress. -- N. ingress; entrance, entry;
introgression; influx, intrusion, inroad, incursion, invasion, irruption;
ingression; penetration, interpenetration; illapse, import, infiltration;
immigration; admission &c. (reception) 296; insinuation &c. (interjacence)
228; insertion &c. 300.
inlet; way in; mouth, door, &c. (opening) 260; barway; path &c. (way)
627; conduit &c. 350; immigrant.
V. have the entree; enter; go into, go in, come into, come in, pour
into, pour in, flow into, flow in, creep into, creep in, slip into, slip
in, pop into, pop in, break into, break in, burst into, burst in; set foot
on; ingress; burst in upon, break in upon; invade, intrude; insinuate
itself; interpenetrate, penetrate; infiltrate; find one's way into, wriggle
into, worm oneself into.
give entrance to &c. (receive) 296; insert &c. 300.
Adj. incoming.

#295. [Motion out of.] Egress. -- N. egress, exit, issue; emersion,
emergence; outbreak, outburst; eruption, proruption; emaniation; egression;
evacuation; exudation, transudation; extravasation, perspiration, sweating,
leakage, percolation, distillation, oozing; gush &c. (water in motion) 348;
outpour, outpouring; effluence, effusion; effluxion, drain; dribbling &c.
v.; defluxion; drainage; outcome, output; discharge &c. (excretion) 299.
export, expatriation; emigration, remigration; debouch, debouche;
emunctory; exodus &c. (departure) 293; emigrant.
outlet, vent, spout, tap, sluice, floodgate; pore; vomitory, outgate,
sallyport; way out; mouth, door &c. (opening) 260; path &c. (way) 627;
conduit &c. 350; airpipe &c. 351.
V. amerge, emanate, issue; egress; go out of, come out of, move out
of, pass out of, pour out of, flow out of; pass out of, evacuate.
exude, transude; leak, run through, out through; percolate,
transcolate|; egurgitate; strain, distill; perspire, sweat, drain, ooze;
filter, filtrate; dribble, gush, spout, flow out; well, well out; pour,
trickle, &c. (water in motion) 348; effuse, extravasate, disembogue,
discharge itself, debouch; come forth, break forth; burst out, burst
through; find vent; escape &c. 671.
Adj. effused &c. v.; outgoing.

<-- p. 88 -->

#296. [Motion into, actively.] Reception. -- N. reception; admission,
admittance, entree, importation; introduction, intromission; immission,
ingestion, imbibation, introception, absorption, ingurgitation, inhalation;
suction, sucking; eating, drinking &c. (food) 298; insertion &c. 300;
interjection &c. 228; introit.
V. give entrance to, give admittance to, give the entree; introduce,
intromit; usher, admit, receive, import, bring in, open the door to, throw
in, ingest, absorb, imbibe, inhale; let in, take in, suck in; readmit,
resorb, reabsorb; snuff up, swallow, ingurgitate; engulf, engorge; gulp;
eat, drink &c. (food) 298.
Adj. admitting &c. v., admitted &c. v.; admissable; absorbent.

#297. [Motion out of, actively] Ejection. -- N. ejection, emission,
effusion, rejection, expulsion, eviction, extrusion, trajection; discharge;
egestion, evacuation, vomition; ructation, eructation; bloodletting,
venesection, phlebotomy, paracentesis; expuitition, exspuitition; tapping,
drainage; clearance, clearage.
deportation; banishment &c. (punishment ) 972; rouge's march;
relegation, extradition; dislodgment.
bouncer* [U.S.], chucker-out*.
V. give exit, give vent to; let out, give out, pour out, send out;
dispatch, despatch; exhale, excern|, excrete; embogue; secrete, secern;
extravastate, shed, void, evacuation; emit; open the sluices, open the
floodgates; turn on the tap; extrude, detrude; effuse, spend, expend; pour
forth; squirt, spirt, spurt, spill, slop; perspire &c. (exude) 295;
breathe, blow &c. (wind) 349.
tap, draw off; bale out, lade out; let blood, broach.
eject, reject; expel, discard; cut, send to coventry, boycott;
chasser; banish &c. (punish) 972; bounce * [U.S.]; fire *, fire out *;
throw &c. 284 throw out, throw up, throw off, throw away, throw aside; push
&c. 276 throw out, throw off, throw away, throw aside; shovel out, shovel
away, sweep out, sweep away; brush off, brush away, wisk off, wisk away,
turn off, turn away, send off, send away; discharge; send adrift, turn
adrift, cast adrift; turn out, bundle out; throw overboard; give the sack
to; send packing, send about one's business, send to the reigh about;
strike off the roll &c. (abrogate) 756; turn out neck and heels, turn out
head and shoulders, turn out neck and crop; pack off; send away with a flea
in the ear; send to Jericho; bow out, show the door to.
turn out of doors, turn out of house and home; evict, oust; unhouse,
unkennel; dislodge; unpeople, dispeople; depopulate; relegate, deport.
empty; drain to the dregs; sweep off; clear off, clear out, clear
away; suck, draw off; clean out, make a clean sweek of, clear decks, purge.
embowel, disbowel, disembowwl; eviscerate, gut; unearth, root out,
root up; averuncate|; weed out, get out; eliminate, get rid of, do away
with, shake off; exenterate.
vomit, spew, puke, keck, retch; belch out; cast up, bring up;
disgorge; expectorate, clear the throat, hawk, spit, sputter, splutter,
slobber, drivel, slaver, slabber; eructate; drool.
unpack, unlade, unload, unship; break bulk; dump.
be let out; ooze &c. (emerge) 295.
Adj. emitting, emitted, &c. v.
Int. begone! get you gone! get away, go away, get along, go along, get
along with you, go along with you! go your way! away with! off with you!
go about your business! be off! avunt! aroynt! allez-vous-en! jao! va-t'en!

<-- p. 89 -->

#298. [Eating.] Food. -- N. eating &c. v.; deglutition, gulp,
epulation, mastication, manducation, rumination; hippophagy, ichthyophagy;
gluttony &c. 957.
mouth, jaws, mandible, mazard, chops.
drinking &c. v.; potation, draught, libation; carousal &c. (amusement)
840; drunkenness &c. 959.
food, pabulum; aliment, nourishment, nutriment; sustenance,
sustentation; nuture, subsistence, provender, corn, feed, fodder,
provision, ration, keep, commons, board; commissriat &c. (provision) 637;
prey, forage, pasture, pasturage; fare, cheer; diet, dietary; regimen;
belly timber, staff of life; bread, bread and cheese.
comestibles, eatables, victuals, edibles, ingesta; grub, grubstake,
prog, meat; bread, bread stuffs; cerealia; cereals; viands, cates,
delicacy, dainty, creature comforts, contents of the larder, fleshspots;
festal board; ambrosia; good cheer, good living.
beef, bisquit, bun; constrach [U.S.]; cookie, cooky [U.S.]; cracker,
doughnut; fatling; hardtack, hoecake [U.S.], hominy [U.S.]; mutton, pilot
bread; pork; roti, rusk, ship biscuit; veal; joint, peice de resistance,
roast and boiled; remove, entree, entremet, hors d'oeuvre; releve, hash,
rechauffe, stew, ragout, fricassee, mince; pottage, potage, broth, soup,
consomme, puree, spoonmeat; pie, pasty, volauvent; pudding, omelet; pastry;
sweets &c. 296; kickshaws; condiment &c. 393.
alligator pear, apple &c., apple slump; artichoke; ashcake,
griddlecake, pancake, flapjack; atole, avocado, banana, beche de mer,
barbecue, beefsteak; beet root; blackberry, blancmange, bloater, bouilli,
bouillon, breadfruit, chop suey [U.S.]; chowder, chupatty, clam, compote,
damper, fish, , frumenty, grapes, hasty pudding, ice cream, lettuce, mango,
mangosteen, mince pie, oatmeal, oyster, pineapple, porridge, porterhouse
steak, salmis, sauerkraut, sea slug, sturgeon ("Albany beef"), succotash
[U.S.], supawn [U.S.], trepang, vanilla, waffle, walnut.
table, cuisine, bill of fare, menu, table d'hote, ordinary, entree.
meal, repast, feed, spread; mess; dish, plate, course; regale;
regalement, refreshment, entertainment; refection, collation, picnic,
feast, banquet, junket; breakfast; lunch, luncheon; dejeuner, bever,
tiffin, dinner, supper, snack, whet, bait, dessert; potluck, table d'hote,
dejeuner a la fourchette; hearty meal, square meal, substantial meal, full
meal; blowout*; light refreshment; bara, chotahazri; bara khana.
mouthful, bolus, gobbet, morsel, sop, sippet.
drink, beverage, liquor, broth, soup; potion, dram, draught, drench,
swill*; nip, sip, sup, gulp.
wine, spirits, liqueur, beer, ale, malt liquor, Sir John Barlycorn,
stingo, heavy wet; grog, toddy, flip, purl, punch, negus, cup, bishop,
wassail; gin &c. (intoxicating liquor) 959; coffee, chocolate, cocoa, tea,
the cup that cheers but not inebriates; bock beer, lager beer, Pilsener
beer, schenck beer; Brazil tea, cider, claret, ice water, mate' mint julep
eating house &c. 189.
V. eat, feed, fare, devour, swallow, take; gulp, bolt, snap; fall to;
despatch, dispatch; discuss; take down, get down, gulp down; lay in, tuck
in*; lick, pick, peck; gormandize &c. 957; bite, champ, munch, cranch,
craunch, crunch, chew, masticate, nibble, gnaw, mumble.
live on; feed upon, batten upon, fatten upon, feast upon; browse,
graze, crop, regale; carouse &c. (make merry) 840; eat heartily, do
justice to, play a good knife and fork, banquet.
break bread, break one's fast; breakfast ,lunch, dine, take tea, sup.
drink in, drink up, drink one's fill; quaff, sip, sup; suck, suck up;
lap; swig; swill*, tipple &c. (be drunken) 959; empty one's glass, drain
the cup; toss off, toss one's glass; wash down, crack a bottle, wet one's
purvey &c. 637.
Adj. eatable, edible, esculent, comestible, alimentary; cereal,
cibarious; dietetic; culinary; nutritive, nutritious; gastric; succulent;
potable, potulent|; bibulous.
omnivorous, carnivorous, herbivorous, granivorous, graminivorous,
phytivorous; ichthyivorous; omophagic, omophagous; pantophagous,
phytophagous, xylophagous
Phr. "across the walnuts and the wine" [Tennyson]; "blessed hour of
our dinners!" [O. Meredith]; "now good digestion wait on appetite, and
health on both!" [Macbeth]; "who can cloy the hungry edge of appetite?"
[Richard II]

<-- p. 90 -->

#299 Excretion -- N. excretion, discharge, emanation; exhalation,
exudation, extrusion, secretion, effusion, extravasation, ecchymosis;
evacuation, dejection, faeces, excrement; bloody flux; cacation; coeliac-
flux, coeliac-passion; dysentery; perspiration, sweat; subation, exudation;
diaphoresis; sewage; eccrinology.
saliva, spittle, rheum; ptyalism, salivation, catarrh; diarrhoea;
ejecta, egesta, sputa; excreta; lava; exuviae &c. (uncleanness) 653.
hemorrhage, bleeding; outpouring &c. (egress) 295.
V. excrete &c. (eject) 297; emanate &c. (come out) 295.

#300. [Forcible ingress.] Insertion. -- N. insertion, implantation,
introduction; insinuation &c. (intervention) 228; planting, &c. v.;
injection, inoculation, importation, infusion; forcible ingress &c. 294;
immersion; submersion, submergence, dip, plunge; bath &c. (water), 337;
interment &c. 363.
clyster, enema, glyster, lavage, lavement.
V. insert; introduce, intromit; put into, run into; import; inject;
interject &c. 298; infuse, instill, inoculate, impregnate, imbue, imbrue.
graft, ingraft, bud, plant, implant; dovetail.
obtrude; thrust in, stick in, ram in, stuff in, tuck in, press, in,
drive in, popin , whip in, drop in, put in; impact; empierce| &c. (make a
hole) 260.
imbed; immerse, immerge, merge; bathe, soak &c. (water) 337; dip,
plunge &c. 310.
bury &c. (inter) 363.
insert &c itself; plunge in medias res.
Adj. inserted &c. v.

#301. [Forcible egress.] Extraction. -- N. extraction; extracting &c.
v.; removal, elimination, extrication, eradication, evolution.
evulsion, avulsion; wrench; expression, squeezing; extirpation,
extermination; ejection &c. 297; export &c. (egress) 295.
extractor, corkscrew, forceps, pliers.
V. extract, draw; take out, draw out, pull out, tear out, pluck out,
pick out, get out; wring from, wrench; extort; root up, weed up, grub up,
rake up, root out, weed out, grub out, rake out; eradicate; pull up by the
roots, pluck up by the roots; averruncate|; unroot; uproot, pull up,
extirpate, dredge.
remove; educe, elicit; evolve, extricate; eliminate &c. (eject) 297;
eviscerate &c. 297.
express, squeeze out, press out.
Adj. extracted &c. v.

#302. [Motion through.] Passage. -- N. passage, transmission;
permeation; penetration, interpenetration; transudation, infiltration;
endosmose exosmose; endosmosis; intercurrence; ingress &c. 294; egress &c.
295; path &c. 627; conduit &c. 350; opening &c. 260; journey &c. 266;
voyage &c. 267.
V. pass, pass through; perforate &c. (hole) 260; penetrate, permeate,
thread, thrid, enfilade; go through, go across; go over, pass over; cut
across; ford, cross; pass and repass, work; make one's way, thread one's
way, worm one's way, force one's way; make a passage form a passage; cut
one's way through; find its way, find its vent; transmit, make way, clear
the course; traverse, go over the ground.
Adj. passing &c. v.; intercurrent; endosmosmic, endosmotic.
Adv. en passant &c. (transit) 270.

<-- p. 91 -->

#303 [Motion beyond] Transcursion -- N. transcursion|, transiliency,
transgression; tresspass; encroachment, infringement; extravagation|,
transcendence; redundance &c. 641.
V. transgress, surpass, pass; go beyond, go by; show in front, come to
the front; shoot ahead of; steal a march upon, steal a gain upon.
overstep, overpass, overreach, overgo, override, overleap, overjump,
overskip, overlap, overshoot the mark; outstrip, outleap, outjump, outgo,
outstep, outrun, outride, outrival, outdo; beat, beat hollow; distance;
leave in the lurch, leave in the rear; throw into the shade; exceed,
transcend, surmount; soar &c. (rise) 305.
encroach, trespass, infringe, trench upon, intrench on; strain;
stretch a point, strain a point; cross the Rubicon.
Adj. surpassing &c. v.
Adv. beyond the mark, ahead.

#304 [motion short of] Shortcoming -- N. shortcoming, failure;
falling short &c v.; default, defalcation; leeway; labor in vain, no go.
imcompleteness &c. 53; imperfection &c. 651; insufficiency &c. 640;
noncompletion &c. 730; failure &c. 732.
V. 303, come short of, fall short of, stop short of, come short , fall
short , stop short ; not reach; want; keep within bounds, keep within the
mark, keep withim the compass.
break down, stick in the mud, collapse, flat out [U.S.], come to
nothing; fall through, fall to the ground; cave in, end in smoke, miss the
mark, fail; lose ground; miss stays.
Adj. unreached; deficient; short, short of; minus; out of depth;
perfunctory &c. (neglect) 460.
Adv. within the mark, within the compass, within the bounds;
behindhand; re infecta; to no purpose; for from it.
Phr. the bubble burst.

#305. [Motion upwards] Ascent. -- N. ascent, ascension; rising &c.
309; acclivity, hill &c. 217; flight of steps, flight of stairs; ladder
rocket, lark; sky rocket, sky lark; Alpine Club.
V. ascend, rise, mount, arise, uprise; go up, get up, work one's way
up, start up; shoot up, go into orbit; aspire.
climb, clamber, ramp, scramble, escalade, surmount; scale, scale the
go aloft, fly aloft; tower, soar, take off, spring up; hover, spire,
plane, swim, float, surge; leap &c. 309.
Adj. rising &c. v. scandent|, buoyant; supernatant, superfluitant|;
Adv. uphill.

#306. [Motion downwards] Descent. -- N. descent, descension,
declension, declination; fall; falling &c. v.: slump; drop, plunge,
plummet, cadence; subsidence, collapse, lapse; downfall, tumble, slip,
tilt, trip, lurch; cropper, culbute; titubation, stumble; fate of Icarus.
avalanche, debacle, landslip, landslide.
declivity, dip, hill.
V. descend; go down, drop down, come down; fall, gravitate, drop,
slip, slide, settle; plunge, plummet, crash; decline, set, sink, droop,
come down a peg; slump.
dismount, alight, light, get down; swoop; stoop &c. 308; fall
prostrate, precipitate oneself; let fall &c. 308.
tumble, trip, stumble, titubate, lurch, pitch, swag, topple, topple
over, tumble over, topple down, tumble down; tilt, sprawl, plump down, come
down a cropper.
Adj. descending &c. v.; descendent; decurrent, decursive; labent,
deciduous; nodding to its fall.
Adv. downhill, downwards.
Phr. the bottom fell out.

#307. Elevation. -- N. elevation; raising &c. v.; erection, lift;
sublevation, upheaval; sublimation, exaltation; prominence &c. (convexity)
lever &c. 633; crane, derrick, windlass, capstan, winch; dredge,
dredger, dredging maching; dumbwaiter, elevator, escalator, lift.
V. heighten, elevate, raise, lift, erect; set up, stick up, perch up,
perk up, tilt up; rear, hoist, heave; uplift, upraise, uprear, upbear,
upcast, uphoist, upheave; buoy, weigh mount, give a lift; exalt; sublimate;
place on a pedestal, set on a pedestal.
take up, drag up, fish up; dredge.
stand up, rise up, get up, jump up; spring to one's feet; hold
oneself, hold one's head up; drawn oneself up to his full height.
Adj. elevated &c. v.; stilted, attollent, rampant.
Adv. on stilts, on the shoulders of, on one's legs, on one's hind

<-- p. 92 -->

#308. Depression. -- N. lowering &c. v.; depression; dip &c.
(concavity) 252; abasement; detrusion; reduction.
overthrow, overset, overturn; upset; prostration, subversion,
bow; courtesy, curtsy; genuflexion, genuflection, kowtow, obeisance,
V. depress, lower, let down, take down, let down a peg, take down a
peg; cast; let drop, let fall; sink, debase, bring low, abase, reduce,
detrude, pitch, precipitate.
overthrow, overturn, overset; upset, subvert, prostate, level, fell;
cast down, take down, throw down, fling down, dash down, pull down, cut
down, knock down, hew down; rase to the ground; trample in the dust, pull
about one's ears.
sit, sit down; couch, squat, crouch, stoop, bend, bow; courtesy,
curtsy; bob, duck, dip, kneel; bend the knee, bow the knee, bend the head,
bow the head; cower; recline &c. (be horizontal) 213.
Adj. depressed &c. v.; at a low ebb; prostrate &c. (horizontal) 213;
Phr. facinus quos inquinat aequat [Lucan].

#309. Leap. -- N. leap, jump, hop, spring, bound, vault, saltation.
ance, caper; curvet, caracole; gambade|, gambado|; capriole, demivolt;
buck, buck jump; hop skip and jump; falcade.
kangaroo, jerboa; chamois, goat, frog, grasshopper, flea; buckjumper;
V. leap; jump up, jump over the moon; hop, spring, bound, vault, ramp,
cut capers, trip, skip, dance, caper; buck, buck jump; curvet, caracole;
foot it, bob, bounce, flounce, start; frisk &c. (amusement) 840; jump about
&c. (agitation) 315; trip it on the light fantastic toe, trip the light
fantastic, dance oneself off one's legs, dance off one's shoes.
Adj. leaping &c. v.; saltatory, frisky.
Adv. on the light fantastic toe.
Phr. di salto in salto.

#310 Plunge -- N. plunge, dip, dive, header; ducking &c. v.; diver.
V. plunge, dip, souse, duck; dive, plump; take a plunge, take a
header; make a plunge; bathe &c.(water) 337.
submerge, submerse; immerse; douse, sink, engulf, send to the bottom.
get out of one's depth; go to the bottom, go down like a stone, drop
like a lead balloon; founder, welter, wallow.

#311. [Curvilinear motion.] Circuition. -- N. circuition, curculation;
turn, curvet; excursiion, circumvention, circumnavigation,
circumambulation; northwest passage; circuit &c. 629.
turning &c. v.; wrench; evolution; coil, corkscreq.
V. turn, bend, wheel; go about, put about; heel; go round to the right
about, turn round to the right about; turn on one's heel; make a circle,
make a complete circle, describe a circle, describe a complete circle; go
through 180ø, go through 360ø, pass through 180ø, pass through 360ø.
circumnavigate, circumambulate, circumvent; "put a girdle round about
the earth" [M.N.D.]; go the round, make the round of.
wind, circulate, meander; whisk, twirl; twist &c. (convolution) 248;
make a detour &c. (circuit) 629.
Adj. turning &c. v.; circuitous; circumforaneous, circumfluent.
Adv. round about.

#312. [Motion in a continued circle.] Rotation. -- N. rotation,
revolution, gyration, circulation, roll; circumrotation, circumvolution,
circumgyration; volutation, circination|, turbination, pirouette,
verticity|, whir, whirl, eddy, vortex, whirlpool, gurge;
countercurrent; cyclone, tornado; surge; vertigo, dizzy round; Maelstrom,
Charybdis; Ixion.
wheel, screw, whirligig, rollingstone, windmill; top, teetotum;
roller; flywheel; jack; caster.
axis, axle, spindle, pivot, pin, hinge, pole, swivel, gimbals, arbor,
bobbin, mandrel.
[Science of rotary motion] trochilics.
V. rotate; roll along; revolve, spin; turn round; circumvolve;
circulate, gyre, gyrate, wheel, whirl, twirl, trundle, troll, bowl.
roll up, furl; wallow, welter; box the compass; spin like a top, spin
like a teetotum.
Adj. rotating &c.v.; rotary, rotary; circumrotatory, trochilic,
vertiginous, gyratory; vortical, vorticose.
Adv. head over heels, round and round, like a horse in a mill.

#313. [Motion in the reverse circle.] Evolution. -- N. evolution,
unfolding, development; evolvement; unfoldment; eversion &c. (inversion)
V. evove; unfold, unroll, unwind, uncoil, untwist, unfurl, untwine,
unravel; disentagle; develop.
Adj. evolving &c. v.; evolved &c. v.

<-- p. 93 -->

#314. [Reciprocating motion, motion to and fro.] Oscillation. -- N.
oscillation; vibration, libration; motion of a pendulum; nutation;
undulation; pulsation; pulse.
alternation; coming and going &c. v.; ebb and flow, flux and reflux,
ups and down.
fluctuation; vacillation &c. (irresolution) 605.
wave, vibratiuncle, swing, beat, shake, wag, seesaw, dance, lurch,
dodge; logan, loggan, rocking-stone, vibroscope.
V. oscillate; vibrate, librate; alternate, undulate, wave; rock,
swing; pulsate, beat; wag, waggle; nod, bob, courtesy, curtsy; tick; play;
wamble, wabble; dangle, swag.
fluctuate, dance, curvet, reel, quake; quiver, quaver; shake, flicker;
wriggle; roll, toss, pitch; flounder, stagger, totter; move up and down,
bob up and down &c. Adv.; pass and repass, ebb and flow, come and go;
vacillate &c. 605; teeter [U.S.].
brandish, shake, flourish.
Adj. oscillating &c. v.; oscillatory, undulatory, pulsatory,
libratory, rectilinear; vibratory, vibratile; pendulous.
Adv. to and fro, up and down, backwards and forwards, hither and yon,
seesaw, zigzag, wibble-wabble, in and out, from side to side, like buckets
in a well.

#315. [Irregular motion] Agitation. -- N. agitation, stir, tremor,
shake, ripple, jog, jolt, jar, jerk, shock, succussion, trepidation,
quiver, quaver, dance; jactitation|, quassation|; shuffling 7c. v.;
twitter, flicker, flutter.
disquiet, pertubation, commotion, turmoil, turbulence; tumult,
tumultuation|; hubbub, rout, bustle, fuss, racket, subsultus, staggers,
megrims, epilepsy, fits; carphology, chorea, floccillation, the jercks, St.
Vitus's dance, tilmus.
spasm, throe, throb, palpitation, convulsion.
disturbance 7c. (disorder) 59; restlessness &c. (changeableness) 149.
ferment, fermentation; ebullition, effervescence, hurly-burly,
cahotage; tempest, storm, ground swell, heavy sea, whirlpook, vortex &c.
312; whirlwind &c. (wind) 349.
V. be agitated &c.; shake; tremble, tremble like an aspen leaf;
quiver, quaver, quake, shiver, twitter, twire, writhe, toss, shuffle,
tumble, stagger, bob, reel, sway, wag, waggle; wriggle, wriggle like an
eel; dance, stumble, shamble, flounder, totter, flounce, flop, curvet,
prance, cavort [U.S.]; squirm.
throb, pulsate, beat, palpitate, go pitapat; flutter, flitter,
flicker, bicker; bustle.
ferment, effervesce, foam; boil, boil over; bubble up; simmer.
toss about, jumb about; jump like a parched pea; shake like an aspen
leaf; shake to its center, shake to its foundations; be the sport of the
winds and waves; reel to and fro like a drunken man; move from post to
pillar and from pillar to post, drive from post to pillar and from pillar
to post, keep between hawk and buzzard.
agitate, shake, convulse, toss, tumble, bandy, wield, brandish, flap,
flourish, whisk, jerk, hitch, jolt; jog, joggle, jostle, buffet, hustle,
disturb, stir, shake up, churn, jounce, wallop, whip, vellicate.
Adj. shaking &c. v.; agitated tremulous; desultory, subsultory|;
saltatoric; quasative; shambling; giddy-paced, saltatory, convulsive,
unquiet, restless, all of a twitter.
Adv. by fits and starts; subsultorily| &c. adj.; per saltum; hop skip
and jump; in convulsions, in fits.
Phr. tempete dans un verre d'eau.

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Words Relating to MATTER

#316. MATERIALITY. -- N. materiality, materialness; corporeity,
corporality; substantiality, substantialness, flesh and blood, plenum;
physical condition.
matter, body, substance, brute matter, stuff, element, principle,
parenchyma, material, substratum, hyle, corpus, pabulum; frame.
object, article, thing, something; still life; stocks and stones;
materials &c. 635.
[Science of matter] physics; somatology, somatics; natural philosophy,
experimental philosophy; physicism; physical science, philosophie positive,
materialism; materialist; physicist; somatism, somatist.
Adj. material, bodily; corporeal, corporal; physical; somatic,
somatoscopic; sensible, tangible, ponderable, palpable, substantial.
objective, impersonal, nonsubjective, neuter, unspiritual,

#317. Immateriality. -- N. immateriality, immaterialness;
incorporeity, spirituality; inextension; astral plane.
personality; I, myself, me; ego, spirit &c. (soul) 450; astral body;
immaterialism; spiritualism, spiritualist.
V. disembody, spiritualize.
Adj. immaterial, immateriate; incorporeal, incorporal; incorporate,
unfleshly; supersensible; asomatous, unextended; unembodied, disembodied;
extramundane, unearthly; pneumatoscopic; spiritual &c. (psychical) 450.
personal, subjective, nonobjective.

#318. World. -- N. world, creation, nature, universe; earth, globe,
wide world; cosmos; kosmos; terraqueous globe, sphere; macrocosm, megacosm;
music of the spheres.
heavens, sky, welkin|, empyrean; starry cope, starry heaven, starry
host; firmament; Midgard; supersensible regions; varuna; vault of heaven,
canopy of heaven; celestial spaces.
heavenly bodies, stars, asteroids; nebulae; galaxy, milky way,
galactic circle, via lactea.
sun, orb of day, Apollo, Phoebus; photosphere, chromosphere; solar
system; planet, planetoid; comet; satellite, moon, orb of night, Diana,
silver-footed queen; aerolite, meteor; planetary ring; falling star,
shooting star; meteorite, uranolite.
constellation, zodiac, signs of the zodiac, Charles's wain, Big
Dipper, Little Dipper, Great Bear, Southern Cross, Orion's belt,
Cassiopea's chair, Pleiades.
colures, equator, ecliptic, orbit.
[Sicence of heavenly bodies] astronomy; uranogrraphy, uranology;
cosmology, cosmography, cosmogony; eidouranion, orrery; goedesy &c.
(measurement) 466; star gazing, star gazer; astronomer; observatory;
Adj. cosmic, cosmical; mundane, terrestrial, terrestrious|,
terraqueous, terrene, terreous|, telluric, earthly, geotic, under the sun;
sublunary, subastral.
solar, heliacal; lunar; celestial, heavenly, sphery; starry, stellar;
sidereal, sideral; astral; nebular; uranic.
Adv. in all creation, on the face of the globe, here velow, under the
Phr. die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltergesicht; "earth is but the
frozen echo of the silent voice of God" [Hageman]; "green calm below, blue
quietness above" [Whittier]; "hanging in a golden chain this pendant World"
[Paradise Lost]; "nothing in nature is unbeautiful" [Tennyson]; "silently
as a dream the fabric rose" [Cowper]; "some touch of nature's genial glow"
[Scott]; "this majestical roof fretted with golden fire" [Hamlet]; "through
knowledge we behold the World's creation" [Spenser].

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#319. Gravity. -- N. gravity, gravitation; weight; heaviness &c. adj.;
specific gravity; pondorosity, pressure, load; burden, burthen; ballast,
counterpoise; lump of, mass of, weight of.
lead, millstone, mountain, Ossa on Pelion.
weighing, ponderation, trutination|; weights; avoirdupois weight, troy
weight, apothecaries' weight; grain, scruple, drachma, ounce, pound, lb,
arroba, load, stone, hundredweight, cwt, ton, long ton, metric ton,
quintal, carat, pennyweight, tod.
[metric weights] gram, centigram, milligram, microgram, kilogram;
nanogram, picogram, femtogram, attogram.
[Weighing Instrument] balance, scale, scales, steelyard, beam,
weighbridge; spring balance, piezoelectric balance, analytical balance,
two-pan balance, one-pan balance; postal scale, baby scale.
[Science of gravity] statics.
V. be heavy &c. adj.; gravitate, weigh, press, cumber, load.
[Measure the weight of] weigh, poise.
Adj. weighty; weighing &c. v.; heavy as lead; ponderous, ponderable;
lumpish, lumpy, cumbersome, burdensome; cumbrous, unwieldy, massive.
incumbent, superincumbent.

#320. Levity. -- N. levity; lightness &c. adj.; imponderability,
buoyancy, volatility.
feather, dust, mote, down, thistle, down, flue, cobweb, gossamer,
straw, cork, bubble, balloon; float, buoy; ether, air.
leaven, ferment, barm, yeast.
V. be light &c. adj.; float, rise, swim, be buoyed up.
render light &c. adj.; lighten, leaven.
Adj. light, subtile, airy; imponderous, imponderable; astatic,
weightless, ethereal, sublimated; gossamery; suberose, suberous;
uncompressed, volatile; buoyant, floating &c. v.; portable.
light as a feather, light as a thistle, light as air.

1. Solid Matter

#321. Density.. -- N. density, solidity; solidness &c. adj.;
impenetrability, impermeability; imcompressibility; imporosity; cohesion
&c. 46; constipation, consistence, spissitude|.
specific gravity; hydrometer, areometer.
condensation; caseation; solidation, solidification; consolidation;
concretion, coagulation; petrification &c. (hardening) 323;
crystallization, precipitation; deposit, precipitate; inspissation;
thickening &c. v.
indivisibility, indiscerptibility, indisolvableness.
solid body, mass, block, knot, lump; concretion, concrete,
conglomerate; cake, clot, stone, curd, coagulum; bone, gristle, cartilage;
casein, crassamentum|, legumin.
V. be dense &c. adj.; become solid, render solid &c. adj.; solidify,
solidate; concrete, set, take a set, consolidate, congeal, coagulate; curd,
curdle; lopper; fix, clot, cake, candy, precipitate, deposit, cohere,
crystallize; petrify &c. (harden) 323.
condense, thicken, inspissate, incrassate; compress, squeeze, ram
down, constipate.
Adj. dense, solid; solidified &c. v.; caseous; pukka; coherent,
cohesive &c. 46; compact, close, serried, thickset; substantial, massive,
lumpish; impenetrable, impermeable, imporous; incompressible; constipated;
concrete &c. (hard) 323; knotted, knotty; gnarled; crystalline,
crystallizable; thick, grumous|, stuffy.
undissolved, unmelted, unliquefied, unthawed.
indivisible, indiscerptible, infrangible, indissolvable, indissoluble,
insoluble, infusible.

#322. Rarity. -- N. rarity, tenuity; absence of solidity &c. 321;
subtility; subtilty, subtlety; sponginess, compressibility.
rarefaction, expansion, dilatation, inflation, subtilization.
ether &c. (gas) 334.
V. rarefy, expand, dilate, subtilize.
Adj. rare, subtile, thin, fine, tenuous, compressible, flimsy, slight;
light &c. 320; cavernous, spongy &c. (hollow) 252.
rarefied &c. v.;; unsubstantial; uncompact, incompressed; rarefiable.

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#323. Hardness. -- N. hardness &c. adj.; rigidity; renitence,
renitency; inflexibility, temper, callosity, durity  .
induration, petrifaction; lapidification, lapidescence; vitrification,
ossification; crystallization.
stone, pebble, flint, marble, rock, fossil, crag, crystal, quartz,
granite, adamant; bone, cartilage; hardware; heart of oak, block, board,
deal board; iron, steel; cast iron, decarbonized iron, wrought iron; nail;
brick, concrete; cement.
V. render hard &c. adj.; harden, stiffen, indurate, petrify, temper,
ossify, vitrify; accrust.
Adj. hard, rigid, stubborn, stiff, firm; starch, starched; stark,
unbending, unlimber, unyielding; inflexible, tense; indurate, indurated;
gritty, proof.
adamant, adamantine, adamantean; concrete, stony, granitic, calculous,
lithic, vitreous; horny, corneous; bony; osseous, ossific; cartilaginous;
hard as a rock &c. n.; stiff as buckram, stiff as a poker.

#324. Softness. -- N. softness, pliableness &c. adj.; flexibility;
pliancy, pliability; sequacity, malleability; ductility, tractility;
extendibility, extensibility; plasticity; inelasticity, flaccidity, laxity.
clay, wax, butter, dough, pudding; alumina, argil; cushion, pillow,
feather bed, down, padding, wadding.
mollification; softening &c.v.
V. render -soft &c. adj.; soften, mollify, mellow, relax, temper;
mash, knead, squash.
bend, yield, relent, relax, give.
Adj. soft, tender, supple; pliant, pliable; flexible, flexile; lithe,
lithesome; lisom, limber, plastic; ductile; tractile, tractable; malleable,
extensiole, sequacious, inelastic; aluminous; remollient.
yielding &c. v.; flabby, limp, flimsy.
doughy, spongy.
flaccid, flocculent, downy; oedematous, medullary, argillaceous,
soft as butter, soft as down, soft as silk; yielding as wax, tender as

#325. Elasticity. -- N. elasticity, springiness, spring, resilience,
renitency, buoyancy.
rubber, India(n) rubber, latex, caoutchouc, whalebone, gum elastic,
baleen, natural rubber; neoprene, synthetic rubber, Buna-S, plastic.
V. stretch, flex, extend, distend, be elastic &c. adj.; bounce, spring
back &c. (recoil) 277.
Adj. elastic, flexible, tensile, spring, resilient, renitent, buoyant.

#326. Inelasticity. -- N. want of elasticity, absence of elasticity
&c. 325; inelasticity &c. (softness) 324,
Adj. unyielding, inelastic, inflexible &c. (soft) 324; irresilient.

#327. Tenacity. -- N. {ant. 328} tenacity, toughness, strength;
(cohesion) 46; grip, grasp, stickiness, (cohesion) 46; sequacity;
stubbornness &c. (obstinacy); glue, cement, glutinousness, sequaciousness,
viscidity, (semiliquididty) 352.
leather; white leather, whitleather; gristle, cartilage.
V. be tenacious &c. adj.; resist fracture.
Adj. tenacious, tough, strong, resisting, sequacious, stringy, gristly
cartilaginous, leathery, coriaceous, tough as whitleather; stubborn &c.
(obstinate) 606.

#328. Brittleness. -- N. {ant. 327} brittleness &c. adj.; fragility,
friability, fragibility, fissibility; house of cards, house of glass.
V. be brittle &c. adj.; live in a glass house.
break, crack, snap, split, shiver, splinter, crumble, break short,
burst, fly, give way; fall to pieces; crumble to, crumble into dust.
Adj. brittle, brash [U.S.], frangible, fragile, frail, gimcrack|,
shivery, fissile; splitting &c. v.; lacerable, splintery, crisp, crimp,
short, brittle as glass.

#329. [Structure.] Texture. -- N. structure (form) 240, organization,
anatomy, frame, mold, fabric, construction; framework, carcass,
architecture; stratification, cleavage.
substance, stuff, compages, parenchyma; constitution, staple,
[Science of structures] organography, osteology, myology,
splanchnology, neurology, angiography, adeology; angiography, adenography.
texture, surface texture; intertexture, contexture; tissue, grain,
web, surface; warp and woof, warp and weft; tooth, nap &c. (roughness) 256;
fineness of grain; coarseness of grain, dry goods.
[Science of textures] histology.
Adj. structural, organic; anatomic, anatomical.
textural, textile; fine grained, coarse grained; fine, delicate,
subtile, gossamery, filmy, silky, satiny; coarse; homespun.

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#330. Pulverulence. -- N. [State of powder.] powderiness,
pulverulence; sandiness &c. adj.; efflorescence; friability.
powder, dust, sand, shingle; sawdust; grit; meal, bran, flour, farina,
rice, paddy, spore, sporule; crumb, seed, grain; particle &c. (smallness)
32; limature|, filings, debris, detritus, scobs, magistery, fine powder;
smoke; cloud of dust, cloud of sand, cloud of smoke; puff of smoke,
volume of smoke; sand storm, dust storm.
[Reduction to powder] pulverization, comminution, attenuation,
granulation, disintegration, subaction, contusion, trituration, levigation,
abrasion, detrition, multure; limitation; tripsis; filing &c.v..
[Instruments for pulverization] mill, arrastra, gristmill, grater,
rasp, file, mortar and pestle, nutmeg grater, teeth, grinder, grindstone,
kern, quern, koniology.
V. come to dust; be disintegrated, be reduced to powder &c.
reduce to powder, grind to powder; pulverize, comminute, granulate,
triturate, levigate; scrape, file, abrade, rub down, grind, grate, rasp,
pound, bray, bruise; contuse, contund; beat, crush, cranch, craunch,
crunch, scranch, crumble, disintegrate; attentuate &c. 195.
Adj. powdery, pulverulent, granular, mealy, floury, farinaceous,
branny, furfuraceous, flocculent, dusty, sandy, sabulous, psammous;
arenose, arenarious, arenaceous; gritty, efflorescent, impalpable;
lentiginous, lepidote, sabuline; sporaceous, sporous.
pulverizable; friable, crumbly, shivery; pulverized &c. v.; attrite;
in pieces.

#331. Friction. -- N. friction, attrition; rubbing &c. v.;
confrication|, detrition, contrition|, affriction, abrasion, arrosion|,
limature|, frication, rub; elbow grease; rosin; massage; roughness &c. 256.
V. rub, scratch, scrape, scrub, slide, fray, rasp, graze, curry,
scour, polish, rub out, wear down, gnaw; file, grind &c. (reduce to powder)
set one's teeth on edge; rosin.
Adj. anatriptic; attrite.

#332. [Absence of friction. Prevention of friction.] Lubrication. --
N. smoothness &c. 255; unctuousness &c. 355.
lubrication, lubrification; anointment; oiling &c. v.
synovia; glycerine, oil, lubricating oil, grease &c. 356; saliva;
V. lubricate, lubricitate|; oil, grease, lather, soap; wax.
Adj. lubricated &c. v.; lubricous.

1. Fluids in General

#333. Fluidity. -- N. fluidity, liquidity; liquidness &c. adj.;
gaseity &c. 334.
fluid, inelastic fluid; liquid, liquor; lymph, humor, juice, sap,
serum, blood, serosity, gravy, rheum, ichor, sanies; chyle.
solubility, solubleness.
[Science of liquids at rest] hydrology, hydrostatics, hydrodynamics.
V. be fluid &c. adj.; flow &c. (water in motion) 348; liquefy, melt,
condense &c. 335.
Adj. liquid, fluid, serous, juicy, succulent, sappy; ichorous; fluent
&c. (flowing) 348.
liquefied &c. 335; uncongealed; soluble.

#334. Gaseity. -- N. gaseity; vaporousness &c. adj.; flatulence,
flatulency; volatility; aeration, aerifiction.
elastic fluid, gas, air, vapor, ether, steam, essence, fume, reek,
effluvium, flatus; cloud &c. 353; ammonia, ammoniacal gas; volatile alkali;
vacuum, partial vacuum.
[Science of elastic fluids] pneumatics, pneumatostatics; aerostatics,
gasmeter, gasometer; air bladder, swimming bladder, sound (of a fish).
V. vaporize, evaporate, evanesce, gasify, emit vapor &c. 336; diffuse.
Adj. gaseous, aeriform, etherea, aerial, airy, vaporous, volatile,
evaporable, flatulent.

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#335. Liquefaction. -N. liquefaction; liquescence, liquescency;
melting &c. (heat) 384; colliquation|, colliquefaction|; thaw; liquation|,
deliquation|, deliquescence; lixiviation, dissolution.
solution, apozem, lixivium, infusion, flux.
solvent, menstruum, alkahest.
V. render liquid &c. 333; liquefy, run; deliquesce; melt &c. (heat)
384; solve; dissolve, resolve; liquate|; hold in solution; condense,
precipitate, rain.
Adj. liquefied &c. v., liquescent, liquefiable; deliquescent, soluble,

#336. Vaporization. -- N. vaporization, volatilization; gasification,
evaporation, vaporation; distillation, cupellation, cohabilition,
sublimination, exhalation; volatility.
vaporizer, still, retort; fumigation, steraming; bay salt, chloride of
V. render -gaseous &c. 334; vaporize, volatilize; distill, sublime;
evaporate, exhale, smoke, transpire, emit vapor, fume, reek, steam,
fumigate; cohobate; finestill.
Adj. volatilized &c. v.; reeking &c. v.; volatile; evaporable,

2. Specific Fluids

#337. Water. -- N. water; serum, serosity; lymph; rheum; diluent;
agua, aqua, pani.
dilution, maceration, lotion; washing &c. v.; immersion|, humectation,
infiltration, spargefaction|, affusion, irrigation, douche, balneation,
deluge &c. (water in motion) 348; high water, flood tide.
V. be watery &c. adj.; reek.
add water, water, wet; moisten &c. 339; dilute, dip, immerse; merge;
immerge, submerge; plunge, souse, duck, drown; soak, steep, macerate,
pickle, wash, sprinkle, lave, bathe, affuse, splash, swash, douse, drench;
dabble, slop, slobber, irrigate, inundate, deluge; syringe, inject, gargle.
Adj. watery, aqueous, aqatic, hydrous, lymphatic; balneal, diluent;
drenching &c. v.; diluted &c. v.; weak; wet &c. (moist) 339.
Phr. the waters are out.

#338. Air. -- N. air &c. (gas) 334; common air, atmospheric air;
atmosphere; aerosphere.
open air; sky, welkin; blue sky; cloud &c. 353.
weather, climate, rise and fall of the barometer, isobar.
[Science of air] aerology, aerometry, aeroscopy, aeroscopy,
aerography; meteorology, climatology; pneumatics; eudioscope, baroscope,
aeroscope, eudiometer, barometer, aerometer; aneroid, baroscope; weather
gauge, weather glass, weather cock.
exposure to the air, exposure to the weather; ventilation;
aerostation, aeronatics, aeronaut.
V. air, ventilate, fan &c. (wind) 349.
Adj. containing air, flatulent, effervescent; windy &c. 349.
atmospheric, airy; aerial, aeriform; meteorological; weatherwise.
Adv. in the open air, a la belle etoile, al fresco; sub jove dio.

#339. Moisture. -- N. moisture; moistness &c. adj.; humidity,
humectation; madefaction|, dew; serein; marsh &c. 345; hygrometry,
V. moisten, wet; humect, humectate; sponge, damp, bedew; imbeu,
imbreu, infiltrate, saturate; soak, drench &c. (water) 337.
be moist &c. adj.; not have a dry thread; perspire &c. (exude) 295.
Adj. moist, damp; watery &c. 337; madid, roric; undried, humid,
sultry, wet, dank, luggy, dewy; roral|, rorid|; roscid; juicy.
wringing wet, soaking wet; wet through to the skin; saturated &c. v.
swashy, soggy, dabbled; reeking, dripping, soaking,soft, sodden,
sloppy, muddy; swampy &c. (marshy) 345; irriguous.

#340. Dryness. -- N. dryness &c. adj.; siccity, aridity, drought, ebb
tide, low water.
exsiccation|, desiccation; arefaction|, dephlegmation|, drainage;
drier, desiccative, dessicator.
V. be dry &c. adj.; render dry &c. adj.; dry; dry up, soak up; sponge,
swab, wipe; exsiccate, desiccate; drain, parch.
be fine, hold up.
Adj. dry, anhydrous, arid; adust, arescent|; dried &c. v.; undamped;
juiceless, sapless; sear; husky; rainless, without rain, fine; dry as a
bone, dry as dust, dry as a stick, dry as a mummy, dry as a biscuit.
water proof, water tight.

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#341. Ocean -- N. sea, ocean, main, deep, brine, salt water, waves,
billows, high seas, offing, great waters, watery waste, "vasty deep"; wave,
tide, &c. (water in motion) 348.
hydrography, hydrographer; Neptune, Poseidon, Thetis, Triton, Naiad,
Nereid; sea nymph, Siren; trident, dolphin.
Adj. oceanic; marine, maritime; pelagic, pelagian; seagoing;
hydrographic; bathybic, cotidal.
Adv. at sea, on sea; afloat.

#342. Land. -- N. land, earth, ground, dry land, terra firma.
continent, mainland, peninsula, chersonese, delta; dongue of land,
neck of land; isthmus, oasis; promontory &c. (projection) 250; highland &c.
(height) 206.
coast, shore, scar, strand, beach; playa; bank, lea; seaboard,
seaside, seabank, seacoast, seabeach; ironbound coast; loom of the land;
derelict; innins; alluvium , alluvion; anicon.
soil, glebe, clay, loam, marl, cledge, chalk, gravel, mold, subsoil,
clod, clot; rock, crag.
acres; real estate &c. (property) 780; landsman.
V. land, come to land, set foot on the soil, set foot on dry land;
come ashore, go ashore, debark.
Adj. earthy, continental, midland, coastal, littoral, riparian,;
alluvial; terrene &c. (world) 318; landed, predial, territorial;
geophilous; repicolous.
Adv. ashore; on shore, on land.

#343. Gulf. Lake -- N. land covered with water, gulf, gulph, bay,
inlet, bight, estuary, arm of the sea, bayou [U.S.], fiord, armlet; frith,
firth, ostiary|, mouth; lagune, lagoon; indraught; cove, creek; natural
harbor; roads; strait; narrows; Euripus; sound, belt, gut, kyles;
continental slope, continental shelf.
lake, loch, lough, mere, tarn, plash, broad, pond, pool, lin, puddle,
slab, well, artesian well; standing water, dead water, sheet of water; fish
pond, mill pond; ditch, dike, dyke, dam; reservoir &c. (store) 636;
alberca, barachois, hog wallow [U.S.].
Adj. lacustrine.

#344. Plain. -- N. plain, table-land, face of the country; open
country, champaign country; basin, downs, waste, weary waste, desert, wild,
steppe, pampas, savanna, prairie, heath, common, wold, veldt; moor,
moorland; busch; plateau &c. (level) 213; campagna; alkali flat, llano;
mesa, mesilla [U.S.], playa; shaking prairie, trembling prairie; vega.
meadow, mead, haugh, pasurage, park, field, lawn, green, plat, plot,
grassplat, greensward, sward, turf, sod, heather; lea, ley, lay; grounds;
maidan, agostadero.
Adj. champaign, alluvial; campestral, campestrial, campestrian,

#345. Marsh. -- N. marsh, swamp, morass, marish, moss, fen, bog,
quagmire, slough, sump, wash; mud, squash, slush; baygall [U.S.], cienaga,
jhil, vlei.
Adj. marsh, marshy; swampy, boggy, plashy, poachy, quaggy, soft;
muddy, sloppy, squashy; paludal; moorish, moory; fenny.

#346. Island. N. island, isle, islet, eyot, ait, holf, reef, atoll,
breaker; archipelago; islander.
Adj. insular, seagirt; archipelagic.

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3. Fluids in Motion

#347. [Fluid in motion.] Stream. -- N. stream &c. (of water) 348, (of
air) 349.
V. flow &c. 348; blow &c. 349.

#348. [Water in motion.] River. -- N. running water.
jet, spirt, spurt, squirt, spout, spray, splash, rush, gush, jet
d'eau; sluice.
water spout, water fall; cascade, force, foss; lin, linn; ghyll,
Niagara; cataract, rapids, white water, catadupe|, cataclysm; debacle,
inundation, deluge; chute, washout.
rain, rainfall; serein; shower, scud; downpour; driving rain,
drenching rain, cloudburst; hyetology, hyetography; predominance of
Aquarius, reign of St. Swithin; mizzle, drizzle, stillicidum, plash;
dropping &c. v.; falling weather.
stream, course, flux, flow, profluence; effluence &c. (egress) 295;
defluxion; flowing &c. v.; current, tide, race, coulee.
spring, artesian well, fount, fountain; rill, rivulet, gill, gullet,
rillet; streamlet, brooklet; branch [U.S.]; runnel, sike, burn, beck,
creek, brook, bayou, stream, river; reach, tributary.
body of water, torrent, rapids, flush, flood, swash; spring tide, high
tide, full tide; bore, tidal bore, eagre, hygre; fresh, freshet; indraught,
reflux, undercurrent, eddy, vortex, gurge, whirlpool, Maelstrom,
regurgitation, overflow; confluence, corrivation|.
wave, billow, surge, swell, ripple; ; beach
comber, riffle [U.S.], rollers, ground swell, surf, breakers, white horses,
whitecaps; rough sea, heavy sea, high seas, cross sea, long sea, short sea,
chopping sea.
[Science of fluids in motion] hydrodynamics; hydraulics,
hydraulicostatics; rain gauge, flowmeter; pegology.
irrigation &c. (water) 337; pump; watering pot, watering cart;
hydrant, syringe; garden hose, lawn spray; bhisti, mussuk.
V. flow, run; meander; gush, pour, spout, roll, jet, well, issue;
drop, drip, dribble, plash, spirtle, trill, trickle, distill, percolate;
stream, overflow, inundate, deluge, flow over, splash, swash; guggle,
murmur, babble, bubble, purl, gurgel, sputter, spurt, spray, regurgitate;
ooze, flow out &c. (egress) 295.
rain hard, rain in torrents, rain cats and dogs, rain pitchforks; pour
with rain, drizzle, spit, set in; mizzle.
flow into, fall into, open into, drain into; discharge itself,
[Cause a flow] pour; pour out &c. (discharge) 297; shower down,
irrigate, drench &c. (wet) 337; spill, splash.
[Stop a flow] stanch; dam, up &c. (close) 261; obstruct &c. 706.
Adj. fluent; diffluent, profluent, affluent; tidal; flowing &c. v.;
meandering, meandry, meandrous; fluvial, fluviaatile; streamy,
showery,rainy, pluvial, stillicidous  ; stillatitious.
Phr. "for men may come and men may go but I go on forever" [Tennyson]
"that old man river, he just keeps rolling along" [Showboat]

#349. [Air in motion] Wind. -- N.. wind, draught, flatus, afflatus,
efflation, eluvium; air; breath, breath of air; puff, whiff, zephyr; blow,
drift; aura; stream, current, jet stream; undercurrent.
gust, blast, breeze, squall, gale, half a gale, storm, tempest,
hurricane, whirlwind, tornado, samiel, cyclone, anticyclone, typhoon;
simoon, simoom; harmattan, monsoon, trade wind, sirocco, mistral, bise,
tramontane, levanter; capful of wind; fresh breeze, stiff breeze; keen
blast; blizzard, barber [Can.], candelia, chinook, foehn, khamsin, norther,
vendaval, wuther.
windiness &c.adj.; ventosity|; rough weather, dirty weather, ugly
weather, stress of weather; dirty sky, mare's tail; thick squall, black
squall, white squall.
anemography, aerodynamics; windgauge, weathercock, weathervane;
anemometer, anemoscope.
sufflation, insufflation, perflation, inflation, afflation; blowing,
fanning &c. v.; ventilation.
sneezing &c.v.: errhine; sternutative, sternutatory; sternutation;
hiccup, hiccough; catching of the breath.
Eolus, Boreas, Zephyr, cave of Eolus.
air pump, air blower, lungs, bellows, blowpipe, fan, ventilator,
punkah; branchiae, gills, flabellum, vertilabrum.
V. blow, waft; blow hard, blow great guns, blow a hurricane &c.. n.;
wuther; stream, issue.
respire, breathe, puff; whif, whiffle; gasp, wheeze; snuff, snuffle;
sniff, sniffle; sneeze, cough.
fan, ventilate; inflate, perflate|; blow up.
Adj. blowing &c. v.; windy, flatulent; breezy, gusty, squally; stormy,
tempestuous, blustering; boisterous &c. (violent) 173.
pulmonic, pulmonary.
Phr. "lull'd by soft zephyrs" [Pope]; "the storm is up and all is on
the hazard" [Julius Caesar]; "the winds were wither'd in the stagnant air"
[Byron]; "while mocking winds are piping loud" [Milton]; "winged with red
lightning and tempestuous rage" [Paradise Lost].

<-- p. 101 -->

#350. [Channel for the passage of water.] Conduit. -- N. conduit,
channel, duct, watercourse, race; head race, tail race; abito, aboideau,
aboiteau, bito; acequia, acequiador, acequiamadre; arroyo; adit, aqueduct,
canal, trough, gutter, pantile; flume, ingate, runner; lock-weir, tedge;
vena; dike, main, gully, moat, ditch, drain, sewer, culvert, cloaca, sough,
kennel, siphon; piscina; pipe &c. (tube) 260; funnel; tunnel &c. (passage)
627; water pipe, waste pipe; emunctory, gully hole, artery, aorta, pore,
spout, scupper; adjutage, ajutage; hose; gargoyle; gurgoyle; penstock,
weir; flood gate, water gate; sluice, lock, valve; rose; waterworks.
Adj. vascular &c. (with holes) 260.

#351. [Channel for the passage of air.] Airpipe. -- N. air pipe, air
tube; airhole, blowhole, breathinghole, venthole; shaft, flue, chimney,
funnel, vent, nostril, nozzle, throat, weasand, trachea; bronchus,
bronchia; larynx, tonsils, windpipe, spiracle; ventiduct, ventilator;
louvre, jalousie, Venetian blinds; blowpipe &c. (wind) 349; pipe &c. (tube)
260; jhilmil; smokestack.


#352. Semiliquidity. -- N. semiliquidity; stickiness &c. adj.;
viscidity, viscosity; gummosity, glutinosity, mucosity; spissitude,
crassitude; lentor; adhesiveness &c. (cohesion) 46.
impissation, incrassation; thickening.
jelly, mucilage, gelatin; carlock, fish glue; ichthyocol, ichthycolla;
insinglass; mucus, phelgm; pituite, lava; glair, starch, gluten, albumen,
milk, cream, protein; treacle; gum, size, glue (tenacity) 327; wax,
beeswax; emulsion, soup; squash, mud, slush, slime, ooze; moisture &c. 339;
marsh &c. 345.
V. inspissate, incrassate; thicken, mash, squash, churn, beat up.
Adj. semifluid, semiliquid; tremellose; half melted, half frozen;
milky, muddy &c. n.; lacteal, lactean, lacteous, lactescent, lactiferous;
emulsive, curdled, thick, succulent, uliginous.
gelatinous, albuminous, mucilaginous, glutinous; gelatin, mastic,
amylaceous, ropy, clammy, clotted; viscid, viscous; sticky, tacky; slab,
slabby; lentous  , pituitous; mucid, muculent, mucous.

#353. [Mixture of air and water.] Bubble. [Cloud.] -- N. bubble, foam,
froth, head, spume, lather, suds, spray, surf, yeast, barm, spindrift.
cloud, vapor, fog, mist, haze, steam, geyser; scud, messenger, rack,
nimbus; cumulus, woolpack, cirrus, stratus; cirrostratus, cumulostratus;
cirrocumulus; mackerel sky, mare's tale, dirty sky; curl cloud; frost
smoke; thunderhead.
[Science of clouds] nephelognosy; nephograph, nephology.
effervescence, fermentation; bubbling &c. v.
nebula; cloudliness &c. (opacity) 426; nebulosity &c. (dimness) 422.
V. bubble, boil, foam, froth, mantle, sparkle, guggle, gurgle;
effervesce, ferment, fizzle.
Adj. bubbling &c. v.; frothy, nappy, effervescent, sparkling,
mousseux, up.
cloudy &c. n.; thunderheaded; vaporous, nebulous, overcast.
Phr. "the lowring element scowls o'er the darkened landscip" [Paradise

#354. Pulpiness. -- N. pulpiness &c. adj.; pulp, taste, dough, curd,
pap, rob, jam, pudding, poultice, grume.
Adj. pulpy &c. n.; pultaceous, grumous; baccate.

#355. Unctuousness. -- N. unctuousness &c. adj.; unctuosity,
lubricity; ointment &c. (oil) 356; anointment; lubrication &c. 332.
V. oil &c. (lubricate) 332.
Adj. unctuous, oily, oleaginous, adipose, sebaceous; unguinous; fat,
fatty, greasy; waxy, butryaceous, soapy, saponaceous, piguid, lardaceous;

#356. Oil. -- N. oil, fat, buttter, cream, grease, tallow, suet, lard,
dripping exunge|, blubber; glycerin, stearin, elaine, oleagine; soap; soft
soap, wax, cerement; paraffin, spermaceti, adipocere; petroleum, mineral,
mineral rock, mineral crystal, mineral oil; vegetable oil, colza oil, olive
oil, salad oil, linseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, nut oil; animal
oil, neat's foot oil, train oil; ointment, unguent, liniment; aceite,
amole, Barbados tar; fusel oil, grain oil, rape oil, seneca oil; hydrate of
amyl, ghee; heating oil, #2 oil, distillate, residual oils, kerosene, jet
fuel, gasoline, naphtha; stearin.

<-- p. 102 -->

#356a. Resin. -- N. resin, rosin; gum; lac, sealing wax; amber,
ambergris; bitumen, pitch, tar; asphalt, asphaltum; camphor; varnish,
copal, mastic, magilp, lacquer, japan.
V. varnish &c. (overlay) 223.
Adj. resiny, resinous; butuminous, pitchy, tarry; asphaltic,



1. Vitality in general

#357. Organization. -- N. organized world, organized nature; living
nature, animated nature; living beings; organic remains, fossils.
protoplasm, cytoplasm, protein; albumen; structure &c. 329;
organization, organism.
[Science of living beings] biology; natural history, organic
chemistry, anatomy, physiology; zoology &c. 368; botany &c. 369;
archegenesis &c. (production) 161; antherozoid, bioplasm, biotaxy,
chromosome, dysmeromorph; ecology, oecology; erythroblast, gametangium,
gamete, germinal matter, invagination; isogamy, oogamy; karyaster;
macrogamete, microgamete; metabolism, anabolism, catabolism; metaplasm,
ontogeny, ovary, ovum, oxidation, phylogeny, polymorphism, protozoa,
spermary, spermatozoon, trophoplasm, vacuole, vertebration, zoogloea,
Darwinism, neo-Darwinism, Lamarkism, neoLamarkism, Weismannism.
morphology, taxonomy.
Adj. organic, organized; karyoplasmic, unsegmentic, vacuolar,
zoogloeic, zoogloeoid.

#358. Inorganization. -- N. mineral world,mineral kingdom;
unorganized matter, inorganic matter, brute matter, inanimate matter.
[Science of the mineral kingdom] mineralogy, geology, geognosy,
geoscopy; metallurgy, metallography; lithology; oryctology|, oryctography|.
V. turn to dust.
Adj. inorganic, inanimate, inorganized; lithoidal; azoic; mineral.

#359. Life. -- N. life, vitality, viability; animation; vital spark,
vital flame, soul, spirit.
respiration, wind; breath of life, breath of one's nostrils;
lifeblood; Archeus; existence &c. 1.
vivification; oxygen; vital air, vital force; vitalization;
revivification &c. 163; Prometheus; life to come &c. (destiny) 152.
[Science of life] physiology, biology; animal ecology.
nourishment, staff of life &c. (food) 298.
V. be alive &c. adj.; live, breathe, respire; subsist &c. (exist) 1;
walk the earth "strut and fret one's hour upon the stage" [Macbeth]; be
see the light, be born, come into the world, fetch breath, draw
breath, fetch the breath of life, draw the breath of life; quicken; revive;
come to life.
give birth to &c. (produce) 161; bring to life, put into life,
vitalize; vivify, vivificate; reanimate &c. (restore) 660; keep alive, keep
body and soul together, keep the wolf from the door; support life.
hive nine lives like a cat.
Adj. living, alive; in life, in the flesh, in the land of the living;
on this side of the grave, above ground, breathing, quick, animated;
animative; lively &c. (active) 682; all alive and kicking; tenacious of
vital, vitalic; vivifying, vivified, &c. v.; viable, zoetic;
Adv. vivendi causa.
Phr. atqui vivere militare est [Seneca]; non est vivre sed valere vita

<-- p. 103 -->

#360. Death. -- N. death; decease, demise; dissolution, departure,
obit, release, rest, quietus, fall; loss, bereavement; mortality,
end of life &c. 67, cessation of life &c. 142, loss of life,
extinction of life, ebb of life &c. 359.
death warrant, death watch, death rattle, death bed; stroke of death,
agonies of death, shades of death, valley of death, jaws of death, hand of
death; last breath, last gasp, last agonies; dying day, dying breath, dying
agonies; chant du cygne; rigor mortis; Stygian shore.
King of terrors, King Death; Death; doom &c. (necessity) 601; "Hell's
grim Tyrant" [Pope].
euthanasia; break up of the system; natural death, natural decay;
sudden death, violent death; untimely end, watery grave; debt of nature;
suffocation, asphyxia; fatal disease &c. (disease) 655; death blow &c.
(killing) 361.
necrology, bills of mortality, obituary; death song &c. (lamentation)
V. die, expire, perish; meet one's death, meet one's end; pass away,
be taken; yield one's breath, resign one's breath; resign one's being,
resign one's life; end one's days, end one's life, end one's earthly
career; breathe one's last; cease to live, cease to breathe; depart this
life; be no more &c. adj.; go off, dropp off, pop off; lose one's life, lay
down one's life, relinquish one's life, surrender one's life; drop into the
grave, sink into the grave; close one's eyes; fall dead, drop deat, fall
down dead, drop down dead; break one's neck; give up the ghost, yield up
the ghost; be all over with one.
pay the debt to nature, shuffle off this mortal coil, take one's last
sleep; go the way of all flesh; hand in one's checks, pass in one's checks,
hand in one's chips, pass in one's chips [U.S.]; join the greater number,
join the majority; come to dust, turn to dust; cross the Stygian ferry,
cross the bar; go to one's long account, go to one's last home, go to Davy
Jones's locker, go to the wall; receive one's death warrant, make one's
will, step out, die a natural death, go out like the snuff of a candle;
come to an untimely end; catch one's death; go off the hooks, kick the
bucket, buy the farm, hop the twig, turn up one's toes; die a violent death
&c. (be killed) 361.
Adj. dead, lifeless; deceased, demised, departed, defunct, extinct;
late, gone, no more; exanimate, inanimate; out of the world, taken off,
released; departed this life &c. v.; dead and gone; dead as a doornail,
dead as a doorpost, dead as a mutton, dead as a herring, dead as nits;
launched into eternity, gathered to one's fathers, numbered with the dead.
dying &c. v.; moribund, morient|; hippocratic; in articulo, in
extremis; in the jaws of death, in the agony of death; going off; aux
abois; one one's last legs, on one's death bed; at the point of death, at
death's door,, at the last gasp; near one's end, given over, booked; with
one foot in the grave, tottering on the brink of the grave.
stillborn; mortuary; deadly &c. (killing) 361.
Adv. post obit, post mortem.
Phr. life ebbs, life fails, life hangs by a thread; one's days are
numbered, one's hour is come, one's race is run, one's doom is sealed;
Death knocks at the door, Death stares one in the face; the breath is out
of the body; the grave closes over one; sic itur ad astra [Vergil]; de
mortuis nil nisi bonum; dulce et decorum est pro patria mori [Horace];
honesta mors turpi vita potior [Tacitus]; "in adamantine chains shall death
be bound" [Pope]; mors ultima linea rerum est [Girace];; ominia mors aequat
[Claudianus]; "Spake the grisly Terror" [Paradise Lost]; "the lone couch of
this everlasting sleep" [Shelley].

<-- p. 104 -->

#361. [Destruction of live; violent death.] Killing. -- N. killing &c.
v.; homicide, manslaughter, murder, assassination, trucidation|, iccusion|;
effusion of blood; blood, blood shed; gore, slaughter, carnage, butchery;
massacre; fusillade, noyade; Thuggism.
deathblow, finishing stroke, coup de grace, quietus; execution &c.
(capital punishmnt) 972; judicial murder; martydom.
butcher, slayer, murderer, Cain, assassin, terrorist, cutthroat,
garroter, bravo, Thug, Moloch, matador, sabreur; guet-a-pens; gallows,
executioner &c. (punishment) 975; maneater, apache, hatchet man [U.S.],
highbinder [U.S.].
regicide, parricide, matricide, fratricide, infanticide, feticide,
foeticide, uxoricide, vaticide.
suicide, felo de se, hara-kiri, suttee, Juggernath; immolation, auto
da fe, holocaust.
suffocation, strangulation, garrote; hanging &c. v.; lapidation.
deadly weapon &c. (arms) 727; Aceldama.
[Destruction of animals] slaughtering; phthiozoics; sport, sporting;
the chase, venery; hunting, coursing, shooting, fishing; pig-sticking;
sportsman, huntsman, fisherman; hunter, Nimrod; slaughterhouse, shambles,
fatal accident, violent death, casuality.
V. kill, put to death, slay, shed blood; murder, assassinate, butcher,
slaughter, victimize, immolate; massacre; take away life, deprive of life;
make away with, put an end to; despatch, dispatch; burke, settle, do for.
strangle, garrote, hang, throttle, choke, stifle, suffocate, stop the
breath, smother, asphyxiate, drown.
saber; cut down, cut to pieces, cut the throat; jugulate; stab, run
through the body, bayonet, eviscerate; put to the sword, put to the edge of
the sword.
shoot dead; blow one's brains out; brain, knock on the head; stone,
lapidate; give a deathblow; deal a deathblow; give a quiietus, - coupe de
behead, bowstring, electrocute, gas &c. (execute) 972.
hunt, shoot &c. n.
cut off, nip in the bud, launch into eternity, send to one's last
account, sign one's death warrant, strike the death knell of.
give no quarter, pour out blood like water; decimate; run amuck; wade
knee deep in blood, imbrue one's hands in blood.
die a violent death, welter in one's blood; dash out one's brains,
blow out one's brains; commit suicide; kill oneself, make away with
oneself, put an end to oneself, put an end to it all.
Adj. killing &c. v.; murderous, slaughterous; sanguinary,
sanguinolent; blood stained, blood thirsty; homicidal, red handed; bloody,
bloody minded; ensanguined, gory.
mortal, fatal, lethal; dead, deadly; mortiferous , lethiferous;
unhealthy &c. 657; internecine; suicidal.
sporting; piscatorial, piscatory.
Adv. in at the death.
Phr. "assassination has never changed the history of the world"

#362. Corpse. -- N. corpse, corse, carcass, cadaver, bones, skeleton,
dry bones; defunct, relics, reliquiae, remains, mortal remains, dust,
ashes, earth, clay; mummy; carrion; food for worms, food for fishes;
tenement of clay this mortal coil.
shade, ghost, manes.
organic remains, fossils.
Adj. cadaverous, corpse-like; unburied &c. 363; sapromyiophyllous.

#363. Interment. -- N. interment, burial, sepulture; inhumation|;
obsequies, exequies; funeral, wake, pyre, funeral pile; cremation.
funeral, funeral rite, funeral solemnity; kneel, passing bell,
tolling; dirge &c. (lamentation) 839; cypress; orbit, dead march, muffled
drum; mortuary, undertaker, mute; elegy; funeral, funeral oration, funeral
sermon; epitaph.
graveclothes, shroud, winding sheet, cerecloth; cerement.
coffin, shell, sarcophagus, urn, pall, bier, hearse, catafalque,
cinerary urn.
grave, pit, sepulcher, tomb, vault, crypt, catacomb, mausoleum,
Golgotha, house of death, narrow house; cemetery, necropolis; burial place,
burial ground; grave yard, church yard; God's acre; tope, cromlech, barrow,
tumulus, cairn; ossuary; bone house, charnel house, dead house; morgue;
lich gate; burning ghat; crematorium, crematory; dokhma, mastaba, potter's
field, stupa, Tower of Silence.
sexton, gravedigger.
monument, cenotaph, shrine; grave stone, head stone, tomb stone;
memento mori; hatchment, stone.
exhumation, disinterment; necropsy, autopsy, post mortem examination;
V. inter, bury; lay in the grave, consign to the grave, lay in the
tomb, entomb, in tomb; inhume; lay out, perform a funeral, embalm, mumify;
toll the knell; put to bed with a shovel; inurn.
exhume, disinter, unearth.
Adj. burried &c. v.; burial, funereal, funebrial; mortuary,
sepulchral, cinerary; elegiac; necroscopic.
Adv. in memoriam; post obit, post mortem; beneath the sod.
Phr. hic jacet, ci-git; RIP; requiescat in pace; "the lone couch of
his everlasting sleep" [Shelley]; "without a grave-unknell'd, uncoffin'd,
and unknown" [Byron]; "in the dark union of insensate dust" [Byron]; "the
deep cold shadow of the tomb" [Moore].

<-- p. 105 -->

2. Special Vitality

#364. Animality. -- N. animal life; animation, animality,
animalization; animalness, corporeal nature, human system; breath.
flesh, flesh and blood; hysique; strength &c. 159.
Adj. fleshly,human, corporeal.

#365. Vegetability|. -- N. vegetable life; vegetation, vegetability|;
Adj. rank, lush; vegetable, vegetal, vegetive.

#366. Animal. -- N. animal, animal kingdom; fauna; brute creation.
beast, brute, creature, created being; creeping thing, living thing;
dumb animal, dumb creature.
flocks and herds, live stock; domestic animals, wild animals; game,
feroe naturoe; beasts of the field, fowls of the air, denizens of the sea;
black game, black grouse; blackcock, duck, grouse, plover, rail, snipe.
mammal, quadruped, bird, reptile, fish, custacean, shellfish, mollusk,
worm, insect, zoophyte; animalcule &c. 193; alligator, crocodile; honeybee;
saurian; trout.
horse &c. (beast of burden) 271; cattle, kine, ox; bull, bullock; cow,
milch cow, calf, heifer, shorthorn; sheep; lamb, lambkin; ewe, ram, tup;
pig, swine, boar, hog, sow; steer, stot; tag, teg; bison, buffalo, yak,
dog, hound; pup, puppy; whelp, cur, mongrel; house dog, watch dog,
sheep dog, shepherd's dog, sporting dog, fancy dog, lap dog, toy dog, bull
dog, badger dog; mastiff; blood hound, grey hound, stag hound, deer hound,
fox hound, otter hound; harrier, beagle, spaniel, ointer, setter,
retriever; Newfoundland; water dog, water spaniel; pug, poodle; turnspit;
terrier; fox terrier, Skye terrier; Dandie Dinmont; collie.
cat; puss, pussy; grimalkin; gib cat, tom cat; fox, Reynard, vixen,
stag, deer, hart, buck, doe, roe; caribou, coyote, elk, moose, musk ox,
bird; poultry, fowl, cock, hen, chicken, chanticleer, partlet,
rooster, dunghill cock, barn door fowl; feathered tribes, feathered
songster; singing bird, dicky bird; canary, warbler; finch; aberdevine,
cushat, cygnet, ringdove, siskin, swan, wood pigeon.
snake, serpent, viper, eft; asp, aspick; vermin.
Adj. animal, zoological
equine, bovine, vaccine, canine, feline, fishy; piscatory,
piscatorial; molluscous, vermicular; gallinaceous, rasorial, solidungulate,

#367. Vegetable. -- N. vegetable, vegetable kingdom; flora, verdure.
plant; tree, shrub, bush; creeper; herb, herbage; grass.
annual; perennial, biennial, triennial; exotic.
timber, forest; wood, woodlands; timberland; hurst, frith, holt,
weald, park, chase, greenwood, brake, grove, copse, coppice, bocage, tope,
clump of trees, thicket, spinet, spinney; underwood, brushwood; scrub;
boscage, bosk, ceja, chaparal, motte [U.S.].; arboretum &c. 371.
bush, jungle, prairie; heath, heather; fern, bracken; furze, gorse,
whin; grass, turf; pasture, pasturage; turbary; sedge, rush, weed; fungus,
mushroom, toadstool; lichen, moss, conferva, mold; growth; alfalfa,
alfilaria, banyan; blow, blowth; floret, petiole; pin grass, timothy, yam,
yew, zinnia.
foliage, branch, bough, ramage, stem, tigella; spray &c. 51; leaf.
flower, blossom, bine; flowering plant; timber tree, fruit tree;
pulse, legume.
Adj. vegetable, vegetal, vegetive, vegitous|; herbaceous, herbal;
botanic; sylvan, silvan; arborary, arboreous, arborescent, arborical|;
woody, grassy; verdant, verdurous; floral, mossy; lignous, ligneous;
wooden, leguminous; vosky, cespitose, turf-like, turfy; endogenous,
Phr. "green-robed senators of mighty woods" [Keats]; "this is the
forest primeval" [Longfellow].

<-- p. 106 -->

#368. [The science of animals.] Zoology. -- N. zoology, zoonomy,
zoography, zootomy; anatomy; comparative anatomy; animal physiology,
comparative physiology; morphology; mammalogy.
anthropology, ornithology, ichthyology, herpetology, ophiology,
malacology, helminthology, entomology, oryctology, paleontology, mastology,
vermeology; ichthy &c. ichthyotomy; taxidermy.
zoologist &c.
Adj. zoological &c. n.

#369. [The science of plants.] Botany. -- N. botany; physiological
botany, structural botany, systematic botany; phytography, phytology,
phytotomy; vegetable physiology, herborization, endrology, mycology,
fungology, algology; flora, romona; botanic garden &c. (garden) 371; hortus
siccus, herbarium, herbal.
botanist &c.; herbist, herbarist, herbalist, herborist, herbarian.
V. botanize, herborize.
Adj. botanical &c. n.; botanic.

#370. [The economy or management of animals.] Husbandry. -- N.
husbandry, taming &c. v.; circuration, zoohygiantics; domestication,
domesticity; manege, veterinary art; farriery; breeding, pisciculture.
menagerie, vivarium, zoological garden; bear pit; aviary, apiary,
alveary, beehive; hive; aquarium, fishery; duck pond, fish pond.
[Destruction of animals] phthisozoics &c. (killing) 361.
neatherd, cowherd, shepherd; grazier, drover, cowkeeper; trainer,
breeder; apiarian, apiarist; bull whacker [U.S.], cowboy, cow puncher
[U.S.], farrier; horse leech, horse doctor; vaquero, veterinarian, vet,
veterinary surgeon.
cage &c. (prison) 752; hencoop, bird cage, cauf; range, sheepfold, &c.
(inclosure) 232.
V. tame, domesticate, acclimatize, breed, tend, break in, train; cage,
bridle, &c. (restrain) 751.
Adj. pastoral, bucolic; tame, domestic.

#371. [The economy or management of plants.] Agriculture. -- N.
agriculture, cultivation, husbandry, farming; georgics, geoponics; tillage,
agronomy, gardening, spade husbandry, vintage; horticulture, arboriculture,
floriculture; landscape gardening; viticulture.
husbandman, horticulturist, gardener, florist; agricultor,
agriculturist; yeoman, farmer, cultivator, tiller of the soil, woodcutter,
backwoodsman; granger, habitat, vigneron, viticulturist; Triptolemus.
field, meadow, garden; botanic garden, winter garden, ornamental
garden, flower garden, kitchen garden, market garden, hop garden; nursery;
green house, hot house; conservatory, bed, border, seed plot; grassplot,
grassplat, lawn; park &c. (pleasure ground) 840; parterre, shrubbery,
plantation, avenue, arboretum, pinery, pinetum, orchard; vineyard, vinery;
orangery; farm &c. (abode) 189.
V. cultivate; till the soil; farm, garden; sow, plant; reap, mow, cut;
manure, dress the ground, dig, delve, dibble, hoe, plough, plow, harrow,
rake, weed, lop and top; backset [U.S.].
Adj. agricultural, agrarian, agrestic.
arable, predial, rural, rustic, country; horticultural.

#372. Mankind. -- N. man, mankind; human race, human species, human
kind, human nature; humanity, mortality, flesh, generation.
[Science of man] anthropology, anthropogeny, anthropography,
anthroposophy; ethnology, ethnography; humanitarian.
human being; person, personage; individual, creature, fellow creature,
mortal, body, somebody; one; such a one, some one; soul, living soul;
earthling; party, head, hand; dramatis personae; quidam.
people, persons, folk, public, society, world; community, community at
large; general public; nation, nationality; state, realm; commonweal,
commonwealth; republic, body politic; million &c. (commonalty) 876;
population &c. (inhabitant) 188.
cosmopolite; lords of the creation; ourselves.
Adj. human, mortal, personal, individual, national, civic, public,
social; cosmopolitan; anthropoid.
Phr. "am I not a man and a brother?" [Wedgwood].

<-- p. 107 -->

#373 Man. -- N. man, male, he, him; manhood &c. (adolescence) 131;
gentleman, sir, master; sahib; yeoman, wight, swain, fellow, blade, beau,
elf, chap, gaffer, good man; husband &c. (married man) 903; Mr., mister;
boy &c. (youth) 129.
[Male animal] cock, drake, gander, dog, boar, stag, hart, buck, horse,
entire horse, stallion; gibcat, tomcat; he goat, Billy goat; ram, tup;
bull, bullock; capon, ox, gelding, steer, stot.
Adj. male, he, masculine; manly, virile; unwomanly, unfeminine.
Phr. hominem pagina nostra sapit [Mar.]; homo homini aut deus aut
lupus [Erasmus]; homo vitae commodatus non donatus est [Syrus].

#374. Woman. -- N. woman, she, her, female, petticoat.
feminality, muliebrity; womanhood &c. (adolescence) 131.
womankind; the sex, the fair; fair sex, softer sex; weaker vessel.
dame, madam, madame, mistress, Mrs. lady, donna belle, matron,
dowager, goody, gammer; Frau, frow, Vrouw, rani; good woman, good wife;
squaw; wife &c. (marriage) 903; matronage, matronhood.
bachelor girl, new woman, feminist, suffragette, suffragist.
nymph, wench, grisette; girl &c. (youth) 129.
[Effeminacy] sissy, betty, cot betty [U.S.], cotquean, henhussy, molly
coddle, muff, old woman.
[Female animal] hen, bitch, sow, doe, roe, mare; she goat, Nanny goat,
tabita; ewe, cow; lioness, tigress; vixen.
Adj. female, she; feminine, womanly, ladylike, matronly, maidenly,
wifely; womanish, effeminate, unmanly; gynecic, gynaecic.
Phr. "a perfect woman nobly planned" [Wordsworth]; "a lovely lady
garmented in white" [Shelley]; das Ewig-Weibliche zieht uns hinan [Goethe];
"earth's noblest thing, a woman perfected" [Lowell]; es de vidrio la mujer;
"she moves a goddess and she looks a queen" [Pope]; "the beauty of a lovely
woman is like music" [G. Eliot]; varium et mutabile semper femina [Vergil];
"woman is the lesser man" [Tennyson].

1. Sensation in general

#375. Physical Sensibility. -- N. sensibility; sensitiveness &c. adj.;
physical sensibility, feeling, impressibility, perceptivity, aesthetics;
moral sensibility &c. 822.
sensation, impression; conciousness &c. (knowledge) 490.
external senses.
V. be sensible of &c. adj. ; feel, perceive.
render sensible &c. adj.; sharpen, cultivate, tutor.
cause sensation, impress; excite an impression, produce an impression.
Adj. sensible, sensitive, sensuous; aesthetic, perceptive, sentient;
concious &c. (aware) 490.
acute, sharp, keen, vivid, lively, impressive, thin-skinned.
Adv. to the quick.
Phr. "the touch'd needle trembles to the pole" [Pope].

#376. Physical Insensibility. -- N. insensibility, physical
insensibility; obtuseness &c. adj.; palsy, paralysis, paraesthesia,
anaesthesia; sleep &c. 823; hemiplegia, motor paralysis.
anaesthetic agent, opium, ether, chloroform, chloral; nitrous oxide,
laughing gas; exhilarating gas, protoxide of nitrogen; refrigeration.
V. be insensible &c. adj.; have a thick skin, have a rhinoceros hide.
render insensible &c. adj.; anaesthetize, blunt, pall, obtund, benumb,
paralyze; put under the influence of chloroform &c. n.; stupefy, stun.
Adj. insensible, unfeeling, senseless, impercipient, callous, thick-
skinned, pachydermatous; hard, hardened; case hardened; proof, obtuse,
dull; anaesthetic; comatose, paralytic, palsied, numb, dead.

<-- p. 108 -->

#377. Physical Pleasure. -- N. pleasure; physical pleasure, sensual
pleasure, sensuous pleasure; bodily enjoyment, animal gratification,
hedonism, sensuality; luxuriousness &c. adj.; dissipation, round of
pleasure, titillation, gusto, creature comforts, comfort, ease; pillow &c.
(support) 215; luxury, lap of luxury; purple and fine linen; bed of downs,
bed of roses; velvet, clover; cup of Circe &c. (intemperance) 954.
treat; refreshment, regale; feast; delice; dainty &c. 394; bonne
source of pleasure &c. 829; happiness &c. (mental enjoyment) 827.
V. feel pleasure, experience pleasure, receive pleasure; enjoy,
relish; luxuriate in, revel in, riot in, bask in, swim in, drink up, eat
up, wallow in; feast on; gloat over, float on; smack the lips.
live on the fat of the land, live in comfort &c. adv.; bask in the
sunshine, faire ses choux gras..
give pleasure &c. 829.
Adj. enjoying &c. v.; luxurious, voluptuous, sensual, comfortable,
cosy, snug, in comfort, at ease.
pleasant, agreeable &c. 829.
Adv. in comfort &c. n.; on a bed of roses &c. n.; at one's ease.
Phr. ride si sapis [Martial]; voluptales commendat rarior usus

#378. Physical Pain. -- N. pain; suffering, suffrance; bodily pain,
physical pain, bodily suffering, physical suffering, body pain; mental
suffering &c. 828; dolour, ache; aching &c. v.; smart; shoot, shooting;
twinge, twitch, gripe, headache; hurt, cut; sore, soreness; discomfort,
malaise; cephalalgia, earache, gout, ischiagra, lumbago, neuralgia,
odontalgia, otalgia, podagra, rheumatism, sciatica; tic douloureux,
toothache, tormina, torticollis.
spasm, cramp; nightmare, ephialtes; crick, stitch; thrill, convulsion,
throe; throb &c. (agitation) 315; pang; colic; kink.
sharp pain, piercing pain, throbbing pain, shooting pain, sting,
gnawing pain, burning pain; excruciating pain.
anguish, agony; torment, torture; rack; cruciation, crucifixion;
martyrdom, toad under a harrow, vivisection.
V. feel pain, experience pain, suffer pain, undergo pain &c. n.;
suffer, ache, smart, bleed; tingle, shoot; twinge, twitch, lancinate;
writhe, wince, make a wry face; sit on thorns, sit on pins and needles.
give pain, inflict pain; lacerate; pain, hurt, chafe, sting, bite,
gnaw, gripe; pinch, tweak; grate, gall, fret, prick, pierce, wring,
convulse; torment, torture; rack, agonize; crucify; excrutiate  ; break on
the wheel, put to the rack; flog &c. (punish) 972; grate on the ear &c.
(harsh sound) 410.
Adj. in pain &c. n., in a state of pain; pained &c. v.; gouty,
podagric, torminous.
painful; aching &c. v.; sore, raw.

2. Special Sensation
(1) Touch

#379. [Sensation of pressure] Touch. -- N. touch; tact, taction,
tactility; feeling; palpation, palpability; contrectation; manipulation;
[Organ of touch] hand, finger, forefinger, thumb, paw, feeler,
antenna; palpus.
V. touch, feel, handle, finger, thumb, paw, fumble, grope, grabble;
twiddle, tweedle; pass the fingers over, run the fingers over; manipulate,
wield; throw out a feeler.
Adj. tactual, tactile; tangible, palpable; lambent.

<-- p. 109 --->

#380. Sensations of Touch. -- N. itching &c. v.; titillation,
formication, aura; stereognosis.
V. itch, tingle, creep, thrill, sting; prick, prickle; tickle,
Adj. itching &c. v.; stereognostic, titillative.

#381. [insensibility to touch.] Numbness. -- N. numbness &c. (physical
insensibility) 376; anaesthesia; pins and needles.
V. benumb &c. 376.
Adj. numb; benumbed &c. v.; deadened; intangible, impalpable.

(2) Heat

#382. Heat. -- N. heat, caloric; temperature, warmth, fervor,
calidity; incalescence, incandescence; glow, flush; fever, hectic.
phlogiston; fire, spark, scintillation, flash, flame, blaze; bonfire;
firework, pyrotechny; wildfire; sheet of fire, lambent flame; devouring
element; adiathermancy; recalescence.
summer, dog days; canicular days; baking &c. 384 heat, white heat,
tropical heat, Afric heat, Bengal heat, summer heat, blood heat; sirocco,
simoom; broiling sun; insolation; warming &c. 384.
sun &c. (luminary) 423.
[Science of heat] pyrology; thermology, thermotics; thermometer &c.
V. be hot &c. adj.; glow, flush, sweat, swelter, bask, smoke, reek,
stew, simmer, seethe, boil, burn, broil, blaze, flame; smolder; parch,
fume, pant.
heat &c. (make hot) 384; recalesce; thaw, give.
Adj. hot, warm, mild, genial, tepid, lukewarm, unfrozen; thermal,
thermic; calorific; fervent, fervid; ardent; aglow.
sunny, torrid, tropical, estival, canicular; close, sultry, stifling,
stuffy, suffocating, oppressive; reeking &c. v.; baking &c. 384.
red hot, white hot, smoking hot, burning &c. v. hot, piping hot; like
a furnace, like an oven; hot as fire, hot as pepper; hot enough to roast an
fiery; incandescent, incalescent; candent, ebullient, glowing,
smoking; live; on fire; dazzling &c. v.; in flames, in a blaze; alight,
afire, ablaze; unquenched, unextinguished; smoldering; in a heat, in a
glow, in a fever, in a perspiration, in a sweat; sudorific; sweltering,
sweltered; blood hot, blodd warm; warm as a toast, warm as wool.
volcanic, plutonic, igneous; isothermal, isothermic, isotheral.
Phr. not a breath of air;," whirlwinds of tempestuous fire " [Paradise

#383. Cold. -- N. cold, coldness &c. adj.; frigidity, inclemency,
winter; depth of winter, hard winter; Siberia, Nova Zembla.
[forms of frozen water] ice; snow, snowflake, snow crystal, snow
drift; sleet; hail, hailstone; rime, frost; hoar frost, white frost, hard
frost, sharp frost; barf; glaze [U. S.], lolly [N. Am.]; icicle, thick-
ribbed ice; fall of snow, heavy fall; iceberg, icefloe; floe berg; glacier;
nev‚e, serac; pruina.
[Sensation of cold] chilliness &c. adj.; chill; shivering &c. v.;
goose skin, rigor, horripilation, chattering of teeth.
V. be cold &c. adj.; shiver, starve, quake, shake, tremble, shudder,
didder, quiver; perish with cold; chill &c. (render cold) 385; horripilate.
Adj. cold, cool; chill, chilly; gelid, frigid, algid; fresh, keen,
bleak, raw, inclement, bitter, biting, niveous, cutting, nipping, piercing,
pinching; clay-cold; starved &c. (made cold) 385; shivering &c. v.; aguish,
transi de froid; frostbitten, frost-bound, frost-nipped.
cold as a stone, cold as marble, cold as lead, cold as iron, cold as a
frog, cold as charity, cold as Christmas; cool as a cucumber, cool as
icy, glacial, frosty, freezing, pruinose, wintry, brumal, hibernal,
boreal, arctic, Siberian, hyemal; hyperborean, hyperboreal; icebound;
frozen out.
unwarmed, unthawed; lukewarm, tepid; isocheimal, isocheimenal,
Adv. coldly, bitterly &c. adj.; pierre fendre;

<-- p. 110 -->

#384. Calefaction. -- N. increase of temperature; heating &c. v.;
calefaction, tepefaction, torrefaction; melting, fusion; liquefaction &c.
335; burning &c. v.; ambustion, combustion; incension|, accension;
concremation, cremation; scorification; cautery, cauterization; ustulation,
calcination; incineration, cineration; carbonization; cupellation.
ignition, inflammation, adustion, flagration| ; deflagration,
conflagration; empyrosis, incendiarism; arson; auto dafe.
boiling &c. v.; coction, ebullition, estuation, elixation|, decoction;
ebullioscope; geyser.
furnace &c. 386; blanket, flannel, fur; wadding &c. (lining) 224;
clothing &c. 225.
match &c. (fuel) 388; incendiary; petroleuse;
[biological effects resembling the effects of heat] [substances
causing a burning sensation and damage on skin or tissue] cauterizer;
caustic, lunar caustic, apozem, moxa; aqua fortis, aqua regia;
catheretic, nitric acid, nitrochloro-hydric acid, nitromuriatic acid;
sunstroke, coup de soleil; insolation.
[artifacts requiring heat in their manufacture] pottery, ceramics,
crockery, porcelain, china; earthenware, stoneware; pot, mug, terra cotta,
brick, clinker.
[products of combustion] cinder, ash, scoriae, embers; slag.
[products of heating organic materials] coke, carbon, charcoal; wood
alcohol, turpentine, tea tree oil; gasoline, kerosene, naptha, fuel oil
(fuel) 388; wax, paraafin; residue, tar.
inflammability, combustibility.
[Transmission of heat] diathermancy, transcalency.
V. heat, warm, chafe, stive, foment; make hot &c. 382; sun oneself.
fire; set fire to, set on fire; kindle, enkindle, light, ignite,
strike a light; apply the match to, apply the torch to; rekindle, relume;
fan the flame, add fuel to the flame; poke the fire, stir the fire, blow
the fire; make a bonfire of.
melt, thaw, fuse; liquefy &c. 335.
burn, inflame, roast, toast, fry, grill, singe, parch, bake, torrefy,
scorch; brand, cauterize, sear, burn in; corrode, char, calcine,
incinerate; smelt, scorify; reduce to ashes; burn to a cinder; commit to
the flames, consign to the flames.
boil, digest, stew, cook, seethe, scald, parboil, simmer; do to rags.
take fire, catch fire; blaze &c. (flame) 382.
Adj. heated &c. v.; molten, sodden; r‚chauff‚; heating &c. v.; adust.
inflammable, combustible; diathermal, diathermanous; burnt &c. v.;
volcanic, radioactive.

#385. Refrigeration. -- N. refrigeration, infrigidation, reduction of
temperature; cooling &c. v.; congelation, conglaciation| ; ice &c. 383;
solidification &c. (density) 321; ice box (refrigeratory) 385..
extincteur; fire annihilator; amianth, amianthus; earth-flax,
mountain-flax; flexible asbestos; fireman, fire brigade (incombustibility)
incombustibility, incombustibleness &c. adj. (insulation) 388a.
V. cool, fan, refrigerate, refresh, ice; congeal, freeze, glaciate;
benumb, starve, pinch, chill, petrify, chill to the marrow, regelate, nip,
cut, pierce, bite, make one's teeth chatter,
damp, slack quench; put out, stamp out; extinguish; go out, burn out
(incombustibility) 388a..
Adj. cooled &c. v.; frozen out; cooling &c. v.; frigorific.
incombustible; uninflammable, unflammable; fireproof.

#386. Furnace. -- N. furnace, stove, kiln, oven; hearth, focus,
athanor, hypocaust, reverberatory; volcano; forge, fiery furnace; limekiln;
Dutch oven; tuyare, brasier, salamander, heater, warming pan; boiler,
caldron, seething caldron, pot; urn, kettle; chafing-dish; retort,
crucible, alembic, still; waffle irons; electric heater, electric furnace,
electric resistance heat;.
fire-place, fire-dog, fire-irons; grate, range, kitchener; caboose,
camboose; poker, tongs, shovel, hob, trivet; andiron, gridiron; frying-pan,
stew-pan, backlog.
hothouse, bakehouse, washhouse; laundry; conservatory;
sudatory; Turkish bath, Russian bath, vapor bath, warm bath;

#387. Refrigeratory. -- N. refrigerator, refrigeratory; frigidarium;
cold storage; icehouse, icepail, icebag, icebox; cooler, damper; wine
cooler; freezing mixture.

#388. Fuel. -- N. fuel, firing, combustible.
[solid fuels] coal, wallsend, anthracite, culm, coke, carbon,
charcoal; turf, peat, firewood, bobbing, faggot, log; cinder &c. (products
of combustion) 384; ingle, tinder, touchwood; sulphur, brimstone; incense;
port-fire; fire-barrel, fireball, brand; amadou, bavin; blind coal, glance
coal; German tinder, pyrotechnic sponge, punk, smudge [U. S.].
brand, torch, fuse; wick; spill, match, light, lucifer, congreve,
vesuvian, vesta, fusee, locofoco; linstock.
candle &c. (luminary) 423; oil &c. (grease) 356.
Adj. carbonaceous; combustible, inflammable.

<-- p. 111 -->

#389. Thermometer. -- N. thermometer, thermometrograph, thermostat,
thermoscope; pyrometer, calorimeter.

(3) Taste

#390. Taste. -- N. taste, flavor, gust, gusto, savor; gout, relish;
sapor|, sapidity; twang, smack, smatch| ; aftertaste, tang.
tasting; degustation, gustation.
palate, tongue, tooth, stomach.
V. taste, savor, smatch, smack, flavor, twang; tickle the palate &c.
(savory) 394; smack the lips.
Adj. sapid, saporific; gustable|, gustatory; gustful; strong;
palatable &c. 394.

#391. Insipidity. -- N. insipidity, blandness; tastelessness &c. adj.
V. be tasteless &c. adj.
Adj. void of taste &c. 390; insipid; tasteless, gustless|, savorless;
ingustible|, mawkish, milk and water, weak, stale, flat, vapid, fade,
wishy-washy, mild; untasted.

#392. Pungency. -- N. pungency, piquancy, poignancy haut-gout, strong
taste, twang, race.
sharpness &c. adj.; acrimony; roughness &c. (sour) 392; unsavoriness
&c. 395.
niter, saltpeter; mustard, cayenne, caviare; seasoning &c. (condiment)
393; niter, salpeter, brine; carbonate of ammonia; sal ammoniac, sal
volatile, smelling salts; hartshorn.
dram, cordial, nip.
nicotine, tobacco, snuff, quid; segar; cigar, cigarette; weed;
fragrant weed, Indian weed; Cavendish, fid, negro head, old soldier,
rappee, stogy.
V. be pungent &c. adj.; bite the tongue.
render -pungent &c. adj.; season, spice, salt, pepper, pickle, brine,
devil. smoke, chew, take snuff.
Adj. pungent, strong; high-, full-flavored; high-tasted, high-
seasoned; gamy, sharp, stinging, rough, piquant, racy; biting, mordant;
spicy; seasoned &c. v.; hot, hot as pepper; peppery, vellicating,
escharotic, meracious|; acrid, acrimonious, bitter; rough &c. (sour) 397;
unsavory &c. 395.
salt, saline, brackish, briny; salty as brine, salty as a herring,
salty as Lot's wife.

#393. Condiment. -- N. condiment, seasoning, sauce, spice, relish,
salt; mustard, pepper, curry, sauce piquante; caviare, onion,
garlic, pickle; achar, allspice; bell pepper, Jamaica pepper, red pepper;
chutney; cubeb, pimento.
V. season &c. (render pungent) 392.

#394. Savoriness. -- N. savoriness &c. adj.; relish, zest; appetizer.
titbit, dainty, delicacy, ambrosia, nectar, bonne-bouche; game,
turtle, venison; delicatessen.
V. be savory &c. adj.; tickle the palate, tickle the appetite; flatter
the palate.
render palatable &c. adj.
relish, like, smack the lips.
Adj. savory, delicious, tasty, well-tasted, to one's taste, good,
palatable, nice, dainty, delectable; toothful, toothsome; gustful,
appetizing, lickerish, delicate, exquisite, rich, luscious, ambrosial.
Adv. per amusare la bocca
Phr. cela se laisse manger.

<-- p. 112 -->

#395. Unsavoriness. -- N. unsavoriness &c. adj.; amaritude; acrimony,
acridity; roughness &c. (sour) 397; acerbity, austerity; gall and wormwood,
rue, quassia, aloes; marah; sickener.
V. be unpalatable &c. adj.; sicken, disgust, nauseate, pall, turn the
Adj. unsavory, unpalatable, unsweet; ill-flavored; bitter, bitter as
gall; acrid, acrimonious; rough.
offensive, repulsive, nasty; sickening &c. v.; nauseous; loathsome,
fulsome; unpleasant &c. 830.

#396. Sweetness. -- N. sweetness, dulcitude.
sugar, syrup, treacle, molasses, honey, manna; confection,
confectionary; sweets, grocery, conserve, preserve, confiture, jam, julep;
sugar-candy, sugar-plum; licorice, marmalade, plum, lollipop, bonbon,
jujube, comfit, sweetmeat; apple butter, caramel, damson, glucose; maple
sirup, maple syrup, maple sugar; mithai, sorghum, taffy.
nectar; hydromel, mead, metheglin, honeysuckle, liqueur, sweet wine.
pastry, pie, tart, puff, pudding.
dulcification|, dulcoration|.
V. be sweet &c. adj.
render sweet &c. adj.; sweeten; edulcorate; dulcorate|, dulcify|;
candy; mull. Adj. sweet; saccharine, sacchariferous; dulcet, candied,
honied, luscious, lush, nectarious, melliferous; sweetened &c. v.
sweet as a nut, sweet as sugar, sweet as honey.
Phr. eau sucr‚e; " sweets to the sweet " [Hamlet].

#397. Sourness. -- N. sourness &c. adj.; acid, acidity; acetous
vinegar, verjuice, crab, alum; acetic acid, lactic acid.
V. be sour; sour, turn sour &c. adj.; set the teeth on edge.
render sour &c. adj.; acidify, acidulate.
Adj. sour; acid, acidulous, acidulated; tart, crabbed; acetous,
acetose; acerb, acetic; sour as vinegar, sourish, acescent, subacid;
styptic, hard, rough.

(4) Odor

#398. Odor. -- N. odor, smell, odorament|, scent, effluvium;
emanation, exhalation; fume, essence, trail, nidor|, redolence.
sense of smell; scent; act of smelling &c. v.; olfaction, olfactories.
V. have an odor &c. n.; smell, smell of, smell strong of; exhale; give
out a smell &c. n.; scent.
smell, scent; snuff, snuff up; sniff, nose, inhale.
Adj. odorant, odorous, odoriferous; smelling, strong-scented;
redolent, graveolent, nidorous, pungent.
[Relating to the sense of smell] olfactory, quick-scented.

#399. Inodorousness.-- N. inodorousness; absence of smell, want of
deodorant, deodorization, deodorizer.
V. be inodorous &c. adj.; not smell. deodorize.
Adj. inodorous, inodorate; scentless; without smell, wanting smell &c.
deodorized, deodorizing.

#400. Fragrance. -- N. fragrance, aroma, redolence, perfume, bouquet;
sweet smell, aromatic perfume.
agalloch, agallochium; aloes wood; bay rum; calambac, calambour;
champak, horehound, lign-aloes, marrubium, mint, muskrat, napha water,
olibanum, spirit of myrcia.
incense; musk, frankincense; pastil, pastille; myrrh, perfumes of
Arabia; otto, ottar, attar; bergamot, balm, civet, potpourri, pulvil|;
nosegay; scent, scentbag; sachet, smelling bottle, vinaigrette; eau de
Cologne; thurification.
V. be fragrant &c. adj.; have a perfume &c. n.; smell sweet, scent,
perfume, embalm.
Adj. fragrant, aromatic, redolent, spicy, balmy, scented sweet-
smelling, sweet-scented; perfumed, perfumatory; thuriferous; fragrant as a
rose, muscadine, ambrosial.

#401. Fetor. -- N. fetor; bad &c. adj. smell, bad odor; stench, stink;
foul odor, malodor; empyreuma; mustiness &c. adj.; rancidity; foulness &c.
(uncleanness) 653.
stoat, polecat, skunk; assafoetida; fungus, garlic; stinkpot; fitchet,
fitchew, fourmart, peccary.
V. have a bad smell &c. n.; smell; stink, stink in the nostrils, stink
like a polecat; smell strong &c. adj., smell offensively.
Adj. fetid; strong-smelling; high, bad, strong, fulsome, offensive,
noisome, rank, rancid, reasty, tainted, musty, fusty, frouzy; olid,
olidous|; nidorous; smelling, stinking; putrid &c. 653; suffocating,
mephitic; empyreumatic.

<-- p. 113 -->

(5) Sound


#402. Sound. -- N. sound, noise, strain; accent, twang, intonation,
tone; cadence; sonorousness &c. adj.; audibility; resonance &c. 408; voice
&c. 580; aspirate; ideophone; rough breathing.
[Science, of sound] acoustics; phonics, phonetics, phonology,
phonography; diacoustics, diaphonics; phonetism.
V. produce sound; sound, make a noise; give out sound, emit sound;
resound &c. 408.
Adj. sounding; soniferous; sonorous, sonorific; resonant, audible,
distinct; stertorous; phonetic; phonic, phonocamptic.
Phr. "a thousand trills and quivering sounds " [Addison]; forensis

#403. Silence. -- N. silence; stillness &c. (quiet) 265; peace, hush,
lull; muteness &c. 581; solemn silence, awful silence, dead silence,
deathlike silence.
V. be silent &c. adj.; hold one's tongue &c. (not speak) 585.
render silent &c. adj.; silence, still, hush; stifle, muffle, stop;
muzzle, put to silence &c. (render mute) 581.
Adj. silent; still, stilly; noiseless, soundless; hushed &c. v.; mute
&c. 581.
soft, solemn, awful, deathlike, silent as the grave; inaudible &c.
(faint) 405.
Adv. silently &c. adj.; sub silentio.
Int. hush! silence! soft! whist! tush! chut! tut! pax! be quiet! be
silent! be still! shut up![rude]; chup! chup rao! tace!
Phr. one might hear a feather drop, one might hear a pin drop; grosse
Seelen dulden still [German]; le silence est la vertu de ceux qui ne sont
pas sages [French]; le silence est le parti le plus sar de celui se d‚fie
de soi-meme[French]; "silence more musical than any song " [C. G.
Rossetti]; tacent satis laudant[Latin].

#404. Loudness.-- N. loudness, power; loud noise, din; blare; clang,
clangor; clatter, noise, bombilation, roar, uproar, racket, hubbub,
bobbery, fracas, charivari, trumpet blast, flourish of trumpets, fanfare,
tintamarre, peal, swell, blast, larum, boom; resonance &c. 408.
vociferation, hullabaloo, &c. 411; lungs; Stentor.
artillery, cannon; thunder.
V. be loud &c. adj.; peal, swell, clang, boom, thunder, fulminate,
roar; resound &c. 408. speak up, shout &c. (vociferate) 411; bellow &c.
(cry as an animal) 412.
rend the air, rend the skies; fill the air; din in the ear, ring in
the ear, thunder in the ear; pierce the ears, split the ears, rend the
ears, split the head; deafen, stun; faire le diable a quatre; make one's
windows shake; awaken the echoes, startle the echoes.
Adj. loud, sonorous; high-sounding, big-sounding; deep, full,
powerful, noisy, blatant, clangorous, multisonous; thundering, deafening
&c. v; trumpet-tongued; ear-splitting, ear-rending, ear-deafening;
piercing; obstreperous, rackety, uproarious; enough to wake the dead,
enough to wake seven sleepers.
shrill &c. 410 clamorous &c. (vociferous) 411 stentorian,
Adv. loudly &c. adj. aloud; at the top of one's voice, lustily, in
full cry.
Phr. the air rings with; "the deep dread-bolted thunder" [Learl.

#405. Faintness. -- N. faintness &c. adj.; faint sound, whisper,
breath; undertone, underbreath; murmur, hum, susurration; tinkle; " still
small voice."
hoarseness &c. adj.; raucity.
V. whisper, breathe, murmur, purl, hum, gurgle, ripple, babble, flow;
tinkle; mutter &c. (speak imperfectly) 583; susurrate.
steal on the ear; melt in the air, float on the air.
Adj. inaudible; scarcely audible, just audible; low, dull; stifled,
muffled; hoarse, husky; gentle, soft, faint; floating; purling, flowing &c.
v.; whispered &c. v.; liquid; soothing; dulcet &c. (melodious) 413;
susurrant, susurrous.
Adv. in a whisper, with bated breath, sotto voce, between the teeth,
aside; piano, pianissimo; d la sourdine; out of earshot inaudibly &c. adj.

<-- p. 114 -->


#406. [Sudden and violent sounds.] Snap. -- N. snap &c. v.; rapping
&c. v.; decrepitation, crepitation; report thud; burst, explosion,
discharge, detonation, firing, salvo, volley.
sqib, cracker, gun, popgun.
V. rap, snap, tap, knock; click; clash; crack, crackle; crash; pop;
slam, bang, clap; brustle; burst on the ear; crepitate, rump.
Adj. rapping &c. v.

#407. [Repeated and protracted sounds.] Roll. -- N. roll &c. v.;
drumming &c. v.; berloque, bombination, rumbling; tattoo; dingdong;
tantara; rataplan; whirr; ratatat; rubadub; pitapat; quaver, clutter,
charivari, racket; cuckoo; repetition &c. 104; peal of bells, devil's
tattoo; reverberation &c. 408.
V. roll, drum, rumble, rattle, clatter, patter, clack; bombinate.
hum, trill, shake; chime, peal, toll; tick, beat.
drum in the ear, din in the ear.
Adj. rolling &c. v.; monotonous &c. (repeated) 104; like a bee in a

#408. Resonance. -- N. resonance; ring &c. v.; ringing, &c. v.;
reflexion, reflection, reverberation.
low note, base note, bass note, flat note, grave note, deep note;
bass; basso, basso profondo; baritone, barytone; contralto.
V. resound, reverberate, reecho, `resonate`; ring, jingle, gingle,
chink, clink; tink, tinkle; chime; gurgle &c. 405 plash, goggle, echo, ring
in the ear.
Adj. resounding &c. v.; resonant, reverberant, tinnient|,
tintinnabulary; deep-toned, deep-sounding, deep-mouthed; hollow,
sepulchral; gruff &c. (harsh) 410.
Phr. " sweet bells jangled, out of time and harsh " [Hamlet]; echoing
down the mountain and through the dell.

#408a. Nonresonance. -- N. thud, thump, dead sound; nonresonance;
muffled drums, cracked bell; damper; silencer.
V. sound dead; stop the sound, damp the sound, deaden the sound,
deaden the reverberations, dampen the reverberations.
Adj. nonresonant, dead.

#409. [Hissing sounds.] Sibilation. -- N. sibilation; zip; hiss &c.
v.; sternutation; high note &c. 410.
goose, serpent.
V. hiss, buzz, whiz, rustle; fizz, fizzle; wheeze, whistle, snuffle;
squash; sneeze; sizzle, swish.
Adj. sibilant; hissing &c. v.; wheezy; sternutative.

#410. [Harsh sounds.] Stridor. -- N. creak &c. v.; creaking &c. v.;
discord, &c. 414; stridor; roughness, sharpness, &c. adj.; cacophony;
acute note, high note; soprano, treble, tenor, alto, falsetto, penny
trumpet, voce di testa.
V. creak, grate, jar, burr, pipe, twang, jangle, clank, clink; scream
&c. (cry) 411; yelp &c. (animal sound) 412; buzz &c. (hiss) 409.
set the teeth on edge, ‚corcher les oreilles; pierce the ears, split
the ears, split the head; offend the ear, grate upon the ear, jar upon the
Adj. creaking &c. v.; stridulous, harsh, coarse, hoarse, horrisonous|,
rough, gruff, grum, sepulchral, hollow.
sharp, high, acute, shrill; trumpet-toned; piercing, ear-piercing,
high-pitched, high-toned; cracked; discordant &c. 414; cacophonous.

<-- p. 115 -->

#411. Cry. -- N. cry &c. v.; voice &c. (human) 580; hubbub; bark &c.
(animal) 412.
vociferation, outcry, hullabaloo, chorus, clamor, hue and cry, plaint;
lungs; stentor.
V. cry, roar, shout, bawl, brawl, halloo, halloa, hoop, whoop, yell,
bellow, howl, scream, screech, screak, shriek, shrill, squeak, squeal,
squall, whine, pule, pipe, yaup.
cheer; hoot; grumble, moan, groan.
snore, snort; grunt &c. (animal sounds) 412.
vociferate; raise up the voice, lift up the voice; call out, sing out,
cry out; exclaim; rend the air; thunder at the top of one's voice, shout at
the top of one's voice, shout at the pitch of one's breath, thunder at the
pitch of one's breath; s'‚gosiller; strain the throat, strain the voice,
strain the lungs; give a cry &c.
Adj. crying &c. v.; clamant, clamorous; vociferous; stentorian &c.
(loud) 404; open-mouthed.

#412. [Animal sounds.] Ululation. -- N. cry &c. v.; crying &c. v.;
bowwow, ululation, latration, belling; reboation; woodnote; insect cry,
fritiniancy|, drone; screech owl; cuckoo.
V. cry, roar, bellow, blare, rebellow.
[specific animal sounds] bark [dog, seal]; yelp [dog]; bay, bay at the
moon [dog, wolf]; yap, growl, yarr|, yawl, snarl, howl [dog, wolf]; grunt,
gruntle; snort [pig, hog, swine, horse]; , squeak [swine, mouse]; neigh
[horse]; bray [donkey, mule, hinny, ass]; mew, mewl [kitten]; meow [cat];
purr [cat]; caterwaul, pule [cats]; bleat [lamb]; low, moo [cow, cattle];
troat, croak, peep [frog]; coo [dove, pigeon]; gobble [turkeys]; quack
[duck]; gaggle, guggle [goose]; crow, caw, screech, [crow]; cackle,
cluck, clack [hen, rooster, poultry]; chuck, chuckle; chirp, cheep,
chirrup, twitter, cuckoo; hum , buzz; hiss [snakes, geese]; blatter.
Adj. crying &c. v.; blatant, latrant, remugient, mugient; deep-
mouthed, full-mouthed; rebellowing, reboant.
Adv. in full cry.


#413. Melody. Concord. -- N. melody, rhythm, measure; rhyme
&c.(poetry) 597.
pitch, timbre, intonation, tone.
scale, gamut; diapason; diatonic chromatic scale, enharmonic scale;
key, clef, chords.
modulation, temperament, syncope, syncopation, preparation,
suspension, resolution.
staff, stave, line, space, brace; bar, rest; appoggiato, appoggiatura;
note, musical note, notes of a scale; sharp, flat, natural; high note
&c.(shrillness) 410; low note &c. 408; interval; semitone; second, third,
fourth &c.; diatessaron.
breve, semibreve, minim, crotchet, quaver; semiquaver, demisemiquaver;
sustained note, drone, burden.
tonic; key note, leading note, fundamental note; supertonic, mediant,
dominant; submediant, subdominant; octave, tetrachord; major key, minor
key, major scale, minor scale, major mode, minor mode; passage, phrase.
concord, harmony; emmeleia; unison, unisonance; chime, homophony;
euphony, euphonism; tonality; consonance; consent; part.
[Science of harmony] harmony, harmonics; thorough-bass, fundamental-
bass; counterpoint; faburden.
piece of music &c. 415; composer, harmonist, contrapuntist.
V. be harmonious &c. adj.; harmonize, chime, symphonize, transpose;
put in tune, tune, accord, string.
Adj. harmonious, harmonical; in concord &c. n., in tune, in concert;
unisonant, concentual, symphonizing, isotonic, homophonous, assonant;
ariose, consonant.
measured, rhythmical, diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic.
melodious, musical; melic; tuneful, tunable; sweet, dulcet, canorous;
mellow, mellifluous; soft, clear, clear as a bell; silvery; euphonious,
euphonic, euphonical; symphonious; enchanting &c. (pleasure-giving) 829;
fine-toned, full-toned, silver-toned.
Adv. harmoniously &c. adj.
Phr. " the hidden soul of harmony " [Milton].

#414. Discord. -- N. discord , discordance; dissonance, cacophony,
want of harmony, caterwauling; harshness &c. 410. [Confused sounds]
Babel; Dutch concert, cat's concert; marrowbones and cleavers.
V. be discordant &c. ad .; jar &c. (sound harshly) 410.
Adj. discordant; dissonant, absonant; out of tune, tuneless;
unmusical, untunable; unmelodious, immelodious; unharmonious, inharmonious;
singsong; cacophonous; harsh &c. 410; jarring.

<-- p. 116 -->

#415. Music. -- N. music; concert; strain, tune, air; melody &c. 413;
aria, arietta; piece of music, sonata; rondo, rondeau; pastorale, cavatina,
roulade, fantasia, concerto, overture, symphony, variations, cadenza;
cadence; fugue, canon, serenade, notturno[Italian], dithyramb; opera,
operetta; oratorio; composition, movement; stave; passamezzo[Italina],
toccata, Vorspiel[German].
instrumental music; full score; minstrelsy, tweedledum and tweedledee,
band, orchestra; concerted piece, potpourri, capriccio.
vocal music, vocalism; chaunt, chant; psalm, psalmody; hymn; song &c.
(poem) 597; canticle, canzonet, cantata, bravura, lay, ballad, ditty,
carol, pastoral, recitative, recitativo, solfeggio.
Lydian measures; slow music, slow movent; adagio &c. adv.; minuet;
siren strains, soft music, lullaby; dump; dirge &c. (lament) 839; pibroch;
martial music, march; dance music; waltz &c. (dance) 840.
solo, duet, duo, trio; quartet, quartett; septett; part song, descant,
glee, madrigal, catch, round, chorus, chorale; antiphon, antiphony;
accompaniment, second, bass; score; bourdon, drone, morceau, terzetto.
composer &c. 413; musician &c. 416.
V. compose, perform &c. 416; attune.
Adj. musical; instrumental, vocal, choral, lyric, operatic; harmonious
&c. 413; Wagnerian.
Adv. adagio; largo, larghetto, andante, andantino; alla capella;
maestoso, moderato; allegro, allegretto; spiritoso, vivace, veloce; presto,
prestissimo; con brio; capriccioso; scherzo, scherzando; legato, staccato,
crescendo, diminuendo, rallentando, affettuoso; obbligato; pizzicato;
Phr. " in notes by distance made more sweet " [Collins]; " like the
faint exquisite music of a dream " [Moore]; " music arose with its
voluptuous swell " [Byron]; " music is the universal language of mankind "
[Longfellow]; " music's golden tongue " [Keats]; " the speech of angels "
[Carlyle]; " will sing the savageness out of a bear " [Othello].

#416. Musician. [Performance of Music.] -- N. musician, artiste,
performer, player, minstrel; bard &c. (poet) 597; accompanist,
accordionist, instrumentalist, organist, pianist, violinist, flautist;
harper, fiddler, fifer, trumpeter, piper, drummer; catgut scraper.
band, orchestral waits.
vocalist, melodist; singer, warbler; songster, chaunter, chauntress,
songstress; cantatrice.
choir, quire, chorister; chorus, chorus singer; liedertafel.
nightingale, philomel, thrush; siren; bulbul, mavis; Pierides; sacred
nine; Orpheus, Apollo, the Muses Erato, Euterpe, Terpsichore; tuneful nine,
tuneful quire.
composer &c. 413.
performance, execution, touch, expression, solmization.
V. play, pipe, strike up, sweep the chords, tweedle, fiddle; strike
the lyre, beat the drum; blow the horn, sound the horn, wind the horn;
doodle; grind the organ; touch the guitar &c. (instruments) 417; thrum,
strum, beat time.
execute, perform; accompany; sing a second, play a second; compose,
set to music, arrange.
sing, chaunt, chant, hum, warble, carol, chirp, chirrup, lilt, purl,
quaver, trill, shake, twitter, whistle; sol-fa; intone.
have an ear for music, have a musical ear, have a correct ear.
Adj. playing &c. v.; musical.
Adv. adagio, andante &c. (music) 415.

<-- p. 117 -->

#417. Musical Instruments. -- N. musical instruments; band; string-
band, brass-band; orchestra; orchestrina.
[Stringed instruments] monochord, polychord; harp, lyre, lute,
archlute; mandola, mandolin, mandoline; guitar; zither; cither, cithern;
gittern, rebeck, bandurria, banjo; bina, vina; xanorphica.
viol, violin; fiddle, kit; viola, viola d'amore, viola di gamba;
tenor, cremona, violoncello, bass; bass viol, base viol; theorbo, double
base, contrabasso, violone, *psaltery; bow, fiddlestick.
piano, pianoforte; harpsichord, clavichord, clarichord, manichord;
clavier, spinet, virginals, dulcimer, hurdy-gurdy, vielle, pianino, Eolian
harp. .
[Wind instruments] organ; harmonium, harmoniphon; American organ,
barrel organ, hand organ; accordian, seraphina, concertina; humming top.
flute, fife, piccolo, flageolet; clarinet, claronet; basset horn,
corno di bassetto, oboe, hautboy, cor Anglais, corno Inglese, bassoon,
double bassoon, contrafagotto, serpent, bass clarinet; bagpipes, union
pipes; musette, ocarina, Pandean pipes; reed instrument; sirene, pipe,
pitch-pipe; sourdet; whistle, catcall; doodlesack, harmoniphone.
horn, bugle, cornet, cornet-a-pistons, cornopean|, clarion, trumpet,
trombone, ophicleide; Frenchhorn, buglehorn, saxhorn, flugelhorn, althorn,
helicanhorn, posthorn; sackbut, euphonium, bombardon tuba.
[Vibrating surfaces] cymbal, bell, gong; tambour, tambourine; drum,
tom-tom; tabor, tabret, tabourine, taborin; side drum, kettle drum;
tympani; tymbal, timbrel, castanet, bones; musical glasses, musical stones;
harmonica, sounding-board, rattle; tam-tam, zambomba.
[Vibrating bars] reed, tuning fork, triangle, Jew's harp, musical box,
harmonicon, xylophone.
sordine, sordet; sourdine, sourdet; mute.


#418. [Sense of sound.] Hearing. -- N. hearing &c. v.; audition,
auscultation; eavesdropping; audibility.
acute ear, nice ear, delicate ear, quick ear, sharp ear, correct ear,
musical ear; ear for music.
ear, auricle, lug, acoustic organs, auditory apparatus; eardrum,
tympanum; ear trumpet, speaking trumpet; telephone, phonograph,
gramophone, megaphone, phonorganon, microphone.
hearer, auditor, listener, eavesdropper.
auditory, audience.
V. hear, overhear; hark, harken; list, listen; give an ear, lend an
ear, bend an ear; catch a sound, prick up one's ears; give ear, give a
hearing, give audience to.
hang upon the lips of, be all ears, listen with both ears.
become audible; meet the ear, fall upon the ear, catch the ear,
reach the ear; be heard; ring in the ear &c. (resound) 4O8.
Adj. hearing &c. v.; auditory, auricular, acoustic; phonic.
Adv. arrectis auribus.
Int. hark, hark ye! hear! list, listen! O yes! Oyez!

#419. Deafness. -- N. deafness, hardness of hearing, surdity|;
inaudibility, inaudibleness.
V. be deaf &c. adj.; have no ear; shut one's ears, stop one's ears,
close one's ears; turn a deaf ear to.
render deaf, stun, deafen.
Adj. deaf, earless, surd; hard of hearing, dull of hearing; deaf-mute,
stunned, deafened; stone deaf; deaf as a post, deaf as an adder, deaf as a
beetle, deaf as a trunkmaker.
inaudible, out of hearing.
Phr. hear no evil.

<-- p. 118 -->

(6) Light


#420. Light.-- N. light, ray, beam, stream, gleam, streak, pencil;
sunbeam, moonbeam; aurora.
day; sunshine; light of day, light of heaven; sun &c. (luminary) 432
light; daylight, broad daylight, noontide light; noontide, noonday.
glow &c. v.; glimmering &c. v.; glint; play of light, flood of light;
phosphorescence, lambent flame.
flush, halo, glory, nimbus, aureola.
spark, scintilla; facula; sparkling &c. v.; emication|, scintillation,
flash, blaze, coruscation, fulguration; flame &c. (fire) 382; lightning,
levin, ignis fatuus, &c. (luminary) 423.
luster, sheen, shimmer, reflexion, reflection; gloss, tinsel, spangle,
brightness, brilliancy, splendor; effulgence, refulgence; fulgor,
fulgidity; dazzlement, resplendence, transplendency; luminousness &c. adj.;
luminosity; lucidity; renitency|, nitency; radiance,, radiation;
irradiation, illumination.
actinic rays, actinism; Roentgen-ray, Xray; photography, heliography;
photometer &c. 445.
[Science of light] optics; photology, photometry; dioptrics,
[Distribution of light] chiaroscuro, clairobscur, clear obscure,
breadth, light and shade, black and white, tonality.
reflection, refraction, dispersion; refractivity.
V. shine, glow, glitter; glister, glisten; twinkle, gleam; flare,
flare up; glare, beam, shimmer, glimmer, flicker, sparkle, scintillate,
coruscate, flash, blaze; be bright &c. adj.; reflect light, daze, dazzle,
bedazzle, radiate, shoot out beams; fulgurate.
clear up, brighten.
lighten, enlighten; levin; light, light up; irradiate, shine upon;
give out a light, hang out a light; cast light upon, cast light in, throw
light upon, throw light in, shed light upon, shed luster upon; illume,
illumine, illuminate; relume, strike a light; kindle &c. (set fire to) 384.
Adj. shining &c. v.; luminous, luminiferous; lucid, lucent, luculent,
lucific, luciferous; light, lightsome; bright, vivid, splendent, nitid,
lustrous, shiny, beamy, scintillant, radiant, lambent; sheen, sheeny;
glossy, burnished, glassy, sunny, orient, meridian; noonday, tide;
cloudless, clear; unclouded, unobscured.
gairish, garish; resplendent, transplendent; refulgent, effulgent;
fulgid, fulgent; relucent, splendid, blazing, in a blaze, ablaze, rutilant,
meteoric, phosphorescent; aglow. bright as silver; light as day, bright as
day, light as noonday, bright as noonday, bright as the sun at noonday.
actinic; photogenic+, graphic; heliographic; heliophagous.
Phr. " a day for gods to stoop and men to soar " [Tennyson]; "dark
with excessive bright" [Milton].

#421. Darkness. -- N. darkness &c. adj.; blackness &c. (dark color)
431; obscurity, gloom, murk; dusk &c. (dimness) 422.
Cimmerian darkness, Stygian darkness, Egyptian darkness; night;
midnight; dead of night, witching hour of night, witching time of night;
blind man's holiday; darkness visible, darkness that can be felt; palpable
obscure; Erebus; "the jaws of darkness " [Midsummer Night's Dream]; "sable-
vested night " [Milton].
shade, shadow, umbra, penumbra; sciagraphy.
obscuration; adumbration, obumbration; obtenebration, offuscation|,
caligation|; extinction; eclipse, total eclipse; gathering of the clouds.
shading; distribution of shade; chiaroscuro &c. (light) 420.
V. be dark &c. adj.
darken, obscure, shade; dim; tone down, lower; overcast, overshadow;
eclipse; obfuscate, offuscate|; obumbrate, adumbrate; cast into the shade
becloud, bedim, bedarken; cast a shade, throw a shade, spread a shade,
cast a shadow, cast a gloom, throw a shadow, spread a shadow, cast gloom,
throw gloom, spread gloom.
extinguish; put out, blow out, snuff out; doubt.
Adj. dark, darksome, darkling; obscure, tenebrious, sombrous, pitch
dark, pitchy; caliginous; black &c. (in color) 431.
sunless, lightless &c. (see sun, light, &c. 423); somber, dusky;
unilluminated &c. (see illuminate &c. 420); nocturnal; dingy, lurid,
gloomy; murky, murksome; shady, umbrageous; overcast &c. (dim) 422; cloudy
&c. (opaque) 426; darkened; & c. v.
dark as pitch, dark as a pit, dark as Erebus.
benighted; noctivagant||, noctivagous||.
Adv. in the dark, in the shade.
Phr. " brief as the lightning in the collied night " [M. N. D.]; "
eldest Night and Chaos, ancestors of Nature " [P. L.]; " the blackness of
the noonday night " [Longfellow]; " the prayer of Ajax was for light "

<-- p. 119 -->

#422. Dimness. -- N. dimness &c. adj.; darkness &c. 421; paleness &c.
(light color) 429.
half light, demi-jour; partial shadow, partial eclipse; shadow of a
shade; glimmer, gliming; nebulosity; cloud &c. 353; eclipse.
aurora, dusk, twilight, shades of evening, crepuscule, cockshut time|;
break of day, daybreak, dawn.
moonlight, moonbeam, moonglade, moonshine; starlight, owl'slight,
candlelight, rushlight, firelight; farthing candle.
V. be dim, grow dim &c. adj.; flicker, twinkle, glimmer; loom, lower;
fade; pale, pale its ineffectual fire [Hamlet].
render dim &c. adj.; dim, bedim, obscure.
Adj. dim, dull, lackluster, dingy, darkish, shorn of its beams, dark
faint, shadowed forth; glassy; cloudy; misty &c. (opaque) 426; blear;
muggy||, fuliginous; nebulous, nebular; obnubilated, overcast, crepuscular,
muddy, lurid, leaden, dun, dirty; looming &c. v.
pale &c. (colorless) 429; confused &c. (invisible) 447.

#423. [Source of light, self-luminous body.] Luminary. -- N. luminary;
light &c. 420; flame &c. (fire) 382.
spark, scintilla; phosphorescence.
sun, orb of day, Phoebus, Apollo, Aurora; star, orb; meteor, falling
star, shooting star; blazing star, dog star, Sirius; canicula, Aldebaran;
constellation, galaxy; northern light, aurora borealis, ; southern lights,
auroroa australis; zodiacal light; anthelion; day star, morning star;
Lucifer; mock sun, parhelion; hosphor, phosphorus; sundog; Venus; polar
lightning; chain lightning, fork lightning, sheet lightning, summer
lightning; phosphorus; ignis fatuus; Jack o'lantern, Friar's lantern; will-
o'-the-wisp, firedrake, Fata Morgana.
glowworm, firefly.
[Artificial light] gas; gas light, lime light, electric light;lamp;
lantern, lanthorn; dark lantern, bull's-eye; candle, bougie, taper,
rushlight; oil &c. (grease) 356; wick, burner; Argand, moderator, duplex;
torch, flambeau, link, brand; gaselier, chandelier, electrolier,
candelabrum, girandole, sconce, luster, candlestick.
firework, fizgig; pyrotechnics; rocket, lighthouse &c. (signal) 550.
V. illuminate &c. (light) 420.
Adj. self-luminous; phosphoric, phosphorescent; radiant &c. (light)
Phr. " blossomed the lovely stars, the forget-me-nots of the angels "
[Longfellow]; " the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky " [Campbell];
" the planets in their station list'ning stood " [Paradise Lost]; " the
Scriptures of the skies " [Bailey]; " that orbed continent, the fire that
severs day from night " [Twelfth Night].

#424. Shade. -- N. shade; awning &c. (cover) 223; parasol, sunshade,
umbrella; chick; portibre; screen, curtain, shutter, blind, gauze, veil,
mantle, mask; cloud, mist, gathering. of clouds.
umbrage, glade; shadow &c. 421.
V. draw a curtain; put up a shutter, close a shutter; veil &c. v.;
cast a shadow &c. (darken) 421.
Adj. shady, umbrageous.
Phr. " welcome ye shades! ye bowery thickets hail " [Thomson]

#425. Transparency. -- N. transparence, transparency; clarity;
translucence, translucency; diaphaneity; lucidity, pellucidity, limpidity;
fluorescence; transillumination, translumination. transparent medium,
glass, crystal, lymph, vitrite, water.
V. be transparent &c. adj.; transmit light.
Adj. transparent, pellucid, lucid, diaphanous, translucent,
tralucent|, relucent; limpid, clear, serene, crystalline, clear as crystal,
vitreous, transpicuous, glassy, hyaline; hyaloid, vitreform.

#426. Opacity.-- N. opacity; opaqueness &c. adj.
film; cloud &c. 353.
V. be opaque &c. adj.; obstruct the passage of light; obfuscate,
Adj. opaque, impervious to light; adiaphanous; dim &c. 422; turbid,
thick, muddy, opacous|, obfuscated, fuliginous, cloud, hazy, misty, foggy,
vaporous, nubiferous, muggy|2 .
smoky, fumid, murky, dirty.

<-- p. 120 -->

#427. Semitransparency. -- N. semitransparency, opalescence,
milkiness, pearliness; gauze, muslin; film; mica, mother-of-pearl, nacre;
mist &c. (cloud) 353.
Adj. semitransparent, semipellucid, semidiaphanous, semiopacous|,
semiopaque; opalescent, opaline; pearly, milky; frosted, nacreous.
V. opalesce.


#428. Color. -- N. color, hue, tint, tinge, dye, complexion, shade,
tincture, cast, livery, coloration, glow, flush; tone, key.
pure color, positive color, primary color, primitive complementary
color; three primaries; spectrum, chromatic dispersion; broken color,
secondary color, tertiary color. local color, coloring, keeping, tone,
value, aerial perspective.
[Science of color] chromatics, spectrum analysis, spectroscopy;
chromatism, chromatography||, chromatology; prism, spectroscope.
pigment, coloring matter, paint, dye, wash, distemper, stain; medium;
mordant; oil paint &c. painting 556.
V. color, dye, tinge, stain, tint, tinct, paint, wash, ingrain, grain,
illuminate, emblazon, bedizen, imbue; paint &c. (fine art) 556.
Adj. colored &c. v.; colorific, tingent, tinctorial; chromatic,
prismatic; full-colored, high-colored, deep-colored; doubly-dyed;
polychromatic; chromatogenous; tingible.
bright, vivid, intense, deep; fresh, unfaded; rich, gorgeous; gay.
gaudy, florid; gay, garish; rainbow-colored, multihued; showy,
flaunting, flashy; raw, crude; glaring, flaring; discordant, inharmonious.
mellow, pastel, harmonious, pearly, sweet, delicate, tender, refined.

#429. [Absence of color.] Achromatism. -- N. achromatism;
decoloration, discoloration; pallor, pallidity; paleness &c. adj.;
etiolation; neutral tint, monochrome, black and white.
V. lose color &c. 428; fade, fly, go; become colorless &c. adj.; turn
pale, pale.
deprive of color, decolorize, bleach, tarnish, achromatize, blanch,
etiolate, wash out, tone down.
Adj. uncolored &c. (see color &c. 428); colorless, achromatic,
aplanatic; etiolate, etiolated; hueless, pale, pallid; palefaced, tallow-
faced; faint, dull, cold, muddy, leaden, dun, wan, sallow, dead, dingy,
ashy, ashen, ghastly, cadaverous, glassy, lackluster; discolored &c. v.
light-colored, fair, blond; white &c. 430.
pale as death, pale as ashes, pale as a witch, pale as a ghost, pale
as a corpse.

#430. Whiteness. -- N. whiteness &c. adj.; argent.
albification, etiolation; lactescence.
snow, paper, chalk, milk, lily, ivory, alabaster; albata, eburin,
German silver, white metal, barium sulphate, titanium oxide, blanc fixe,
ceruse, pearl white; white lead, carbonate of lead.
V. be white &c. adj.
render white &c. adj.; whiten, bleach, blanch, etiolate, whitewash,
Adj. white; milk-white, snow-white; snowy; niveous, candid, chalky;
hoar, hoary; silvery; argent, argentine; canescent, cretaceous, lactescent.
whitish, creamy, pearly, fair, blond; blanched &c. v.; high in tone,
white as a sheet, white as driven snow, white as a lily, white as
silver; like ivory &c. n.

<-- p. 121 -->

#431. Blackness. -- N. blackness &c. adj.; darkness &c. (want of
light). 421; swartliness, lividity, dark color, tone, color; chiaroscuro
&c. 420.
nigrification, infuscation.
jet, ink, ebony, coal pitch, soot, charcoal, sloe, smut, raven, crow.
negro, blackamoor, man of color, nigger, darkie, Ethiop, black; buck,
-nigger [U. S.]; coon [U. S.], sambo.
[Pigments] lampblak, ivory black, blueblack; writing ink, printing
ink, printer's ink, Indian ink.
V. be black &c. adj.; render -black &c. adj.
blacken, infuscate, denigrate; blot, blotch; smutch;
smirch; darken &c. 421.
Adj. black, sable, swarthy, somber, dark, inky, ebon, atramentous,
jetty; coal-black, jet-black; fuliginous, pitchy, sooty, swart, dusky,
dingy, murky, Ethiopic; low-toned, low in tone; of the deepest dye.
black as jet &c. n., black as my hat, black as a shoe, black as a
tinker's pot, black as November, black as thunder, black as midnight;
nocturnal &c. (dark) 421; nigrescent; gray &c. 432; obscure &c. 421.
Adv. in mourning.

#432. Gray. -- N. gray &c. adj.; neutral tint, silver, pepper and
salt, chiaroscuro, grisaille.
[Pigments] Payne's gray; black &c. 431.
Adj. gray, grey; iron-gray, dun, drab, dingy, leaden, livid, somber,
sad, pearly, russet, roan; calcareous, limy, favillous; silver, silvery,
silvered; ashen, ashy; cinereous, cineritious; grizzly, grizzled; slate-
colored, stone-colored, mouse-colored, ash-colored; cool.

#433. Brown. -- N. brown &c. adj. [Pigments] bister, ocher, sepia,
Vandyke brown.
V. render brown &c. adj.; tan, embrown, bronze.
Adj. brown, bay, dapple, auburn, castaneous, chestnut, nut-brown,
cinnamon, russet, tawny, fuscous, chocolate, maroon, foxy, tan, brunette,
whitey brown; fawn-colored, snuff-colored, liver-colored; brown as a
berry, brown as mahogany, brown as the oak leaves; khaki.
sun-burnt; tanned &c. v.

Primitive Colors

#434. Redness. -- N. red, scarlet, vermilion, carmine, crimson, pink,
lake, maroon, carnation, couleur de rose, rose du Barry; magenta, damask,
purple; flesh color, flesh tint; color; fresh color, high color; warmth;
ruby, carbuncle; rose; rust, iron mold.
[Dyes and pigments] cinnabar, cochineal; fuchsine; ruddle, madder;
Indian red, light red, Venetian red; red ink, annotto; annatto, realgar,
minium, red lead.
redness &c. adj.; rubescence, rubicundity, rubification; erubescence,
V. be red, become red &c.adj.; blush, flush, color up, mantle, redden.
render red &c. adj.; redden, rouge; rubify, rubricate; incarnadine.;
Adj. red &c. n., reddish; rufous, ruddy, florid, incarnadine,
sanguine; rosy, roseate; blowzy, blowed; burnt; rubicund, rubiform; lurid,
stammell blood red; russet buff, murrey, carroty, sorrel, lateritious;
rubineous, rubcate, rubricose, rufulous.
rose-colored, ruby-colored, cherry-colored, claret-colored, flame-
colored, flesh-colored, peach-colored, salmon-colored, brick-colored,
brick-colored, dust-colored.
blushing &c. v.; erubescent; reddened &c. v.
red as fire, red as blood, red as scarlet, red as a turkey cock, red
as a lobster; warm, hot; foxy.

Complementary Colors

#435. Greenness. -- N. green &c. adj.; blue and yellow; vert.
emerald, verd antique, verdigris, malachite, beryl, aquamarine;
absinthe, crˆme de menthe.
[Pigments] terre verte, verditer, verdine.
greenness, verdure; viridity, viridescence; verditure.
Adj. green, verdant; glaucous, olive; green as grass; verdurous.
emerald green, pea green, grass green, apple green, sea green, olive
green, bottle green.
greenish; virent, virescent.

<-- Footnote 1 p. 122
The author's classification of colors has been retained, though it
does not entirely accord with the theories of modern science.

<-- p. 122 -->

#436. Yellowness. -- N. yellow &c. adj.; or.
[Piments] gamboge; cadmium-yellow, chrome-yellow, Indian-yellow
king's-yellow, lemonyellow; orpiment, yellow ocher, Claude tint, aureolin;
xanthein, xanthin; zaofulvin. crocus, saffron, topaz; xanthite; yolk.
jaundice; London fog; yellowness &c. adj.; icterus; xantho-cyanopia,
Adj. yellow, aureate, golden, flavous|, citrine, fallow; fulvous,
fulvid; sallow, luteous, tawny, creamy, sandy; xanthic, xanthous;
jaundiced- auricomous.
gold-colored, citron-colored, saffron-colored, lemon-colored, sulphur-
colored, amber-colored, straw-colored, primrose-colored, creamcolored;
xanthocarpous, xanthochroid, xanthopous.
yellow as a quince, yellow as a guinea, yellow as a crow's foot.
warm, advancing.

#437. Purple. -- N. purple &c. adj.; blue and red, bishop's purple;
aniline dyes, gridelin, amethyst; purpure; heliotrope.
lividness, lividity.
V. empurple.
Adj. purple, violet, plum-colored, lavender, lilac, puce, mauve;

#438. Blueness. -- N. blue &c. adj.; garter-blue; watchett|.
[Pigments] ultramarine, smalt, cobalt, cyanogen; Prussian blue,
syenite blue; bice, indigo; zaffer.
lapis lazuli, sapphire, turquoise; indicolite.
blueness, bluishness; bloom.
Adj. blue, azure, cerulean; sky-blue, sky-colored sky-dyed;
cerulescent; bluish; atmospheric, retiring; cold.

#439. Orange. -- N. orange, red and yellow; gold; or; flame &c. color,
[Pigments] ocher, Mars'orange, cadmium.
cardinal bird, cardinal flower, cardinal grosbeak, cardinal lobelia.
V. gild, warm.
Adj. orange; ochreous; orange-colored, gold-colored,
flame-colored, copper-colored, brass-colored, apricot-colored; warm, hot,

#440. Variegation. -- N. variegation; colors, dichroism, trichroism;
iridescence, play of colors, polychrome, maculation, spottiness, striae.
spectrum, rainbow, iris, tulip, peacock, chameleon, butterfly,
tortoise shell; mackerel, mackerel sky; zebra, leopard, cheetah, nacre,
ocelot, ophite, mother-of-pearl, opal, marble.
check, plaid, tartan, patchwork; marquetry-, parquetry; mosaic,
tesserae, strigae; chessboard, checkers, chequers; harlequin; Joseph's
coat; tricolor.
V. be variegated &c. adj.; variegate, stripe, streak, cheeker,
chequer; bespeckle, speckle; besprinkle, sprinkle; stipple, maculate, dot,
bespot; tattoo, inlay, damascene; embroider, braid, quilt.
Adj. variegated &c. v.; many-colored, many-hued; divers-colored,
party-colored; dichromatic, polychromatic; bicolor, tricolor, versicolor;
of all the colors of the rainbow, of all manner of colors; kaleidoscopic.
iridescent; opaline, opalescent; prismatic, nacreous, pearly, shot,
gorge de pigeon, chatoyant; irisated, pavonine.
pied, piebald; motley; mottled, marbled; pepper and salt, paned,
dappled, clouded, cymophanous.
mosaic, tesselated, plaid; tortoise shell &c. n.
spotted, spotty; punctated, powdered; speckled &c. v.; freckled, flea-
bitten, studded; flecked, fleckered; striated, barred, veined; brinded,
brindled; tabby; watered; grizzled; listed; embroidered &c. v.; daedal;
naevose, stipiform; strigose, striolate.

<-- p. 123 -->


#441. Vision. - N. vision, sight, optics, eyesight.
view, look, espial, glance, ken, coup d'oeil; glimpse, glint, peep;
gaze, stare, leer; perlustration, contemplation; conspection|,
conspectuity|; regard, survey;introspection; reconnaissance, speculation,
watch, espionage, espionnage, autopsy; ocular inspection, ocular
demonstration; sight-seeing.
point of view; gazebo, loophole, belvedere, watchtower.
field of view; theater, amphitheater, arena, vista, horizon;
commanding view, bird's eye view; periscope.
visual organ, organ of vision; eye; naked eye, unassisted eye; retina,
pupil, iris, cornea, white; optics, orbs; saucer eyes, goggle eyes,
gooseberry eyes.
short sight &c. 443; clear sight, sharp sight, quick sight, eagle
sight, piercing sight, penetrating sight, clear glance, sharp glance,
quick glance, eagle glance, piercing glance, penetrating glance, clear eye,
sharp eye, quick eye, eagle eye, piercing eye, penetrating eye;
perspicacity, discernment; catopsis.
eagle, hawk; cat, lynx; Argus.
evil eye; basilisk, cockatrice [Mythical].
V. see, behold, discern, perceive, have in sight, descry, sight, make
out, discover, distinguish, recognize, spy, espy, ken; get a sight of, have
a sight of, catch a sight of, get a glimpse of, have a glimpse of, catch a
glimpse of; command a view of; witness, contemplate, speculate; cast the
eyes on, set the eyes on; be a spectator &c. 444 of; look on &c. (be
present) 186; see sights &c. (curiosity) 455; see at a glance &c.
(intelligence) 498.
look, view, eye; lift up the eyes, open one's eye; look at, look on,
look upon, look over, look about one, look round; survey, scan, inspect;
run the eye over, run the eye through; reconnoiter, glance round, glance
on, glance over turn one's looks upon, bend one's looks upon; direct the
eyes to, turn the eyes on, cast a glance.
observe &c. (attend to) 457; watch &c. (care) 459; see with one's own
eyes; watch for &c. (expect) 507; peep, peer, pry, take a peep; play at
look full in the face, look hard at, look intently; strain one's
eyes; fix the eyes upon, rivet the eyes upon; stare, gaze; pore over, gloat
on; leer, ogle, glare; goggle; cock the eye, squint, gloat, look askance.
Adj. seeing &c. v.; visual, ocular; optic, optical; ophthalmic.
clear-eyedsighted &c. n.; eagle-eyed, hawk-eyed, lynx-eyed, keen-eyed,
visible &c. 446.
Adv. visibly &c. 446; in sight of, with one's eyes open at sight,
at first sight, at a glance, at the first blush; prima facie.
Int. look! &c. (attention) 457.
Phr. the scales falling from one's eyes; " an eye like Mars to
threaten or command " [Hamlet]; " her eyes are homes of silent prayer "
[Tennyson]; " looking before and after " [Hamlet]; "thy rapt soul sitting
in thine eyes " [Milton].

#442. Blindness. - N. blindness, cecity, excecation|, amaurosis,
cataract, ablepsy|, prestriction|; dim-sightedness &c. 443; ablepsia;
Braille, Braille-type; guttaserena (" drop serene "), noctograph,
V. be blind &c. adj.; not see; lose sight of; have the eyes bandaged;
grope in the dark.
not look; close the eyes, shut the eyes-, turn away the eyes, avert
the eyes; look another way; wink &c. (limited vision) 443; shut the eyes
to, be blind to, wink at, blink at.
render blind &c. adj.; blind, blindfold; hoodwink, dazzle, put one's
eyes out; throw dust into one's eyes; jeter de la poudre aux yeux; screen
from sight &c. (hide) 528.
Adj. blind; eyeless, sightless, visionless; dark; stone-blind, sand-
blind, stark-blind; undiscerning; dimsighted &c. 443.
blind as a bat, blind as a buzzard, blind as a beetle, blind as a
mole, blind as an owl; wall-eyed.
blinded &c. v.
Adv. blindly, blindfold; darkly.
Phr. " O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon" [Milton].

<-- p. 124 -->

#443. [Imperfect vision.] Dimsightedness. [Fallacies of vision.] -- N.
dim sight, dull sight half sight, short sight, near sight, long sight,
double sight, astigmatic sight, failing sight; dimsightedness &c.;
purblindness, lippitude; myopia, presbyopia; confusion of vision;
astigmatism; color blindness, chromato-pseudo-blepsis, Daltonism;
nyctalopia; strabismus, strabism, squint; blearedness, day blindness,
hemeralopia, nystagmus; xanthocyanopia, xanthopsia; cast in the eye, swivel
eye, goggleeyes; obliquity of vision.
winking &c. v.; nictitation; blinkard, albino.
dizziness, swimming, scotomy; cataract; ophthalmia.
[Limitation of vision] blinker; screen &c. (hider) 530.
[Fallacies of vision] deceptio visus; refraction, distortion,
illusion, false light, anamorphosis, virtual image, spectrum, mirage,
looming, phasma|; phantasm, phantasma, phantom; vision; specter,
apparition, ghost; ignis fatuus &c. (luminary) 423 specter of the Brocken
magic mirror; magic lantern &c. (show) 448; mirror lens &c. (instrument)
V. be dimsighted &c. n.; see double; have a mote in the eye, have a
mist before the eyes, have a film over the eyes; see through a prism, see
through a glass darkly; wink, blink, nictitate; squint; look askant, askant
askance; screw up the eyes, glare, glower; nictate.
dazzle, loom.
Adj. dim-sighted &c. n.; myopic, presbyopic; astigmatic moon-eyed,
mope-eyed, blear-eyed, goggle-eyed, gooseberry-eyed, one-eyed; blind of one
eye, monoculous; half-blind, purblind; cock-eyed, dim-eyed, mole-eyed;
blind as a bat &c. (blind) 442; winking &c. v.

#444. Spectator. -- N. spectator, beholder, observer, looker-on,
onlooker, witness, eyewitness, bystander, passer by; sightseer; rubberneck
, rubbernecker * [U. S.].
spy; sentinel &c. (warning) 668.
V. witness, behold &c. (see) 441; look on &c. (be present) 186;
rubber *, rubberneck *[U.S.]

#445. Optical Instruments. -- N. optical instruments; lens, meniscus,
magnifier; microscope, megascope, tienoscope.
spectacles, specs[coll.] ,glasses, barnacles, goggles, eyeglass,
periscopic lens; telescope, glass, lorgnette; spyglass, opera glass,
binocular, binoculars, field glass; burning glass, convex lens.
mirror, reflector, speculum; looking-glass, pier-glass, cheval-glass.
prism; camera lucida, camera obscura; magic lantern &c. (show) 448;
stereopticon; chromatrope, thaumatrope; stereoscope, pseudoscope,
polyscope, kaleidoscope.
photometer, eriometer, actinometer, lucimeter, radiometer;
abdominoscope, gastroscope, helioscope, polariscope, polemoscope,
abdominoscopy; gastroscopy; microscopy, microscopist.

#446. Visibility. -- N. visibility, perceptibility; conspicuousness,
distinctness &c. adj.; conspicuity, conspicuousness; appearance &c. 448;
bassetting; exposure; manifestation &c. 525; ocular proof, ocular evidence,
ocular demonstration; field of view &c. (vision) 441; periscopism.
V. be become visible &c. adj.; appear, open to the view; meet the eye,
catch the eye; basset; present itself, show manifest itself, produce
itself, discover itself, reveal itself , expose itself, betray itself;
stand forth, stand out; materialize; show; arise; peep out, peer out, crop
out; start up, spring up, show up, turn up, crop up; glimmer, loom; glare;
burst forth; burst upon the view, burst upon the sight; heave in sight;
come in sight, come into view, come out, come forth, come forward; see the
light of day; break through the clouds; make its appearance, show its face,
appear to one's eyes, come upon the stage, float before the eyes, speak for
itself &c. (manifest) 525; attract the attention &c. 457; reappear; live in
a glass house.
expose to view &c. 525.
Adj. visible, perceptible, perceivable, discernible, apparent; in
view, in full view, in sight; exposed to view, en ‚vidence; unclouded.
obvious &c. (manifest) 525; plain, clear, distinct, definite; well
defined, well marked; in focus; recognizable, palpable, autoptical;
glaring, staring, conspicuous; stereoscopic; in bold, in strong relief.
periscopic, panoramic.
before one's eyes, under one's eyes; before one, … vue d'oeil, in
one's eye, oculis subjecta fidelibus.
Adv. visibly &c. adj.; in sight of; before one's eyes &c. adj.; veluti
in speculum.

#447. Invisibility. -- N. invisibility, invisibleness, nonappearance,
imperceptibility; indistinctness &c. adj.; mystery, delitescence.
concealment &c. 528; latency &c. 526.
V. be invisible &c. adj.; be hidden &c. (hide) 528; lurk &c. (lie
hidden) 526; escape notice.
render invisible &c. adj.; conceal &c. 528; put out of sight.
not see &c. (be blind) 442; lose sight of.
Adj. invisible, imperceptible; undiscernible, indiscernible;
unapparent, non-apparent; out of sight, not in sight; … perte de vue;
behind the scenes, behind the curtain; viewless, sightless; inconspicuous,
unconspicuous; unseen &c. (see see &c. 441); covert &c. (latent) 526;
eclipsed, under an eclipse.
dim &c. (faint) 422; mysterious, dark, obscure, confused; indistinct,
inguishable; shadowy, indefinite, undefined; ill-defined, ill-marked;
blurred, fuzzy, out of focus; misty &c. (opaque) 426; veiled &c.
(concealed) 528; delitescent.
Phr. " full many a flower is born to blush unseen " [Gray).

<-- p. 125 -->

#448. Appearance. -- N. appearance, phenomenon, sight, spectacle,
show, premonstration|, scene, species, view, coup d'oeil; lookout, outlook,
prospect, vista, perspective, bird's-eye view, scenery, landscape, picture,
tableau; display, exposure, mise en scŠne; rising of the curtain.
phantasm, phantom &c. (fallacy of vision) 443.
pageant, spectacle; peep-show, raree-show, gallanty-show; ombres
chinoises; magic lantern, phantasmagoria, dissolving views; biograph,
cinematograph, moving pictures; panorama, diorama, cosmorama, georama; coup
de th‚ƒtre, jeu de th‚ƒtre; pageantry &c. (ostentation) 882; insignia &c.
(indication) 550. aspect, angle, phase, phasis, seeming; shape &c. (form)
240; guise, look, complexion, color, image, mien, air, cast, carriage,
port, demeanor; presence, expression, first blush, face of the thing; point
of view, light.
lineament feature trait lines; outline, outside; contour, face,
countenance, physiognomy, visage, phiz,. cast of countenance, profile,
tournure, cut of one s jib, metoposcopy; outside &c. 220.
V. appear; be visible, become visible &c. 446; seem, look, show;
present the appearance of, wear the appearance of, carry the appearance of,
have the appearance of, bear the appearance of, exhibit the appearance of,
take the appearance of, take on the appearance of, assume the appearance,
present the semblance of, wear the semblance of, carry the semblance of,
have the semblance of, bear the semblance of, exhibit the semblance of,
take the semblance of, take on the semblance of, assume the semblance of;
look like; cut a figure, figure; present to the view; show &c. (make
manifest) 525.
Adj. apparent, seeming, ostensible; on view.
Adv. apparently; to all seeming, to all appearance; ostensibly,
seemingly, as it seems, on the face of it, prima facie; at the first blush,
at first sight; in the eyes of; to the eye.
Phr. editio princeps.

#449. Disappearance. -- N. disappearance, evanescence, eclipse,
departure &c. 293; exit; vanishing point; dissolving views.
V. disappear, vanish, dissolve, fade, melt away, pass, go, avaunt; be
gone &c. adj.; leave no trace, leave " not a rack behind " [Tempest]; go
off the stage &c. (depart) 293; suffer an eclipse, undergo an eclipse;
retire from sight; be lost to view, pass out of sight.
lose sight of.
efface &c. 552.
Adj. disappearing &c. v.; evanescent; missing, lost; lost to sight,
lost to view; gone.
Int. vanish! disappear! avaunt! &c. (ejection) 297.

<-- p. 126 -->



#450. Intellect. -- N. intelleet, mind, understanding, reason,
thinking principle; rationality; cogitative faculties, cognitive faculties,
discursive faculties, reasoning faculties, intellectual faculties;
faculties, senses, consciousness, observation, percipience, intelligence,
intellection, intuition, association of ideas, instinct, conception,
judgment, wits, parts, capacity, intellectuality, genius; brains, cognitive
powers, intellectual powers; wit &c. 498; ability &c. (skill) 698; wisdom
&c. 498; Vernunft, Verstand.
soul, spirit, ghost, inner man, heart, breast, bosom, penetralia
mentis, divina particula aurae, heart's core; the Absolute, psyche,
subliminal consciousness, supreme principle.
organ of thought, seat of thought; sensorium, sensory, brain; head,
headpiece; pate, noddle, skull, scull, pericranium, cerebrum, cranium,
brainpan, sconce, upper story.
[Science of mind] metaphysics; psychics, psychology; ideology; mental
philosophy, moral philosophy; philosophy of the mind; pneumatology,
phrenology; craniology, cranioscopy.
ideality, idealism; transcendentalism, spiritualism; immateriality &c.
317; universal concept, universal conception.
metaphysician, psychologist &c.
V. note, notice, mark; take notice of, take cognizance of be aware of,
be conscious of; realize; appreciate; ruminate &c. (think) 451; fancy &c.
(imagine) 515.
Adj. [Relating to intellect] intelleetual, mental, rational,
subjective, metaphysical, nooscopic, spiritual; ghostly; psychical,
psychological; cerebral; animastic; brainy; hyperphysical, superphysical;
subconscious, subliminal.
immaterial &c. 317; endowed with reason.
Adv. in petto.
Phr. ens rationis; frons est animi janua Cicero]; locos y ni¤os dicen
la verdad; mens sola loco non exulat [Ovid]; " my mind is my kingdom "
[Campbell]; " stern men with empires in their brains " [Lowell]; " the
mind, the music breathing from her face " [Byron]; " thou living ray of
intellectual Fire " [Falconer].

#450a. Absence or want of Intellect.-- N. absence of intellect, want
of intellect &c. 450; imbecility &c. 499.: brutality, brute force.
instinct, brute instinct.
Adj. unendowed with reason, void of reason.

#451. Thought. -- N. thought; exercitation of the intellect, exercise
of the intellect; intellection; reflection, cogitation, consideration,
meditation, study, lucubration, speculation, deliberation, pondering; head
work, brain work; cerebration; deep reflection; close study, application
&c. (attention) 457.
abstract thought, abstraction contemplation, musing; brown study &c.
(inattention) 458; reverie, Platonism; depth of thought, workings of the
mind, thoughts, inmost thoughts; self-counsel self-communing, self-
consultation; philosophy of the Absolute, philosophy of the Academy,
philosophy of the Garden, philosophy of the lyceum, philosophy of the
association of thought, succession of thought, flow of thought, train
of thought, current of thought, association of ideas, succession of ideas,
flow of ideas, train of ideas, current of ideas.
after thought, mature thought; reconsideration, second thoughts;
retrospection &c. (memory) 505; excogitation; examination &c. (inquiry) 461
invention &c. (imagination) 515.
thoughtfulness &c. adj.
V. think, reflect, cogitate, excogitate, consider, deliberate; bestow
thought upon, bestow consideration upon; speculate, contemplate, meditate,
ponder, muse, dream, ruminate; brood over, con over; animadvert, study;
bend -, apply mind &c. (attend) 457; digest, discuss, hammer at, weigh,
perpend; realize, appreciate; fancy &c. (imagine) 515; trow.
take into consideration; take counsel &c. (be advised) 695; commune
with oneself, bethink oneself; collect one's thoughts; revolve in the mind,
turn over in the mind, run over in the mind; chew the cud upon, sleep upon;
take counsel of one's pillow, advise with one's pillow.
rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, crack one's brains, beat
one's brains, cudgel one's brains; set one's brain to work, set one's wits
to work.
harbor an idea, entertain an idea, cherish an idea, nurture an idea
&c. 453; take into one's head; bear in mind; reconsider.
occur; present itself, suggest itself; come into one's head, get into
one's head; strike one, flit across the view, come uppermost, run in one s
head; enter the mind, pass in the mind, cross the mind, flash on the mind,
flash across the mind, float in the mind, fasten itself on the mind, be
uppermost in the mind, occupy the mind; have in one's mind.
make an impression; sink into the mind, penetrate into the mind;
engross the thoughts.
Adj. thinking &c. v.; thoughtful, pensive, meditative, reflective,
museful, wistful, contemplative, speculative, deliberative, studious,
sedate, introspective, Platonic, philosophical.
lost in thought &c. (inattentive) 458; deep musing &c. (intent) 457.
in the mind, under consideration.
Adv. all things considered.
Phr. the mind being on the stretch; the mind turning upon, the head
turning upon, the mind running upon; " divinely, bent to meditation "
[Richard III].; en toute chose il faut considerer la fin.; " fresh-pluckt
from bowers of never-failing thought " [O. Meredith]; " go speed the stars
of Thought "[Emerson]; in maiden meditation fancy-free " [M. N. D.]; " so
sweet is zealous contemplation " [Richard III]; " the power of thought is
the magic of the Mind " [Byron]; " those that think must govern those that
toil " [Goldsmith]; " thought is parent of the deed " [Carlyle]; " thoughts
in attitudes imperious " [Longfellowl; " thoughts that breathe and words
that burn " [Gray]; vivere est cogitare [Cicero]; Volk der Dichter und

<-- p. 127 -->

#452. [Absence or want of thought.] Incogitancy. -- N. incogitancy,
vacancy, inunderstanding; fatuity &c. 499; thoughtlessness &c.
(inattention) 458; vacuity.
V. not think &c. 451; not think of; dismiss from the mind, dismiss
from the thoughts &c. 451.
indulge in reverie &c. (be inattentive) 458.
put away thought; unbend the mind, relax the mind, divert the mind.
Adj. vacant, unintellectual, unideal, unoccupied, unthinking,
inconsiderate, thoughtless; absent &c. (inattentive) 458; diverted;
irrational &c. 499; narrowminded &c. 481.
unthought of, undreamt 'of, unconsidered; off one's mind; incogitable,
not to be thought of.
Phr. absence d'esprit; pabulum pictura pascit inani.

#453. [Object of thought.] Idea. -- N. idea, notion, conception,
thought, apprehension, impression, pereption, image, ,
sentiment, reflection, observation, consideration; abstract idea;
archetype, formative notion; guiding conception, organizing conception;
image in the mind, regulative principle.
view &c. (opinion) 484; theory &c. 514; conceit, fancy; phantasy &c.
(imagination) 515.point of view &c. (aspect) 448; field of view.

<-- p. 128 -->

#454. [Subject of thought, ] Topic. -- N. subject of
thought, material for thought; food for the mind, mental pabulum.
subject, subject matter; matter, theme, , topic, what
it is about, thesis, text, business, affair, matter in hand, argument;
motion, resolution; head, chapter; case, point; proposition, theorem; field
of inquiry; moot point, problem &c. (question) 461.
V. float in the mind , pass in the mind &c. 451.
Adj. thought of; uppermost in the mind; in petto.
Adv. under consideration; in question, in the mind; on foot, on the
carpet, on the docket, on the tapis; relative to &c. 9.


#455. [The desire of knowledge.] Curiosity. -- N. interest, thirst for
knowledge; curiosity, curiousness; inquiring mind; inquisitiveness.
sightseer, quidnunc, newsmonger, Paul Pry, eavesdropper; gossip &c.
(news) 532; rubberneek* [U. S.].
V. be curious &c. adj.; take an interest in, stare, gape; prick up the
ears, see sights, lionize; pry; nose; rubberneck*[U . S.].
Adj. curious, inquisitive, burning with curiosity, overcurious;
inquiring &c. 461; prying; inquisitorial; agape &c. (expectant) 507.
Phr. what's the matter? what next?

#456. [Absence of curiosity.] Incuriosity. -- N. incuriosity,
incuriousness &c. adj.; insouciance &c. 866; indifference.
V. be incurious &c. adj.; have no curiosity &c. 455; take no interest
in &c. 823; mind one's own business.
Adj. incurious, uninquisitive, indifferent; impassive &c. 823;

#457. Attention. -- N. attention; mindfulness &c. adj.; intentness,
intentiveness; alertness; thought &c. 451; advertence, advertency;
observance, observation; consideration, reflection, perpension|; heed;
heedfulness; particularity; notice, regard &c. v.; circumspection, &c.
(care) 459; study, scrutiny inspection, introspection; revision, revisal.
active application, diligent application, exclusive application,
minute application, close application, intense application, deep
application, profound application, abstract application, labored
application, deliberate application, active attention, diligent attention,
exclusive attention, minute attention, close attention, intense attention,
deep attention, profound attention, abstract attention, labored attention,
deliberate attention, active thought, diligent thought, exclusive thought,
minute thought, close thought, intense thought, deep thought, profound
thought, abstract thought, labored thought, deliberate thought, active
study, diligent study, exclusive study, minute study, close study, intense
study, deep study, profound study, abstract study, labored study,
deliberate study.
minuteness, attention to detail.
absorption of mind &c. (abstraction) 458.
indication, calling attention to &c. v.
V. be attentive &c. adj.; attend, advert to, observe, look, see, view,
remark, notice, regard, take notice, mark; give attention to, pay attention
to, pay heed to, give heed to; incline an ear to, lend an ear to; trouble
one's head about; give a thought to, animadvert to; occupy oneself with;
contemplate &c. (think of) 451; look at, look to, look after, look into,
look over; see to; turn the mind to, bend the mind to, apply the mind to,
direct the mind to, give the mind to, turn the eye to, bend the eye to,
apply the eye to, direct the eye to, give the eye to, turn the attention
to, bend the attention to, apply the attention to, direct the attention to,
give the attention to; have an eye to, have in one's eye; bear in mind;
take into account, take into consideration; keep in sight, keep in view;
have regard to, heed, mind, take cognizance of entertain, recognize; make
note of, take note of; note.
examine cursorily; glance at, glance upon, glance over; cast the eyes
over, pass the eyes over; run over, turn over the leaves, dip into,
perstringe|; skim &c. (neglect) 460; take a cursory view of.
examine, examine closely, examine intently; scan, scrutinize,
consider; give one's mind to, bend one's mind to; overhaul, revise, pore
over; inspect, review, pass under review; take stock of; fix the eye on,
rivet attention on, fix attention on, devote the eye to, fix the mind on,
devote the thoughts to; hear out, think out; mind one's business.
revert to; watch &c. (expect) 507, (take care of) 459; hearken to,
listen to; prick up the ears; have the eyes open, keep the eyes open; come
to the point.
meet with attention; fall under one's notice, fall under one's
observation; be under consideration &c. (topic) 454.
catch the eye, strike the eye; attract notice; catch the attention,
awaken the attention, wake the attention, invite the attention, solicit the
attention, attract the attention, claim the attention excite the attention,
engage the attention, occupy the attention, strike the attention, arrest
the attention, fix the attention, engross the attention, absorb the
attention, rivet the attention, catch the mind, awaken the mind, wake the
mind, invite the mind, solicit the mind, attract the mind, claim the mind
excite the mind, engage the mind, occupy the mind, strike the mind, arrest
the mind, fix the mind, engross the mind, absorb the mind, rivet the mind,
catch the thoughts, awaken the thoughts, wake the thoughts, invite the
thoughts, solicit the thoughts, attract the thoughts, claim the thoughts
excite the thoughts, engage the thoughts, occupy the thoughts, strike the
thoughts, arrest the thoughts, fix the thoughts, engross the thoughts,
absorb the thoughts, rivet the thoughts; be present to the mind, be
uppermost in the mind.
bring under one's notice; point out, point to, point at, point the
finger at; lay the finger on, indigitate|, indicate; direct attention to,
call attention to; show; put a mark &c. (sign) 550 upon; call soldiers to "
attention "; bring forward &c. (make manifest) 525.
Adj. attentive, mindful, observant, regardful; alive to, awake to;
observing &c. v.; alert, open-eyed; intent on, taken up with, occupied
with, engaged in; engrossed in, wrapped in, absorbed, rapt; breathless;
preoccupied &c. (inattentive) 458; watchful &c. (careful) 459;. breathless,
undistracted, upon the stretch; on the watch &c. (expectant) 507.
Int. see! look, look here, look you, look to it! mark! lo! behold!
soho! hark, hark ye! mind! halloo! observe! lo and behold! attention! nota
bene; N.B.; I'd have you to know; notice! O yes! Oyez! dekko! ecco! yoho!
Phr. this is to give notice, these are to give notice; dictum sapienti
sat est; finem respice.

<-- p. 129 -->

#458. Inattention. -- N. inattention, inconsideration;
inconsiderateness &c. adj.; oversight; inadvertence, inadvertency,
nonobservance, disregard.
supineness &c. (inactivity) 683; ‚tourderie, want of thought;
heedlessnes &c. (neglect) 460; insouciance &c. (indifference) 866.
abstraction; absence of mind, absorption of mind; preoccupation,
distraction, reverie, brown study, deep musing, fit of abstraction.
V. be inattentive &c. adj.; overlook, disregard; pass by &c. (neglect)
460 not observe &c. 457; think little of.
close one's eyes to, shut one's eyes to; pay no attention to; dismiss
from one's thoughts, discard from one's thoughts, discharge from one's
thoughts, dismiss from one's mind, discard from one's mind, discharge from
one's mind; drop the subject, think no more of; set aside, turn aside, put
aside; turn away from, turn one's attention from, turn a deaf ear to, turn
one's back upon.
abstract oneself, dream, indulge in reverie.
escape notice, escape attention; come in at one ear and go out at the
other; forget &c. (have no remembrance) 506.
call off the attention, draw off the attention, call away the
attention, divert the attention, distract the mind; put out of one's head;
disconcert, discompose; put out, confuse, perplex, bewilder, moider,
fluster, muddle, dazzle; throw a sop to Cerberus.
Adj. inattentive; unobservant, unmindful, unheeding, undiscerning;
inadvertent; mindless, regardless, respectless, listless &c. (indifferent)
866; blind, deaf; bird-witted; hand over head; cursory, percursory; giddy-
brained, scatter-brained, hare-brained; unreflecting, ‚cervel‚,
inconsiderate, offhand, thoughtless, dizzy, muzzy, brainsick; giddy, giddy
as a goose; wild, harum-scarum, rantipole, highflying; heedless , careless
&c. (neglectful) 460.
absent, abstracted, distrait; absentminded, lost; lost in thought,
wrapped in thought; rapt, in the clouds, bemused; dreaming on other things,
musing on other things; preoccupied, engrossed &c. (attentive) 457; in a
reverie &c. n.; off one's guard &c. (inexpectant) 508; napping; dreamy;
caught napping.
disconcerted, put out &c. v.
Adv. inattentively, inadvertently &c. adj.; per incuriam, sub
Int. stand at ease, stand easy!
Phr. the attention wanders; one's wits gone a woolgathering, one's
wits gone a bird's nesting; it never entered into one's head; the mind
running on other things; one's thoughts being elsewhere; had it been a bear
it would have bitten you.

#459. Care. - [Vigilance.] -- N. care, solicitude, heed; heedfulness
&c. adj.; scruple &c. (conscientiousness) 939.
watchfulness &c. adj.; vigilance, surveillance, eyes of Argus, watch,
vigil, look out, watch and ward, loeil du maitre.
alertness &c. (activity) 682; attention &c. 457; prudence &c.,
circumspection &c. (caution) 864; anxiety; forethought &c. 510; precaution
&c. (preparation) 673; tidiness &c. (order) 58, (cleanliness) 652; accuracy
&c. (exactness) 494; minuteness, attention to detail.
V. be careful &c. adj.; reck; take care &c. (be cautious) 864; pay
attention to &c. 457; take care of; look to, look after, see to, see after;
keep an eye on, keep a sharp eye on; chaperon, matronize, play gooseberry;
keep watch, keep watch and ward; mount guard, set watch, watch; keep in
sight, keep in view; mind, mind on'e business.
look sharp, look about one; look with one's own eyes; keep a good
lookout, keep a sharp lookout; have all one's wits about one, have all
one's eyes about one; watch for &c. (expect) 507; keep one's eyes open,
have the eyes open, sleep with one's eye open.
Adj. careful regardful, heedful; taking care &c. v.; particular;
prudent &c. (cautious) 864; considerate; thoughtful &c. (deliberative) 451;
provident &c. (prepared) 673; alert &c. (active) 682; sure-footed.
guarded, on one's guard; on the qui vivre, on the alert, on watch, on
the lookout; awake, broad awake, vigilant; watchful, wakeful, wistful;
Argus-eyed; wide awake &c. (intelligent) 498; on the watch for (expectant)
tidy &c. (orderly) 58, (clean) 652; accurate &c. (exact) 494;
scrupulous &c. (conscientious) 939; cavendo tutus &c. (safe) 664.
Adv. carefully &c. adj.; with care, gingerly.
Phr. quis custodiet istos custodes? "care will kill a cat" [Wither];
ni bebas aqua que no veas; "O polished perturbation! Golden care!" [Henry
IV]; "the incessant care and labor of his mind" [Henry IV]

<-- p. 130 -->

#460. Neglect. -- N. neglect; carelessness &c. adj.; trifling &c. v.;
negligence; omission, laches, default; supineness &c. (inactivity) 683;
inattention &c. 458; nonchalance &c. (insensibility) 823; imprudence,
recklessness &c. 863; slovenliness &c. (disorder) 59, (dirt) 653;
improvidence &c. 674; noncompletion &c. 730; inexactness &c. (error) 495.
paralelpsis [in rhetoric].
trifler, waiter on Providence; Micawber.
V. be negligent &c. adj.; take no care of &c. (take care of &c. 459);
neglect; let slip,let go; lay aside, set aside, cst aside, put aside; keep
out of sight, put out of sight; lose sight of.
overloook, disregard; pass over, pas by; let pass; blink; wink at,
connive at;gloss over; take no note of, take no thought of, take no account
of, take no notice of; pay no regard to; laisser aller.
scamp; trifle, fribble; do by halves; cut; slight &c. (despise) 930;
play with, trifle with; slur, skim, skim the surface; effleurer ; take a
cursory view of &c. 457.
slur over, skip over, jump over, slip over; pretermit, miss, skip,
jump, omit, give the go-by to, push aside, pigeonhole, shelve, sink;
ignore, shut one's eyes to, refuse to hear, turn a deaf ear to; leave out
of one's calculation; not attend to &c. 457, not mind; not trouble oneself
about, not trouble one's head about, not trouble oneself with; forget &c.
506; be caught napping &c. (not expect) 508; leave a loose thread; let the
grass grow under one's feet.
render neglectful &c. adj.; put off one's guard, throw off one's
Adj. neglecting &c. v.; unmindful, negligent, neglectful; heedless,
careless, thoughtless; perfunctory, remiss.
inconsiderate; uncircumspect, incircumspect; off one's guard; unwary,
unwatchful, unguarded; offhand.
supine &c. (inactive) 683; inattentive &c. 458; insouciant &c.
(indifferent) 823; imprudent, reckless&c. 863; slovenly &c. (disorderly)
59, (dirty) 653; inexact &c. (erroneous) 495; improvident &c. 674.
neglected &c. v.; unheeded, uncared-for, unperceived, unseen,
unobserved, unnoticed, unnoted, unmarked, unattended to, unthought of,
unregarded, uremarked, unmissed; shunted, shelved.
unexamined, unstudied, unsearched, unscanned, unweighed, unsifted,
abandoned; buried in a napkin, hid under a bushel.
Adv. negligently &c. adj.; hand over head, anyhow; in an unguarded
moment &c. (unexpectedly) 508; per incuriam.
Int. never mind, no matter, let it pass.

<-- p. 131 -->

#461 Inquiry [Subject of Inquiry. Question] -- N. inquiry; request
&c. 765; search, research, quest, pursuit &c. 622.
examination, review, scrutiny, investigation, indagation|;
perquisition, perscrutation, pervestigation|; inquest, inquisition;
exploration; exploitation, ventilation.
sifting; calculation, analysis, dissection, resolution, induction;
Baconian method.
strict inquiry, close inquiry, searching inquiry, exhaustive inquiry;
narrow search, strict search; study &c. (consideration) 451.
scire facias, ad referendum; trial.
questioning &c. v.; interrogation,
interrogatory; interpellation; challenge, examination, cross-examination,
catechism; feeler, Socratic method, zetetic philosophy; leading question;
discussion &c. (reasoning) 476.
reconnoitering, reconnaissance; prying &c. v.; espionage, espionnage;
domiciliary visit, peep behind the curtain; lantern of Diogenes.
question, query, problem, desideratum, point to be solved, porism;
subject of inquiry, field of inquiry, subject of controversy; point in
dispute, matter in dispute; moot point; issue, question at issue; bone of
contention &c. (discord) 713; plain question, fair question, open question;
enigma &c. (secret) 533; knotty point &c. (difficulty) 704; quodlibet;
threshold of an inquiry.
inquirer, investigator, inquisitor, inspector, querist, examiner,
catechist; scrutator scrutineer scrutinizer; analyst; quidnunc &c.
(curiosity) 455.
V. make inquiry &c. n.; inquire, seek, search; look for, look about
for, look out for; scan, reconnoiter, explore, sound, rummage, ransack,
pry, peer, look round; look over, go over, look through, go through; spy,
scratch the head, slap the forehead.
look into every hole and corner, peer into every hole and corner, pry
into every hole and corner; nose; trace up; hunt out, fish out, ferret out;
unearth; leave no stone unturned.
seek a clue, seek a clew; hunt, track, trail, mouse, dodge, trace;
follow the trail, follow the scent; pursue &c. 662; beat up one's quarters;
fish for; feel for &c. (experiment) 463.
investigate; take up an inquiry, institute an inquiry, pursue an
inquiry, follow up an inquiry, conduct an inquiry, carry on an inquiry,
prosecute an inquiry &c. n.; look at, look into; preexamine; discuss,
canvass, agitate.
examine, study, consider, calculate; dip into, dive into, delve into,
go deep into; make sure of, probe, sound, fathom; probe to the bottom,
probe to the quick; scrutinize, analyze, anatomize, dissect, parse,
resolve, sift, winnow; view in all its phases, try in all its phases;
thresh out.
bring in question, subject to examination; put to the proof &c.
(experiment) 463; audit, tax, pass in review; take into consideration &c.
(think over) 451; take counsel &c. 695.
ask, question, demand; put the question, pop the question, propose the
question, propound the question, moot the question, start the question,
raise the question, stir the question, suggest the question, put forth the
question, ventilate the question, grapple with the question, go into a
put to the question, interrogate, catechize, pump; cross-question,
cross-examine; dodge; require an answer; pick the brains of, suck the
brains of; feel the pulse.
be in question &c. adj.; undergo examination.
Adj. inquiry &c. v.; inquisitive &c. (curious) 455; requisitive|,
requisitory; catechetical, inquisitorial, analytic; in search of, in quest
of; on the lookout for, interrogative, zetetic; all searching.
undetermined, untried, undecided; in question, in dispute, in issue,
in course of inquiry; under discussion, uneder consideration, under
investigation &c. n.; Sub judice, moot, proposed; doubtful &c. (uncertain)
Adv. what? why? wherefore? whence? whither? where? quaere? how comes
it, how happens it, how is it? what is the reason? what's the matter,
what's in the wind? what on earth? when? who? nicht wahr?

#462. Answer. -- N. answer, response, reply, replication, riposte,
rejoinder, surrejoinder, rebutter, surrebutter, retort, repartee; rescript,
rescription; antiphon, antiphony; acknowledgment; password; echo; counter
discovery &c. 480a; solution &c. (explanation) 522; rationale &c.
(cause) 153; clue &c. (indication) 550.
Oedipus; oracle &c. 513; return &c. (record) 551.
V. answer, respond, reply, rebut, retort, rejoin; give for answer,
return for answer; acknowledge, echo.
explain &c. (interpret) 522; solve &c. (unriddle) 522; discover &c.
480a; fathom, hunt out &c. (inquire) 461; satisfy, set at rest, determine.
Adj. answering &c. v.; responsive, respondent; conclusive.
Adv. because &c. (cause) 153; on the scent, on the right scent.
Int. eureka!

<-- p. 132 -->

#463. Experiment. -- N. experiment; essay &c. (attempt) 675; analysis
&c. (investigation) 461; trial, tentative method, tƒtonnement.
verification, probation, experimentum crucis, proof, criterion,
diagnostic, test, crucial test.
crucible, reagent, check, touchstone, pix; assay, ordeal; ring;
curcuma paper, turmeric paper.
empiricism, rule of thumb.
feeler; pilot balloon, messenger balloon; pilot engine; scout; straw
to show the wind.
speculation, random shot, leap in the dark.
analyzer, analyst; adventurer; experimenter, experimentist,
V. experiment; essay &c. (endeavor) 675; try, assay; make an
experiment, make a trial of; give a trial to; put on trial, subject to
trial; experiment upon; rehearse; put to the test, bring to the test,
submit to the test, submit to the proof; prove, verify, test, touch,
practice upon, try one's strength.
grope; feel one's way, grope for one's way; fumble, tƒtonner, aller ƒ
tƒtons, put out a feeler, throw out a feeler; send up a pilot balloon; see
how the land lies, see how the wind blows; consult the barometer; feel the
pulse; fish for, bob for; cast for, beat about for; angle, trawl, cast
one's net, beat the bushes.
try one's fortune &c. (adventure) 675; explore &c. (inquire) 461.
Adj. experimental, empirical.
probative, probatory, probationary, provisional; analytic, docimastic;
Adv. under probation, on one's trial.

#464. Comparison. -- N. comparison, collation, contrast;
identification; comparative estimate, relative estimate.
simile, simililitude, analogy (similarity) 17; allegory &c. (metaphor)
V. compare to, compare with; collate, confront; place side by side &c.
(near) 197; set against one another, pit against one another; contrast,
identify, draw a parallel, parallel.
compare notes; institute a comparison; parva componere magnis[Lat]..
Adj. comparative; metaphorical &c. 521.
compared with &c. v.; comparable; judged by comparison.
Adv. relatively &c. (relation) 9; as compared with &c. v.
Phr. comparisons are odious; " comparisons are odorous " [Much Ado
about Nothing].

#465. [results of comparison. 1] Discrimination. -- N. discrimination,
distinction, differentiation, diagnosis, diorism; nice perception;
perception of difference, appreciation of difference; estimation &c. 466;
nicety, refinement; taste &c. 850; critique, judgment; tact; discernment
&c. (intelligence) 498; acuteness, penetration; nuances.
dope*, past performances.
V. discriminate, distinguish, severalize; separate; draw the line,
sift; separate the chaff from the wheat, winnow the chaff from the wheat;
split hairs.
estimate &c. (measure) 466; know which is which, know what is what,
know " a hawk from a handsaw [Hamlet].
take into account, take into consideration; give due weight to, allow
due weight to; weigh carefully.
Adj. discriminating &c. v.; dioristic, discriminative, distinctive;
Phr. il y a fagots et fagots; rem acu tetigisti; la critique est ais‚e
et l'art est difficile.

#465a. [results of comparison. 2] Indiscrimination. -- N.
indiscrimination; indistinctness, indistinction; uncertainty &c. (doubt)
V. not discriminate &c. 465; overlook &c. (neglect) 460 a distinction:
confound, confuse.
Adj. indiscriminate; undistinguished, undistinguishable; unmeasured;
promiscuous, undiscriminating.
Phr. valeat quantum valere potest[Lat.].

<-- p. 133 -->

#466. Measurement. -- N. measurement, admeasurement, mensuration,
survey, valuation, appraisement, assessment, assize; estimate, estimation;
dead reckoning, reckoning &c. (numeration) 85; gauging &c. v.; horse power.
metrology, weights and measures, compound arithmetic.
measure, yard measure, standard, rule, foot rule, compass, calipers;
gage, gauge; meter, line, rod, check; dividers; velo.
flood mark, high water mark; index &c. 550.
scale; graduation, graduated scale; nonius; vernier &c. (minuteness)
193 bathometer, galvanometer, heliometer, interferometer, odometer,
ombrometer, pantometer, pluviometer, pneumatometer, pneumometer,
radiometer, refractometer, respiro, rheometer, spirometer, telemeter,
udometer, vacuometer, variometer, viameter, thermometer (heat &c. 382),
barometer (air &c. 338), anemometer (wind 349), dynamometer, goniometer
(angle 244) meter; landmark &c. (limit) 233; balance, scale &c. (weight)
319; marigraph, pneumatograph, stethograph; rain gauge, rain gage.
coordinates, ordinate and abscissa, polar coordinates, latitude and
longitude, declination and right ascension, altitude and azimuth.
geometry, stereometry, hypsometry; metage; surveying, land surveying;
geodesy, geodetics, geodesia; orthometry, altimetry; cadastre.
astrolabe, armillary sphere.
land surveyor; geometer.
V. measure, mete; value, assess, rate, appraise, estimate, form an
estimate, set a value on; appreciate; standardize.
span, pace step; apply the compass &c. n.; gauge, plumb, probe, sound,
fathom; heave the log, heave the lead; survey.
take an average &c. 29; graduate.
Adj. measuring &c. v.; metric , metrical;
measurable, geodetical.


#467. Evidence [On one side.] -- N. evidence; facts, premises, data,
praecognita, grounds.
indication &c. 550; criterion &c. (test) 463.
testimony, testification; attestation; deposition &c. (affirmation)
535; examination.
admission &c. (assent) 488; authority, warrant, credential, diploma,
voucher, certificate, doquet, docket; testamur; record &c. 551; document;
piŠce justificative; deed, warranty &c. (security) 771; signature, seal &c.
(identification) 550; exhibit.
witness, indicator; eyewitness, earwitness; deponent; sponsor;
oral evidence, documentary evidence, hearsay evidence, external
evidence, extrinsic evidence, internal evidence, intrinsic evidence,
circumstantial evidence, cumulative evidence, ex parte evidence,
presumptive evidence, collateral evidence, constructive evidence; proof &c.
(demonstration) 478; evidence in chief.
secondary evidence; confirmation, corroboration, support; ratification
&c. (assent) 488; authentication; compurgation, wager of law,
citation, reference.

V. be evidence &c. n.; evince, show, betoken, tell of; indicate &c.
(denote) 550; imply, involve, argue, bespeak, breathe.
have weight, carry weight; tell, speak volumes; speak for itself &c.
(manifest) 525.
rest upon, depend upon; repose on.
bear witness &c. n.; give evidence &c. n.; testify, depose, witness,
vouch for; sign, seal, undersign, set one's hand and seal, sign and seal,
deliver as one's act and deed, certify, attest; acknowledge &c. (assent)
[provide conclusive evidence] make absolute, confirm, prove
(demonstrate) 478.
[add further evidence] indorse, countersign, corroborate, support,
ratify, bear out, uphold, warrant.
adduce, attest, cite, quote; refer to, appeal to; call, call to
witness; bring forward, bring into court; allege, plead; produce witnesses,
confront witnesses; collect evidence, bring together evidence, rake up
have a case, make out a case; establish, authenticate, substantiate,
verify, make good, quote chapter and verse; bring home to, bring to book.
Adj. showing &c. v.; indicative, indicatory; deducible &c. 478;
grounded on, founded on, based on; corroborative, confirmatory.
Adv. by inference; according to, witness, a fortiori; still more,
still less; raison de plus; in corroboration &c. n. of; valeat quantum;
under seal, under one's hand and seal.
Phr. dictum de dicto; mise en evidence[Fr.].

<-- p. 134 -->

#468. [Evidence on the other side, on the other hand.] Counter
Evidence. - N. counter evidence; evidence on the other side, evidence on
the other hand; conflicting evidence; disproof, refutation &c. 479;
negation &c. 536.
plea &c. 617; vindication &c. 937 counter protest; "tu quoque"
argument; other side of the shield, other side of the coin, reverse of the
V. countervail, oppose; rebut &c. (refute) 479; subvert &c. (destroy)
162; cheek, weaken; contravene; contradict &c. (deny) 536; tell another
story, turn the scale, alter the case; turn the tables; cut both ways;
prove a negative.
audire alteram partem.
Adj. countervailing &c. v.; contradictory.
unattested, unauthenticated, unsupported by evidence; supposititious.
Adv. on the contrary, per contra.

#469. Qualification. -- N. qualification, limitation, modification,
allowance, grains of allowance, consideration, extenuating
circumstances; mitigation.
condition, proviso, exception; exemption; salvo, saving clause;
discount &c. 813; restriction.
V. qualify, limit, modify, leaven, give a color to, introduce new
conditions, narrow, temper.
allow for, make allowance for; admit exceptions, take into account;
take exception.
Adj. qualifying &c. v.; conditional; exceptional &c. (unconformable)
hypothetical &c. (supposed) 514; contingent &c. (uncertain) 475.
Adv. provided, provided always; if, unless, but, yet; according as;
conditionally, admitting, supposing; on the supposition of &c.
(theoretically) 514; with the understanding, even, although, though, for
all that, after all, at all events.
with grains of allowance, cum grano salis; exceptis excipiendis; wind
and weather permitting; if possible &c. 470.
subject to; with this proviso &c. n.
Phr. "if the good lord is willing and the creeks don't rise".

Degrees of Evidence

#470. Possibility. -- N. possibility, potentiality; what may be, what
is possible &c. adj.; compatibility &c. (agreement) 23.
practicability, feasibility; practicableness &c. adj.
contingency, chance &c. 156.
V. be possible &c. adj.; stand a chance; admit of, bear.
render possible &c. adj.; put in the way of.
Adj. possible; in the cards, on the dice; in posse, within the bounds
of possibility, conceivable, credible; compatible &c. 23; likely.
practicable, feasible, performable, achievable; within reach, within
measurable distance; accessible, superable, surmountable; attainable,
obtainable; contingent &c. (doubtful) 475, (effect) 154.
Adv. possibly, by possibility; perhaps, perchance, peradventure;
maybe, may be, haply, mayhap.
if possible, wind and weather permitting, God willing, Deo volente, D.
V. ; as luck may have it.
Phr. misericordia Domini inter pontem et fontent; " the glories of the
Possible are ours " [B. Taylor].

<-- p. 135 --->

#471. Impossibility. -- N. impossibility &c. adj.; what cannot, what
can never be; sour grapes; hopelessness &c. 859.
V. be impossible &c. adj.; have no chance whatever.
attempt impossibilities; square the circle, wash a blackamoor white;
skin a flint; make a silk purse out of a sow's ear, make bricks without
straw; have nothing to go upon; weave a rope of sand, build castles in the
air, prendre la lune avec les dents, extract sunbeams from cucumbers, set
the Thames on fire, milk a he-goat into a sieve, catch a weasel asleep,
rompre l'anguille au genou, be in two places at once.
Adj. impossible; not possible &c. 470; absurd, contrary to reason;
unlikely; unreasonable &c. 477; incredible &c. 485; beyond the bounds of
reason, beyond the bounds of possibility, beyond the realm of possibility;
from which reason recoils; visionary; inconceivable &c. (improbable) 473;
prodigious &c. (wonderful) 870; unimaginable, inimaginable; unthinkable.
impracticable unachievable; unfeasible, infeasible; insuperable;
unsurmountable, insurmountable; unattainable, unobtainable; out of reach,
out of the question; not to be had, not to be thought of; beyond control;
desperate &c. (hopeless) 859; incompatible &c. 24; inaccessible,
uncomeatable, impassable, impervious, innavigable, inextricable; self-
out of one's power, beyond one's power, beyond one's depth, beyond
one's reach, beyond one's grasp; too much for; ultra crepidam.
Phr. the grapes are sour; non possumus; non nostrum tantas componere
lites [Vergil]; look for a needle in a haystack, chercher une aiguille dans
une botte de foin [Fr.]; il a le mer … boire.

#472. Probability. -- N. probability, likelihood; credibleness;
likeliness &c. adj.;
vraitsemblance, verisimilitude, plausibility; color, semblance, show
of; presumption; presumptive evidence, circumstantial evidence;
reasonable chance, fair chance, good chance, favorable chance,
reasonable prospect, fair prospect, good prospect, favorable prospect;
prospect, wellgrounded hope; chance &c. 156.
V. be probable &c. adj.; give color to, lend color to; point to; imply
&c. (evidence) 467; bid fair &c. (promise) 511; stand fair for; stand a
good chance, run a good chance.
think likely, dare say, flatter oneself; expect &c. 507; count upon
&c. (believe) 484.
Adj. probable, likely, hopeful, to be expected, in a fair way.
plausible, specious, ostensible, colorable, ben trovato, well-founded,
reasonable, credible, easy of belief, presumable, presumptive, apparent.
Adv. probably &c. adj.; belike; in all probability, in all likelihood;
very likely, most likely; like enough; ten &c. to one; apparently,
seemingly, according to every reasonable expectation; primƒ facie; to all
appearance &c. (to the eye) 448.
Phr. the chances, the odds are; appearances are in favor of, chances
are in favor of; there is reason to believe, there is reason to think,
there is reason to expect; I dare say; all Lombard Street to a China

#473. Improbability. -- N. improbability, unlikelihood; unfavorable
chance, bad chance, ghost of a chance, little chance, small chance, poor
chance, scarcely any chance, no chance; bare possibility; long odds;
incredibility &c. 485.
V. be improbable &c. adj.; have a small chance &c. n.
Adj. improbable, unlikely, contrary to all reasonable expectation.
rare &c. (infrequent) 137; unheard of, inconceivable; unimaginable,
inimaginable; incredible &c. 485; more than doubtful.
Phr. the chances are against; aquila non capit muscas; pedir peras pal

#474. Certainty. -- N. certainty; necessity &c. 601; certitude,
surety, assurance; dead certainty, moral certainty; infallibleness &c.
adj.; infallibility, reliability; indubitableness, inevitableness,
gospel, scripture, church, pope, court of final appeal; res judicata,
ultimatum positiveness; dogmatism, dogmatist, dogmatizer; doctrinaire,
bigot, opinionist, Sir Oracle; ipse dixit.
fact; positive fact, matter of fact; fait accompli.
V. be certain &c. adj.; stand to reason.
render certain &c. adj.; insure, ensure, assure; clinch, make sure;
determine, decide, set at rest, " make assurance double sure " [Macbeth];
know &c. (believe) 484.
dogmatize, lay down the law.
Adj. certain, sure, assured &c. v.; solid, well-founded.
unqualified, absolute, positive, determinate, definite, clear,
unequivocal, categorical, unmistakable, decisive, decided, ascertained.
inevitable, unavoidable, avoidless; ineluctable.
unerring, infallible; unchangeable &c. 150; to be depended on,
trustworthy, reliable, bound.
unimpeachable, undeniable, unquestionable; indisputable,
incontestable, incontrovertible, indubitable; irrefutable &c. (proven) 478;
conclusive, without power of appeal.
indubious; without doubt, beyond a doubt, without a shade or shadow of
doubt, without question, beyond question; past dispute; clear as day;
beyond all question, beyond all dispute; undoubted, uncontested,
unquestioned, undisputed; questionless, doubtless.
authoritative, authentic, official.
sure as fate, sure as death and taxes, sure as a gun.
evident, self-evident, axiomatic; clear, clear as day, clear as the
sun at noonday.
bAdv. certainly &c. adj.; for certain, certes, sure, no doubt,
doubtless, and no mistake, flagrante delicto, sure enough, to be sure, of
course, as a matter of course , a coup sur, to a certainty; in truth &c.
(truly) 494; at any rate, at all events; without fail; coute que coute,
coute qu'il coute; whatever may happen, if the worst come to the worst;
come what may, happen what may, come what will; sink or swim; rain or
Phr. cela va sans dire; there is -no question, - not a shadow of
doubt; the die is cast &c. (necessity) 601; " facts are stubborn things

<-- p. 136 -->

#475. Uncertainty. -- N. uncertainty, incertitude, doubt; doubtfulness
&c. adj.; dubiety, dubitation, dubitancy|, dubitousness.
hesitation, suspense; perplexity, embarrassment, dilemma,
bewilderment; timidity &c. (fear) 860; vacillation &c. 605; diaporesis,
vagueness &c. adj.; haze, fog; obscurity &c. (darkness) 421; ambiguity
&c. (double meaning) 520; contingency, double contingency, possibility upon
a possibility; open question &c. (question) 461; onus probandi; blind
bargain, pig in a poke, leap in the dark, something or other; needle in a
haystack, needle in a bottle of hay; roving commission.
precariousness &c. adj.; fallibility.
V. be uncertain &c. adj.; wonder whether.
lose the clue, lose the clew, scent; miss one's way.
not know what to make of &c. (unintelligibility) 519, not know which
way to turn, not know whether one stands on one s head or one's heels;
float in a sea of doubt,hesitate, flounder; lose oneself, lose one's head;
muddle one's brains.
render uncertain &c. adj.; put out, pose, puzzle, perplex, embarrass;
confuse, confound; bewilder, bother, molder, addle the wits, throw off the
scent, ambiguas in vulgus spargere voces; keep in suspense.
doubt &c. (disbelieve) 485; hang in the balance, tremble in the
balance; depend.
Adj. uncertain; casual; random &c. (aimless) 621; changeable &c. 149.
doubtful, dubious; indecisive; unsettled, undecided, undetermined; in
suspense, open to discussion; controvertible; in question &c. (inquiry)
vague; indeterminate, indefinite; ambiguous, equivocal; undefined,
undefinable; confused &c. (indistinct) 447; mystic, oracular; dazed.
perplexing &c. v.; enigmatic, paradoxical, apocryphal, problematical,
hypothetical; experimental &c. 463.
fallible, questionable, precarious, slippery, ticklish, debatable,
disputable; unreliable, untrustworthy.
contingent, contingent on, dependent on; subject to; dependent on
circumstanees; occasional; provisional.
unauthentic, unauthenticated, unauthoritative; unascertained,
unconfirmed; undemonstrated; untold, uncounted.
in a state of uncertainty, in a cloud, in a maze; bushed, off the
track; ignorant.&c. 491; afraid to say; out of one's reckoning, astray,
adrift; at sea, at fault, at a loss, at one's wit's end, at a nonplus;
puzzled &c. v.; lost, abroad, d‚sorient‚; distracted, distraught.
Adv. pendente lite; sub spe rati.
Phr. Heaven knows; who can tell? who shall decide when doctors
disagree? ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces.

<-- p. 137 -->


#476. Reasoning, -- N. {ant. 477} reasoning ratiocination rationalism;
dialectics, induction, generalization.
discussion, comment; ventilation; inquiry &c. 461.
argumentation, controversy, debate; polemics, wrangling; contention
&c. 720 logomachy; disputation, disceptation; paper war.
art of reasoning, logic.
process of reasoning, train of reasoning, chain of reasoning;
deduction, induction; synthesis, analysis.
argument; case, plaidoyer, opening; lemma, proposition, terms,
premises, postulate, data, starting point, principle; inference &c.
(judgment) 480.
prosyllogism, syllogism; enthymeme, sorites, dilemma, perilepsis, a
priori reasoning, reductio ad absurdum, horns of a dilemma, argumentum ad
hominem[Lat.], comprehensive argument; empirema, epagoge.
reasoner, logician, dialectician; disputant; controversialist,
controvertist; wrangler, arguer, debater polemic, casuist, rationalist;
scientist; eristic.
logical sequence; good case; correct just reasoning, sound reasoning,
valid reasoning, cogent reasoning, logical reasoning, forcible reasoning,
persuasive reasoning, persuasory reasoning, consectary reasoning|,
conclusive &c. 478 ; subtle reasoning; force of argument, strong point,
strong argument.
arguments, reasons, pros and cons.
V. reason, argue, discuss, debate, dispute, wrangle- argufy, bandy
words, bandy arguments; chop logic; hold an argument, carry on an argument;
controvert &c. (deny) 536; canvass; comment upon, moralize upon;
spiritualize; consider &c. (examine) 461.
open a discussion, open a case; try conclusions; join issue, be at
issue; moot; come to the point; stir a question, agitate a question,
ventilate a question, torture a question; take up a side, take up a case.
contend, take one's stand upon, insist, lay stress on; infer &c. 480.
follow from &c. (demonstration) 478.
Adj. reasoning &c. v.; rationalistic; argumentative, controversial,
dialectic, polemical; discursory, discursive; disputatious; Aristotelian,
eristic, eristical.
debatable, controvertible.
logical; relevant &c. 23.
Adv. for, because, hence, whence, seeing that, since, sith, then
thence so; for that reason, for this reason, for which reason; for as,
inasmuch as; whereas, ex concesso, considering, in consideration of;
therefore, wherefore; consequently, ergo, thus, accordingly; a fortiori.
in conclusion, in fine; finally, after all, au bout du compt, on the
whole, taking one thing with another.
Phr. ab actu ad posse valet consecutio; per troppo dibatter la verita
si perde; troppo disputare la verita fa errare.

#477. [The absence of reasoning.] Intuition. [.False or vicious
reasoning; show of reason.] Sophistry. -- N. {ant. 476} intuition,
instinct, association; presentiment; rule of thumb.
sophistry, paralogy, perversion, casuistry, jesuitry, equivocation,
evasion; chicane, chicanery; quiddet, quiddity; mystification; special
pleading; speciousness &c. adj.; nonsense &c. 497; word-fence, tongue-
false reasoning, vicious reasoning; petitio principii, ignoratio
elenchi; post hoc ergo propter hoc; non sequitur, ignotum per ignotius.
misjudgment &c. 481; false teaching &c. 538.
sophism, solecism, paralogism; quibble, quirk, elenchus, elench,
fallacy, quod-libet, subterfuge, subtlety, quillet; inconsistency,
antilogy; " a delusion, a mockery, and a snare " [Denman]; claptrap, mere
words; " lame and impotent conclusion " [Othello].
meshes of sophistry, cobwebs of sophistry; flaw in an argument; weak
point, bad case.
overrefinement; hairsplitting &c. v.
V. judge intuitively, judge by intuition; hazard a proposition,
hazard a guess, talk at random.
reason ill, reason falsely &c. adj.; misjudge &c. 481; paralogize.
pervert, quibble; equivocate, mystify, evade, elude; gloss over,
varnish; misteach &c. 538; mislead & . (error) 495; cavil, refine,
subtilie, split airs; misrepresent &c. (lie) 544.
beg the question, reason in a circle, cut blocks with a razor, beat
about the bush, play fast and loose, blow hot and cold, prove that black is
white and white black, travel out of the record, parler d tort et a
travers, put oneself out of court, not have a leg to stand on.
Adj. intuitive, instinctive, impulsive; independent of reason,
anterior to reason; gratuitous, hazarded; unconnected.
unreasonable, illogical, false, unsound, invalid; unwarranted, not
following; inconsequent, inconsequential; inconsistent; absonous|,
absonant; unscientific; untenable, inconclusive, incorrect; fallacious,
fallible; groundless, unproved.
deceptive, sophistical jesuitical; illusive, illusory; specious,
hollow, plausible, ad captandum., evasive; irrelevant &c. 10.
weak, feeble, poor, flimsy, loose, vague, irrational; nonsensical &c.
(absurd) 497; foolish &c. (imbecile) 499; frivolous, pettifogging,
quibbling; finespun, overrefined.
at the end of one's tether, au bout de son latin.
Adv. intuitively &c. adj.; by intuition; illogically &c. adj.
Phr. non constat; that goes for nothing.

<-- p. 138 -->

#478. Demonstration. -- N. {ant. 479} demonstration, proof;
conclusiveness &c. adj.; apodeixis, apodixis, probation, comprobation|.
logic of facts &c. (evidence) 467; experimentum crucis &c. (test) 463;
argument &c. 476; rigorous establishment, absolute establishment.
V. demonstrate, prove, establish; make good; show, evince, manifest
&c. (be evidence of) 467; verify &c. 467 settle the question, reduce to
demonstration, set the question at rest.
make out, make out a case; prove one's point, have the best of the
argument; draw a conclusion &c. (judge) 480.
follow, follow of course; stand to reason; hold good, hold water.
Adj. demonstrating &c. v., demonstrative, demonstrable; probative,
unanswerable, conclusive; apodeictic, apodeictical; irresistible,
irrefutable, irrefragable.
categorical, decisive, crucial.
demonstrated &c. v.; proven; unconfuted, unanswered, unrefuted;
evident &c. 474.
deducible, consequential, consectary, inferential, following.
Adv. of course, in consequence, consequently, as a matter of course.
Phr. probatum est; there is nothing more to be said, Q.E.D., it must
follow; exitus acta probat.

#479. Confutation. -- N. {ant 478} confutation, refutation; answer,
complete answer; disproof, conviction, redargution, invalidation; exposure,
exposition; clincher; retort; reductio ad absurdum; knock down argument, tu
quoque argument; sockdolager * [U. S.].
V. confute, refute, disprove; parry, negative, rebut, redargue,
expose, show the fallacy of, defeat; demolish, break &c. (destroy) 162;
overthrow, overturn scatter to the winds, explode, invalidate; silence; put
to silence, reduce to silence; clinch an argument, clinch a question; give
one a setdown, stop the mouth, shut up; have, have on the hip.
not leave a leg to stand on, cut the ground from under one's feet.
be confuted &c.; fail; expose one's weak point, show one's weak point.
Adj. confuting, confuted, &c. v.; capable of refutation; refutable,
condemned on one's own showing,condemned out of one's own mouth.
Phr. the argument falls to the ground, cadit quaestio, it does not
hold water, " suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo" [Terence].


#480. Judgment. [Conclusion.] -- N. result, conclusion, upshot;
deduction, inference, ergotism|, illation; corollary, porism; moral.
estimation, valuation, appreciation, judication; dijudication,
adjudication; arbitrament, arbitrement, arbitration; assessment,
ponderation; valorization.
award, estimate; review, criticism, critique, notice, report.
decision, determination, judgment, finding, verdict, sentence, decree;
res judicata.
plebiscite, voice, casting vote; vote &c. (choice) 609; opinion &c.
(belief) 484; good judgment &c. (wisdom) 498.
judge, umpire; arbiter, arbitrator; assessor, referee; censor,
reviewer, critic; connoisseur; commentator &c. 524; inspector, inspecting
V. judge, conclude; come to a conclusion, draw a conclusion, arrive at
a conclusion; ascertain, determine, make up one's mind.
deduce, derive, gather, collect, draw an inference, make a deduction,
weet|, ween.
form an estimate, estimate, appreciate, value, count, assess, rate,
rank, account; regard, consider, think of; look upon &c. (believe) 484;
review; size up
settle; pass an opinion, give an opinion; decide, try, pronounce rule;
pass judgment, pass sentence; sentence., doom; find; give judgment, deliver
judgment; adjudge, adjudicate; arbitrate, award, report; bring in a
verdict; make absolute, set a question at rest; confirm &c. .(assent) 488.
comment, criticize; pass under review &c. (examine) 457; investigate
&c. (inquire) 461.
hold the scales, sit in judgment; try a cause, hear a cause.
Adj. judging &c. v.; judicious &c. (wise) 498; determinate,
Adv. on the whole, all things considered.
Phr. " a Daniel come to judgment " [Merchant of Venice]; " and stand a
critic, hated yet caress'd " [Byron]; " it is much easier to be critical
than to be correct " [Disreeli]; la critique est aisl‚e et l'art est
difficile; " nothing if not critical " [Othello]; " O most lame and
impotent conclusion " [Othello].

#480a. [Result of search or inquiry.] Discovery. -- N. discovery,
detection, disenchantment; ascertainment, disclosure, find, revelation.
trover &c. 775.
V. discover, find, determine, evolve; fix upon; find out, trace out,
make out, hunt out, fish out, worm out, ferret out, root out; fathom; bring
out, draw out; educe, elicit, bring to light; dig up, grub up, fish up;
unearth, disinter.
solve, resolve; unriddle, unravel, unlock; pick the lock, open the
lock; find a clue, find a clew to; interpret &c. 522; disclose &c. 529.
trace, get at; hit it, have it; lay one's finger upon, lay one's hands
upon; spot; get at the truth, arrive at the truth &c. 494; put the saddle
on the right horse, hit the right nail an the head, hit the nail an the
be near the truth, burn; smoke, seent, sniff, smell a rat.
open the eyes to; see through, see daylight, see in its true colors,
see the cloven foot; detect; catch, catch tripping.
pitch upon, fall upon, light upon, hit upon, stumble upon, pop upon;
come across; meet with, fall in with.
recognize, realize, verify, make certain of, identify.
Int. eureka!

<-- p. 139 -->

#481. Misjudgment. -- N. misjudgment, obliquity of judgment;
miscalculation, miscomputation, misconception &c. (error) 495; hasty
[causes of misjudgment. 1] prejudgment, prejudication, prejudice;
foregone conclusion; prenotion, prevention, preconception, predilection,
prepossession, preapprehension, presumption, presentiment; fixed idea,
preconceived idea; id‚e fixe; mentis gratissimus error; fool's paradise.
[causes of misjudgment.2] esprit de corps, party spirit, partisanship,
clannishness, prestige.
[causes of misjudgment. 3] bias, warp, twist; hobby, fad, quirk,
crotchet, partiality, infatuation, blind side, mote in the eye.
[casuses of misjudgent. 4] one-sided views, partial views, narrow
views, confined views, superficial views, one-sided ideas, partial ideas,
narrow ideas, confined ideas, superficial ideas, one-sided conceptions,
partial conceptions, narrow conceptions, confined conceptions, superficial
conceptions, one-sided notions, partial notions, narrow notions, confined
notions, superficial notions; narrow mind; bigotry &c. (obstinacy) 606;
odium theologicum; pedantry; hypercriticism.
doctrinaire &c. (positive) 474.
V. misjudge, misestimate, misthink, misconjecture, misconceive &c.
(error) 495; fly in the face of facts; miscalculate, misreckon, miscompute.
overestimate &c. 482; underestimate &c. 483.
prejudge, forejudge; presuppose, presume, prejudicate; dogmatize; have
a bias &c. n.; have only one idea; jurare in verba magistri, run away with
the notion; jump to a conclusion, rush to a conclusion; look only at one
side of the shield; view with jaundiced eye, view through distorting
spectacles; not see beyond one's nose; dare pondus fumo; get the wrong sow
by the ear &c. (blunder) 699.
give a bias, give a twist; bias, warp, twist; prejudice, prepossess.
Adj. misjudging &c. v.; ill-judging, wrong-headed; prejudiced &c. v.;
jaundiced; shortsighted, purblind; partial, one-sided, superficial.
narrow-minded, narrow-souled; mean-spirited; confined, illiberal,
intolerant, besotted, infatuated, fanatical, entgtg, positive, dogmatic,
conceited; opinative, opiniative; opinioned, opinionate, opinionative,
opinionated; self-opinioned, wedded to an opinion, opiniƒtre; bigoted &c.
(obstinate) 606; crotchety, fussy, impracticable; unreasonable, stupid &c.
499; credulous &c 486; warped.
misjudged &c. v.
Adv. ex parte.
Phr. nothing like leather; the wish the father to the thought.

<-- p. 140 -->

#482. Overestimation. -- N. overestimation &c. v.; exaggeration &c.
549; vanity &c. 880; optimism, pessimism, pessimist. much cry and little
wool, much ado about nothing,; storm in a teacup; fine talking.
V. overestimate, overrate, overvalue, overprize, overweigh,
overreckon, overstrain, overpraise; eulogize; estimate too highly, attach
too much importance to, make mountains of molellills, catch at straws;
strain, magnify; exaggerate &c. 549; set too high a value upon; think much
of, make much of, think too much of, make too much of; outreckon;
extol, extol to the skies; make the most of, make the best of, make
hte worst of; make two bites of a cherry.
have too high an opinion of oneself &c. (vanity) 880.
Adj. overestimated &c. v.; oversensitive &c. (sensibility) 822.
Phr. all his geese are swans; parturiunt montes.

#483. Underestimation. -- N. underestimation; depreciation &c.
(detraction) 934; pessimism, pessimist; undervaluing &c. v.; modesty &c.
V. underrate, underestimate, undervalue, underreckon; depreciate;
disparage &c. (detract) 934; not do justice to; misprize, disprize;
ridicule &c. 856; slight &c. (despise) 930; neglect &c. 460; slur over.
make light of, make little of, make nothing of, make no account of;
belittle; minimize, think nothing of; set no store by, set at naught; shake
off as dewdrops from the lion's mane.
Adj. depreciating, depreciated &c. v.; unvalued, unprized.

#484. Belief. -- N. belief; credence; credit; assurance; faith, trust,
troth, confidence, presumption, sanguine expectation &c. (hope) 858;
dependence on, reliance on.
persuasion, conviction, convincement, plerophory, self-conviction;
certainty &c. 474; opinion, mind, view; conception, thinking; impression
&c. (idea) 453; surmise &c. 514; conclusion &c. (judgment) 480.
tenet, dogma, principle, way of thinking; popular belief &c. (assent)
firm belief, implicit belief, settled belief, fixed rooted deep-rooted
belief, staunch belief, unshaken belief, steadfast belief, inveterate
belief, calm belief, sober belief, dispassionate belief, impartial belief,
well-founded belief, firm opinion, implicit opinion, settled opinion, fixed
rooted deep-rooted opinion, staunch opinion, unshaken opinion, steadfast
opinion, inveterate opinion, calm opinion, sober opinion, dispassionate
opinion, impartial opinion, well-founded opinion &c.; uberrima fides.
system of opinions, school, doctrine, articles, canons; article of
faith, declaration of faith, profession of faith; tenets, credenda, creed;
thirty-nine articles &c. (orthodoxy) 983a; catechism; assent &c. 488;
propaganda &c. (teaching) 537.
credibility &c. (probability) 472.
V. believe, credit; give faith to, give credit to, credence to; see,
realize; assume, receive; set down for, take for; have it, take it;
consider, esteem, presume.

<-- p. 141 -->

#485. Unbelief. Doubt.-- N. unbelief, disbelief, misbelief; discredit,
miscreance; infidelity &c. (irreligion) 989; dissent &c. 489; change of
opinion &c. 484; retractation &c. 607.
doubt &c. (uncertainty) 475; skepticism, misgiving, demure; distrust,
mistrust; misdoubt, suspicion, jealousy, scruple, qualm; onus probandi.
incredibility, incredibleness; incredulity.
unbeliever &c. 487.
V. disbelieve, discredit; not believe &c. 484; misbelieve; refuse to
admit &c. (dissent) 489; refuse to believe &c. (incredulity) 487.
doubt; be doubtful & c. (uncertain) 475; doubt the truth of; be
skeptical as to &c. adj.; diffide|; distrust, mistrust; suspect, smoke,
scent, smell a rat; have doubts, harbor doubts, entertain doubts,
suspicions; have one's doubts.
demure, stick at, pause, hesitate, scruple; stop to consider, waver.
hang in suspense, hang in doubt.
throw doubt upon, raise a question; bring in, call in question;
question, challenge, dispute; deny &c. 536; cavil; cause a doubt, raise a
doubt, start a doubt, suggest a doubt, awake a doubt, make suspicion;
startle, stagger; shake one's faith, shake one's belief, stagger one's
faith, stagger one's belief.
Adj. unbelieving; incredulous as to, skeptical as to; distrustful as
to, shy as to, suspicious of; doubting &c. v.
doubtful &c. (uncertain) 475; disputable; unworthy of, undeserving of
belief &c. 484; questionable; suspect, suspicious; open to suspicion, open
to doubt; staggering, hard to believe, incredible, not to be believed,
fallible &c. (uncertain) 475; undemonstrable; controvertible &c.
(untrue) 495.
Adv. cum grano salis[Latin: with a grain of salt]; with grains of
Phr. fronti nulla fides; nimium ne crede colori [Vergil]; "timeo
Danaos et dona ferentes" [Vergil]; credat Judaeus Apella [Horace]; let
those believe who may; ad tristem partem stenua est suspicio [Syrus].

#486. Credulity. -- N. credulity, credulousness &c. adj.; gullible,
cullibility; gross credulity, infatuation; self delusion, self deception;
superstition; one's blind side; bigotry &c. (obstinacy) 606; hyperorthodoxy
&c. 984; misjudgment &c. 481.
credulous person &c (dupe) 547.
V. be credulous &c. adj.; jurare in verba magistri; follow implicitly;
swallow, gulp down; take on trust; take for granted, take for gospel; run
away with a notion, run away with an idea; jump to a conclusion, rush to a
conclusion; think the moon is made of green cheese; take for granted, grasp
the shadow for the substance; catch at straws.
impose upon &c. (deceive) 545.
Adj. credulous, gullible; easily deceived &c. 545; simple, green,
soft, childish, silly, stupid; easily convinced; over-credulous, over
confident, over trustful; infatuated, superstitious; confiding &c.
(believing) 484.
Phr. the wish the father to the thought; credo quia impossibile
[Tertullian]; all is not gold that glitters; no es oro todo lo que reluce;
omne ignotum pro magnifico.

<-- p. 142 -->

#487. Incredulity.-- N. incredulousness, incredulity; skepticism,
pyrrhonism|!; want of faith &c. (irreligion) 989.
suspiciousness &c. adj.; scrupulosity; suspicion &c. (unbelief) 485.
unbeliever, skeptic; misbeliever.1, pyrrhonist; heretic &c.
(heterodox) 984.
V. be incredulous &c. adj.; distrust &c. (disbelieve) 485; refuse to
believe; shut one's eyes to, shut one's ears to; turn a deaf ear to; hold
aloof, ignore, nullis jurare in verba magistri.
Adj. incredulous, skeptical, unbelieving, inconvincible; hard of
belief, shy of belief, disposed to doubt, indisposed to believe;
suspicious, scrupulous, distrustful.

1The word miscreant, which origianlly meant simply misbeliever, has now
quite another meaning (949). See Trench, On the Study of Words, p. 71.

#488. Assent. -- N. assent, assentment; acquiescence, admission; nod;
accord, concord, concordance; agreement &c. 23; affirmance, affirmation;
recognition, acknowledgement, avowal; confession of faith.
unanimity, common consent, consensus, acclamation, chorus, vox populi;
popular belief, current belief, current opinion; public opinion;
concurrence &c. (of causes) 178; cooperation &c. (voluntary) 709.
ratification, confirmation, corroboration, approval, acceptance, visa;
indorsement &c. (record) 551.
consent &c. (compliance) 762.
V. assent; give assent, yield assent, nod assent; acquiesce; agree &c.
23; receive, accept, accede, accord, concur, lend oneself to, consent,
coincide, reciprocate, go with; be at one with &c. adj.; go along wth,
chime in with, strike in with, close in with; echo, enter into one's views,
agree in opinion; vote, give one's voice for; recognize; subscribe to,
conform to, defer to; say yes to, say ditto, amen to, say aye to.
acknowledge, own, admit, allow, avow, confess; concede &c. (yield)
762; come round to; abide by; permit &c. 760.
arrive at an understanding, come to an understanding, come to terms,
come to an agreement.
confirm, affirm; ratify, appprove, indorse, countersign; corroborate
&c. 467.
go with the stream, swim with the stream; be in fashion, join in the
chorus; be in every mouth.
Adj. assenting &c. v; of one accord, of one mind; of the same mind, at
one with, agreed, acquiescent, content; willing &c. 602.
uncontradicted, unchallenged, unquestioned, uncontroverted.
carried, agreed nem. con. &c. adv.; unanimous; agreed on all hands,
carried by acclamation.
affirmative &c. 535.
Adv. yes, yea, ay, aye, true; good; well; very well, very true; well
and good; granted; even so, just so; to be sure, "thou hast said"; truly,
exactly, precisely, that's just it, indeed, certainly, certes|!, ex
concesso; of course, unquestionably, assuredly, no doubt, doubtless.
be it so; so be it, so let it be; amen; willingly &c. 602.
affirmatively, in the affirmative.
with one consent, with one voice, with one accord; unanimously, una
voce, by comon consent, in chorus, to a man, nem. con.; nemine
contradicente, nemine dissentiente; without a dissentient voice; as one
man, one and all, on all hands.
Phr. avec plaisir; chi tace accousente; "the public mind is the
creation of the Master-Writers" [Disraeli].

#489. Dissent.-- N. dissent; discordance &c. (disagreement) 24;
difference diversity of opinion.
nonconformity &c. (heterodoxy) 984; protestantism, recusancy, schism;
disaffection; secession &c. 624; recantation &c. 607.
dissension &c (discord) 713; discontent &c. 832; cavilling.
protest; contradiction &c (denial) 536; noncompliance &c (rejection)
dissentient, dissenter; non-juror, non-content, nonconformist;
sectary, separatist, recusant, schismatic, protestant, heretic.
V. dissent, demur; call in question &c. (doubt) 485; differ in
opinion, disagree; say no &c. 536; refuse assent, refuse to admit; cavil,
protest, raise one's voice against, repudiate; contradict &c. (deny) 536.
have no notion of, differ toto caelo; revolt at, revolt from the idea.
shake the head, shrug the shoulders; look askance, look askant.
secede; recant &c. 607.
Adj. dissenting &c. v; negative &c. 536; dissident, disentient;
unconsenting &c. (refusing) 764; non-content, nonjuring; protestant,
recusant; unconvinced, unconverted.
unavowed, unacknowledged; out of the question.
discontented &c. 832; unwilling &c. 603; extorted.
sectarian, denominational, schismatic; heterodox; intolerant.
Adv. no &c. 536; at variance, at issue with; under protest.
Int. God forbid! not for the world; I'll be hanged if; never tell me;
your humble servant, pardon me.
Phr. many men many minds; quot homines tot sententiae [Terence]; tant
s'en faut; il s'en faut bien.

<-- p. 143 -->

#490. Knowledge.-- N. knowledge; cognizance, cognition, cognoscence|;
acquaintance, experience, ken, privity, insight, familiarity;
comprehension, apprehension; recognition; appreciation &c. (judgment) 480;
intuition; conscience, consciousness; perception, precognition;
light, enlightenment; glimpse, inkling; glimmer, glimmering; dawn;
scent, suspicion; impression &c. (idea) 453; discovery &c. 480a.
system of knowledge, body of knowledge; science, philosophy, pansophy;
acroama|!; theory, aetiology; circle of the sciences; pandect, doctrine,
body of doctrine; cyclopedia, encyclopedia; school &c. (system of opinions)
tree of knowldge; republic of letters &c. (language) 560.
erudition, learning, lore, scholarship, reading, letters; literature;
book madness; book learning, bookishness; bibliomania, bibliolatry;
information, general information; store of knowledge &c.; education &c.
(teaching) 537; culture, menticulture, attainments; acquirements,
acquisitions; accomplishments; proficiency; practical knowledge &c. (skill)
698; liberal education; dilettantism; rudiments &c (beginning) 66.
deep knowledge, profound knowledge, solid knowledge, accurate
knowledge, acroatic knowledge, acroamatic knowledge, vast knowledge,
extensive knowledge, encyclopedic knowledge, encyclopedic learning;
omniscience, pantology.
march of intellect; progress of science, advance of science, advance
of learning; schoolmaster abroad.
V. know, ken, scan, wot; wot aware, be aware &c. adj.- of; ween, weet,
trow, have, possess.
conceive; apprehend, comprehend; take, realize, understand, savvy*
[U.S.], appreciate; fathom, make out; recognize, discern, perceive, see,
get a sight-of, experience.
know full well; have some knowledge of, possess some knowledge of; be
au courant &c. adj.; have in one's head, have at one' fingers ends; know by
heart, know by rote; be master of; connaitre le dessous des cartes, know
what's what &c. 698.
see one's way; discover &c. 480a.
come to one's knowledge &c. (information) 527.
Adj. knowing &c. v.; cognitive; acromatic.
aware of, cognizant of, conscious of; acquainted with, made acquainted
with; privy to, no stranger to; au -fait, au courant; in the secret; up to,
alive to; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; let into; apprized of,
informed of; undeceived.
proficient with, versed with, read with, forward with, strong with, at
home in; conversant with, familiar with.
erudite, instructed, leaned, lettered, educated; well conned, well
informed, well read, well grounded, well educated; enlightened, shrewd,
savant, blue, bookish, scholastic, solid, profound, deep-read, book-
learned; accomplished &c (skillful) 698; omniscient; self-taught.
known &c. v.; ascertained, well-known, recognized, received,
notorious, noted; proverbial; familiar, familiar as household words,
familiar to every schoolboy; hackneyed, trite, commonplace.
cognoscible, cognizable.
Adv. to one's knowledge, to the best of one's knowledge.
Phr. one's eyes being opened &c. (disclosure) 529; ompredre tout c'est
tout pardonner[French: to know all is to pardon all]; empta dolore docet
experientia;; "half our knowledge we must snatch not
take" [Pope]; Jahre lehren mehr als Bucher[German: years teach more than
books]; "knowledge comes but wisdom lingers"[Tennyson]; "knowledge is
power" [Bacon]; les affaires font les hommes; nec scire fas est omnia
[Horace]; "the amassed thought and experience of innumerable minds"
[Emerson]; was ich nicht weiss macht mich nicht heiss.

<-- p. 144 -->

#491. Ignorance. -- N. ignorance, nescience, tabula rasa, crass
ignorance, ignorance crasse; unacquaintance; unconsciousness &c. adj.;
darkness, blindness; incomprehension, inexperience, simplicity.
unknown quantities, x, y, z.
sealed book, terra incognita, virgin soil, unexplored ground; dark
[Imperfect knowledge] smattering, sciolism, glimmering; bewilderment
&c. (uncertainty) 475; incapacity.
[Affectation of knowledge] pedantry; charlatanry, charlatism;
Philister, Philistine.
V. be ignorant &c. adj.; not know &c. 490; know not, know not what,
know nothing of; have no idea, have no notion, have no conception; not have
the remotest idea; not know chalk from cheese.
ignore, be blind to; keep in ignorance &c. (conceal) 528.
see through a glass darkly; have a film over the eyes, -glimmering &c.
n.; wonder whether; not know what to make of &c. (unintelligibility) 519;
not pretend to take upon, not take upon one self to say.
Adj. ignorant; nescient; unknowing, unaware, unacquainted, unapprized,
unwitting, unweeting|, unconscious; witless, weetless; a stranger to;
uninformed, uncultivated, unversed, uninstructed, untaught,
uninitiated, untutored, unschooled, misguided, unenglightened; -
Phillistine; behind the age.
shallow, superficial, green, rude, empty, half-learned, illiterate;
unread, uninformed, uneducated, unlearned, unlettered, unbookish; empty-
headed; pedantic;
in the dark; benighted, belated; blinded, blindfolded; hoodwinked;
misinformed; au bout de son latin, at the end of his tether, at fault; at
sea &c. (uncertain) 475; caught tripping.
unknown, unapprehended, unexplained, unascertained, uninvestigated,
unexplored, unheard of, not perceived; concealed &c. 528; novel.
Adv. ignorantly &c. adj.; unawares; for anything, for aught one knows;
not that one knows.
Int. God knows, Heaven knows, the Lord knows, nobody knows.
Phr. "ignorance never settles a question" [Disraeli]; quantum animis
erroris inest! [Ovid]; "small Latin and less Greek" [B. Jonson]; "that
unlettered small-knowing soul" [Love's Labor's Lost!]; "there is no
darkness but ignorance" [Twelfth NIght].

#492. Scholar.-- N. scholar, connoisseur, savant, pundit, schoolman,
professor, graduate, wrangler; academician, academist; master of arts,
doctor, licentitate, gownsman; philosopher, master of math; scientist,
clerk; sophist, sophister; linguist; glosso-linguist, philologist;
philologer; lexico-grapher, glosso-grapher; grammarian; litterateur,
literati, dilettanti, illuminati; fellow, Hebraist, lexicologist, mullah,
munshi, Sanskritish; sinologist, sinologue; Mezzofanti, admirable Crichton,
bookworm, helluo librorum; bibliophile, bibliomaniac; bluestocking,
bas-bleu; bigwig, learned Theban, don; Artium Baccalaureus, Artium
learned man, literary man; homo multarum literarum; man of learning,
man of letters, man of education, man of genius.
antiquarian, antiquary; archaeologist.
sage &c. (wise man) 500.
pedant, doctrinaire; pedagogue, Dr. Pangloss; pantologist,
schoolboy &c. (learner) 541.
Adj. learned &c. 490; brought up at the feet of Gamaliel.
Phr. "he was a scholar and a ripe and good one" [Henry VIII]; "the
manifold linguist" [All's Well That Ends Well].

#493. Ignoramus.-- N. ignoramus, dunce; wooden spoon; no scholar.
sciolist, smatterer, dabbler, half scholar; charlatan; wiseacre.
greenhorn &c (dupe) 547; novice, tyro &c (learner) 541; numskull.
lubber &c (bungler) 701; fool &c. 501; pedant &c 492.
Adj. bookless, shallow; ignorant &c. 491.
Phr. "a wit with dunces and a dunce with wits" [Pope].

<-- p. 145 -->

#494. [Object of knowlege.] Truth. -- N. fact, reality &c.
(existence) 1; plain matter of fact; nature &c. (principle) 5; truth,
verity; gospel; orthodoxy &c. 983a; authenticity; veracity &c. 543;
accuracy, exactitude; exactness, preciseness &c. adj.; precision,
delicacy; rigor, mathematical precision, punctuality; clockwork precision
&c. (regularity) 80; conformity to rule; nicety.
orthology; ipsissima verba; realism.
plain truth, honest truth, sober truth, naked truth, unalloyed truth,
unqualified truth, stern truth, exact truth, intrinsic truth; nuda veritas;
the very thing; not an -illusion &c 495; real Simon Pure; unvarnished tale;
the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth; just the thing.
V. be - true &c. adj., be the case; sand the test; have the true ring;
hold good, hold true, hold water.
render true, prove true &c. adj.; substantiate &c. (evidence) 467.
get at the truth &c. (discover) 480a.
Adj. real, actual &c. (existing) 1; veritable, true; right, correct;
certain &c. 474; substantially true, categorically true &c; true to the
letter, true as gospel; unimpeachable; veracious &c. 543; unreconfuted,
unconfuted; unideal, unimagined; realistic.
exact, accurate, definite, precise, well-defined, just; strict,
severe; close &c. (similar) 17; literal; rigid, rigorous; scrupulous &c.
(conscientious) 939; religiously exact, punctual, mathematical, scientific;
faithful, constant, unerring; curious, particular, nice, delicate, fine;
clean-cut, clear-cut.
genuine, authentic, legitimate; othodox &c. 983a; official, ex
pure, natural, sound, sterling; unsophisticated, unadulterated,
unvarnished, uncolored; in its true colors; pukka.
well-grounded, well founded; solid, substantial, tangible, valid;
undistorted, undisguised; unaffected, unexaggerated, unromantic,
Adv. truly &c. adj.; verily, indeed, in reality; with truth &c.
(veracity) 543; certainly &c. (certain) 474; actually &c. (existence) 1; in
effect &c (intrinsically) 5.
exactly &c. adj.; ad amussim; verbatim, verbatim et literatim; word
for word, literally, literatim, totidem vervis, sic, to the letter, chapter
and verse, ipsissimis verbis; ad unguem; to an inch; to a nicety, to a
hair, to a tittle, to a turn, to a T; au pied de la lettre; neither more
nor less; in every respect, in all respects; sous tous les rapports; at any
rate, at all events; strictly speaking.
Phr. the -truth, the fact- is; rem acu tetigisti; en suivant la
verite; ex facto jus oritur; la verita e figlia del empo; locos y ninos
dicen la verdad; nihil est veritatis luce dulcius [Cicero]; veritas nunquam
perit [Seneca]; veritatem dies aperit [Seneca]; the truth the whole truth
and nothing but the truth; just the facts.

#495. Error. -- N. error, fallacy; misconception, misapprehension,
misstanding, misunderstanding; inexactness &c. adj.; laxity;
misconstruction &c. (misinterpreptation) 523; miscomputation &c.
(misjudgment) 481; non sequitur &c. 477; mis-statement, mis-report;
mistake; miss, fault, blunder, quiproquo, cross purposes, oversight,
misprint, erratum, corrigendum, slip, blot, flaw, loose thread; trip,
stumble &c. (failure) 732; botchery &c. (want of skill) 699; slip of the
tongue, slip of the pen; lapsus linguae, clerical error; bull &c.
(absurdity) 497; haplography.
illusion, delusion; false impression, false idea; bubble; self-decit,
self-deception; mists of error.
heresy &c. (heterodoxy) 984; hallucination &c. (insanity) 503; false
light &c. (fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c. (fancy) 515; fable &c.
(untruth) 546; bias &c. (misjudgment) 481; misleading &c. v.
V. be erroneous &c. adj.
cause error; mislead, misguide; lead astray, lead into error; beguile,
misinform &c. (misteach) 538; delude; give a false impression, give a false
idea; falsify, misstate; deceive &c. 545; lie &c. 544.
err; be -in error &c. adj., be mistaken &c. v.; be deceived &c.
(duped) 547; mistake, receive a false impression, deceive oneself; fall
into error, lie under error, labor under an error &c. n.; be in the wrong,
blunder; misapprehend, misconceive, misunderstand, misreckon, miscount,
miscalculate &c. (misjudge) 481.
play at cross purposes , be at cross purposes &c. (misinterpret) 523.
trip, stumble; lose oneself &c. (uncertainty) 475; go astray; fail &c.
732; be in the wrong box; take the wrong sow by the ear &c. (mismanage)
699; put the saddle on the wrong horse; reckon without one's host; take the
shadow for the substance &c (credulity) 486; dream &c (imagine) 515.
Adj. erroneous, untrue, false, devoid of truth, fallacious,
apocryphal, unreal, ungrounded, groundless; unsubstantial &c. 4; heretical
&c. (heterodox) 984; unsound; illogical &c. 477.
inexact, unexact inaccurate, incorrect; indefinite &c. (uncertain)
illusive, illusory; delusive; mock, ideal &c (imaginary) 515; spurious
&c. 545; deceitful &c. 544; perverted.
controvertible, unsustainable; unauthenticated, untrustworthy.
exploded, refuted; discarded.
in error, under an error &c. n.; mistaken &c. v.; tripping &c. v.;
out, out in one's reckoning; aberrant; beside the mark, wide of the mark,
wide of the truth; astray &c (at fault) 475; on a false scent, on the wrong
scent; in the wrong box; at cross purposes, all in the wrong; all out.
Adv. more or less.
Phr. errare est humanum; mentis gratissimus error [Horace]; "on the
dubious waves of error tost" [Cowper]; "to err is human, to forgive divine"
[Pope]; "you lie -- under a mistake" [Shelley].

<-- p. 146 -->

#496. Maxim.-- N. maxim, aphorism; apothegm, apophthegm; dictum,
saying, adage, saw, proverb; sentence, mot, motto, word, byword, moral,
phylactery, protasis.
axiom, theorem, scholium, truism, postulate.
reflection &c (idea) 453; conclusion &c (judgment) 480; golden rule
&c. (precept) 697; principle, principia; profession of faith &c. (belief)
484; settled principle, formula.
wise maxim, sage maxim, received maxim, admitted maxim, recognized
maxim &c; true saying, common saying, hackneyed saying, trite saying,
commonplace saying &c.
Adj. aphoristic, proverbial, phylacteric; axiomatic, gnomic.
Adv. as the saying is, as they say.

#497. Absurdity. -- N. absurdity, absurdness &c. adj.; imbecility &c.
499; alogy|, nonsense; paradox, inconsistency; stultiloquy, stultiloquence;
blunder, muddle, bull; Irishism|!, Hibernicism|!; slipslop;
anticlimax, bathos; sophism &c. 477.
farce, galimathias, amphigouri, rhapsody; farrago &c (disorder) 59;
betise; extravagance, romance; sciamachy.
sell, pun, verbal quibble, macaronic.
jargon, fustian, twaddle &c (no meaning) 517; exaggeration &c 549;
moonshine, stuff; mare's nest, quibble, self-delusion.
vagary, tomfoolery, mummery, monkey trick, boutade, escapade.
V. play the fool &c. 499; talk nonsense, parler a tort et a travess;
battre la campagne; ; be absurd &c. adj.
Adj. absurd, nonsensical, preposterous, egregious, senseless,
inconsistent, ridiculous, extravagant, quibbling; self-annulling, self-
contradictory; macaronic, punning.
foolish &c. 499; sophistical &c. 477; unmeaning &c. 517; without rhyme
or reason; fantastic.
Int. fiddlededee! pish! pho! "in the name of the Prophet--figs!"
[Horace Smith].
Phr. credat Judaeus Apella [Horace]; tell it to the marines.

<-- p. 147 -->

#498. Intelligence. Wisdom. -- N. intelligence, capacity,
comprehension, understanding; cuteness, sabe * [U.S.], savvy * [U.S.];
intellect &c. 450; nous, parts, sagacity, mother wit, wit, esprit,
gumption, quick parts, grasp of intellect; acuteness &c adj.; acumen,
subtlety, penetration, perspicacy, perspicacity; discernment, due sense of,
good judgment; discrimination &c 465; cunning &c. 702; refinement &c
(taste) 850.
head, brains, headpiece, upper story, long head; eagle eye, eagle-
glance; eye of a lynx, eye of a hawk.
wisdom, sapience, sense; good sense, common sense, horse sense [U.S.],
plain sense; rationality, reason; reasonableness &c. adj; judgment;
solidity, depth, profundity, caliber; enlarged views; reach of thought,
compass of thought; enlargement of mind.
genius, inspiration, geist, fire of genius, heaven-born genius, soul;
talent &c. (aptitude) 698.
[Wisdom in action] prudence &c. 864; vigilance &c. 459; tact &c 698;
foresight &c 510; sobriety, self-possession, aplomb, ballast.
a bright thought, not a bad idea.
V. be -intelligent &c. adj.; have all one's wits about one; understand
&c. (intelligible) 518; catch an idea, take in an idea; take a joke, take
a hint.
see through, see at a glance, see with half an eye, see far into, see
through a millstone; penetrate; discern &c (descry) 441; foresee &c 510.
discriminate &c. 465; know what's what &c. 698; listen to reason.
Adj. [Applied to persons] intelligent, quick of apprehension, keen,
acute, alive, brainy, awake, bright, quick, sharp; quick witted, keen
witted, clear witted, sharp- eyed, sharp sighted, sharp witted; wide-awake;
canny, shrewd, astute; clear-headed; farsighted &c 510; discerning,
perspicacious, penetrating, piercing; argute; nimble-witted, needle-
witted; sharp as a needle; alive to &c (cognizant) 490; clever &c. (apt)
698; arch &c (cunning) 702; pas si bete; acute &c 682.
wise, sage, sapient, sagacious, reasonable, rational, sound, in one's
right mind, sensible, abnormis sapiens, judicious, strong-minded.
unprejudiced, unbiased, unbigoted, unprepossessed; undazzled,
unperplexed; unwarped judgment, impartial, equitable, fair.
cool; cool-headed, long-headed, hardheaded, strong-headed; long-
sighted, calculating, thoughtful, reflecting; solid, deep, profound.
oracular; heaven-directed, heaven-born.
prudent &c (cautious) 864; sober, stand, solid; considerate, politic,
wise in one's generation; watchful &c. 459; provident &c (prepared) 673; in
advance of one' age; wise as a serpent, wise as Solomon, wise as Solon.
[Applied to actions] wise, sensible, reasonable, judicious; well-
judged, well-advised; prudent, politic; expedient &c. 646.
Phr. aut regem aut fatuum nasci oportet; "but with the morning cool
reflection came" [Scott]; flosculi sententiarum; les affaires font les
hommes; mas vale saber que haber; mas vale ser necio que profiadol nemo
solus sapit [Plautus]; nosce te; ; nullum magnum
ingenium sine mixtura dementiae fuit [Seneca, from Aristotle]; sapere aude
[Horace]; victrix fortunae sapientia [Juvenal].

#499. Imbecility. Folly -- N. want of -intelligence &c. 498, want of -
intellect &c. 450; shadowness, silliness, foolishness &c. adj.; imbecility,
incapacity, vacancy of mind, poverty of intellect, clouded perception, poor
head, apartments to let; stupidity, stolidity; hebetude, dull
understanding, meanest capacity, shortsightedness; incompetence &c
(unskillfulness) 699.
one's weak side; bias &c 481; infatuation &c. (insanity) 503.
simplicity, puerility, babyhood; dotage, anility, second childishness,
fatuity; idocy, idotism; driveling.
folly, frivolity, irrationality, trifling, ineptitude, nugacity,
inconsistency, lip wisdom, conceit; sophistry &c. 477; giddiness &c
(inattention) 458; eccentricity &c. 503; extravagance &c (absurdity) 497;
rashness &c. 863.
act of folly &c. 699.
b. be - imbecile &c adj.; have no -brains, have no sense &c. 498.
trifle, drivel, radoter, dote; ramble &c (madness) 503; play the fool,
play the monkey; take leave of one's senses; not see an inch beyond one's
nose; stultify oneself &c. 699; talk nonsense &c. 497.
Adj. [Applied to persons] unintelligent, unintellectual, unreasoning;
mindless, witless, reasoningless, brainless; halfbaked; having no head &c.
498; not -bright &c. 498; inapprehensible.
weak headed, addle headed, puzzle headed, blunder headed, muddle
headed, muddy headed, pig headed, beetle headed, buffle headed, chuckle
headed, mutton headed, maggoty headed, grossheaded; beef headed, fat
witted, fat-headed.
weak-minded, feeble-minded; dull minded, shallow minded, lack-brained;
rattle-brained, rattle headed; half witted, lean witted, short witted, dull
witted, blund-witted, shallow-pated, clod-pated, addle-pated; dim-sighted,
short-sighted; thick-skulled; weak in the upper story.
shallow, borne, weak, wanting, soft, sappy, spoony; dull, dull as a
beetle; stupid, heavy, insulse, obtuse, blundt, stolid, doltish; asinine;
inapt &c. 699; prosaic &c. 843; hebetudinous.
childish, child-like; infantine, infantile, babyish, babish; puerile,
anile; simple &c. (credulous) 486; old-womanish.
fatuous, idiotic, imbecile, driveling; blatant, babbling; vacant;
sottish; bewildered &c.475.
blockish, unteachabel Baeotian, Baeotic; bovine; ungifted,
undiscerning, unenlightened, unwise, unphilosphical; apish; simious.
foolish, silly, senseless, irrational, insensate, nonsensical, inept;
narrow-minded &c. 481; bigoted &c. (obstinate) 606; giddy &c.
(thoughtless) 458; rash &c. 863; eccentric &c. (crazed) 503.
[Applied to actions] foolish, unwise, injudicious, improper,
unreasonable, without reason, ridiculous, silly, stupid, asinine; ill-
imagined, ill-advised, ill-judged, ill-devised; mal entendu; inconsistent,
irrational, unphilosophical; extravagant &c (nonsensical) 497; sleeveless,
idle; useless &c. 645; inexpedient &c. 647; frivolous &c. (trivial) 643.
Phr. Davus sum non (Edipus; "a fool's bolt is soon shot" [Henry V.]
clitellae bovi sunt impositae [Cicero]; "fools rush in where angels fear to
tread" [Pope]; il n' a ni bouche ni eperon; "the bookful blockhead,
ignorantly read" [Pope]; "to varnish nonsense with the charms of sound"

<-- p. 148 -->

#500. Sage -- N. sage, wise man; master mind, master spirit of the
age; longhead, thinker.
authority, oracle, luminary, shining light, esprit fort, magnus
Apollo, Solon, Solomon, Nestor, Magi, "second Daniel."
man of learning &c. 492; expert &c. 700; wizard &c. 994.
[Ironically] wiseacre, bigwig.
Adj. venerable, reverenced, emeritus.
Phr. barba tenus sapientes.

#501. Fool. -- N. fool, idiot, tomfool, wiseacre, simpleton, witling,
dizzard, donkey, ass; ninny, ninnyhammer; chowderhead, chucklehead; dolt,
booby, Tom Noddy, looby, hoddy-doddy, noddy, nonny, noodle, nizy, owl;
goose, goosecap; imbecile; gaby; radoteur, nincompoop, badaud, zany;
trifler, babbler; pretty fellow; natureal, niais.
child, baby, infant, innocent, milksop, sop.
oaf, lout, loon, lown, dullard, doodle, calf, colt, buzzard, block,
put, stick, stock, numps, tony.
bull head, dunderhead, addlehead, blockhead, dullhead, loggerhead,
jolthead, jolterhead, beetlehead, grosshead, muttonhead, noodlehead,
giddyhead; numbskull, thickskull; lackbrain, shallowbrain; halfwit,
lackwit; dunderpate; lunkhead [U.S.]
sawney, gowk; clod, clod-hopper; clod-poll, clot-poll, clot-pate; bull
calf; gawk, Gothamite, lummox, rube [U.S.]; men of Boeotia, wise men of
un sot a triple etage, sot; jobbernowl, changeling, mooncalf,
dotard, driveler; old fogey, old woman; crone, grandmother; cotquean,
greenhorn &c (dupe) 547; dunce &c (ignoramus) 493; lubber &c (bungler)
701; madman &c 504.
one who will not set the Thames on fire, one who did not invent
gunpowder; qui n'a pas invente' la poudre; no conjuror.
Phr. fortuna favet fatuis; les fous font les festinas et les sages les
mangent; nomina stultorum parietibus harrent; stultorum plena sunt omnia

#502. Sanity. -- N. sanity; soundness &c. adj.; rationality, sobriety,
lucidity, lucid interval; senses, sober senses, sound mind, mens sana.
V. be -sane &c. adj.; retain one's senses, retain one's reason.
become -sane &c. adj.; come to one's senses, sober down.
render -sane &c. adj; bring to one's senses, sober.
Adj. sane, rational, reasonable, compos mentis, of sound mind; sound,
sound-minded; lucid.
self-possessed; sober, sober-minded.
in one's sober senses, in one's right mind; in possession of one's
Adv. sanely &c.adj.

<-- p. 149 -->

#503. Insanity. -- N. disordered reason, disordered intellect;
diseased mind, unsound mind, abnormal mind; derangement, unsoundness.
insanity, lunacy; madness &c. adj.; mania, rabies, furor, mental
alienation, aberration; paranoia; dementation, dementia, demency;
phrenitis, phrensy, frenzy, raving, incoherence, wandering, delirium,
calenture of the brain; delusion, hallucination; lycanthropy; brain
vertigo, dizziness, swimming; sunstroke, coup de soleil,, siriasis.
fanaticism, infatuation, craze; oddity, eccentricity, twist,
monomania; kleptodipsomania; hypochondriassis &c. (low spirits) 837;
melancholia, hysteria; amentia.
screw loose, tile loose, slate loose; bee in one's bonnet, rats in the
upper story.
dotage &c. (imbecility) 499.
V. be insane &c. adj.
become insane &c. adj; lose one's senses, lose one's reason, lose
one's faculties, lose one's wits; go mad, run mad; rave, dote, ramble,
wander; drivel &c. (be imbecile) 499; have a screw loose &c. n., have a
devil; avoir le diable au corps; lose one;s head &c. (be uncertain) 475.
render mad, drive mad &c adj.; madden, dementate, addle the wits,
derange the head, infatuate, befool; turn the brain, turn one's head.
Adj. insane, mad, lunatic; crazy, crazed, aliene, non compos mentis;
not right, cracked, touched; bereft of reason; all possessed, unhinged,
unsettled in one's mind; insensate, reasonless, beside oneself, demented,
daft; phrenzied, frenzied, frenetic; possessed, possessed with a devil;
deranged, maddened, moonstruck; shatterpated; mad-brained, scatter brained,
shatter brained, crackbrained; off one's head.
maniacal; delirious, lightheaded, incoherent, rambling, doting,
wandering; frantic, raving, stark staring mad.
corybantic, dithyrambic; rabid, giddy, vertiginous, wild; haggard,
mazed; flighty; distracted, distraught; bewildered &c. (uncertain) 475.
mad as a March hare, mad as a hatter; of unsound mind &c. n.; touched
in one's head, wrong in one's head, not right in one's head, not in one's
right mind, not right in one's wits, upper story; out of one's mind, far
gone, out of one's senses, out of one's wits; not in one's right mind.
fanatical, infatuated, odd, eccentric; hypped, hyppish.
imbecile, silly, &c. 499.
Adv. like one possessed.
Phr. the mind having lost its balance; the reason under a cloud; tet -
exaltee', -montee'; ira furor brevis est; omnes stultos insanire [Horace].

#504. Madman. -- N. madman, lunatic, maniac, bedlamite, candidate for
Bedlam, raver, madcap; energumen; automaniac, monomaniac, dipsomaniac,
kleptomaniac; hypochondriac &c. (low spirits); crank, Tom o'Bedlam.
dreamer &c. 515; rhapsodist, seer, highflier, enthusiast, fanatic,
fanatico; exalte'; knight errant, Don Quixote.
idiot &c. 501.

<-- p. 150 -->


1. To the Past

#505. Memory.-- N. memory, remembrance; retention, retentiveness;
tenacity; veteris vestigia flammae; tablets of the memory; readiness.
reminiscence, recognition, recollection, rememoration; recurrence,
retrospect, retrospection.
suggestion &c. (information) 527; prompting &c. v.; hint, reminder;
remembrancer, flapper; memorial &c. (record) 551; commemoration &c.
(celebration) 883.
things to be remembered, token of remembrance, memento, souvenir,
keepsake, relic, memorabilia.
art of memory, artificial memory; memoria technica; mnemonics,
mnemotechnics; phrenotypics; Mnemosyne.
retentive memory, tenacious memory, green memory|!, trustworthy
memory, capacious memory, faithful memory, correct memory, exact memory,
ready memory, prompt memory.
celebrity, fame, renown, reputation &c. (repute) 873.
V. remember, mind; retain the memory of, retain the remembrance of;
keep in view.
recognize, recollect, bethink oneself, recall, call up, retrace; look
back, trace back, trace backwards; think back, look back upon; review; call
upon, recall upon, bring to mind, bring to remembrance; carry one's
thoughts back; rake up the past.
have in the thoughts, hold in the thoughts, bear in the thoughts,
carry in the thoughts, keep in the thoughts, retain in the thoughts, have
in the memory, hold in the memory, bear in the memory, carry in the memory,
keep in the memory, retain in the memory, have in the mind, hold in the
mind, bear in the mind, carry in the mind, keep in the mind, retain in the
mind, hold in remembrance; be in one's thoughts, live in one's thoughts,
remain in one's thoughts, dwell in one's thoughts, haunt one's thoughts,
impress one's thoughts, be in one's mind, live in one's mind, remain in
one's mind, dwell in one's mind, haunt one's mind, impress one's mind,
dwell in one's memory.
sink in the mind; run in the head; not be able to get out of one's
head; be deeply impressed with; rankle &c. (revenge) 919.
recur to the mind; flash on the mind, flash across the memory.
remind; suggest &c. (inform ) 527; prompt; put in mind, keep in mind;
fan the embers; call up, summon up, rip up; renew; infandum renovare
dolorem; jog the memory, flap the memory, refresh the memory, rub up the
memory, awaken the memory; pull by the sleeve; bring back to the memory,
put in remembrance, memorialize.
task the memory, tax the memory.
get at one's fingers' ends, have at one's fingers', learn at one's
fingers', know one's lesson, say one's lesson, repeat by heart, repeat by
rote; say one's lesson; repeat, repeat as a parrot; have at one's fingers'
commit to memory, memorize; conover, con; fix in the memory, rivet in
the memory, imprint in the memory, impress in the memory, stamp in the
memory, grave in the memory, engrave in the memory, store in the memory,
treasure up in the memory, bottle up in the memory, embalm in the memory,
enshrine in the memory; load the memory with, store the memory with, stuff
the memory with, burden the memory with.
redeem from oblivion; keep the memory alive, keep the wound green;
tangere ulcus; keep up the memory of; commemorate &c. (celebrate) 883.
make a note of &c. (record) 551.
Adj. remembering, remembered &c. v.; mindful, reminiscential; retained
in the memory &c. v.; pent up in one's memory; fresh; green, green in
remembrance; unforgotten, present to the mind; within one's memory &c. n.;
indelible; uppermost in one's thoughts; memorable &c. (important) 642.
Adv. by heart, by rote; without book, memoriter.
in memory of; in memoriam; memoria in aeterna; suggestive.
Phr. manet alta mente repostum [Vergil]; forsan et haec olim meminisse
juvabit [Vergil]; absens haeres non erit; beatae memoriae; "briefly thyself
remember" [Lear]; mendacem memorem esse oportet [Quintilian]; "memory the
warder of the brian" [Macbeth]; parsque est meminisse doloris [Ovid]; "to
live in hearts we leave behind is not to die" [Campbell]; vox audita peril
littera scripta manet.

#506. Oblivion.-- N. oblivion, obliviousnedd, lethe; forgetfulness &c.
adj.; obliteration &c. 552 of , insensibility &c. 823 to the past.
short memory, treacherous memory, loose memory, slippery memory,
failing memory; decay of memory, failure of memory, lapse of memory; waters
of Lethe, waters of oblivion.
amnesty, general pardon.
V. forget; be forgetful &c. adj.; fall into oblivion, sink into
oblivion; have a short memory &c. n., have no head.
forget one's own name, have on the tip of one's tongue, come in one
ear and go out the other.
slip memory, escape memory, fade from memory, die away from the
memory; lose, lose sight of.
unlearn; efface &c. 552 , discharge from the memory; consign to
oblivion, consign to the tomb of the Capulets; think no more of &c. (turn
the attention from) 458; cast behind one's back, wean one's thoughts from;
let bygones be bygones &c.(forgive) 918.
Adj. forgotten &c. v.; unremembered, past recollection, bygone, out of
mind; buried in oblivion, sunk in oblivion; clean forgotten; gone out of
one's head, gone out of one's recollection.
forgetful, oblivious, mindless, Lethean; insensible &c. 823 to the
past; heedless.
Phr. non mi ricordo; the memory failing, the memory deserting one,
being at (or in) fault.

<-- p. 151 -->

#507. Expectation. -- N. expectation, expectance, expectancy;
anticipation, reckoning, calculation; foresight &c. 510.
contemplation, prospection, lookout; prospect, perspective, horizon,
vista; destiny &c. 152.
suspense, waiting, abeyance; curiosity &c. 455; anxious expectation,
ardent expectation, eager expectation, breathless expectation, sanguine
expectation; torment of Tantalus.
hope &c. 858; trust &c. (belief) 484; auspices &c. (prediction) 511;
assurance, confidence, presumption, reliance.
V. expect; look for, look out for, look forward to; hope for;
anticipate; have in prospect, have in contemplation; keep in view;
contemplate, promise oneself; not wonder &c. 870 at, not wonder if.
wait for, tarry for, lie in wait for, watch for, bargain for; keep a
good lookout for, keep a sharp lookout for; await; stand at "attention,"
abide, bide one's time, watch.
foresee &c. 510; prepare for &c. 673; forestall &c. (be early) 132;
count upon &c. (believe in) 484; think likely &c. (probability) 472.
lead one to expect &c. (predict) 511; have in store for &c. (destiny)
prick up one's ears, hold one's breath.
Adj. expectant; expecting &c. v.; in expectation &c. n.; on the watch
&c. (vigilant) 459; open-eyed, open-mouthed; agape, gaping, all agog; on
tenterhooks, on tiptoe, on the tiptoe of expectation; aux aguets; ready;
curious &c. 455; looking forward to.
expected &c. v.; long expected, foreseen; in prosepct &c. n.;
prospective; in one's eye, in one's view, in the horizon; impending &c.
(destiny) 152.
Adv. on the watch &c. adj.; with breathless expectation &c. n.; with
bated breath; arrectis auribus.
Phr. we shall see; nous verrons; "expectation whirls me round"
[Troilus and Cressida].

#508. Inexpectation. -- N. inexpectation, non-expectation; false
expectation &c. (disappointment) 509; miscalculation &c. 481.
surprise, sudden burst, thunderclap, blow, shock; bolt out of the
blue; wonder &c. 870; eye opener.
V. not expect &c. 507; be taken by surprise; start; miscalculate &c.
481; not bargain for; come upon, fall upon.
be unexpected &c. adj.; come unawares &c. adv.; turn up, pop, drop
from the clouds; come upon one, burst upon one, flash upon one, bounce upon
one, steal upon one, creep upon one; come like a thunder clap, burst like a
thunderclap, thunder bolt; take by surprise, catch by surprise, catch
unawares, catch napping; yach [S. Africa].
pounce upon, spring a mine upon.
surprise, startle, take aback, electrify, stun, stagger, take away
one's breath, throw off one's guard; astonish &c. (strike with wonder) 870.
Adj. nonexpectant; surprised &c. v.; unwarned, unaware; off one's
guard; inattentive 458.
unexpected, unanticipated, unlooked for, unforeseen, unhoped for;
dropped from the clouds; beyond expectation, contrary to expectation,
against expectation; out of one's reckoning; unheard of &c. (exceptional)
83; startling; sudden &c. (instantaneous) 113.
Adv. abruptly, unexpectedly, plump, pop, a l'improviste, unawares;
without notice, without warning, without a "by your leave"; like a thief in
the night, like a thunderbolt; in an unguarded momemt; suddenly &c.
(instantaneously) 113.
Int. heydey! &c. (wonder) 870.
Phr. little did one think, little did one expect; nobody would ever
suppose, nobody would ever think, nobody would ever expect; who would have
thought? it beats the Dutch|!.

#509. [Failure of expectation.] Disappointment.-- N. disappointment;
blighted hope, balk; blow; slip 'twixt cup and lip; nonfulfillment of one's
hopes; sad disappointment, bitter disappointment; trick of fortune;
afterclap; false expectation, vain expectation; miscalculation &c. 481;
fool's paradise; much cry and little wool.
V. be disapppointed; look blank, look blue; look aghast, stand aghast
&c. (wonder) 870; find to one's cost; laugh on the wrong side of one's
mouth; find one a false prophet.
not realize one's hope, not realize one's expectation.
disappoint; crush one's hope, dash one's hope, balk one's hope,
disappoint one's hope, blight one's hope, falsify one's hope, defeat one's
hope; balk, jilt, bilk; play one false, play a trick; dash the cup from
the lips, tantalize; dumfounder.
Adj. disappointed &c. v.; disconcerted, aghast; disgruntled; out of
one's reckoning.
Phr. the mountain brought forth a mouse; parturiunt montes; nascitur
ridiculus mus [Horace]; diis aliter visum, the bubble burst; one's
countenance falling.

<-- p. 152 -->

#510. Foresight. -- N. foresight, prospicience, prevision, long-
sightedness; anticipation; providence &c. (preparation) 673.
forethought, forecast; predeliberation, presurmise; foregone
conclusion &c. (prejudgment) 481; prudence &c. (caution) 864.
foreknowledge; prognosis; precognition, prescience, prenotion,
presentiment; second sight; sagacity &c. (intelligence) 498; antepast,
prelibation, prophasis.
prospect &c. (expectation) 507; foretaste; prospectus &c. (plan) 626.
V. foresee; look forwards to, look ahead, look beyond; scent from
afar; look into the future, pry into the future, peer into the future.
see one's way; see how the land lies, see how the wind blows, see how
the cat jumps.
anticipate; expect &c. 507; be beforehand &c. (early) 132; predict &c.
511; foreknow, forejudge, forecast; presurmise; have an eye to the future,
have an eye to the main chance; respicere finem; keep a sharp lookout &c.
(vigilance) 459; forewarn &c. 668.
Adj. foreseeing &c. v.; prescient; farseeing, farsighted; sagacious
&c. (intelligent) 498; weatherwise; provident &c. (prepared) 673;
prospective &c. 507.
Adv. against the time when.
Phr. cernit omnia Deus vindex; mihi cura futuri.

#511. Prediction.-- N. prediction, announcement; program, programme
&c. (plan) 626; premonition &c. (warning) 668; prognosis, prophecy,
vaticination, mantology, prognostication, premonstration|; augury,
auguration|; ahariolation|, hariolation|; foreboding, aboding; bodement,
omniation|, omniousness; auspices, forecast; omen &c. 512; horoscope,
nativity; sooth, soothsaying; fortune telling; divination; necromancy &c.
[Divination by the stars] astrology, horoscopy, judicial astrology1.
[Place of prediction] adytum.
prefiguration, prefigurement; prototype, type.
V. predict, prognosticate, prophesy, vaticinate, divine, foretell,
soothysay, augurate, tell fortunes; cast a horoscoppe, cast a nativity;
advise; forewarn &c. 668.
presage, augur, bode; abode, forebode; foretoken, betoken; prefigure,
preshow; portend; foreshow, foreshadow; shadow forth, typify, pretypify,
ominate, signify, point to.
usher in, herald, premise, announce; lower.
hold out expectation, raise expectation, excite expectation, excite
hope; bid fair, promise, lead one to expect; be the precursor &c 64.
Adj. predicting &cv.; predictive, prophetic; fatidic, fatidical;
vaticinal, oracular, fatiloquent, harupsical, Sibylline; weatherwise.
ominous, portentous, augurous, agurial, agural; auspicial, auspicious;
prescious, monitory, extispicious, premonitory, significant of, pregnant
with, bit with the fate of.
Phr. "coming events cast their shadows before" [Campbell]; dicamus
bona verba; "there buds the promise of celestial worth" [Young].

<-- 1 The following terms, expressive of different forms of
divination, have been collected from various sources, and are here given as
a curious illustration of bygone superstitions:-
Divination by oracles, Theomancy; by the Bible, Biliomancy; by ghosts,
Psychomancy; by crystal gazing, Crystallomancy; by shadows or manes,
Sciomancy; by appearances in the air, Aeromancy, Chaomancy; by the stars at
birth, Genethliacs; by meteors, Meteoromancy; by winds, Austromancy; by
sacrificial appearances, Aruspicy (or Haruspicy), Hieromancy, Hieroscopy;
by the entrails of animals sacrificed, Extispicy, Hieromancy; by the
entrails of a human sacrifice, Anthropomancy; by the entrails of fishes,
Ichthyomancy; by sacrificial fire, Pyromancy; by red-hot iron, Sideromancy;
by smoke from the altar, Capnomancy; by mice, Myomancy; by birds,
Orniscopy, Ornithomancy; by a cock picking up grains, Alectryomancy (or
Alectoromancy); by fishes, Ophiomancy; by herbs, Botanomancy; by water,
Hydromancy; by fountains, Pegomancy; by a wand, Rhabdomancy; by dough of
cakes, Crithomancy; by meal, Aleuromancy, Alphitomancy; by salt, Halomancy;
by dice, Cleromancy; by arrows, Belomancy; by a balanced hatchet,
Axinomancy; by a balanced sieve, Coscinomancy; by a suspended ring,
Dactyliomancy; by dots made at random on paper, Geomancy; by precious
stones, Lithomancy; by pebbles, Pessomancy; by pebbles drawn from a heap,
Psephomancy; by mirrors, Catoptromancy; by writings in ashes, Tephramancy;
by dreams, Oneiromancy; by the hand, Palmistry, Chiromancy; by nails
reflecting the sun's rays, Onychomancy; by finger rings, Dactylomancy; by
numbers, Arithmancy; by drawing lots, Sortilege; by passages in books,
Stichomancy; by the letters forming the name of the person, Onomancy,
Nomancy; by the features, Anthroposcopy; by the mode of laughing,
Geloscopy; by ventriloquism, Gastromancy; by walking in a circle,
Gyromancy; by dropping melted wax into water, Ceromancy; by currents,
Bletonism; by the color and peculiarities of wine, Oenomancy. -->

<-- p. 153 -->

#512. Omen.-- N. omen, portent, presage, prognostic, augury, auspice;
sign &c. (indication) 550; harbinger &c. (precursor) 64; yule candle|!.
bird of ill omen; signs of the times; gathering clouds; warning &c.
prefigurement &c. 511.
Adj. ill-boding.
Phr. auspicium melioris aevi.

#513. Oracle.-- N. oracle; prophet, seer, soothsayer, augur, fortune
teller, witch, geomancer, aruspex; aruspice, haruspice; haruspex; Sibyl;
Python, Pythoness; Pythia; Pythian oracle, Delphian oracle; Monitor,
Sphinx, Tiresias, Cassandra, Sibylline leaves; Zadkiel, Old Moore; sorcerer
&c. 994; interpreter &c. 524.


#514. Supposition.-- N. supposition, assumption, assumed position,
postulation, condition, presupposition, hypothesis, postulate, postulatum,
theory; thesis, theorem; data; proposition, position; proposal &c. (plan)
626; presumption &c. (belief) 484; divination.
conjecture; guess, guesswork, speculation; rough guess, shot;
conjecturality; surmise, suspicion, sneaking suspicion.
inkling, suggestion, hint; bare supposition, vague supposition, loose
supposition, loose suggestion.
association of ideas.
V. suppose, conjecture, surmise, suspect, guess, divine; theorize;
presume, presurmise, presuppose; assume, fancy, wis, take it; give a guess,
speculate, believe, dare say, take it into one's head, take for granted.
put forth; propound, propose; start, put a case, submit, move, make a
motion; hazard out, throw out a suggestion, put forward a suggestion, put
forward conjecture.
allude to, suggest, hint, put it into one's head.
suggest itself &c. (thought) 451; run in the head &c. (memory) 505;
marvel if, wonder if, wonder whether.
Adj. supposing &c. v.; given, mooted, postulatory; assumed &c. v.;
suppositive, suppositious; gratuitious, speculative, conjectural,
hypothetical, theoretical, academic, supposable, presumptive, putative;
suggestive, allusive.
Adv. if, if so be; an; on the suppostion &c. n.;ex hypothesi; in the
case, in the event of; quasi, as if, provided; perhaps &c. (by possibility)
470; for aught one knows.

<-- p. 154 -->

#515. Imagination. -- N. imagination; originality; invention; fancy;
inspiration; verve.
warm imagination, heated imagination, excited imagination, sanguine
imagination, ardent imagination, fiery imagination, boiling imagination,
wild imagination, bold imagination, daring imagination, playful
imagination, lively imagination, fertile imagination, fancy.
"mind's eye"; "such stuff as dreams are made of" [Tempest].
ideality, idealism; romanticism, utopianism, castle-building.
dreaming; phrensy, frenzy; ecstasy, extasy; calenture &c. (delirium)
503; reverie, trance; day dream, golden dream; somnambulism.
conception, Vorstellung, excogitation, "a fine frenzy"; cloudland,
dreamland; flight of fancy, fumes of fancy; "thick coming fancies"
[Macbeth]; creation of the brain, coinage of the brain; imagery.
conceit, maggot, figment, myth, dream, vision, shadow, chimera;
phantasm, phantasy; fantasy, fancy; whim, whimsey, whimsy; vagary,
rhapsody, romance, gest, geste, extravaganza; air drawn dagger, bugbear,
flying Dutchman, great sea serpent, man in the moon, castle in the
air, chateau en Espagne; Utopia, Atlantis, happy valley, millennium,
fairyland; land of Prester John, kindgom of Micomicon; work of fiction &c.
(novel) 594; Arabian nights; le pot au lait; dream of Alnashar &c. (hope)
illusion &c. (error) 495; phantom &c. (fallacy of vision) 443; Fata
Morgana &c. (ignis fatuus) 423; vapor &c. (cloud) 353; stretch of the
imagination &c. (exaggeration) 549; mythogenesis.
idealist, romanticist, visionary; mopus; romancer, dreamer;
somnambulist; rhapsodist &c. (fanatic) 504; castle-buildier, fanciful
V. imagine, fancy, conceive; idealize, realize; dream, dream of; "give
to airy nothing a local habitation and a name" [Midsummer Night's Dream].
create, originate, devise, invent, coin, fabricate; improvise, strike
out something new.
set one's wits to work; strain one's invention, crack one's invention;
rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, cudgel one's brains; excogitate.
give play, give the reins, give a loose to the imagination, give
fancy; indulge in reverie.
conjure up a vision; fancy oneself, represent oneself, picture-
oneself, figure to oneself; vorstellen.
float in the mind; suggest itself &c. (thought) 451.
Adj. imagined &c. v.; ben trovato; air drawn, airbuilt.
imagining &cv. v, imaginative; original, inventive, creative, fertile.
romantic, high flown, flighty, extravagant, fanatic, enthusiastic,
Utopian, Quixotic.
ideal, unreal; in the clouds, in nubibus; unsubsantial &c. 4; illusory
&c. (fallacious) 495.
fabulous, legendary; mythic, mythological; chimerical; imaginary,
visionary; notional; fancy, fanciful, fantastical; whimsical; fairy, fairy-
like; gestic.
Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron]; aegri somnia
vana; dolphinum appingit sylvis in fluctibus aprum [Latin] [Horace]; "fancy
light from fancy caught" [Tennyson]; "imagination rules the world"
[Napoleon]; l'imagination gallope, le jugement ne va que le pas[French];
musaeo contingens cuncta lepore [Latin] [Lucretius]; tous songes sont
mensonges[French]; Wahrheil und Dichtung[German].



#516. [Idea to be conveyed.] Meaning. [Thing signified.] -- N.
meaning; signification, significance; sense, expression; import, purport;
force; drift, tenor, spirit, bearing, coloring; scope.
gist, essence, spirit &c.5.
matter; subject, subject matter; argument, text, sum and substance.
genera meaning, broad meaning, substantial meaning, colloquial
meaning, literal meaning, plain meaning, simple meaning, natural meaning,
unstrained meaning, true &c. (exact) 494 meaning, honest &c. 543 meaning,
prima facie &c. (manifest) 525 meaning.
literally; after acceptation.
synonym; implication, allusion &c. (latency) 526; suggestion &c.
(information) 527; figure of speech &c. 521; acceptation &c.
(interpretation) 522.
V. mean, signify, express; import, purport; convey, imply,
breathe, idicate, bespeak, bear a sense; tell of, speak of; touch on; point
to, allude to; drive at; involve &c. (latency) 526; declare &c. (affirm)
understand by &c. (interpret) 522.
Adj. meaning &c. v.; expressive, suggestive, allusive; significant,
significative, significatory; pithy; full of meaning, pregnant with
declaratory &c. 535; intelligible &c. 518; literal; synonymous;
tantamount &c. (equivalent) 27; implied &c. (latent) 526; explicit &c. 525.
Adv. to that effect; that is to say &c. (being interpreted) 522.

<-- p. 155 -->

#517. [Absence of meaning.] Unmeaningness. -- N. unmeaningness &c.
adj.; scrabble.
empty sound, dead letter, vox et praeterea nihil; "a tale told by an
idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing"; "sounding brass and a
tinkling cymbal."
nonsense, gibberish; jargon, jabber, mere words, hocus-pocus,
fustian, rant, bombast, balderdash, palaver, flummery, verbiage, babble,
baverdage, baragouin, platitude, niaiserie; inanity; flap-doodle;
rigmarole, rodomontade; truism; nugae canorae; twaddle, twattle, fudge,
trash; poppy-cock [U.S.]; stuff, stuff and nonsense; bosh, rubbish,
moonshine, wish-wash, fiddle-faddle; absurdity &c. 497; vagueness &c.
(unintelligibility) 519.
V. mean nothing; be unmeaning &c. adj.; twaddle, quibble, scrabble.
Adj. unmeaning; meaningless, senseless; nonsensical; void of sense &c.
inexpressive, unexpressive; vacant; not significant &c. 516;
trashy, washy, trumpery, trivial, fiddle-faddle, twaddling, quibbling.
unmeant, not expressed; tacit &c. (latent) 526.
inexpressile, undefinable, incommunicable.

#518. Intelligibility. -- N. intelligibility; clearness, explicitness
&c. adj.; lucidity, comprehensibility, perspicuity; legibility, plain
speaking &c. (manifestation) 525; precision &c. 494; synetoisy/gr>; a word to the wise.
V. be intelligible &c. adj.; speak for itself, speak volumes; tell its
own tale, lie on the surface.
render intelligible &c. adj.; popularize, simplify, clear up;
elucidate &c. (explain) 522.
understand, comprehend, take, take in; catch, grasp, follow, collect,
master, make out; see with half an eye, see daylight, see one's way; enter
into the ideas of; come to an understanding.
Adj. intelligible; clear, clear as day, clear as noonday; lucid;
perspicuous, transpicuous; luminous, transparent.
easily understood, easy to understand, for the million, intelligible
to the meanest capacity, popularized.
plain, distinct, explicit; positive; definite &c. (precise) 494.
graphic; expressive &c. (meaning) 516; illustrative &c. (explanatory)
unambiguous, unequivocal, unmistakable &c. (manifest) 525; unconfused;
ligible, recognizable; obvious &c. 525.
Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English.
Phr. he that runs may read &c. (manifest) 525.

#519. Unintelligibility.-- N. unintelligibility; incomprehensibility,
imperspicuity; inconceivableness, vagueness &c. adj.; obscurity; ambiguity
&c. 520; doubtful meaning; uncertainty &c. 475; perplexity &c. (confusion)
59; spinosity; obscurum per obscurius; mystification &c. (concealment) 528;
latency &c. 526; transcendentalism.
paradox; riddle, enigma, puzzle &c. (secret) 533; diagnus vindice
nodus; sealed book; steganography, freemasonry.
pons asinorum, asses' bridge; high Dutch, Greek, Hebrew; jargon &c.
(unmeaning) 517.
V. be unintelligible &c. adj.; require explanation &c. 522; have a
doubtful meaning, pass comprehension.
render unintelligible &c. adj.; conceal &c 528; darken &c. 421;
confuse &c. (derange) 61; perplex &c. (bewilder)
not understand &c. 518; lose, lose the clue; miss; not know what to
make of, be able to make nothing of, give it up; not be able to account
for, not be able to make either head or tail of; be at sea &c. (uncertain)
475; wonder &c. 870; see through a glass darkly &c. (ignorance) 491.
not understand one another; play at cross purposes &c. (misinterpret)
Adj. unintelligible, unaccountable, undecipherable, undiscoverable,
unknowlable, unfathomable; incognizable, inexplicable, inscrutable;
inapprehensible, incomprehensible; insolvable, insoluble; impenetrable.
illegible, as Greek to one, unexplained, paradoxical; enigmatic,
enigmatical, puzzling (secret) 533; indecipherable.
obscure, dark, muddy, clear as mud, seen through a mist, dim,
nebulous, shrouded in mystery; undiscernible &c. (invisible) 447; misty &c.
(opaque) 426; hidden &c 528; latent &c 526.
indefinite &c. (indistinct) 447; perplexed &c. (confused) 59;
undetermined, vague, loose, ambiguous; mysterious; mystic, mystical;
acroamatic, acroamatical; metemphirical; transcendental; occult, recondite,
abstruse, crabbed.
inconceivable, inconceptible; searchless; above comprehension, beyond
comprehension, past comprehension; beyond one's depth; unconceived.
inexpressible, undefinable, incommunicable.

<-- p. 156 -->

#520. [Having a double sense] Equivocalness.-- N. equivocalness &c
adj.; double meaning &c. 516; ambiguity, double entente, double entendre,
pun, paragram, calembour, quibble, equivoque, anagram; conundrum &c
(riddle) 533; word play &c. (wit) 842; homonym, homonymy; amphiboly,
amphibology; ambilogy, ambiloquy|.
Sphinx, Delphic oracle.
equivocation &c. (duplicity) 544; white lie, mental reservation &c.
(concealment) 528; paltering.
V. be -equivocal &c. adj.; have two meanings &c. 516; equivocate &c.
(alter) 544.
Adj. equivocal, ambiguous, amphibolous, homonymous; double-tongued &c.
(lying) 544; enigmatical, indeterminate.
Phr. on the one hand, on the other hand.

#521. Metaphor.-- N. figure of speech; facon de parler [French], way
of speaking, colloquialism.
phrase &c. 566; figure, trope, metaphor, enallage, catachresis;
metonymy, synecdoche; autonomasia|!, irony, figurativeness &c. adj.; image,
imagry; metalepsis, type, anagoge, simile, personification, prosopopoeia,
allegory, apologue, parable, fable; allusion, adumbration; application.
V. employ -metaphor &c. n.; personify, allegorize, adumbrate, shadow
forth, apply, allude to.
Adj. metaphorical, figurative, catachrestical, typical, tralatitious,
parabolic, allegorical, allusive, anagogical; ironical; colloquial;
Adv. so to speak, so to say, so to express oneself; as it were.
Phr. mutato nomine de te fabula narratur [Horace].

#522. Interpretation. -- N. interpretation, definition; explanation,
explication; solution, answer; rationale; plain interpretation, simple
interpretation, strict interpretation; meaning &c. 516.
translation; rendering, rendition; redition; literal translation, free
translation; key; secret; clew &c. (indication) 550; clavis, crib, pony
exegesis; expounding, exposition; hermeneutics; comment, commentary;
inference &c. (deduction) 480; illustration, exemplification; gloss,
annotation, scholium, note; elucidation, dilucidation|; eclaircissement,
mot d'enigme.
symptomatology, semeiology; metoposcopy, physiognomy; paleography &c.
(philology) 560; oneirology
acception, acceptation, acceptance; light, reading, lection,
construction, version.
equivalent, equivalent meaning &c. 516; synonym; para-phrase,
metaphrase; convertible terms, apposition; dictionary &c. 562; polyglot.
V. interpret, explain, define, construe, translate, render; do into,
turn into; transfuse the sense of.
find out &c. 480a the meaning &c. 516 of; read; spell out, make out;
decipher, unravel, disentangle; find the key of, enucleate, resolve, solve;
read between the lines.
account for; find the cause, tell the cause &c. 153 of;
throw light upon, shed light upon, shed new light upon, shed fresh light
upon; clear up, elucidate.
illustrate, exemplify; unfold, expound, comment upon, annotate;
popularize &c. (render intelligible) 518.
take in a particular sense, understand in a particular sense, receive
in a particular sense, accept in a particular sense; understand by, put a
construction on, be given to understand.
Adj. explanatory, expository; explicative, explicatory; exegetical;
polyglot; literal; paraphrastic, metaphrastic; consignificative,
synonymous; equivalent &c. 27.
Adv. in explanation &c. n.; that is to say, id est, videlicet, to wit,
namely, in other words.
literally, strictly speaking; in plain, in plainer terms, in plainer
words, in plainer English; more simply.

#523. Misinterpretation. -- N. misinterpretation, misapprehension,
misunderstanding, misacceptation|, misconstruction, misapplication;
catachresis; eisegesis; cross-reading, cross-purposes; mistake &c. 495.
misrepresentation, perversion, exaggeration &c. 549; false coloring,
false construction; abuse of terms; parody, travesty; falsification &c.
(lying) 544.
V. misinterpret, misapprehend, misunderstand, misconceive, misspell,
mistranslate, misconstrue, misapply; mistake &c. 495.
misrepresent, pervert; explain wrongly, misstate; garble &c. (falsify)
544; distort, detort|; travesty, play upon words; stretch the sense, strain
the sense, stretch the menaing, strain the meaning, wrest the sense, wrest
the meaning; explain away; put a bad construction on, put a false
construction on; give a false coloring.
be at cross purposes, play at cross purposes.
Adj. misinterpreted &c. v.; untranslated, untranslatable.

<-- p. 157 -->

#524. Interpreter.-- N. interpreter; expositor, expounder, exponent,
explainer; demonstrator.
scholiast, commentator, annotator; metaphrast, paraphrast; glossarist,
spokesman, speaker, mouthpiece.
dragoman, courier, valet de place, cicerone, showman; oneirocritic;
(Edipus; oracle &c. 513)


#525. Manifestation.-- N. {ant. 527} manifestation; plainness &c.
adj.; plain speaking; expression; showing &c. v.; exposition,
demonstration; exhibition, production; display, show; showing off;
premonstration|. [Thing shown] exhibit.
indication &c. (calling attention to) 457. publicity &c. 531;
disclosure &c. 529; openness &c. (honesty) 543, (artlessness) 703;
V. make manifest, render manifest &c. adj.; bring forth, bring
forward, bring to the front, bring into view; give notice; express;
represent, set forth, exhibit; show, show up ; expose; produce; hold up to
view, expose to view; set before one, place before one, lay before one,
one's eyes; tell to one's face; trot out, put through one's paces, bring to
light, display, demonstrate, unroll; lay open; draw out, bring out; bring
out in strong relief; call into notice, bring into notice; hold up the
mirror; wear one's heart upon his sleeve; show one's face, show one's
colors; manifest oneself; speak out; make no mystery, make no secret of;
unfurl the flag; proclaim &c. (publish) 531.
indicate &c. (direct attention to) 457; disclose &c. 529; elicit &c.
be manifest &c. adj.; appear &c. (be visible) 446; transpire &c. (be
disclosed) 529; speak for itself, stand to reason; stare one in the face,
rear its head; give token, give sign, give indication of; tell its own tale
&c. (intelligible) 518.
Adj. manifest, apparent; salient, striking, demonstrative, prominent,
in the foreground, notable, pronounced.
flagrant; notorious &c. (public) 531; arrant; stark staring; unshaded,
defined, definite.
distinct, conspicuous &c. (visible) 446; obvious, evident,
unmistakable, indubitable, not to be mistaken, palpable, self-evident,
autoptical; intelligible &c. 518.
plain, clear, clear as day, clear as daylight, clear as noonday; plain
as a pike staff, plain as the sun at noon-day, plain as the nose on one's
face, plain as the way to parish church.
explicit, overt, patent, express; ostensible; open, open as day;
naked, bare, literal, downright, undisguised, exoteric.
unreserve, frank, plain-spoken &c. (artless) 703; barefaced.
manifested &c. v.; disclosed &c. 529; capable of being shown,
producible; inconcealable, unconcealable.
Adv. manifestly, openly &c. adj.; before one's eyes, under one's nose,
to one's face, face to face, above board, cartes sur table, on the stage,
in open court, in the open streets; in market overt; in the face of day,
face of heaven; in broad daylight, in open daylight; without reserve; at
first blush, prima facie, on the face of; in set terms.
Phr. cela saute aux yeux; he that runs may read; you can see it with
half an eye; it needs no ghost to tell us [Hamlet]; the meaning lies on the
surface; cela va sans dire; res ipsa loquitur; "clothing the palpable and
familiar" [Coleridge]; fari quae sentiat; volto sciolto i pensieri stretti.

<-- p. 158 -->

#526. Latency. Implication. -- N. {ant. 526} latency, inexpression;
hidden meaning, occult meaning; occultness, mystery, cabala, anagoge;
silence &c (taciturnity) 585; concealment &c. 528; more than meets the eye,
more than meets the ear; Delphic oracle; le dessous des cartes,
allusion, insinuation; innuendo &c. 527; adumbration; "something
rotten in the state of Denmark" [Hamlet].
snake in the grass &c. (pitfall) 667; secret &c. 533.
darkness, invisibility, imperceptility.
V. be latent &c. adj.; lurk, smolder, underlie, make no sign; escape
observation, escape detection, escape recognition; lie hid &c. 528.
laugh in one's sleeve; keep back &c. (conceal) 528.
involve, imply, understand, allude to, infer, leave an inference;
whisper &c. (conceal) 528.
Adj. latent; lurking &c.v.; secret &c. 528; occult; implied &c. v.;
dormant; abeyant.
unapparent, unknown, unseen &c. 441; in the background; invisible &c.
447; indiscoverable, dark; impenetrable &c. (unintelligible) 519; unspied,
unsaid, unwritten, unpublished, unbreathed, untalked of, untold &c.
527, unsung, unexposed, unproclaimed, undisclosed &c. 529, unexpressed; not
expressed, tacit.
undeveloped, solved, unexplained, untraced, undiscovered &c. 480a,
untracked, unexplored, uninvented.
indirect, crooked, inferential; by inference, by implication;
implicit; constructive; allusive, covert, muffled; steganographic;
understood, underhand, underground; delitescent, concealed &c. 528.
Adv. by a side wind; sub silentio; in the background; behind the
scenes, behind one's back; on the tip of one's tongue; secretly &c. 528;
between the lines.
Phr. "thereby hangs a tale" [As You Like It]; tacitum vivit sub
pectore vulnus [Vergil].

#527. Information.-- N. information, enlightenment, acquaintenace,
knowledge &c. 490; publicity &c. 531.
communication, intimation; notice, notification; enunciation,
annunciation; announcement; communiqu‚; representation, round robin,
case, estimate, specification, report, advice, monition; news &c. 532;
return &c. (record) 551; account &c. (description) 594; statement &c.
(affirmation) 535.
mention; acquainting &c. v; instruction &c. (teaching) 537;
outpouring; intercommunication, communicativeness.
informant, authority, teller, intelligencer, reporter, exponent,
informer, eavesdropper, delator, detective; sleuth; mouchard, spy,
newsmonger; messenger &c. 534; amicus curiae.
valet de place, cicerone, pilot, guide; guidebook, handbook; yade
mecum; manual; map, plan, chart, gazetteer; itinerary &c. (journey) 266.
hint, suggestion, innuendo, inkling, whisper, passing word, word in
the ear, subaudition, cue, byplay; geture &c. (indication) 550; gentle
hint, broad hint; verbum sapienti; word to the wise; insinuation &c.
(latency) 526.
V. tell; inform, inform of; acquaint, acquaint with; impart, impart
to; make acquaintend with, apprise, advise, enlighten, awaken.
let fall, mention, express, intimate, represent, communicate, make
known; publish &c. 531; notify, signify, specify, convey the knowledge of.
let one know, have one to know; give one to understand; give notice;
set before, lay before, put before; point out, put into one's head; put one
in possession of; instruct &c. (teach) 537; direct the attention to &c.
announce, annunciate; report, report progress; bringword, send word,
leave word, write word; telegraph, telephone; wire; retail, render an
account; give an account &c. (describe) 594); state &c (affirm) 535.
disclose &c. 529.
show cause; explain &c. (interpret) 522.
hint; given an inkling of; give a hint, drop a hint, throw out a hint;
insinuate; allude to, make allusion to; glance at; tip the wink &c.
(indicate) 550; suggest, prompt, give the cue, breathe; whisper, whisper in
the ear.
give a bit of one's mind; tell one plainly, tell once for all; speak
undeceive, unbeguile; set right, correct, open the eyes of, disabuse.
be informed of &c.; know &c 490; learn &c. 539; get scent of, gather
from; awaken to, open one's eyes to; become alive, become awake to; hear,
overhear, understand.
come to one's ears, come to one's knowledge; reach one's ears.
Adj. informed &c. v.; communique; reported &c. v.; published &c. 531.
expressive &c. 516; explicit &c. (open) 525, (clear) 518; plain spoken
&c, (artless) 703.
nuncupative, nuncupatory|; declaratory, expository; enunciative;
communicative, communicatory.
Adv. from information received.
Phr. a little bird told me.

<-- p. 159 -->

#528. Concealment.-- N. concealment; hiding &c. v.; occultation,
seal of secrecy; screeen &c. 530; disguise &c. 530; masquerade; masked
battery; hiding place &c. 530; cryptography, steganography; freemasonry.
stealth, stealthiness; obreption|; slyness &c. (cunning) 702.
latitancy, latitation; seclusion &c. 893; privacy, secrecy,
secretness; incognita.
reticence; reserve; mental reserve, reservation; arriere pensee,
suppression, evasion, white lie, misprision; silence &c. (taciturnity) 585;
suppression of truth &c. 544; underhand dealing; closeness, secretiveness
&c. adj.; mystery.
latency &c. 526; snake in the grass; secret &c. 533; stowaway.
V. conceal, hide, secrete, put out of sight; lock up, seal up, bottle
cover, screen, cloak, veil, shroud; cover up one's tracks; screen from
sight, screen from observation; drawing the veil; draw the curtain, close
the curtain; curtain, shade, eclipse, throw a view over; be cloud, be mask;
mask, disguise; ensconce, muffle, smother; befog; whisper.
keep from; keep back, keep to oneself; keep snug, keep close, keep
secret, keep dark; bury; sink, suppress; keep from, keep from out of view,
keep from out of sight; keep in the shade, throw into the shade, throw into
background; stifle, hush up, smother, withhold, reserve; fence with a
question; ignore &c. 460.
keep a secret, keep one's own counsel; hold one's tongue &c. (silence)
585; make no sign, not let it go further; not breathe a word, not breathe a
syllable about; not let the right hand know what the left is doing; hide
one's light under a bushel, bury one's talent in a napkin.
keep in the dark, leave in the dark, keep in the ignorance; blind,
blind the eyes; blindfold, hoodwink, mystify; puzzle &c. (render uncertain)
475; bamboozle &c. (deceive) 545.
be concealed &c. v.; suffer an eclipse; retire from sight, couch; hide
oneself; lie hid, lie in perdu, lie in close; lie in ambush; seclude
oneself &c. 893; lurk, sneak, skulk, slink, prowl; steal into, steal out
of, steal by, steal along; play at bopeep, play at hide and seek; hide in
holes and corners; still hunt.
Adj. concealed &c. v.; hidden; secret, recondite, mystic, cabalistic,
occult, dark; cryptic, cryptical; private, privy, in petto, auricular,
clandestine, close, inviolate; tortuous.
behind a screen &c. 530; undercover, under an eclipse; in ambush, in
hiding, in disguise; in a cloud, in a fog, in a mist, in a haze, in a dark
corner; in the shade, in the dark; clouded, wrapt in clouds; invisible
&c.447; buried, underground, perdu; secluded &c. 893.
undisclosed &c. 529, untold &c. 527; covert &c. (latent) 526;
mysterious &c. (unintelligible) 519.
irrevealable, inviolable; confidential; esoteric; not to be spoken of.
obreptitious, furtive, stealthy, feline; skulking &c. v.;
surreptitiuos, underhand, hole and corner; sly &c. (cunning). 702;
secretive, evasive; reserved, reticent, uncommunicative, buttoned up;
close, close as wax; taciturn &c. 585.
Adv. secretly &c. adj.; in secret, in private, in one's sleeve, in
holes and corners; in the dark &c. adj.
jnuis clausiss, with closed doors, a huis clos; hugger mugger, a la
derobee; under the cloak of, under the rose, under the table; sub rosa, en
tapinois, in the background, aside, on the sly, with bated breath, sotto
voce, in a whisper, without beat of drum, a la sourdine.
behind the veil; beyond mortal ken, beyond the grave, beyond the veil;
hid from mortal vision; into the eternal secret, into the realms
supersensible, into the supreme mystery.
in confidence, in strict confidence, in strictest confidence;
confidentially &c. adj.; between ourselves, between you and me; entre nous,
inter nos, under the seal of secrecy; a couvert.
underhand, by stealth, like a thief in the night; stealthily &c. adj.;
behind the scenes, behind the curtain, behind one's back, behind a screen
&c. 530; incognito; in camera.
Phr. it must go no further, it will go no further; "tell it not in
Gath," nobody the wiser; alitur vitium vivitque tegendo; "let it be tenable
in your silence still"[Hamlet].

<-- p. 160 -->

#529. Disclosure -- N. disclosure; retection|; unveiling &c.v.;
deterration, revealment, revelation; exposition, exposure; expose; whole
truth; telltale &c (news) 532.
acknowledgment, avowal; confession, confessional; shrift.
bursting of a bubble; denouement.
V. disclose, discover, dismask|; draw the veil, draw aside the veil,
lift the veil, raise the veil, lift up the veil, remove the veil, tear
aside the veil, tear the curtain; unmask, unveil, unfold, uncover, unseal,
unkennel; take off the seal, break the seal; lay open, lay bare; expose;
open, open up; bare, bring to light.
divulge, reveal, break; let into the secret; reveal the secrets of the
prison house; tell &c (inform) 527; breathe, utter, blab, peach; let out,
let fall, let drop, let the cat out of the bag; betray; tell tales, come
out of school; come out with; give vent, give utterance to; open the lips,
blurt out, vent, whisper about; speak out &c (make manifest) 525; make
public &c 531; unriddle &c (find out) 480a; split.
acknowledge, allow, concede, grant, admit, own, confess, avow, throw
off all disguise, turn inside out, make a clean breast; show one's hand,
show one's cards; unburden one's mind, disburden one's mind, disburden
one's conscience, disburden one's heart; open one's mind, lay bare one's
mind, tell a piece of one's mind; unbosom oneself, own to the soft
impeachment; say the truth, speak the truth; turn King's (or Queen's)
evidence; acknowledge the corn* [U.S.].
raise the mask, drop the mask, lift the mask, remove the mask, throw
off the mask; expose; lay open; undeceive, unbeguile; disabuse, set right,
correct, open the eyes of; d‚sillusionner.
be disclosed &c.; transpire, come to light; come in sight &c. (be
visible) 446; become known, escape the lips; come out, ooze out, creep out,
leak out, peep out, crop-out; show its face, show its colors; discover &c.
itself; break through the clouds, flash on the mind.
Adj. disclosed &c. v.
Int.out with it!
Phr. the murder is out; a light breaks in upon one; the scales fall
from one's eyes; the eyes are opened.

#530. Ambush [Means of concealment]. -- N. hiding place; secret place,
secret drawer; recess, hold, holes and corners; closet, crypt, adytum,
abditory, oubliette.
ambush, ambuscade; stalking horse; lurking hole, lurking place; secret
path, back stairs; retreat &c. (refuge) 666.
screen, cover, shade, blinker; veil, curtain, blind, cloak, cloud.
mask, visor, vizor, disguise, masquerade dress, domino.
pitfall &c. (source of danger) 667; trap &c. (snare) 545.
V. lie in ambush &c (hide oneself) 528; lie in wait for; set a trap
for &c (deceive) 545; ambuscade, ambush.
Adv. aux aguets.

<-- p. 161 -->

#531. Publication.-- N. publication; public announcement &c 527;
promulgation, propagation, proclamation, pronunziamento [Italian];
circulation, indiction, edition; hue and cry.
publicity, notoriety, currency, flagrancy, cry, bruit; vox populi;
report &c (news) 532.
the Press, public press, newspaper, journal, gazette, daily;
telegraphy; publisher &c v.; imprint.
circular, circular letter; manifesto, advertisement, ad., placard,
bill, affiche, broadside, poster; notice &c. 527.
V. publish; make public, make known &c (information) 527; speak of,
talk of; broach, utter; put forward; circulate, propagate, promulgate;
spread, spread abroad; rumor, diffuse, disseminate, evlugate; put forth,
give forth, send forth; emit, edit, get out; issue; bring before the
public, lay before the public, drag before the public; give out, give to
the world; put about, bandy about, hawk about, buzz about, whisper about,
bruit about, blaze about; drag into the open day; voice.
proclaim, herald, blazon; blaze abroad, noise abroad; sound a trumpet;
trumpet forth, thunder forth; give tongue; announce with beat of drum,
anounce with flourish of trumpets; proclaim from the housetops, proclaim at
Charing Cross.
advertise, placard; post, post up afficher, publish in the Gazette,
send round the crier.
raise a cry, raise a hue and cry, raise a report; set news afloat.
be published &c; be public, become public &c adj.; come out; go about,
fly about, buzz about, blow about; get about, get abroad, get afloat, get
wind; find vent; see the light; go forth, take air, acquire currency, pass
current; go the rounds, go the round of the newspapers, go through the
length and breadth of the land; virum volitare per ora; pass from mouth to
mouth; spread; run like wildfire, spread like wildfire.
Adj. published &c.v.; current &c. (news) 532; in circulation, public;
notorious; flagrant, arrant; open &c 525; trumpet-tongued; encyclical,
encyclic, promulgatory; exoteric.
Adv. publicly &c. adj.; in open court, with open doors.
Int. Oyez! O yes! notice!
Phr. notice is hereby given; this is to give, these are to give
notice; nomina stultorum parietibus haerent; semel emissum volat
irrevocabile verbum..

#532. News.-- N. news; information &c 527; piece of news, budget of
news, budget of information; intelligence, tidings.
word, advice, aviso, message; dispatch, despatch; telegram, cable,
marconigram, wire, communication, errand, embassy.
report, rumor, hearsay, on dit, flying rumor, news stirring, cry,
buzz, bruit, fame; talk, oui dire, scandal, eavesdropping; town tattle,
table talk; tittle tattle; canard, topic of the day, idea afloat.
fresh news, stirring news; glad tidings.
old story, old news, stale news, stale story; chestnut*.
narrator &c (describe) 594; newsmonger, scandalmonger; talebearer,
telltale, gossip, tattler.
V. transpire &c (be disclosed) 529; rumor &c (publish) 531.
Adj. many-tongued; rumored; publicly rumored, currently rumored,
currently reported; rife, current, floating, afloat, going about, in
circulation, in every one's mouth, all over the town.
Adv. as the story goes, as the story runs; as they say, it is said; by
telegraph, by wireless.
Phr. "airy tongues that syllable men's names" [Milton].

#533. Secret.-- N. secret; dead secret, profound secret; arcanum,
mystery; latency &c 526; Asian mystery; sealed book, secrets of the prison
house; le desous des cartes.
enigma, riddle, puzzle, nut to crack, conundrum, charade, rebus,
logogriph; monogram, anagram; Sphinx; crux criticorum.
maze, labyrinth, Hyrcynian wood; intricacy, meander.
problem &c (question) 461; paradox &c (difficulty) 704;
unintelligibilty &c. 519; terra incognita &c. (ignorance) 491.
Adj. secret &c. (concealed) 528; involved &c, 248; labryrinthian,

<-- p. 162 -->

#534. Messenger.-- N. messenger, envoy, emissary, legate; nuncio,
internuncio; ambassador &c (diplomatist) 758.
marshal, flag bearer, herald, crier, trumpeter, bellman, pursuivant,
parlementaire, apparitor.
courier, runner; dak, estafette; Mercury, Iris, Ariel.
commissionaire; errand boy, chore boy; newsboy.
mail; post, post office; letter bag; telegraph, telephone; cable, wire
(electronic information transmission); carrier pigeon.
reporter, gentleman of the press, representative of the press; penny-
a-liner; special correspondent, own correspondent; spy, scout; informer &c.

#535. Affirmation.-- N. affirmance, affirmation; statement,
allegation, assertion, predication, declaration, word, averment;
asseveration, adjuration, swearing, oath, affidavit; deposition &c
(record) 551; avouchment; assurance; protest, protestation; profession;
acknowledgment &c. (assent) 488; legal pledge, pronouncement; solemnment,
averment, solemn avowal, solemn declaration.
remark, observation; position &c. (proposition) 514, saying, dictum,
sentence, ipse dixit.
emphasis; weight; dogmatism &c. (certainty) 474; dogmatics &c 887.
V. assert; make an assertion &c n.; have one's say; say, affirm,
predicate, declare, state; protest, profess.
put forth, put forward; advance, allege, propose, propound, enunciate,
broach, set forth, hold out, maintain, contend, pronounce, pretend.
depose, depone, aver, avow, avouch, asseverate, swear; make oath, take
one's oath; make an affidavit, swear an affidavit, put in an affidavit;
take one's Bible oath, kiss the book, vow, vitam impendere vero; swear till
one is black in the face, swear till one is blue in the face, swear till
all's blue; be sworn, call Heaven to witness; vouch, warrant, certify,
assure, swear by bell book and candle.
swear by &c (believe) 484; insist upon, take one's stand upon;
emphasize, lay stress on; assert roundly, assert positively; lay down, lay
down the law; raise one's voice, dogmatize, have the last word; rap out;
repeat; reassert, reaffirm.
announce &c (information) 527; acknowledge &c (assent) 488; attest &c
(evidence) 467; adjure &c (put to one's oath) 768.
Adj. asserting &c.v.; declaratory, predicatory, pronunciative,
affirmative, soi-disant; positive; certain &c 474; express, explicit &c
(patent) 525; absolute, emphatic, flat, broad, round, pointed, marked,
distinct, decided, confident, trenchant, dogmatic, definitive, formal,
solemn, categorical, peremptory; unretracted; predicable.
Adv. affirmatively &c adj.; in the affirmative.
with emphasis, ex-cathedra, without fear of contradiction.
I must say, indeed, i' faith, let me tell you, why, give me leave to
say, marry, you may be sure, I'd have you to know; upon my word, upon my
honor; by my troth, egad, I assure you; by jingo, by Jove, by George, &c.;
troth, seriously, sadly; in sadness, in sober sadness, in truth, in
earnest; of a truth, truly, perdy, in all conscience, upon oath; be assured
&c (belief) 484; yes &c (assent) 488; I'll warrant, I'll warrant you, I'll
engage, I'll answer for it, I'll be bound, I'll venture to say, I'll take
my oath; in fact, forsooth, joking apart; so help me God; not to mince the
Phr. quoth he; dixi.

#536. Negation. -- N. negation, abnegation; denial; disavowal,
disclaimer; abjuration; contradiction, contravention; recusation, protest;
recusancy &c (dissent) 489; flat contradiction, emphatic contradiction,
emphatic denial, dementi.
qualification &c 469; repudiation &c 610; retraction &c 607;
confutation &c 479; refusal &c 764; prohibition &c 761.
V. deny; contradict, contravene; controvert, give denial to, gainsay,
negative, shake the head.
disown, disaffirm, disclaim, disavow; recant &c 607; revoke &c
(abrogate) 756.
dispute; impugn, traverse, rebut, join issue upon; bring in question,
call in question &c. (doubt) 485; give (one) the lie in his throat.
deny flatly, deny peremptorily, deny emphatically, deny absolutely,
deny wholly, deny entirely; give the lie to, belie.
repudiate &c 610; set aside, ignore &c 460; rebut &c. (confute) 479;
qualify &c 469; refuse &c 764.
Adj. denying &c.v.; denied &c.v.; contradictory; negative, negatory;
recusant &c (dissenting) 489; at issue upon.
Adv. no, nay, not, nowise; not a bit, not a whit, not a jot; not at
all, not in the least, not so; no such thing; nothing of the kind, nothing
of the sort; quite the contrary, tout au contraire, far from it; tant s'en
faut; on no account, in no respect; by no, by no manner of means;
Phr. there never was a greater mistake; I know better; non haec in

<-- p. 163 -->

#537. Teaching.-- N. teaching &c.v.; instruction; edification;
education; tuition; tutorage, tutelage; direction, guidance; opsimathy.
qualification, preparation; training, schooling &cv.; discipline;
exercise, excitation; drill, practice.
persuasion, proselytism, propagandism, propaganda; indoctrination,
inculcation, inoculation.
explanation &c (interpretation) 522; lesson, lecture, sermon;
apologue, parable; discourse, prolection, preachment; chalk talk;
Chautauqua [U.S.].
exercise, task; curriculum; course, course of study; grammar, three
R's, initiation, A.B.C. &c (beginning) 66.
elementary education, primary education, secondary education,
technical education, college education, collegiate education, military
education, university education, liberal education, classical education,
religious education, demoninational education, moral education, secular
education; propaedeutics, moral tuition.
gymnastics, calisthenics; physical drill, physical education; sloyd.
V. teach, instruct, educate, edify, school, tutor; cram, prime, coach;
enlighten &c (inform) 527.
inculcate, indoctrinate, inoculate, infuse, instill, infix, ingraft,
infiltrate; imbue, impregnate, implant; graft, sow the seeds of,
given an idea of; put up to, put in the way of; set right.
sharpen the wits, enlarge the mind; give new ideas, open the eyes,
bring forward, "teach the young idea how to shoot" [Thomson]; improve &c.
expound &c (interpret) 522; lecture; read a lesson, give a lesson,
give a lecture, give a sermon, give a discourse; incept; hold forth,
preach; sermonize, moralize; point a moral.
train, discipline; bring up, bring up to; form, ground, prepare,
qualify; drill, exercise, practice, habituate, familiarize with, nurture,
drynurse, breed, rear, take in hand; break, break in; tame; preinstruct;
initiate; inure &c (habituate) 613.
put to nurse, send to school.
direct, guide; direct attention to &c. (attention) 457; impress upon
the mind, impress upon the memory; beat into, beat into the head; convince
&c (belief) 484.
Adj. teaching &c.v; taught &c.v.; educational; scholastic, academic,
doctrinal; disciplinal; instructive, didactic; propaedeutic,
Phr. the schoolmaster abroad; a bovi majori disscit arare minor; adeo
in teneris consuecere multum est [Vergil]; docendo discimus; quaenocent
docent; qui docet discit; "sermons in stones and good in everything' [As
You Like It].

<-- p. 164 -->

#538. Misteaching.-- N. misteaching, misinformaton, misintelligence,
misguidance, misdirection, mispersuasion, misinstruction, misleading &c.v.;
perversion, false teaching; sophistry &c 477; college of Laputa; the blind
leading the blind.
V. misinform, misteach, misdescribe, misdirect, misguide, misinstruct,
miscorrect; pervert; put on a false scent, throw off the scent; deceive &c
545; mislead &c (error) 495; misrepresent; lie &c 544; ambiguas in vulgum
spargere voces [Vergil], preach to the wise, teach one's grandmother to
suck eggs.
render unintelligible &c 519; bewilder &c (uncertainty) 475; mystify
&c. (conceal) 528; unteach.
Adj. misteaching &c.v; unedifying.
Phr. piscem natare doces.

#539. Learning -- N. learning; acquisition of knowledge &c 490,
acquisition of skill &c 698; acquirement, attainment; edification,
scholarship, erudition; acquired knowledge, lore, wide information; self-
instruction; study, reading, perusal; inquiry &c 451.
apprenticeship, prenticeship; pupilage, pupilarity; tutelage,
novitiate, matriculation.
docility &c (willingness) 602; aptitude &c 698.
V. learn; acquire knowledge, gain knowledge, receive knowledge, take
in knowledge, drink in knowledge, imbibe knowledge, pick up knowledge,
gather knowledge, get knowledge, obtain knowledge, collect knowledge, glean
knowledge, glean information, glean learning.
acquaint oneself with, master; make oneself master of, make oneself
acquainted with; grind, cram; get up, coach up; learn by heart, learn by
read, spell, peruse; con over, pore over, thumb over; wade through;
dip into; run the eye over, run the eye through; turn over the leaves.
study; be studious &c adj.; consume the midnight oil, mind one's book.
go to school, go to college, go to the university; serve an (or one's)
apprenticeship, serve one's time; learn one's trade; be informed &c 527; be
taught &c 537.
Adj. studious; scholastic, scholarly; teachable; docile &c (willing)
602; apt &c 698, industrious &c 682.
Adv. at one's books; in statu pupillari &c (learner) 541.
Phr. "a lumber-house of books in every head" [Pope]; ancora imparo!
"hold high converse with the mighty dead" [Thomson]; "lash'd into Latin by
the tingling rod" [Gay].

#540. Teacher. -- N. teacher, trainer, instructor, institutor, master,
tutor, director, Corypheus, dry nurse, coach, grinder, crammer, don;
governor, bear leader; governess, duenna; disciplinarian.
professor, lecturer, reader, prelector, prolocutor, preacher; chalk
talker, khoja; pastor &c (clergy) 996; schoolmaster, dominie, usher,
pedagogue, abecedarian; schoolmistress, dame, monitor, pupil teacher.
expositor &c 524; preceptor, guide; guru; mentor &c (adviser) 695;
pioneer, apostle, missionary, propagandist, munshi, example &c (model for
imitation) 22.
professorship &c (school) 542.
tutelage &c (teaching) 537.
Adj. professorial
Phr. qui doet discet.

#541. Learner.-- N. learner, scholar, student, pupil; apprentice,
prentice; articled clerk; beginner, tyro, abecedarian, alphabetarian;
alumnus, eleve.
recruit, novice, neophyte, inceptor, catechumen, probationer; chela,
fellow-commoner; debutant.
schoolboy; fresh, freshman; junior soph, junior; senior soph, senior;
sophister, sophomore; questionist.
class, form, remove; pupilage &c (learning) 539.
disciple, follower, apostle, proselyte; fellow-student, condisciple.
Adj. in statu pupillari, in leading strings.

#542. School.-- N. school, academy, university, alma mater, college,
seminary, Lyceum; institute, institution; palaestra, Gymnasium, class,
day school, boarding school, preparatory school, primary school,
infant school, dame's school, grammar school, middle class school, Board
school, denominational school, National school, British and Foreign school,
collegiate school, art school, continuation school, convent school, County
Council school, government school, grant-in-aid school, high school, higher
grade school, military school, missionary school, naval school, state-aided
school, technical school, voluntary school, school; school of art;
kindergarten, nursery, creche, reformatory.
pulpit, desk, reading desk, ambo, lecture room, theater,
amphitheater, forum, state, rostrum, platform, hustings, tribune.
school book, horn book, text book; grammar, primer, abecedary,
rudiments, manual, vade mecum; encyclopedia, cyclopedia; Lindley Murray,
Cocker; dictionary, lexicon.
professorship, lectureship, readership, fellowship, tutorship; chair.
School Board Council of Education; Board of Education; Board of
Studies, Prefect of Studies; Textbook Committee; propaganda.
Adj. scholastic, academic, collegiate; educational.
Adv. ex cathedra.

<-- p. 165 -->

#543. Veracity.-- N. veracity; truthfulness, frankness, &c. adj.;
truth, sincerity, candor, honesty, fidelity; plain dealing, bona fides;
love of truth; probity &c. 939; ingenuousness &c (artlessness) 703.
the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth; honest truth,
sober truth &c (fact) 494; unvarnished tale; light of truth.
V. speak the truth, tell the truth; speak by the card; paint in its
true colors, show oneself in one's true colors; make a clean breast &c
(disclose) 529; speak one's mind &c. (be blunt) 703; not lie &c 544, not
deceive &c. 545.
Adj. truthful, true; veracious, veridical; scrupulous &c (honorable)
939; sincere, candid, frank, open, straightforward, unreserved; open
hearted, true hearted, simple-hearted; honest, trustworthy; undissembling
&c (dissemble &c 544); guileless, pure; truth-loving; unperjured; true
blue, as good as one's word; unaffected, unfeigned, bona fide; outspoken,
ingenuous &c (artless) 703; undisguised &c (real) 494.
Adv. truly &c (really) 494; in plain words &c 703; in truth, with
truth, of a truth, in good truth; as the dial to the sun, as the needle to
the pole; honor bright; troth; in good sooth, in good earnest; unfeignedly,
with no nonsense, in sooth, sooth to say, bona fide, in foro conscientiae;
without equivocation; cartes sur table, from the bottom of one's heart; by
my troth &c (affirmation) 535.
Phr. di il vero a affronterai il diavolo; Dichtung und Wahrheit; esto
guod esse videris; magna est veritas et praevalet; "that golden key that
opes the palace of eternity" [Milton]; veritas odium parit; veritatis
simplex oratio est; verite sans peur.

<-- p. 166 -->

#544. Falsehood. -- N. falsehood, falseness; falsity, falsification;
deception &c. 545; untruth &c 546; guile; lying &c. 454; untruth &c 546;
guile; lying &c. v. misrepresentation; mendacity, perjury, false swearing;
forgery, invention, fabrication; subreption; covin.
perversion of truth, suppression of truth; suppressio veri;
perversion, distortion, false coloring; exaggeration &c 549; prevarication,
equivocation, shuffling, fencing, evasion, fraud; suggestio falsi &c (lie)
546; mystification &c (concealment) 528; simulation &c (imitation) 19;
dissimulation, dissembling; decit; blague.
sham; pretense, pretending, malingering.
lip homage, lip service; mouth honor; hollowness; mere show, mere
outside; duplicity, double dealing, insincerity, hypocrisy, cant, humbug;
jesuitism, jesuitry; pharisaism; Machiavelism, "organized hypocrisy';
crocodile tears, mealy-mouthedness, quackery; charlatanism, charlatanry;
gammon; bun-kum, bumcombe, flam; bam*, flimflam, cajolery, flattery; Judas
kiss; perfidy &c (bad faith) 940; il volto sciotlo i pensieri stretti.
unfairness &c (dishonesty) 940; artfulness &c (cunning) 702;
misstatement &c (error) 495.
V. be false &c adj., be a liar &c 548; speak falsely &c adv.; tell a
lie &c. 546; lie, fib; lie like a trooper; swear false, forswear, perjure
oneself, bear false witness.
misstate, misquote, miscite, misreport, misrepresent; belie, falsify,
pervert, distort; put a false construction upon &c. (misinterpret)
prevaricate, equivocate, quibble; palter, palter to the understanding;
repondre en Normand; trim, shuffle, fence, mince the truth, beat about the
bush, blow hot and cold, play fast and loose.
garble, gloss over, disguise, give a color to; give a gloss, put a
gloss, put false coloring upon; color, varnish, cook, dress up, embroider;
varnish right and puzzle wrong; exaggerate &c 549; blague.
invent, fabricate; trump up, get up; force, fake, hatch, concoct;
romance &c (imagine) 515; cry "wolf!'
dissemble, dissimulate; feign, assume, put on, pretend, make believe;
play possum; play false, play a double game; coquet; act a part, play a
part; affect &c. 855; simulate, pass off for; counterfeit, sham, make a
show of; malinger; say the grapes are sour.
cant, play the hypocrite, sham Abraham, faire pattes de velours, put
on the mask, clean the outside of the platter, lie like a conjuror; hand
out false colors, hold out false colors, sail under false colors; "commend
the poisoned chalice to the lips" [Macbeth]; ambiguas in vulgum spargere
voces; deceive &c 545.
Adj. false, deceitful, mendacious, unveracious, fraudulent, dishonest,
faithless, truthless, trothless; unfair, uncandid; hollow-hearted; evasive;
uningenuous, disingenuous; hollow, sincere, Parthis mendacior; forsworn.
canting; hypocritical, jesuitical, pharisaical; tartuffish;
Machiavelian; double, double tongued, double faced, double handed, double
minded, double hearted, double dealing; Janus faced; smooth-faced, smooth
spoken, smooth tongued; plausible; mealy-mouthed; affected &c 855.
collusive, collusory; artful &c (cunnint) 702; perfidious &c 940;
spurious &c (deceptive) 545; untrue &c 546; falsified &c v.; covinous.
Adv. falsely &c adj.; a la Tartufe, with a double tongue; silly &c
(cunning) 702.
Phr. blandae mendacia lingua; falsus in uno falsus in omnibus; "I give
him joy that's awkward at a lie" [Young]; la mentira tiene las piernas
cortas; "O what a goodly outside falsehood hath!" [Merchant of Venice]

#545. Deception. -- N. deception; falseness &c 544; untruth &c 546;
imposition, inposture; fraud, deceit, guile; fraudulence, fraudulency;
covin; knavery &c. (cunning) 702; misrepresentation &c (falsehood) 544;
bluff; straw-bail, straw bid [U.S.]; spoof*.
delusion, gullery; juggling, jugglery; slight of hand, legerdemain;
prestigiation|, prestidigitation; magic &c 992; conjuring, conjuriation;
hocus-pocus, escamoterie, jockeyship; trickery, coggery|, chicanery;
supercherie, cozenage, circumvention, ingannation|, collusion; treachery &c
940; practical joke.
trick, cheat, wile, blind, feint, plant, bubble, fetch, catch,
chicane, juggle, reach, hocus, bite; thimblerig; card sharping, artful
dodge, swindle; tricks upon travelers; stratagem &c (artifice) 702;
confidence trick, fake, hoax; theft &c. 791; ballot-box stuffing [U.S.]
barney*, brace* game, bunko game, drop* game, gum* game, [U.S.] panel game,
shell game, skin* game [U.S.].
snare, trap, pitfall, decoy, gin; springe, springle|; noose, hoot;
bait, decoy-duck, tub to the whale, baited trap, guet-a-pens; cobweb, net,
meshes, toils, mouse trap, birdlime; dionaea, Venus's flytrap; ambush &c
530; trapdoor, sliding panel, false bottom; spring-net, spring net, spring
gun, mask, masked battery; mine; flytrap; green goods [U.S.]; panel house.
Cornish hug; wolf in sheep's clothing &c (deceiver) 548; disguise,
disguisement; false colors, masquerade, mummery, borrowed plumes; pattes de
mockery &c (imitation) 19; copy &c 21; counterfeit, sham, make-
believe, forgery, fraud; lie &c 546; "a delusion a mockery and a snare"
[Denman], hollow mockery.
whited sepulcher, painted sepulcher; tinsel, paste, false jewelry,
scagliola, ormolu, German silver, albata, paktong, white metal, Britannia
metal, paint; jerry building; man of straw.
illusion &c (error) 495; ignis fatuus &c 423; mirage &c 443.
V. deceive, take in; defraud, cheat, jockey, do, cozen, diddle, nab,
chouse, play one false, bilk, cully, jilt, bite, pluck, swindle, victimize;
abuse; mystify; blind one's eyes; blindfold, hoodwink; throw dust into the
eyes, "keep the word of promise to the ear and break it to the hope"
impose upon, practice upon, play upon, put upon, palm upon, foist
upon; snatch a verdict; bluff off, bluff; bunko, four flush*, gum* [U.S.],
spoof*, stuff (a ballot box) [U.S.].
circumvent, overreach; outreach, out wit, out maneuver; steal a march
upon, give the go-by, to leave in the lurch
set a trap, lay a trap, lay a snare for; bait the hook, forelay,
spread the toils, lime; decoy, waylay, lure, beguile, delude, inveigle;
trapan, trepan; kidnap; let in, hook in; trick; entrap, intrap, ensnare;
nick, springe; nousle, nousel; blind a trail; immesh; shanghai; catch,
catch in a trap; sniggle, entangle, illaqueate, hocus, escamoter, practice
on one's creduility, dupe, gull, hoax, fool, befool, bamboozle; hum,
humbug; gammon, stuff up*, sell; play a trick upon one, play a practical
joke upon one; balk, trip up, throw a tub to a whale; fool to the top of
one's bent, send on a fool's errand; make game, make a fool of, make an
April fool of, make an ass of; trifle with, cajole, flatter; come over &c.
(influence) 615; gild the pill, make things pleasant, divert, put a good
face upon; dissemble &c 544.
cog, cog the dice; live by one's wits, play at hide and seek; obtain
money under false pretenses &c (steal) 791; conjure, juggle, practice
chicanery; deacon [U.S.].
play off, palm off, foist off, fob- off.
lie &c 544; misinform &c 538; mislead &c (error) 495; betray &c 940;
be deceived &c 547.
Adj. deceived &c v.; deceiving &c; cunning &c 702; prestigious|,
prestigiatory|; deceptive, deceptious; deceitful, covinous; delusive,
delusory; illusive, illusory; elusive, insidious, ad captandum vulgus.
untrue &c 546; mock, sham, make-believe, counterfeit, snide*, pseudo,
spurious, so-called, pretended, feigned, trumped up, bogus, scamped,
fraudulent, tricky, factitious, artificial, bastard; surreptititous,
illegitimate, contraband, adulterated, sophisticated; unsound, rotten at
the core; colorable; disguised; meretricious, tinsel, pinchbeck, plated;
catchpenny; Brummagem; simulated &c 544.
Adv. under false colors, under the garb of, under cover of; over the
Phr. fronti nulla fides; "ah that deceit should steal such gentle
shapes" [Rich. III]; "a quicksand of deceit' [Hen. VI]; decipimur specie
recti [Hor.]; falsi crimen; fraus est celare fraudem; lupus in fabula; "so
smooth, he daubed his vice with show of virtue" [Rich. III].

<-- p. 167 -->

#546. Untruth.-- N. untruth, falsehood, lie, story, thing that is not,
fib, bounce, crammer, taradiddle, whopper; jhuth.
forgery, fabrication, invention; misstatement, misrepresentation;
perversion, falsification, gloss, suggestio falsi; exaggeration &c 549.
invention, fabrication, fiction; fable, nursery tale; romance &c
(imagination) 515; absurd story, untrue story, false story, trumped up
story, trumped up statement; thing devised by the enemy; canard; shave,
sell, hum, traveler;s tale, Canterbury tale, cock and bull story, fairy
tale, fake, press agent's yarn; claptrap.
myth, moonshine, bosh, all my eye and Betty Martin, mare's nest,
irony; half truth, white lie, pious fraud; mental reservation &c
(concealment) 528.
pretense, pretext; false plea &c 617; subterfuge, evasion, shift,
shuffle, make-believe; sham &c (deception) 545.
profession, empty words; Judas kiss &c (hypocrisy) 544; disguise &c
(mask) 530.
V. have a false meaning.
Adj. untrue, false, trumped up; void of foundation, without-
foundation; fictive, far from the truth, false as dicer's oaths; unfounded,
ben trovato, invented, fabulous, fabricated, forged; fictitious,
factitious, supposititious, surreptitious; elusory, illusory; ironical;
soi-disant &c (misnamed) 565.
Phr. se non e vero e ben trovato; "where none is meant that meets the
ear" [Milton]

<-- p. 168 -->

#547. Dupe.-- N. dupe, gull, gudgeon, gobemouche, cull*, cully,
victim, pigeon, April fool; jay*, sucker*; laughingstock &c 857; Cyclops,
simple Simon, flat; greenhorn; fool &c 501; puppet, cat's paw.
V. be deceived &c 545, be the dupe of; fall into a trap; swallow the
bait, nibble at the bait; bite, catch a Tartar.
Adj. credulous &c 486; mistaken &c. (error) 495.

#548. Deceiver.-- N. deceiver &c (deceive &c 545); dissembler,
hypocrite; sophist, Pharisee, Jesuit, Mawworm, Pecksniff, Joseph Surface,
Tartfufe, Janus; serpent, snake in the grass, cockatrice, Judas, wolf in
sheep's clothing; jilt; shuffler, stool pigeon.
liar &c (lie &c 544); story-teller, perjurer, false witness, menteur a
triple etage, Scapin; bunko steerer* [U.S.], carpetbagger* [U.S.], capper*
[U.S.], faker, fraud, four flusher*, horse coper, ringer*, spieler, straw
bidder [U.S.].
imposter, pretender, soi-disant, humbug; adventurer; Cagliostro,
Fernam Mendez Pinto; ass in lion's skin &c (bungler) 701; actor &c (stage
player) 599.
quack, charlatan, mountebank, saltimbanco, saltimbanque, empiric,
quacksalver, medicaster, Rosicrucian, gypsy; man of straw.
conjuror, juggler, trickster, prestigitator, jockey; crimp, decoy,
decoy duck; rogue, knave, cheat; swindler &c (thief) 792; jobber.
Phr. "saint abroad and a devil at home" [Bunyan].

#549. Exaggeration.-- N. exaggeration,; expansion &c 194; hyperbole,
stretch, strain, coloring; high coloring, caricature, caricatura;
extravagance &c. (nonsense) 497; Baron Munchausen; men in buckram, yarn,
fringe, embroidery, traveler's tale; fish story, gooseberry*
storm in a teacup; much ado about nothing &c (overestimation) 482;
puff, puffery &c (boasting) 884; rant &c (turgescence) 577.
figure of speech, facon de parler; stretch of fancy, stretch of the
imagination; flight of fancy &c (imagination) 515.
false coloring &c (falsehood) 544; aggravation &c. 835.
V. exaggerate, magnify, pile up, aggravate; amplify &c (expand) 194;
overestimate &c 482; hyperbolize; overcharge, overstate, overdraw, overlay,
overshoot the mark, overpraise; make over much, over the most of; strain,
strain over a point; stretch, stretch a point; go great lengths; spin a
long yarn; draw with a longbow, shoot with a longbow; deal in the
out-Herod Herod, run riot, talk at random.
heighten, overcolor; color highly, color too highly; broder; flourish;
color &c. (misrepresent) 544; puff &c (boast) 884.
Adj. exaggerated &c. v.; overwrought; bombastic &c. (grandiloquent)
577; hyperbolical, on stilts; fabulous, extravagant, preposterous,
egregious, outre, highflying.
Adv. hyperbolically &c adj.
Phr. excitabat enim fluctus in simpulo [Cicero].

<-- p. 169 -->

1. Natural Means

#550 Indication -- N. indication; symbolism, symbolization; semiology,
semiotics, semeiology, semeiotics; Zeitgeist.
[means of recognition] lineament, feature, trait, characteristic,
diagnostic; divining rod; cloven hoof; footfall.
sign, symbol; index, indice|, indicator; point, pointer; exponent,
note, token, symptom; dollar mark.
type, figure, emblem, cipher, device; representation &c. 554;
epigraph, motto, posy.
gesture, gesticulation; pantomime; wink, glance, leer; nod, shrug,
beck; touch, nudge; dactylology, dactylonomy; freemasonry, telegraphy,
chirology, byplay, dumb show; cue; hint &c. 527; clue, clew, key, scent.
signal, signal post; rocket, blue light; watch fire, watch tower;
telegraph, semaphore, flagstaff; cresset, fiery cross; calumet; heliograph;
guidon; headlight.
mark, scratch, line, stroke, dash, score, stripe, streak, tick, dot,
point, notch, nick; asterisk, red letter, italics, sublineation,
underlining, jotting; print; imprint, impress, impression; note,
annotation; blaze, cedilla, guillemets, hachure; quotation marks, tilde.
[For identification badge, criterion; countercheck, countermark,
countersign, counterfoil; duplicate, tally; label, ticket, billet, letter,
counter, check, chip, chop; dib; totem; tessera, card, bill; witness,
voucher; stamp; cacher; trade mark, Hall mark; signature, autograph,
autography; attestation; hand, hand writing, sign manual; cipher; seal,
sigil, signet; paraph, brand; superscription; indorsement, endorsement;
title, heading, docket; mot de passe, mot du guet; pass-parole; shibboleth;
password, watchword, catchword; address card, visiting card; carte de
visite; credentials &c. (evidence) 467; open sesame; timbrology.
insignia; banner, banneret, bannerol; bandrol; flag, colors,
streamer, standard, eagle, labarum, oriflamb, oriflamme; figurehead;
ensign; pennon, pennant, pendant; burgee, blue Peter, jack, ancient,
gonfalon, union jack; banderole, " old glory " [U.S.], quarantine flag;
vexillum; yellow-flag, yellow jack; tricolor, stars and stripes; bunting.
heraldry, crest; coat of arms, arms; armorial bearings, hatchment;
escutcheon, scutcheon; shield, supporters; livery, uniform; cockade,
epaulet, chevron; garland, love knot, favor.
[Of locality] beacon, cairn, post, staff, flagstaff, hand, pointer,
vane, cock, weathercock; guidepost, handpost, fingerpost, directingpost,
signpost; pillars of Hercules, pharos; bale-fire, beacon-fire; l'etoile du
Nord; landmark, seamark; lighthouse, balize; polestar, loadstar, lodestar;
cynosure, guide; address, direction, name; sign, signboard.
[Of the future] warning &c. 668; omen &c. 512; prefigurement &c. 511.
[Of the past] trace, record &c. 551. [Of danger] warning &c. 668; alarm &c.
669. [Of authority] scepter &c. 747. [Of triumph] trophy &c. 733. [Of
quantity] gauge &c. 466. [Of distance] milestone, milepost. [Of disgrace]
brand, fool's cap. [For detection] check, telltale; test &c. (experiment)
463; mileage ticket; milliary.
notification &c. (information) 527; advertisement &c. (publication)
word of command, call; bugle call, trumpet call; bell, alarum, cry;
battle cry, rallying cry; angelus; reveille; sacring bell, sanctus bell.
exposition &c. (explanation) 522, proof &c. (evidence) 463; pattern
&c. (prototype) 22.
V. indicate; be the -sign &c. n.- of; denote, betoken; argue, testify
&c. (evidence) 467; bear the -impress &c. n.- of; connote, connotate.
represent, stand for; typify &c. (prefigure) 511; symbolize.
put an indication, put a mark &c. n.; note, mark, stamp, earmark;
blaze; label, ticket, docket; dot, spot, score, dash, trace, chalk; print;
imprint, impress; engrave, stereotype.
make a sign &c. n. signalize; underscore; give a signal, hang out a
signal; beckon; nod; wink, glance, leer, nudge, shrug, tip the wink;
gesticulate; raise the finger , hold up the finger, raise the hand, hold up
the hand; saw the air, "suit the action to the word" [Hamlet].
wave a banner, unfurl a banner, hoist a banner, hang out a banner &c.
n.; wave the hand, wave a kerchief; give the cue &c. (inform) 527; show
one's colors; give an alarm, sound an alarm; beat the drum, sound the
trumpets, raise a cry.
sign, seal, attest &c. (evidence) 467; underline &c. (give importance
to) 642; call attention to &c. (attention) 457; give notice &c. (inform)
Adj. indicating &c. v., indicative, indicatory; denotative,
connotative; diacritical, representative, typical, symbolic, pantomimic,
pathognomonic, symptomatic, characteristic, demonstrative, diagnostic,
exponential, emblematic, armorial; individual &c. (special) 79.
known by, recognizable by; indicated &c. v.; pointed, marked.
[Capable of being denoted] denotable; indelible.
Adv. in token of; symbolically &c. adj.; in dumb show.
Phr. ecce signum; ex ungue leonem, ex pede Herculem; vide ut supra;
vultus ariete fortior.

<-- p. 170 -->

#551. Record. -- N. trace, vestige, relic, remains; scar, cicatrix;
footstep, footmark, footprint; pug; track mark, wake, trail, scent, piste.
monument, hatchment, slab, tablet, trophy, achievement; obelisk,
pillar, column, monolith; memorial; memento &c. (memory) 505; testimonial,
medal; commemoration &c. (celebration) 883.
record, note, minute; register, registry; roll &c. (list) 86;
cartulary, diptych, Domesdaybook; catalogue raisonne; entry, memorandum,
indorsement, inscription, copy, duplicate, docket; notch &c. (mark) 550;
muniment, deed &c. (security) 771; document; deposition, proces verbal;
affidavit; certificate &c. (evidence) 467.
notebook, memorandumbook, pocketbook, commonplace book; portfolio;
pigeonholes, excerpta, adversaria, jottings, dottings.
gazette, gazetteer; newspaper, daily, magazine; almanac, almanack;
calendar, ephemeris, diary, log, journal, daybook, ledger; cashbook, petty
archive, scroll, state paper, return, blue book; statistics &c. 86;
compte rendu; Acts of, Transactions of, Proceedings of; Hansard's Debates;
chronicle,annals, legend; history, biography &c. 594; Congressional
registration; registry; enrollment, inrollment; tabulation; entry,
booking; signature &c (identification) 550; recorder &c. 553; journalism.
V. record; put on record, place on record; chronicle, calendar, hand
down to posterity; keep up the memory &c. (remember) 505; commemorate &c.
(celebrate) 883; report &c. (inform) 527; commit to writing, reduce to
writing; put in writing, set down in writing, writing in black and white;
put down, jot down, take down, write down, note down, set down; note,
minute, put on paper; take note, make a note, take minute, take memorandum;
make a return.
mark &c. (indicate) 550; sign &c. (attest) 467.
enter, book; post, post up, insert, make an entry of; mark off, tick
off; register, enroll, inscroll; file &c. (store) 636.
Adv. on record.
Phr. exegi monumentum aere perennium [Horace]; "read their history in
a nation's eyes" [Gray] ; " records that defy the tooth of time " [Young].

#552. [Suppression of sign.] Obliteration. -- N. obliteration;
erasure, rasure; cancel, cancellation; circumduction; deletion, blot;
tabula rasa; effacement, extinction.
V. efface, obliterate, erase, rase, expunge, cancel; blot out, take
out, rub out, scratch out, strike out, wipe out, wash out, sponge out; wipe
off, rub off; wipe away; deface, render illegible; draw the pen through,
apply the sponge.
be effaced &c.; leave no trace &c. 550; "leave not a rack behind."
Adj. obliterated &c. v.; out of print; printless; leaving no trace;
intestate; unrecorded, unregistered, unwritten.
Int. dele; out with it!
Phr. delenda est Carthago [Cato].

#553. Recorder. -- N. recorder, notary, clerk; registrar, registrary,
register; prothonotary; amanuensis, secretary, scribe, babu, remembrancer,
bookkeeper, custos rotulorum, Master of the Rolls.
annalist; historian, historiographer; chronicler, journalist;
biographer &c. (narrator) 594; antiquary &c. (antiquity) 122; memorialist;

#554. Representation. -- N. representation, representment; imitation
&c. 19; illustration, delineation, depictment; imagery, portraiture,
iconography; design, designing; art, fine arts; painting &c. 556; sculpture
&c. 557; engraving &c. 558; photography, cinematography; radiography,
autoradiography, fluorography, sciagraphy.
personation, personification; impersonation; drama &c. 599.
copy &c. 21; drawing, sketch, drought, draft; plot, chart, figure,
image, likeness, icon, portrait , striking likeness, speaking
likeness; very image; effigy, facsimile.
figure , figure head; puppet, doll, figurine, aglet, manikin, lay-
figure, model, mammet, marionette, fantoccini, waxwork, bust; statue,
hieroglyphic, anaglyph; diagram, monogram.
map, plan, chart, ground plan, projection, elevation; ichnography,
cartography; atlas; outline, scheme; view &c. (painting) 556; radiograph,
scotograph, sciagraph; spectrogram, heliogram.
V. represent, delineate; depict, depicture; portray; take a likeness,
catch a likeness &c. n.; hit off, photograph, daguerreotype; snapshot;
figure, shadow forth, shadow out; adumbrate; body forth; describe &c. 594;
trace, copy; mold.
dress up; illustrate, symbolize.
paint &c. 556; carve &c. 557; engrave &c. 558.
personate, personify; impersonate; assume a character; pose as; act;
play &c. (drama) 599; mimic &c. (imitate) 19; hold the mirror up to nature.
Adj. represent, representing &c. v., representative; *illustrative;
represented &c. v.; imitative, figurative; iconic.
like &c. 17; graphic &c. (descriptive) 594; cinquecento quattrocento,

<-- p. 171 -->

#555. Misrepresentation. -- N. misrepresentation, distortion,
caricatura|, exaggeration; daubing &c. v.; bad likeness, daub, sign
painting; scratch, caricature; anamorphosis; burlesque, falsification,
misstatement; parody, lampoon, take-off, travesty.
V. misrepresent, distort, overdraw, exaggerate, caricature, daub;
burlesque, parody, travesty.
Adj. misrepresented &c. v.

#556. Painting. -- N. painting; depicting; drawing &c. v.; design;
perspective, sciagraphy, skiagraphy; chiaroscuro &c. (light) 420
composition; treatment.
historical painting, portrait painting, miniature painting; landscape
painting, marine painting; still life, flower painting, scene painting;
school, style; the grand style, high art, genre, portraiture;
ornamental art &c. 847.
monochrome, polychrome; grisaille.
pallet, palette; easel; brush, pencil, stump; black lead, charcoal,
crayons, chalk, pastel; paint &c. (coloring matter) 428; watercolor, body
color, oil color; oils, oil paint; varnish &c. 356a, priming; gouache,
tempera, distemper, fresco, water glass; enamel; encaustic painting;
mosaic; tapestry.
photography, heliography, color photography; sun painting.
picture, painting, piece, tableau, canvas; oil painting &c.; fresco,
cartoon; easel picture, cabinet picture, draught, draft; pencil &c.
drawing, water color drawing, etching, charcoal, pen-and-ink; sketch,
outline, study.
photograph, color photograph, black-and-white photograph, holograph,
heliograph; daguerreotype, talbotype, calotype, heliotype.
portrait &c. (representation) 554; whole length, full length, half
length; kitcat, head; miniature; shade, silhouette; profile.
landscape, seapiece; view, scene, prospect; panorama, diorama; still
picture gallery, exhibit; studio, atelier; pinacotheca.
V. paint, design, limn draw, sketch, pencil, scratch, shade, stipple,
dash off, chalk out, square up; color, dead color, wash, varnish; draw in
&c. n.; paint in oils &c. n.; stencil; depict &c. (represent) 554.
Adj. painted &c. v.; pictorial, graphic, picturesque.
pencil, oil &c. n.
Adv. in pencil &c. n.
Phr. fecit, delineavit; mutum est pictura poema.

#557. Sculpture. -- N. sculpture, insculpture| ; carving &c. v.;
high relief, low relief, bas relief; relief; relieve; bassorilievo,
altorilievo, mezzorilievo; intaglio, anaglyph; medal, medallion; cameo.
marble, bronze, terra cotta, papier-mache; ceramic ware, pottery,
porcelain, china, earthenware; cloisonne, enamel, faience, Laocoon,
statue.&c. (image) 554; cast &c (copy) 21; glyptotheca.
V. sculpture, carve, cut, chisel, model, mold; *cast.
Adj. sculptured &c, v. in refief, anaglyptic, ceroplastic, ceramic;
parian; marble &c. n.; xanthian.

<-- p. 172 -->

#558. Engraving. -- N. engraving, chalcography; line engraving,
mezzotint engraving, stipple engraving, chalk engraving; dry point, bur;
etching, aquatinta; chiseling; plate engraving, copperplate engraving,
steel engraving, wood engraving; xylography, lignography, glyptography,
cerography, lithography, chromolithography, photolithography, zincography,
glyphograph,y xylograph, lignograph, glyptograph, cerograph, lithograph,
chromolithograph, photolithograph, zincograph, glyphograph, holograph.
impression, print, engraving, plate; steelplate, copperplate; etching;
mezzotint, aquating, lithotint; cut, woodcut; stereotype, graphotype,
autotype, heliotype.
graver, burin, etching point, style; plate, stone, wood block,
negative; die, punch, stamp.
printing; plate printing, copperplate printing, anastatic printing,
color printing, lithographic printing; type printing &c. 591; three-color
illustration, illumination; half tone; photogravure; vignette, initial
letter, cul de lampe, tailpiece.
V. engrave, grave, stipple, scrape, etch; bite, bite in; lithograph
&c., n.; print.
Adj. insculptured; engraved &c. v.
Phr. sculpsit, imprimit.

#559. Artist. -- N. artist; painter, limner, drawer, stketcher,
designer, engraver; master, old master; draughtsman; copyist, dauber, hack;
enamel, enameler, enamelist; caricaturist.
historical painter, landscape painter, marine painter, flower painter,
portrait painter, miniature painter, miniaturist, scene painter, sign
painter, coach painter; engraver; Apelles; sculptor, carver, chaser,
modeler, figuriste, statuary; Phidias, Praxiteles; Royal Academician.
photographer, cinematographer, lensman, cameraman, camera technician,
camera buff; wildlife photographer.
Phr. photo safari; "with gun and camera"

2. Conventional Means
. Language generally

#560. Language. -- N. language; phraseology &c. 569; speech &c. 582;
tongue, lingo, vernacular; mother tongue, vulgar tongu, native tongue;
household words; King's or Queen's English; dialect &c. 563.
confusion of tongues, Babel, pasigraphie; pantomime &c. (signs) 550;
onomatopoeia; betacism, mimmitation, myatism, nunnation; pasigraphy.
lexicology, philogy, glossology, glottology; linguistics,
chrestomathy; paleology, paleography; comparative grammar.
literature, letters, polite literature, belles lettres, muses,
humanities, literae humaniores, republic of letters, dead languages,
classics; genius of language; scholarship &c. (scholar) 492.
V. express by words &c. 566.
Adj. lingual, linguistic; dialectic; vernacular, current; bilingual;
diglot, hexaglot, polyglot; literary.
Phr. "syllables govern the world" [Selden].

#561. Letter. -- N. letter; character; hieroglyphic &c. (writing) 590;
type &c. (printing) 591; capitals; digraph, trigraph; ideogram, ideograph;
majuscule, minuscule; majuscule, minuscule; alphabet, ABC, abecedary,
consonant, vowel; diphthong, triphthong; mute, liquid, labial, dental,
guttural. syllable; monosyllable, dissyllable, polysyllable; affix, suffix.
spelling, orthograph; phonography, phonetic spelling; anagrammatism,
metagrammatism. cipher, monogram, anagram; doubleacrostic.
V. spell.
Adj. literal; alphabetical, abecedarian; syllabic; majuscular,
minuscular; uncial &c. (writing) 590.

#562. Word. -- N. word, term, vocable; name &c. 564; phrase &c. 566;
root, etymon; derivative; part of speech &c. (grammar) 567; ideophone.
dictionary, vocabulary, lexicon, index, glossary, thesaurus, gradus,
delectus, concordance.
etymology, derivation; glossology, terminology orismology; paleology
&c. (philogy) 560.
lexocography; glossography &c. (scholar) 492; lexicologist, verbarian.
Adj. verbal, literal; titular, nominal. [Similarly derived] conjugat,
paronymous; derivative.
Adv. verbally &c. adj.; verbatim &c. (exactly) 494.
Phr. " the artillery of words" [Swift].

<-- p. 173 -->

#563. Neologism. -- N. neology, neologism; newfangled expression;
caconym; barbarism; archaism, black letter, monkish Latin; corruption,
missayingk, antiphrasis.
paranomasia, play upon words; word play &c. (wit) 842; double-entendre
&c. (ambiguity) 520; palindrome, paragram, clinch; abuse of language, abuse
of terms.
dialect, brogue, patois, provincialism, broken English, lingua fraca;
Anglicism, Briticism, Gallicism, Scotticism, Hibernicism; Americanism;
Gypsy lingo, Romany, pigeon English; Volapuk, Chinook, Esperanto,
Hindustani, kitchen Kaffir.
dog Latin, macaronics, gibberish; confusion of tongues, Babel; jargon;
babu English, chi-chi.
colloquialism &c. (figure of speech) 521; byword; technicality, lingo,
slang, cant, argot, St. Gile's Greek, thieves' Latin, peddler's French,
flash tongue, Billingsgate, Wall Street slang.
pseudonym &c. (misnomer) 565; Mr. So-and-so; wha d'ye call 'em,
whatchacallim, what's his name; thingummy, thingumbob; je ne sais quoi.
neologist, coiner of words.
V. coin words; Americanize, Anglicize.
Adj. neologic, neological; archaic; obsolete &c. (old) 124;
colloquial; Anglice.

#564. Nomenclature. -- N. nomenclature; naming &c. v.; nuncupation|,
nomination, baptism; orismology; onomatopoeia; antonomasia.
name; appelation, appelative; designation title; heading; caption;
denomination; by-name, epithet.
style, proper name; praenomen, agnomen, cognomen; patronymic, surname;
cognomination; eponym; compellation, description, antonym; empty title,
empty name; handle to one's name; namesake.
term, expression, noun;.byword; convertible terms &c. 522; technical
term; cant &c. 563.
V. name, call, term, denominate designate, style, entitle, clepe, dub,
christen, baptize, characterize, specify, define, distinguish by the name
of; label &c. (mark) 550.
be -called &c v.; take the name of, bean the name of, go (or be known ) by
the name of, go (or pass) under th ename of, rejoice in the name of.
Adj. named &c. v.; hight, yeleped, known as; what one may well, call
fairly, call properly, call fitly.
nuncupatory, nuncupative; cognominal, titular, nominal, orismological.
Phr. "beggar'd all description" [Antony and Cleopatra].

#565. Misnomer. -- N. misnomer; lucus a non lucendo;; Mrs. Malaprop;
what d'ye call 'em &c. (neologism) 563; Hoosier.
nickname, sobriquet, by-name; assumed name, assumed title; alias; nom
de course, nom de theatre, nom de guerre, nom de plume; pseudonym,
V. misname, miscall, misterm; nickname; assume a name.
Adj. misnamed &c. v.; pseudonymous; soi-disant; self called, self
styled, self christened; so-called.
nameless, anonymous; without a having no name; innominate, unnamed;
Adv. in no sense.

#566. Phrase. -- N. phrase, expression, set phrase; sentence,
paragraph; figure of speech &c. 521; idiom, idiotism; turn of expression;
paraphrase &c. (synonym) 522; periphrase &c. (circumlocution) 573
motto &c. (proverb) 496.
phraseology &c. 569.
V. express, phrase; word, - it; give -words, - expression -to; voice
arrange in word, clothe in words, put into words, express by words; couch
in terms; find words to express; speak by the card; call, denominate,
designate, dub.
Adj. expressed &c. v.; idiomatic.
Adv. in round, in set, in good, set- terms; inset phrases.

<-- p. 174 -->

#567. Grammar. -- N. grammar, accidence, syntax, praxis, punctuation;
parts of speech; jussive; syllabication; inflection, case, declension,
conjugation; us et norma loquendi; Lindley Murray &c. (schoolbook) 542;
correct style, philology &c. (language) 560.
V. parse, punctuate, syllabicate.

#568. Solecism. -- N. solecism; bad grammar, false grammar, faulty
grammar; slip of the pen, slip of the tongue; lapsus linguae; slipslop;
bull; barbarism, impropriety.
V. use bad grammar, faulty grammar; solecize, commit a solecism;
murder the King's English, murder the Queen's English, break Priscian's
Adj. ungrammatical; incorrect, inaccurate; faulty; improper,
incongruous; solecistic, solecistical.

#569. Style. -- N. style, diction, phraseology, wording; manner,
strain; composition; mode of expression, choice of words; mode of speech,
literary power, ready pen, pen of a ready writer; command of language &c.
(eloquence) 582; authorship; la morgue litteraire..
V. express by words &c. 566; write.
Phr. le style *c'est de l'homme [Buffon]; "style is the dress of
thoughts " [Chesterfield].

Various Qualities of Style

#570. Perspicuity. -- N. perspicuity, perspicuousness &c.
(intelligibility) 518; plain speaking &c. (manifestation) 525;
definiteness, definition; exactness &c. 494; explicitness, lucidness.
Adj. lucid &c. (intelligible) 518; explicit &c. (manifest) 525; exact
&c. 494.

#571. Obscurity. -- N. obscurity &c. (unintelligibility) 519;
involution; hard words; ambiguity &c. 520; unintelligibleness; vagueness
&c. 475, inexactness &c. 495; what d'ye call 'em &c. (neologism) 563;
darkness of meaning.
Adj. obscure &c. n.; crabbed, involved, confused.

#572. Conciseness. -- N. conciseness &c. adj.; brevity, " the soul of
wit," laconism; Tacitus; ellipsis; syncope; abridgment &c. (shortening)
201; compression &c. 195; epitome &c. 596; monostich; brunch word,
portmanteau word.
V. be concise &c. adj.; condense &c. 195; abridge &c. 201; abstract
&c. 596; come to the point.
Adj. concise, brief, short, terse,close; to the point, exact; neat,
compact; compressed, condensed, pointed; laconic, curt, pithy, trenchant,
summary; pregnant; compendious &c. (compendium) 596; succinct; elliptical,
epigrammatic, quaint, crisp; sententious.
Adv. concisely &c. adj.; briefly, summarily; in brief, in short, in a
word, in a few words; for shortness sake; to come to the point, to make a
long story short, to cut the matter short, to be brief; it comes to this,
the long and the short of it is.
Phr. brevis esse laboro obscurus fio [Horace].

#573. Diffuseness. -- N. diffuseness &c. adj.; amplification &c. v.;
dilating &c. v.; verbosity, verbiage, cloud of words, copia verborum; flow
of words &c. (loquacity) 584; looseness.
Polylogy, tautology, battology, perissology|; pleonasm, exuberance,
redundance; thrice-told tale; prolixity; circumlocution, ambages ;
periphrase, periphrasis; roundabout phrases; episode; expletive; pennya-
lining; richness &c. 577.
V. be diffuse &c. adj.; run out on, descant, expatiate, enlarge,
dilate, amplify, expand, inflate; launchout, branchout; rant.
maunder, prose; harp upon &c. (repeat) 104; dwell on, insist upon.
digress, ramble, battre la campagne, beat about the bush, perorate,
spin a long yarn, protract; spin out, swell out, draw out; battologize.
Adj. diffuse, profuse; wordy, verbose, largiloquent|, copious,
exuberant, pleonast'c, lengthy; longsome, longwinded, longspun, longdrawn
out; spun out, protracted, prolix, prosing, maundering; circumlocutory,
periphrastic, ambagious, roundabout; digressive; discursive, excursive;
loose; rambling episodic; flatulent, frothy.
Adv. diffusely &c. adj.; at large, in extenso; about it and about it.

<-- p. 175 -->

#574. -- N. vigor, power, force; boldness, raciness &c. adj.;
intellectual, force; spirit, point, antithesis, piquancy; verve, glow,
fire, warmth; strong language; gravity, sententiousness; elevation,
loftiness, sublimity.
eloquence; command of words, command of language.
Adj. vigorous, nervous, powerfor, forcible, trenchang, incisive,
impressive; sensational.
spirited, lively, glowing, sparkling, racy, bold, slashing; pungent,
piquant, full of point, pointed, pithy, antithetical; sententious.
lofty, elevated, sublime; eloquent; vehement, petulant, impassioned;
Adv. in glowing terms, in good set terms, in no measured terms.
Phr. "thoughts that breath and words that burn" [Gray].

#575. Feebleness. -- N. feebleness &c. adj.
Adj. feeble, bald, tame, meager, jejune, vapid, trashy, cold, frigid,
poor, dull, dry, languid; colorless, enervated; proposing, prosy, prosaic;
unvaried, monotonous, weak, washy, wishy-washy; sketchy, slight; careless,
slovenly, loose, lax; slipslod, slip slop; inexact; puerile, childish;
flatulent; rambling &c. (diffuse) 573.

#576. Plainness. -- N. plainness &c. adj.; simplicity, severity; plain
terms, plain English; Saxon English; household words
V. call a spade "a spade"; plunge in medias res; come to the point.
Adj. plain, simple; unornamented, unadorned, unvarnished; homely,
homespun; neat; severe, chaste, pure, Saxon; commonplace, matter-of-fact,
natural, prosaic.
dry, unvaried,monotonous &c. 575.
Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English, in plain common
parlance; point-blank.

#577. Ornament. -- N. ornament; floridness c. adj. turgidity,
turgescence; altiloquence &c. adj.; declamation, teratiology; well-rounded
periods; elegance &c. 578; orotundity.
inversion, antithesis, alliteration, paronomasio; figurativeness &c.
(metaphor) 521.
flourish; flowers of speech, flowers of rhetoric; frills of style,
euphuism, euphemism.
big-sounding words, high-sounding words; macrology, sespuipedalia
verba, Alexandrine; inflation, pretension; rant, bombast, fustian, prose
run mad; fine writing; sesquipedality; Minerva press.
phrasemonger; euphuist, euphemist.
V. ornament, overlay with ornament, overcharge; smell of the lamp.
Adj. ornament &c. v.; beautified &c. 847; ornate, florid, rich,
flowery; euphuistic, euphemistic; sonorous; high-sounding, big-sounding;
inflated, swelling, tumid; turgid, turgescent; pedantic, pompous, stilted;
orotund; high flown, high flowing; sententious, rhetorical, declamatory;
grandiose; grandiloquent, magniloquent, altiloquent; sesquipedal,
sesquipedalian; Johnsonian, mouthy; bombastic; fustian; frothy, flashy,
antithetical, alliterative; figurative &c. 521; artificial &c.
(inelegant) 579.
Adv. ore rutundo.

#578. Elegance. -- N elegance, purity, grace, ease; gracefulness,
readiness &c. adj.; concinnity, euphony, numerosity; Atticism,
classicalism, classicism.
well rounded periods, well turned periods, flowing periods; the right
word in the right place; antithesis &c. 577.
V. point an antithesis, round a period.
Adj. elegant, polished, classical, Attic, correct, Cieceronian,
artistic; chaste, pure, Saxon, academical.
graceful, easy, readable, fluent, flowing, tripping; unaffected,
natural, unlabored; mellifluous; euphonious, euphemism, euphemistic;
numerose|, rhythmical.
felicitous, happy, neat; well put, neatly put, well expressed, neatly

<-- p. 176 -->

#579. Inelegance. -- N. inelegance; stiffness &c. adj.; "unlettered
Muse" [Gray]; barbarism; slang &c. 563; solecism &c. 568; mannerism &c.
(affectation) 855; euphuism; fustian &c. 577; cacophony; words that break
the teeth, words that dislocate the jaw; marinism.
V. be inelegant &c. adj.
Adj. inelegant, graceless, ungraceful; harsh, abrupt; dry, stiff,
cramped, formal, guinde; forced, labored; artificial, mannered, ponderous;
awkward, uncourtly, unpolished; turgid &c. 577; affected, euphuistic;
barbarous, uncouth, grotesque, rude, crude, halting; offensive to ears
2. Spoken Language

#580. Voice. -- N. voice; vocality; organ, lungs, bellows; good voice,
fine voice, powerful voice &c. (loud) 404;, musical voice &c. 413;
intonation; tone of voice &c. (sound) 402 .
vocalization; cry &c. 411; strain, utterance, prolation; exclamation,
ejaculation, vociferation, ecphonesis; enunciation, articulation;
articulate sound, distinctness; clearness, of articulation; stage whisper;
accent, accentuation; emphasis, stress; broad accent, strong accent,
pure accent, native accent, foreign accent; pronunciation.
[Word similarly pronounced] homonym.
orthoepy; cacoepy; euphony &c. (melody) 413.
gastriloquism, ventriloquism; ventriloquist; polyphonism, polyphonist.
[Science of voice] phonology &c. (sound) 402.
V. utter, breathe; give utterance, give tongue; cry &c. (shout) 411;
ejaculate, rap out; vocalize, prolate|, articulate, enunciate, pronounce,
accentuate, aspirate, deliver, mouth; whisper in the ear.
Adj. vocal, phonetic, oral; ejaculatory, articulate, distinct,
stertorous; euphonious &c. (melodious) 413.
Phr. "how sweetly sounds the voice of a good woman" [Massinger]; "the
organ of the soul" [Longfellow]; "thy voice is a celestial melody"

#581. Aphony. -- N. aphony, aphonia; dumbness &c. adj.; obmutescence;
absence of voice, want of voice; dysphony; cacoopy; silence &c.
(taciturnity) 585; raucity; harsh voice &c. 410 , unmusical voice &c. 414 ;
falsetto, "childish treble mute"; dummy.
V. keep silence &c. 585; speak low, speak softly; whisper &c.
(faintness) 405.
silence; render mute, render silent; muzzle, muffle, suppress,
smother, gag, strike dumb, dumfounder; drown the voice, put to silence,
stop one's mouth, cut one short.
stick in the throat.
Adj. aphonous, dumb, mute; deafmute, deaf and dumb; mum; tongue-tied;
breatless, tongueless, voiceless, speechless, wordless; mute as a fish,
mute as a stockfish, mute as a mackerel; silent &c. (taciturn) 585;
muzzled; inarticulate, inaudible.
croaking, raucous, hoarse, husky, dry, hollow, sepulchral, hoarse as a
raven; rough.
Adv. with bated breath, with the finger on the lips; sotto voce; in a
low tone, in a cracked voice, in a broken voice.
Phr. vox faucibus haesit [Vergil].

#582. Speech. -- N. speech, faculty of speech; locution, talk,
parlance, verbal intercourse, prolation, oral communication, word of mouth,
parole, palaver, prattle; effusion.
oration, recitation, delivery, say, speech, lecture, harangue, sermon,
tirade, formal speech, peroration; speechifying; soliloquy &c. 589;
allocution &c. 586; interlocution &c. 588; salutatory [U.S.]: screed:
valedictory [U.S.].
oratory; elocution, eloquence; rhetoric, declamation; grandiloquence,
multiloquence; burst of eloquence; facundity; flow of words, command of
words, command of language; copia verborum; power of speech, gift of the
gab; usus loquendi.
speaker &c. v.; spokesman; prolocutor, interlocutor; mouthpiece,
Hermes; orator, oratrix, oratress; Demosthenes, Cicero; rhetorician; stump
orator, platform orator; speechmaker, patterer, improvisatore.
V. speak of; say, utter, pronounce, deliver, give utterance to; utter
forth, pour forth; breathe, let fall, come out with; rap out, blurt out
have on one's lips; have at the end of one's tongue, have at the tip of
one's tongue.
break silence; open one's lips, open one's mouth; lift one's voice,
raise one's voice; give the tongue, wag the tongue; talk, outspeak; put in
a word or two.
hold forth; make a speech,.deliver a speech &c. n.; speechify,
harangue, declaim, stump, flourish, recite, lecture, sermonize, discourse,
be on one's legs; have one's say, say one's say; spout, rant, rave, vent
one's fury, vent one's rage; expatiate &c. (speak at length) 573; speak
one's mind, go on the stump, take the stump [U. S.].
soliloquize &c. 589; tell &c. (inform) 527; speak to &c. 586; talk
together &c. 588.
be eloquent &c. adj; have a tongue in one's head, have the gift of the
gab &c. n.
pass one's lips, escape one's lips; fall from the lips, fall from the
Adj. speaking &c., spoken &c. v.; oral, lingual, phonetic, not
written, unwritten, outspoken; eloquent, elocutionary; oratorical,
rhetorical; declamatory; grandiloquent &c. 577; talkative &c. 584;
Ciceronian, nuncupative, Tullian.
Adv. orally &c. adj.; by word of mouth, viva voce, from the lips of.
Phr. quoth he, said he &c.; "action is eloquence" [Coriolanus]; "pour
the full tide of eloquence along" [Pope]; "she speaks poignards and every
word stabs" [Much Ado About Nothing]; "speech is but broken light upon the
depth of the unspoken [G. Eliot]; "to try thy eloquence now 'tis time
[Antony and Cleopatra].

<-- p. 177 -->

#583. [Imperfect Speech.] Stammering. -- N. inarticulateness;
stammering &c. v.; hesitation &c. v.; impediment in one's speech;
titubancy, traulism|; whisper &c. (faint sound) 405; lisp, drawl,
tardiloquence; nasal tone, nasal accent; twang; falsetto &c. (want of
voice) 581; broken voice, broken accents, broken sentences.
brogue &c. 563; slip of the tongue, lapsus linouae
V. stammer, stutter, hesitate, falter, hammer; balbutiate|,
balbucinate|, haw, hum and haw, be unable to put two words together.
mumble, mutter; maud|, mauder; whisper &c. 405; mince, lisp; jabber,
gibber; sputter, splutter; muffle, mump; drawl, mouth; croak; speak thick,
speak through the nose; snuffle, clip one's wordds; murder the language,
murder the King's (or Queen's) English; mispronounce, missay.
Adj. stammering &c. v.; inarticulate, guttural, nasal; tremulous;
Adv. sotto voce &c. (faintly) 405.

#584. Loquacity. -- N. loquacity, loquaciousness; talkativeness &c.
adj.; garrulity; multiloquence, much speaking.
jaw; gabble; jabber, chatter; prate, prattle, cackle, clack; twaddle,
twattle, rattle; caquet, caquetterie; blabber, bavardage, bibble-babble,
gibble-gabble; small talk &c. (converse) 588.
fluency, flippancy, volubility, flowing, tongue; flow of words;.flux
de bouche, flux de mots; copia verborum, cacoethes loquendi; furor
loquendi; verbosity &c. (diffuseness) 573; gift of the gab &c. (eloquence)
talker; chatterer, chatterbox; babbler &c. v.; rattle; ranter;
sermonizer, proser, driveler; blatherskite [U. S.]; gossip &c. (converse)
588; magpie, jay, parrot, poll, Babel; moulin a paroles..
V. be loquacious &c. adj.; talk glibly, pour forth, patter; prate,
palaver, prose, chatter, prattle, clack, jabber, jaw; blather, blatter,
blether; rattle, rattle on; twaddle, twattlle; babble, gabble; outtalk;
talk oneself out of breath, talk oneself hourse; exxpatiate &c. (speak at
length) 573; gossip &c. (converse) 588; din in the ears &c. (repeat) 104;
talk at random, talk nonsense &c. 497; be hoarse with talking.
Adj. loquacious, talkative, garrulous, linguacious|, multiloquous;
largiloquent|; chattering &c. v.; chatty &c. (sociable) 892; declamatory
&c. 582; open-mouthed.
fluent, voluble, glib, flippant; long tongued, long winded &c.
(diffuse) 573.
Adv. trippingly on the tongue; glibly &c. adj.; off the reel.
Phr. the tongue running fast, the tongue running loose, the tongue
running on wheels; all talk and no cider; "foul whisperings are abroad"
[Macbeth]; "what a spendthrift is he of his tongue!" [Tempest].

<-- p. 178 -->

#585. Taciturnity. -- N. silence, muteness, obmutescence; taciturnity,
pauciloquy, costiveness|, curtness; reserve, reticence &c. (concealment)
man of few words.
V. be silent &c. adj .; keep silence, keep mum; hold one's tonue, hold
one's peace, hold one's jaw; not speak. &c. 582; say nothing, keep one's
counsel; seal the lips, close the lips, button the lips, zipper the lips,
put a padlock on the lips, put a padlock on the mouth; put a bridle on
one's tongue; bite one's tongue, keep one's tongue between one's teeth;
make no sign, not let a word escape one; keep a secret &c. 528; not have a
word to say; hush up, hush, lay the finger on the lips, place the finger on
the lips; render mute &c. 581.
stick in one's throat.
Adj. silent, mute, mum; silent as a post, silent as a stone, silent as
the grave &c. (still) 403; dumb &c. 581; unconversable.
taciturn, sparing of words; closetongued; costive|, inconversable|,
curt; reserved; reticent &c. (concealing) 528.
Int. shush! tush! silence! mum! hush! chut! hist! tut! chup! mum's the
word; keep your mouth shut![vulgar].
Phr. cave quid dicis quando et cui; volto sciollo i pensieri stretti.

#586. Allocution. -- N. allocution, alloquy|, address; speech &c. 582;
apostrophe, interpellation, appeal, invocation, salutation; word in the
[Feigned dialogue] *dialogism.
platform &c. 542; plank; audience &c. (interview) 588.
V. speak to, address, accost, make up to, apostrophize, appeal to,
invoke; ball, salute; call to, halloo.
take aside, take by the button; talk to in private.
lecture &c. (make a speech) 582.
Int. soho! halloo! hey! hist!
587. Response &c., see Answer 462.

#588. Interlocution. -- N. interlocution; collocution, colloquy,
converse, conversation, confabulation, talk, discourse, verbal intercourse;
oral communication, commerce; dialogue, duologue, trialogue.
causerie, chat, chitchat; small talk, table talk, teatable talk, town
talk, village talk, idle talk; tattle, gossip, tittle-tattle; babble,
babblement; tripotage, cackle, prittle-prattle, cancan, on dit; talk of the
town, talk of the village.
conference, parley, interview, audience, pourparler; tete-a-tete;
reception, conversazione; congress &c. (council) 696; powwow [U. S.].
hall of audience, durbar.
palaver, debate, logomachy, war of words.
gossip, tattler; Paul Pry; tabby; chatterer &c. (loquacity) 584;
interlocutor &c. (spokesman) 582; conversationist, dialogist.
"the feast of reason and the flow of soul" [Pope); mollia tempora
V. talk together, converse, confabulate; hold on a conversation, carry
on a conversation, join in a conversation, engage in a conversation; put in
a word; shine in conversation; bandy words; parley; palaver; chat, gossip,
tattle; prate &c. (loquacity) 584; powwow [U.S.]..
discourse with, confer with, commune with, commerce with; hold
converse, hold conference, hold intercourse; talk it over; be closeted
with; talk with one in private, tete-a-tete.
Adj. conversing &c. v.; interlocutory; conversational, conversable;
discursive, discoursive; chatty &c. (sociable) 892; colloquial.
Phr. "with thee conversing I forget all time" [Paradise Lost].

#589. Soliloquy. -- N. soliloquy, monologue, apostrophe; monology.
V. Soliloquize; say to oneself, talk to oneself; say aside, think
aloud, aapostrophize.
Adj. soliloquizing &c. v.
Adv. aside.

<-- p. 179 -->

3. Written Language

#590. Writing. -- N. writing &c. v.; chirography, stelography,
cerography; penmanship, craftmanship; quill driving; typewriting.
writing, manuscript, MS., literae scriptae; these presents.
stroke of the pen, dash of the pen; coupe de plume; line; headline;
pen and ink.
letter &c. 561; uncial writing, cuneiform character, arrowhead, Ogham,
Runes, hieroglyphic; contraction; Brahmi, Devanagari, Nagari; script.
shorthand; stenography, brachygraphy, tachygraphy; secret writing,
writing in cipher; cryptography, stenography; phonography, pasigraphy,
Polygraphy, logography.
copy; transcript, rescript; rough copy, fair copy; handwriting;
signature, sign manual; autograph, monograph, holograph; hand, fist.
calligraphy; good hand, running hand, flowing hand, cursive hand,
legible hand, bold hand.
cacography, griffonage, barbouillage; bad hand, cramped hand, crabbed
hand, illegible hand; scribble &c. v.; pattes de mouche; ill-formed
letters; pothooks and hangers.
stationery; pen, quill, goose quill; pencil, style; paper, foolscap,
parchment, vellum, papyrus, tablet, slate, marble, pillar, table;
blackboard; ink bottle, ink horn, ink pot, ink stand, ink well; typewriter.
transcription &c. (copy) 21; inscription &c. (record) 551;
superscription &c. (indication) 550; graphology.
composition, authorship; cacoethes scribendi; graphoidea,
graphomania; phrenoia.
writer, scribe, amanuensis, scrivener, secretary, clerk, penman,
copyist, transcriber, quill driver; stenographer, typewriter, typist;
writer for the press &c. (author) 593.
V. write, pen; copy, engross; write out, write out fair; transcribe;
scribble, scrawl, scrabble, scratch; interline; stain paper; write down &c.
(record) 551; sign &c. (attest) 467; enface.
compose, indite, draw up, draft, formulate; dictate; inscribe, throw
on paper, dash off; manifold.
take up the pen, take pen in hand; shed ink, spill ink, dip one's pen in
Adj. writing &c. v.; written &c. v.; in writing, in black and white;
under one's hand.
uncial, Runic, cuneiform, hieroglyphical.
Adv. currente calamo; pen in hand.
Phr. audacter et sincere; le style est l'homme meme; "nature's noblest
gift - my gray goose quill" [Byron]; scribendi recte sapere et principium
et *ons [Horace]; "that mighty instrument of little men" *[Byron]; "the pen
became a clarion" (Longfellow].

#591. Printing. -- N. printing; block printing, type- printing; plate
printing &c. [engraving] 558; the press &c. (publication) 531; composition.
print, letterpress, text; context, note, page, column.
typography; stereotype, electrotype, aprotype; type, black letter,
font, fount; pi, pie; capitals &c. (letters) 561; brevier, bourgeois, pica
boldface, capitals, caps., catchword; composing-frame, composing room,
composing rule, composing stand, composing stick; italics, justification,
linotype, live matter, logotype; lower case, upper case; make-up, matrix,
matter, monotype, point system: 41/2, 5, 51/2, 6, 7, 8 point, etc.; press
room, press work; reglet, roman; running head, running title; scale, serif,
shank, sheet work, shoulder, signature, slug, underlay.
folio &c. (book) 593; copy, impression, pull, proof, revise; author's
proof, galley proof, press proof; press revise.
printer, compositor, reader; printer's devil copyholder.
V. print; compose; put to press, go to press; pass through the press,
see through the press; publish &c. 531; bring out; appear in print, rush
into print; distribute, makeup, mortise, offset, overrun, rout.
Adj. printed &c. v.; in type; typographical &c. n.; solid in galleys.

#592. Correspondence. -- N. correpondence, letter, epistle, note,
billet, post card, missive, circular, favor, billet-doux; chit, chitty,
letter card, picture post card; postal [U.S.], card; despatch; dispatch;
bulletin, these presents; rescript, rescription; post &c. (messenger) 534.
V. correspond with; write to, send a letter to; keep up a
Adj. epistolary.
Phr. furor scribendi.

#593. Book. -- N. booklet; writing, work, volume, tome, opuscule;
tract, tractate; livret; brochure, libretto, handbook, codex, manual,
pamphjlet, enchiridion, circular, publication; chap book.
part, issue, number livraison; album, portfolio; periodical, serial,
magazine, ephemeris, annual, journal.
paper, bill, sheet, broadsheet; leaf, leaflet; fly leaf, page; quire,
chapter, section head, article paragraph, passage, clause.
folio, quarto, octavo; duodecimo, sextodecimo, octodecimo.
encyclopedia; encompilation; library, bibliotheca; press &c.
(publication) 531.
writer, author, litterateur, essayist, journalism; pen, scribbler, the
scribbling race; literary hack, Grub-street writer; writerr for the press,
gentleman of the press, representative of the press; adjective jerker,
diaskeaus, ghost, hack writer, ink slinger; publicist; reporter, penny a
liner; editor, subeditor; playwright &c. 599; powt &c. 597.
bookseller, publisher; bibliopole, bibliopolist; librarian; bookstore,
bookseller's shop.
knowledge of books, bibliography; book learning &c. (knowledge) 490.
Phr. "among the giant fossils of my past" [E. B. Browning]; craignez
tout d'un auteur en courroux; "for authors nobler palms remain" [Pope]; "I
lived to write and wrote to live" [Rogers]; "look in thy heart and write"
[Sidney]; "there is no Past so long as Books shall live" [Bulwer Lytton);
"the public mind is the creation of the Master-Writers" [Disraeli]; volumes
that I prize above my dukedom" [Tempest].

<-- p. 180 -->

#594. Description. -- N. description, account, statement, report;
expose &c. (disclosure) 529 specification, particulars; state of facts,
summary of facts; brief &c. (abstract) 596; return &c. (record) 551;
catalogue raisonne &c. (list) 86; guidebook &c. (information) 527.
delineation &c (representation) 554; sketch; monograph; minute
account, detailed particular account, circumstantial account, graphic
account; narration, recital, rehearsal, relation.
historiography, chronography; historic Muse, Clio; history; biography,
autobiograpby; necrology, obituary.
narrative, history; memoir, memorials; annals &c. (chronicle) 551;
saga; tradition, legend, story, tale, historiette; personal narrative,
journal, life, adventures, fortunes, experiences, confessions; anecdote,
ana, trait.
work of fiction, novel, romance, Minerva press; fairy tale, nursery
tale; fable, parable, apologue; dime novel, penny dreadful, shilling
relator &c. v.; raconteur, historian &c. (recorder) 553; biographer,
fabulist, novelist.
V. describe; set forth &c. (state) 535; draw a picture, picture;
portray &c. (represent) 554; characterize, particularize; narrate, relate,
recite, recount, sum up, run over, recapitulate, rehearse, fight one's
battles over again.
unfold a tale &c. (disclose) 529 ; tell; give an account of, render an
account of; report, make a report, draw up a statement.
detail; enter into particulars, enter into details, descend to
particulars , descend to details,; itemize.
Adj. descriptive, graphic, narrative, epic, suggestive, well-drawn;
historic; traditional, traditionary; legendary; anecdotic, storied;
described &c. v.
Phr. furor scribendi.

#595. Dissertation. -- N. dissertation, treatise, essay; thesis,
theme; tractate, tractation; discourse, memoir, disquisition, lecture,
sermon, homily, pandect; excursus.
commentary, review, critique, criticism, article; leader, leading
article; editorial; running commentary.
investigation &c. (inquiry) 461; study &c. (consideration) 451;
discussion &c. (reasoning) 476; exposition &c. (explanation) 522.
commentator, critic, essayist, pamphleteer.
V. dissert upon a subject, descant upon a subject, write upon a
subject, touch upon a subject; treat of a subject, take up a subject,
ventilate a subject, discuss a subject, deal with a subject, go into a
subject, canvass a subject, handle a subject, do justice to a subject.
Adj. discursive, discoursive; disquisitionary; expository.

<-- p. 181 -->

#596. Compendium. -- N. compend, compendium; abstract, precis,
epitome, multum in parvo, analysis, pandect, digest, sum and substance,
brief, abridgment, summary, apergu, draft, minute, note; excerpt; synopsis,
textbook, conspectus, outlines, syllabus, contents, heads, prospectus.
album; scrap book, note book, memorandum book, commonplace book;
extracts, excerpta, cuttings; fugitive pieces, fugitive writing;
spicilegium, flowers, anthology, collectanea, analecta; compilation.
recapitulation, resume, review.
abbreviation, abbreviature; contraction; shortening &c. 201;
compression &c. 195.
V. abridge, abstract, epitomize, summarize; make an abstract, prepare
an abstract, draw an abstract, compile an abstract &c. n.
recapitulate, review, skim, run over, sum up.
abbreviate &c. (shorten) 201; condense &c. (compress) 195; compile &c.
(collect) 72.
Adj. compendious, synoptic, analectic; abrege, abridged &c. v.;
Adv. in short, in epitome, in substance, in few words.
Phr. it lies in a nutshell.

#597. Poetry. -- N. poetry, poetics, poesy, Muse, Calliope, tuneful
Nine, Parnassus, Helicon, Pierides, Pierian spring.
versification, rhyming, making verses; prosody, orthometry.
poem; epic, epic poem; epopee, epopoca, ode, epode, idyl, lyric,
eclogue, pastoral, bucolic, dithyramb, anacreontic, sonnet, roundelay,
rondeau, rondo, madrigal, canzonet, cento, *monody, elegy; amoebeaum,
ghazal, palinode.
dramatic poetry, lyric poetry; opera; posy, anthology; disjecta membra
song, ballad, lay; love song, drinking song, war song, sea song;
lullaby; music &c. 415; nursery rhymes.
[Bad poetry] doggerel, Hudibrastic verse, prose run mad; macaronics;
macaronic verse, leonine verse; runes.
canto, stanza, distich, verse, line, couplet, triplet, quatrain;
strophe, antistrophe.
verse, rhyme, assonance, crambo, meter, measure, foot, numbers,
strain, rhythm; accentuation &c. (voice) 580; dactyl, spondee, trochee,
anapest &c.; hexameter, pentameter; Alexandrine; anacrusis, antispast,
blank verse, ictus.
elegiacs &c. adj.; elegiac verse, elegaic meter, elegaic poetry.
poet, poet laureate; laureate; bard, lyrist, scald, skald, troubadour,
trouvere; minstrel; minnesinger, meistersinger; improvisatore; versifier,
sonneteer; rhymer, rhymist, rhymester; ballad monger, runer; poetaster;
genus genus irrittaabile vatum.
V. poetize, sing, versity, make verses, rhyme, scan.
Adj. poetic, poetical; lyric, lyrical, tuneful, epic, dithyrambic &c.
n.; metrical; a catalectin; elegiac, iambic, trochaic, anapestic;
amoebeeic, Melibean, skaldic; Ionic, Sapphic, Alcaic, Pindaric.
Phr. "a poem round and perfect as a star" [Alex. Smith); Dichtung und
Wahrheit; furor poeticus; "his virtues formed the magic of his song"
[Hayley]; "I do but sing because I must" [Tennyson]; "I learnt life from
the poets" [de Stael]; licentia vatum; mutum est pictura poema; "O for a
muse of fire!" [Henry V]; "sweet food of sweetly uttered knowledge'
[Sidney]; "the true poem is the poet's mind" [Emerson]; Volk der Dichter
und Deker; "wisdom married to immortal verse" [Wordsworth].

#598. Prose. -- N. prose, prose writer. prosaicism, prosaism,
prosaist, proser.
V. prose.
write prose, write in prose.
Adj. prosal,prosy, prosaic; unpoetical.
rhymeless, unrhymed, in prose, not in verse.

<-- p. 182 -->

#599. The Drama. -- N. the drama, the stage, the theater, the play;
film the film, movies, motion pictures, cinema, cinematography;
theatricals, dramaturgy, histrionic art, buskin, sock, cothurnus, Melpomene
and Thalia, Thespis.
play, drama, stageplay, piece, five-act play, tragedy, comedy, opera,
vaudeville, comedietta, lever de rideau, interlude, afterpiece, exode,
farce, divertissement, extravaganza, burletta, harlequinade, pantomime,
burlesque, opera bouffe, ballet, spectacle, masque, drame comedie drame;
melodrama, melodrame; comidie larmoyante, sensation drama; tragicomedy,
farcical-comedy; monodrame monologue;duologue trilogy; charade, proverbs;
mystery, miracle play.
[movies] western, horse opera; flick [coll.]; spy film, love story,
adventure film, documentary, nature film; pornographic film, smoker, skin
flick, X-rated film.
act, scene, tableau; induction, introduction; prologue, epilogue;
performance, representation, mise en scene, stagery, jeu de theatre;
acting; gesture &c. 550; impersonation &c. 554; stage business, gag,
theater; playhouse, operahouse; house; music hall; amphitheater,
circus, hippodrome; puppet show, fantoccini; marionettes, Punch and Judy.
auditory, auditorium, front of the house, stalls, boxes, pit, gallery,
parquet; greenroom, coulisses.
flat; drop, drop scene; wing, screen, side scene; transformation
scene, curtain, act drop; proscenium.
stage, scene, scenery, the boards; trap, mezzanine floor; flies;
floats, footlights; offstage; orchestra.
theatrical costume, theatrical properties.
movie studio, back lot, on location.
part, role, character, dramatis personae; repertoire.
actor, player; stage player, strolling player; stager, performer;
mime, mimer; artists; comedian tragedian; tragedienne, Thespian, Roscius;
star, movie star, star of stage and screen, superstar, idol, sex symbol;
supporting actor, supporting cast; ham, hamfatter *; masker. pantomimist,
clown harlequin, buffo, buffoon, farceur, grimacer, pantaloon, columbine;
punchinello; pulcinello, pulcinella; extra, bit-player, walk-on role, cameo
appearance; mute, figurante, general utility; super, supernumernry.
mummer, guiser, guisard, gysart |, masque.
mountebank, Jack Pudding; tumbler, posture master, acrobat;
contortionist; ballet dancer, ballet girl; chorus singer; coryphee
company; first tragedian, prima donna, prottagonist; jeune premier;
debutant, debutante; light comedian, genteel comedian, low commedian, light
comedy, genteel comedy, low commedy; walking gentleman, amoroso, heaavy
father, ingenue, jeune veuve
property man, costumier, machinist; prompter, call boy; manager;
director, stage manager, acting manager; producer, entrepreneur,
dramatic author, dramatic writer; play writer, playwright; dramatist,
V. act, play, perform; put on the stage; personate &c. 554; mimic &c.
(imitate) 19; enact; play a part, act a part, go through a part, perform a
part; rehearse, spout, gag, rant; "strut and fret one's hour upon a stage";
tread the boards, tread the stage; come out; star it.
Adj. dramatic; theatric, theatrical; scenic, histrionic, comic,
tragic, buskined, farcical, tragicomic, melodramatic, operatic; stagy.
Adv. on the stage, on the boards; on film; before the floats, before
an audience; behind the scenes.
Phr. fere totus mundus exercet histrionem [Petronius Arbiter]; "suit
the action to the word, the word to the action" [Hamlet]; "the play's the
thing" [Hamlet]; "to wake the soul by tender strokes of art" [Pope].
<-- p. 183 -->




1. Acts of Volition

#600. Will. -- N.will, volition, conation, velleity; liberum
arbitrium; will and pleasure, free will; freedom &c. 748; discretion;
option &c. (choice) 609; voluntariness; spontaneity, spontaneousness;
pleasure, wish, mind; desire; frame of mind &c. (inclination) 602;
intention &c. 620; predetermination &c. 611; selfcontrol &c. determination
&c. (resolution) 604; force of will.
V. will, list; see fit, think fit; determine &c. (resolve) 604;
enjoin; settle &c. (choose) 609; volunteer.
have a will of one's own; do what one chooses &c. (freedom) 748; have
it's own way; have one's will, have one's own way.
use one's discretion, exercise one's discretion; take upon oneself, take
one's own course, take the law into one's own hands; do of one's own
accord, do upon one;s own authority; originate &c. (cause) 153.
Adj. voluntary, volitional, willful; free &c. 748; optional;
discretional, discretionary; volitient, volitive.
minded &c. (willing) 602; prepense &c. (predetermined) 611; intended
&c. 620; autocratic; unbidden &c. (bid &c. 741); spontaieous; original &c.
(casual) 153; unconstrained.
Adv. voluntarily &c. adj.; at will, at pleasure; a volonte, a
discretion; al piacere; ad libitum, ad arbitrium; as one thinks proper, as
it seems good to; a beneplacito.
of one's won accord, of one's own free will; proprio motu, suo motu,
ex meromotu; out of one's won head; by choice &c. 609; purposely &c.
(intentionally) 620; deliberately &c. 611.
Phr. stet pro ratione voluntas; sic volo sic jubeo; a vostro
beneplacito; beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere; Deus vull; was man
nicht kann meiden muss man wilig leiden.

#601. Necessity. -- N. involuntariness; instinct, blind impulse;
inborn proclivity, innate proclivity; native tendency, natural tendency;
natural impulse, predetermination.
necessity, necessitation; obligation; compulsion &c. 744; subjection
&c. 749; stern necessity, hard necessity, dire necessity, imperious
necessity, inexorable necessity, iron necessity, adverse necessity; fate;
what must be.
destiny, destination; fatality, fate, dismet, doom, foredoom,
election, predestination; preordination, foreordination; lot fortune;
fatalism; inevitableness &c. adj.; spell &c. 993.
star, stars; planet, planets; astral influence; sky, Fates, Parcae,
Sisters three, book of fate; God's will, will of Heaven; wheel of Fortune,
Ides of March, Hobson's choice.
last shift, last resort; dernier ressort; pis aller &c. (stubstitute)
147; necessaries &c. (requirement) 630.
necessarian, necessitarian; fatalist; automaton.
V. lie under a necessity; befated, be doomed, be destined &c. in for,
under the necessity of; have no choice, have no alternative; be one's fate
&c. n. to be pushed to the wall to be driven into a corner, to be unable to
destine, doom, foredoom, devote; predestine, preordain; cast a spell
&c. 992; necessitate; compel &c. 744.
Adj. necessary, needful &c (requisit) 630.
fated; destined &c. v.; elect; spellbound
compulsory &c. (compel) 744; uncontrollable, inevitable, unavoidable,
irresistible, irrevocable, inexorable; avoidless, resistless.
involuntary, instinctive, automatic, blind, mechanical; unconscious,
unwitting, unthinking; unintentional &c. (undesigned) 621; impuslive &c.
Adv. necessarily &c. adv.; of necessity, of course; ex necessitate
rei; needs must; perforce &c. 744; nolens volens; will he nil he, willy
nilly, bon gre mal gre, willing or unwilling, coute que coute.
faute de mieux; by stress of; if need be.
Phr. it cannot be helped; there is no help for, there is no helping
it; it will be, it must be, it needs to be, it must be so, it will have its
way; the die is cast; jacta est alea; che sara sara; "it is written"; one's
days are numbered, one's fate is sealed; Fata obstant; diis aliter gvisum;
actum me invito factus, non est meus actus; aujord'hui roi demain rien;
quisque suos patimur manes [Vergil].

<-- p. 184 -->

#602. Willingness. -- N. willingness, voluntariness &c. adj.; willing
mind, heart.
disposition, inclination, leaning, animus; frame of mind, humor, mood,
vein; bent &c. (turn of mind) 820; penchant &c. (desire) 865; aptitude &c.
docility, docibleness; persuasibleness, persuasibility; pliability &c.
(softness) 324.
geniality, cordiality; goodwill; alacrity, readiness, earnestness,
forwardness; eagerness &c. (desire) 865.
asset &c. 488; compliance &c. 762; pleasure &c. (will) 600; gratuitous
labor of love; volunteer, volunteering.
V. be willing &c. adj.; incline, lean to, mind, propend; had as lief;
lend a willing ear, give a willing ear, turn a willing ear; have a half a
mind to, have a great mind to; hold to, cling to; desire &c. 865.
see fit, think good, think proper; acquiesce &c (assent) 488; comply
with &c. 762.
swallow the bait, nibble at the bait; gorge the hook; have no scruple
of, make no scruple of; make no bones of; jumb at, catch at; meet halfway;
Adj. willing, minded, fain, disposed, inclined, favorable; favorably-
minded, favorably inclined, favorably disposed; nothing loth; in the vein,
in the mood, in the humor, in the mind.
ready, forward, earnest, eager; bent upon &c. (desirous) 865;
predisposed, propense.
docile; persuadable, persuasible; suasible, easily persuaded, facile,
easy-going; tractable &c. (pliant) 324; genial, gracious, cordial,
cheering, hearty; content &c. (assenting) 488.
voluntary, gratuitous, spontaneous; unasked &c. (ask &c. 765);
unforced &c. (free) 748.
Adv. willingly &c. adj.; fain, freely, as lief, heart and soul; with
pleasure, with all one's heart, with open arms; with good will, with right
will; de bonne volonte, ex animo; con amore, heart in hand, nothing loth,
without reluctance, of one's own accord, graciously, with a good grace.
a la bonne heure; by all means, by all manner of means; to one's
heart's content; yes &c. (assent) 488.

#603. Unwillingness. -- N. unwillingness &c. adj.; indisposition,
indisposedness; disinclination, aversation; nolleity, nolition; renitence,
renitency; reluctance; indifference &c. 866; backwardness &c. adj.;
slowness &c. 275; want of alacrity,want of readiness; indocility &c.
(obstinacy) 606.
scrupulousness, scrupulosity; qualms of conscience, twinge of
conscience; delicacy, demur, scruple, qualm, shrinking, recoil; hesitation
&c. (irresolution) 605; fastidiousness &c. 868.
averseness &c. (dislike) 867; dissent &c. 489; refusal &c. 764.
V. be unwilling &c. adj.; nill; dislike &c. 867; grudge, begrudge; not
be able to find it in one's heart to, not have the stomach to.
demur, stick at, scruple, stickle; hang fire, run rusty; recoil,
shrink, swerve; hesitate &c. 605; avoid &c. 623.
oppose &c. 708; dissent &c. 489; refuse &c. 764.
Adj. unwilling; not in the vein, loth, loath, shy of, disinclined,
indisposed, averse, reluctant, not content; adverse &c. (opposed) 708;
laggard, backward, remiss, slack, slow to; indifferent &c. 866; scrupulous;
squeamish &c. (fastidious) 868; repugnant &c. (dislike) 867; restiff|,
restive; demurring &c. v.; unconsenting &c. (refusing) 764; involuntary &c.
Adv. unwillingly &c. adj.; grudgingly, with a heavy heart; with a bad,
with an ill grace; against one's wishes, against one's will, against the
grain, sore against one's wishes, sore against one's will, sore against
one's grain; invita Minerva; a contre caeur; malgre soi; in spite of one's
teeth, in spite of oneself; nolens volens &c. (necessity) 601; perforce &c.
744; under protest; no &c. 536; not for the world, far be it from me.

<-- p. 185 -->

#604. Resolution. -- N. determination, will; iron will, unconquerable
will; will of one's own, decision, resolution; backbone; clear grit, true
grit, grit [U. S. & Can.]; sand, strength of mind, strength of will;
resolve &c. (intent) 620; firmness &c. (stability) 150; energy, manliness,
vigor; game, pluck; resoluteness &c. (courage) 861; zeal &c. 682; aplomb;
desperation; devotion, devitedness.
mastery over self; self control, self command, self possession, self
reliance, self government, self restraint, self conquest, self denial;
moral courage, moral strength; perseverance &c. 604a; tenacity; obstinacy
&c. 606; bulldog; British lion.
V. have determination &c. n.; know one's own mind; be resolved &c.
adj.; make up one's mind, will, resolve, determine; decide &c. (judgement)
form a determination, come to a determination, come to a resolution, come
to a resolve; conclude, fix, seal, determine once for all, bring to a
crisis, drive matters to an extremity; take a decisive step &c. (choice)
609; take upon oneself &c. (undertake) 676.
devote oneself to, give oneself up to; throw away the scabbard, kick
down the ladder, nail one's colors to the mast, set one's back against the
wall, set one's teeth, put one's foot down, take one's stand; stand firm
&c. (stability) 150; steel oneself; stand no nonsense, not listen to the
voice of the charmer.
buckle to; buckle oneself put one's shoulder to the wheel, lay one's
shoulder to the wheel, set one's shoulder to the wheel; put one's heart
into; run the gauntlet, make a dash at, take the bull by the horns; rush in
medias res, plunge in medias res; go in for; insist upon, make a point of;
set one's heart upon, set one's mind upon.
stick at nothing, stop at nothing; make short work of &c. (activity)
682; not stick at trifles; go all lengths, go the limit *, go the whole
hog; persist &c. (persevere) 604a,; go through fire and water, ride the
tiger, ride in the whirlwind and direct the storm.
Adj. resolved &c. v.; determined; strong-willed, strong-minded;
resolute &c. (brave) 861; self-possessed; decided, definitive, peremptory,
tranchant; unhesitating, unflinching, unshrinking; firm, iron, gritty
[U.S.], indomitable, game to the backbone; inexorable, relentless, not to
be shaken, not to be put down; tenax propositi; inflexible &c. (hard) 323;
obstinate &c. 606; steady &c. (persevering) 604a.
earnest, serious; set upon, bent upon, intent upon.
steel against, proof against; in utrumque paratus.
Adv. resolutely &c. adj.; in earnest, in good earnest; seriously,
joking apart, earnestly, heart and soul; on one's mettle; manfully, like a
man, with a high hand; with a strong hand &c. (exertion) 686.
at any rate, at any risk, at any hazard at any price, at any cost, at
any sacrifice; at all hazards, at all risks, at all events; a bis ou a
blanc; cost what it may; coute; a tort et a travers; once for all; neck or
nothing; rain or shine.
Phr. spes sibi quisque; celui qui veut celui-la peut; chi non
s'arrischia non guadagna; frangas non flectes; manu forti; tentanda via
#604a. Perseverance. -- N. perseverance; continuance &c. (inaction)
143; permanence &c. (absence of change) 141; firmness &c. (stability) 150.
constancy, steadiness; singleness of purpose, tenacity of purpose;
persistence, plodding, patience; sedulity &c. (industry) 682; pertinacy|,
pertinacity, pertinaciousness; iteration &c. 104
bottom, game, pluck, stamina, backbone, grit; indefatigability,
indefatigableness; bulldog courage.
V. persevere, persist; hold on, hold out; die in the last ditch, be in
at the death; stick to, cling to, adhere to; stick to one's text, keep on;
keep to one's course, keep to one's ground, maintain one's course, maintain
one's ground; go all lengths, go through fire and water; bear up, keep up,
hold up; plod; stick to work &c. (work) 686; continue &c. 143; follow up;
die in harness, die at one's post.
Adj. persevering, constant; steady, steadfast; undeviating,
unwavering, unfaltering, unswerving, unflinching, unsleeping, unflagging,
undrooping; steady as time; unintermitting, unremitting; plodding;
industrious &c. 682; strenuous &c. 686; pertinacious; persisting,
solid, sturdy, staunch, stanch, true to oneself; unchangeable &c. 150;
unconquerable &c. (strong) 159; indomitable, game to the last,
indefatigable, untiring, unwearied, never tiring.
Adv. through evil report and good report, through thick and thin,
through fire and water; per fas et nefas; without fail, sink or swim, at
any price, vogue la galere..
Phr. never say die; vestigia nulla retrorsum; aut vincer aut mori; la garde
meurt et ne se rend pas; tout vient a temps pour qui sait attendre.

<-- p. 186 -->

#605. Irresolution. -- N. irresolution, infirmity of purpose,
indecision; indetermination, undetermindtion; unsettlement; uncertainty &c.
475; demur, suspense; hesitating &c. v., hesitation, hesitancy;
vacillation; changeableness &c. 149; fluctuation; alternation &c.
(oscillation) 314; caprice &c. 608.
fickleness, levity, legerete; pliancy &c. (softness) 324; weakness;
timidity &c. 860; cowardice &c. 862; half measures.
waverer, ass between two bundles of hay; shuttlecock, butterfly; wimp;
doughface [U. S.].
V. be irresolute &c. adj.; hang in suspense, keep in suspense; leave
"ad referendum"; think twice about, pause; dawdle &c. (inactivity) 683;
remain neuter; dillydally, hesitate, boggle, hover, dacker, hum and haw,
demur, not know one's own mind; debate, balance; dally with, coquet with;
will and will not, chaser-balancer; go halfway, compromise, make a
compromise; be thrown off one's balance, stagger like a drunken man; be
afraid &c. 860; let "I dare not" wait upon "I would" [Macbeth]; falter,
vacillate &c. 149; change &c. 140; retract &c. 607; fluctuate;
pendulate; alternate &c. (oscillate) 314; keep off and on, play fast and
loose; blow hot and cold &c. (caprice) 608.
shuffle, palter, blink; trim.
Adj. irresolute, infirm of purpose, double-minded, half-hearted;
undecided, unresolved, undetermined; shilly-shally; fidgety, tremulous;
hesitating &c. v.; off one's balance; at a loss &c. (uncertain) 475.
vacillating &c. v.; unsteady &c. (changeable) 149; unsteadfast,
fickle, without ballast; capricious &c. 608; volatile, frothy; light,
lightsome, lightminded; giddy; fast and loose.
weak, feeble-minded, frail; timid, wimpish, wimpy &c. 860; cowardly
&c. 862; dough-faced [U.S.]; facile; pliant &c. (soft) 324; unable to say
"no", easy-going
revocable, reversible.
Adv. irresolutely &c. adj.; irresolved, irresolvedly; in faltering
accents; off and on; from pillar to post; seesaw &c. 314.
Int. "how happy could I be with either!" [Gay].

#606. Obstinacy. -- N. obstinateness &c. adj.; obstinacy, tenacity;
cussedness [U. S.]; perseverance &c. 604a; immovability; old school;
inflexibility &c. (hardness) 323; obduracy, obduration; dogged resolution;
resolution &c. 604; ruling passion; blind side.
self-will, contumacy, perversity; pervicacy|, pervicacity; indocility.
bigotry, intolerance, dogmatism; opiniatry|, opintiveness; fixed idea
&c. (prejudgement) 481; fanaticism, zealotry, infatuation, monomania;
opinionatedness opinionativeness.
mule; optinionist|, opinionatist, opiniator|, opinator|; stickler,
dogmatist; bigot; zealot, enthusiast, fanatic.
V. be obstinate &c. adj.; stickle, take no denial, fly in the face of
facts; opinionate, be wedded to an opinion, hug a elief; have one's own way
&c. (will) 600; persist &c. (persevere) 604a; have the last word, insist on
having the last word.
die hard, fight against destiny, not yield an inch, stand out.
Adj. obstinate, tenacious, stubborn, obdurate, casehardened;
inflexible &c. (hard) 323; balky; immovable, not to be moved; inert &c.
172; unchangeable &c. 150; inexorable &c. (determined) 604; mulish,
obstinate as a mule, pig-headed.
dogged; sullen, sulky; unmoved, uninfluenced unaffected.
willful, self-willed, perverse; resty, restive, restiff|;
pervicacious, wayward, refractory, unruly; heady, headstrong; entete;
contumacious; crossgrained.
arbitrary, dogmatic, positive, bigoted; prejudiced &c. 481; creed-
bound; prepossessed, infatuated; stiff-backed, stiff necked, stiff hearted;
hard-mouthed, hidebound; unyielding; impervious, impracticable,
inpersuasible; unpersuadable; intractable, untractable; incorrigible, deaf
to advice, impervious to reason; crotchety &c. 608.
Adv. obstinately &c. adj.
Phr. non possumus; no surrender; ils n'ont rien appris ne rien oublic.

<-- p. 187 -->

#607. Tergiversation. -- N. change of mind, change of intention,
change of purpose; afterthought.
tergiversation, recantation; palinode, palinody; renunciation;
abjuration,abjurement; defection &c. (relinquishment) 624; going over &c.
v.; apostasy; retraction, retractation; withdrawal; disavowal &c.
(negation) 536; revocation, revokement; reversal; repentance &c. 950-
coquetry; vacillation &c. 605; backsliding; volte-face.
turn coat, turn tippet|; rat, apostate, renegade; convert, pervert;
proselyte, deserter; backslider; blackleg, crawfish [U. S.], scab*, mugwump
[U. S.], recidivist.
time server, time pleaser; timist|, Vicar of Bray, trimmer,
ambidexter; weathercock &c. (changeable) 149; Janus.
V. change one's mind, change one's intention, change one's purpose,
change one's note; abjure, renounce; withdraw from &c. (relinquish) 624;
waver, vacillate; wheel round, turn round, veer round; turn a pirouette; go
over from one side to another, pass from one side to another, change from
one side to another, skip from one side to another; go to the rightabout;
box the compass, shift one's ground, go upon another tack.
apostatize, change sides, go over, rat; recant, retract; revoke;
rescind &c. (abrogate) 756; recall; forswear, unsay; come over, come round
to an opinion; crawfish *[U. S.], crawl* [U. S.].
draw in one's borns, eat one's words; eat the leek, swallow the leek;
swerve, flinch, back out of, retrace one's steps, think better of it; come
back return to one's first love; turn over a new leaf &c. (repent) 950.
trim, shuffle, play fast and loose, blow hot and cold, coquet, be on
the fence, straddle, bold with the hare but run with the hounds; nager
entre deux eaux; wait to see how the cat jumps, wait to see how the wind
Adj. changeful &c. 149; irresolute &c. 605; ductile, slippery as an
eel, trimming, ambidextrous, timeserving;. coquetting &c. v.
revocatory, reactionary.
Phr. "a change came o'er the spirit of my dream" [Byron].

#608. Caprice. -- N. caprice, fancy, humor; whim, whimsey, whimwham;
crotchet, capriccio, quirk, freak, maggot, fad, vagary, prank, fit,
flimflam, escapade, boutade, wild-goose chase; capriciousness &c. adj.;
V. be capricious &c. adj.; have a maggot in the brain; take it into
one's head, strain at a gnat and swallow a camel; blow hot and cold; play
fast and loose, play fantastic tricks; tourner casaque.
Adj. capricious; erratic, eccentric, fitful, hysterical; full of whims
&c. n.; maggoty; inconsistent, fanciful, fantastic, whimsical, crotchety,
kinky [U. S.], particular, humorsome, freakish, skittish, wanton, wayward;
contrary; captious; arbitrary; unconformable &c. 83; penny wise and pound
foolish; fickle &c. (irresolute) 605; frivolous, sleeveless, giddy,
Adv. by fits and starts, without rhyme or reason.
Phr. nil fuit unquain sic inipar sibi; the deuce is in him.

<-- p. 188 -->

#609. Choice. -- N. choice, option;. discrition &c. (volition) 600;
preoption; alternative; dilemma, embarras de choix; adoption, cooptation;
novation; decision &c. (judgment) 480.
election, poll, ballot, vote, voice, suffrage, plumper, cululative
vote; plebiscitum, plebiscite, vox populi; electioneering; voting &c. v.;
elective franchise; straight ticket [U.S.].
selection, exceprtion, gleaning, eclesctism; excerpta, gleanings,
cuttings, scissors and paste; pick &c. (best) 650.
preference, prelation; predilection &c. (desire) 865.
V. offers one's choice, set before; hold out the alternative, present
the alternative, offer the alternative; put to the vote.
use option, use discretion, excercise option, excercise discretion,
one's option; adopt, take up, embrace, espouse; choose, elect; take one's
choice, make one's choice; make choice of, fix upon.
vote, poll, hold up one's hand; divide.
settle; decide &c. (adjudge) 480; list &c. (will) 600; make up one's
mind &c. (resolve) 604.
select; pick and choose; pick out, single out; cull, glean, winnow;
sift the chaff from the wheat, separate the chaff from the whean, winnow
the chaff from the wheat; pick up, pitch upon; pick one's way; indulge
one;s fancy.
set apart, mark out for; mark &c. 550.
prefer; have rather, have as lief; fancy &c. (desire) 865; be
persuaded &c. 615.
take a decided step, take a decisive step; commit oneself to a course;
pass the Rubicon, cross the Rubicon; cast in one's lot with; take for
better or for worse.
Adj. optional; discretional &c. (voluntary) 600.
eclectic; choosing &c. v.; preferential; chosen &c. v.; choice &c.
(good) 648.
Adv. optionally &c. adj.; at pleasure &c. (will) 600; either the one
or the other; or at the option of; whether or not; once and for all; for
one's money.
by choice, by preference; in preference; rather, before.

#609a. Absence of Choice. -- N. no choice, Hobson's choice; first come
first served, random selection; necessity &c. 601; not a pin to choose &c.
(equality) 27; any, the first that comes; that or nothing.
neutrality, indifference; indecision &c. (irresolution) 605;
coercion (compulsion) 744.
V. be neutral &c. adj.; have no choice, have no election; waive, not
vote; abstain from voting, refrain from voting; leave undecided; "make a
virtue of necessity" [Two Gentlemen].
Adj. neutral, neuter; indifferent, uninterested; undecided &c.
(irresolute) 605.
Adv. either &c. (choice) 609.
Phr. who cares? what difference does it make? "There's not a dime's
worth of difference between them." [George Wallace].

#610. Rejection. -- N. rejection, repudiation, exclusion; refusal &c.
764; declination
V. reject; set aside, lay aside; give up; decline &c. (refuse) 764;
exclude, except; pluck, spin; cast.
repudiate, scout, set at naught; fling to the winds, fling to the
dogs, fling overboard, fing away, cast to the winds, cast to the dogs, cast
overboard, cast away, throw to the winds, throw to the dogs, throw
overboard, throw away, toss to the winds, toss to the dogs, toss overboard,
toss away; send ot the right about; disclaim &c. (deny) 536; discard &c.
(eject) 297, (have done with) 678.
Adj. rejected &c. v.; reject, rejectaneous|, rejectious|; not chosen
&c. 609, to be thought of, out of the question
Adv. neither, neither the one nor the other; no &c 536.
Phr. non haec in faedera.

#611. Predetermination. -- N. predestination, preordination,
premeditation, predeliberation, predetermination; foregone conclusion, fait
accompli; parti pris; resolve, propendency|; intention &c. 620; project &c.
626; fate, foredoom, necessity.
V. predestine, preordain, predetermine, premeditate, resolve, concert;
resolve beforehand.
Adj. prepense, premeditated &c. v., predesigned; advised, studied,
designed, calculated; aforethought; intended &c. 620; foregone.
well-laid, well-devised, well-weighed; maturely considered; cunning.
Adv. advisedly &c. adj.; with premeditation, deliberately, all things
considered, with eyes open, in cold blood; intentionally &c. 620.

#612. Impulse. -- N. impulse, sudden thought; impromptu,
improvisation; inspiration, flash, spurt.
improvisatore; creature of impulse.
V. flash on the mind.
say what comes uppermost; improvise, extemporize.
Adj. extemporaneous, impulsive, indeliberate; snap; improvised,
improvisate, improvisatory; unpremeditated, unmeditated; improvise;
unprompted, unguided; natural, unguarded; spontaneous &c. (voluntary) 600;
instinctive &c. 601.
Adv. extempore, extemporaneously; offhand, impromptu, a limproviste;
improviso; on the spur of the moment, on the spur of the occasion.

<-- p. 189 -->

#613. Habit. -- N. habit, habitude; assuetude|, assuefaction|, wont;
run, way.
common state of things, general state of things, natural state of
things, ordinary state of things, ordinary course of things, ordinary run
of things; matter of course; beaten path, beaten track, beaten ground.
prescription, custom, use, usage, immemorial usage, practice;
prevalence, observance; conventionalism, conventionality; mode, fashion,
vogue; etiquette &c. (gentility) 852; order of the day, cry; conformity &c.
82; consuetude,.dustoor.
one's old way, old school, veteris vestigia flammae; laudator temporis
rule, standing order, precedent, routine; red-tape, red-tapism; pipe
clay; rut, groove.
cacoethes; bad habit, confirmed habit, inveterate habit, intrinsic
habit &c.; addiction, trick.
training &c. (education) 537; seasoning, second nature,
acclimatization; knack &c.
V. be wont &c. adj.
fall into a rut, fall into a custom &c. (conform to) 82; tread the
beaten track, follow the beaten track, tread the beaten path, follow the
beaten; stare super antiquas vias; move in a rut, run on in a groove, go
round like a horse in a mill, go on in the old jog trot way.
habituate, inure, harden, season, caseharden; accustom, familiarize;
naturalize, acclimatize; keep one's hand in; train &c. (educate) 537.
get into the way, get into the knack of; learn &c. 539; cling to,
adhere to; repeat &c. 104; acquire a habit, contract a habit, fall into a
habit, acquire a trick, contract a trick, fall into a trick; addict oneself
to, take to, get into.
be habitual &c. adj.; prevail; come into use, become a habit, take
root; gain upon one, grow upon one.
Adj. habitual; accustomary; prescriptive, accustomed &c. v.; of daily
occurence, everyday occurrence; consuetudinary; wonted, usual, general,
ordinary, common, frequent, everyday, household, jog, trot; well-trodden,
well-known; familiar, vernacular, trite, commonplace, conventional,
regular, set, stock, established, stereotyped; prevailing, prevalent;
current, received, acknowledged, reconized, accredited; of course,
admitted, understood.
conformable. &c. 82; according to use, according to custom, according
to routine; in vogue, in fashion, in, with it; fashionable &c. (genteel)
wont; used to, given to, addicted to, attuned to, habituated &c. v.;
in the habit of; habitue; at home in &c. (skillful) 698; seasoned; imbued
with; devoted to, wedded to.
hackneyed, fixed, rooted, deep-rooted, ingrafted, permanent,
inveterate, besetting; naturalized; ingrained &c. (intrinsic) 5.
Adv. habitually &c. adj.; always &c. (uniformly) 16.
as usual, as is one's wont, as things go, as the world goes, as the
sparks fly upwards; more suo, more solito; ex more.
as a rule, for the most part; usually, generally, typically &c. adj.;
most often, most frequently.
Phr. cela s'entend; abeunt studia in mores; adeo in teneris
consuescere multum est; consuetudo quasi altera natura [Cicero]; hoc erat
in more majorum; "How use doth breed a habit in a man!" [Two Gentlemen];
magna est vis consuetudinis; morent fecerat usus [Ovid].
#614. Desuetude. -- N. desuetude, disusage; obsoleseence, disuse &c.
678; want of habit, want of practice; inusitation; newness to; new brooms.
infraction of usage &c. (unconformity) 83; nonprevalence; "a custom
more honored in the breach than the observance" [Hamlet].
V. be -unaccustomed &c. adj.; leave off a habit, cast off a habit,
break off a habit, wean oneself of a habit, violate a habit, break through
a habit, infringe a habit, leave off a custom, cast off a custom, break off
a custom, wean oneslef of a custum, violate a custom, break through a
custom, infringe a custom, leave off a usage, cast off a usage, break off a
usage, wean oneself of a usage, violate a usage, break through a usage,
infringe a usage; disuse &c. 678; wear off.
Adj. unaccustomed, unused, unwonted, unseasoned, uninured,
unhabituated, untrained; new; green &c. (unskilled) 699; unhackneyed.
unusual &c. (unconformable) 83; nonobservant; disused &c. 678.

<-- p. 190 -->

2. Causes of Volition

#615. Motive. -- N. motive, springs of action, wellsprings of action.
reason, ground, call, principle; by end, by purpose; mainspring,
primum mobile, keystone; the why and the wherefore; pro and con, reason
why; secret motive, arriere pensee; intention &c. 620.
inducement, consideration; attraction; loadstone; magnet, magnetism,
magnetic force; allectation|, allective|; temptation, enticement, agacerie,
allurement, witchery; bewitchment, bewitchery; charm; spell &c. 993;
fascination, blandishment, cajolery; seduction, seducement; honeyed words,
voice of the tempter, song of the Sirens forbidden fruit, golden apple.
persuasibility, persuasibleness; attractability; impressibility,
susceptibility; softness; persuasiveness, attractiveness; tantalization.
influence, prompting, dictate, instance; impulse, impulsion; incitement,
incitation; press, instigation; provocation &c. (excitation of feeling)
824; inspiration; persuasion, suasion; encouragement, advocacy;
exhortation; advice &c. 695; solicitation &c. (request) 765; lobbyism;
incentive, stimulus, spur, fillip, whip, goad, ankus, rowel,
provocative, whet, dram.
bribe, lure; decoy, decoy duck; bait, trail of a red herring; bribery
and corruption; sop, sop for Cerberus.
prompter, tempter; seducer, seductor; instigator, firebrand,
incendiary; Siren, Circe; agent provocateur; lobbyist.
V. induce, move; draw, draw on; bring in its train, give an impulse
&c. n.; to; inspire; put up to, prompt, call up; attract, beckon.
stimulate &c. (excite) 824; spirit up, inspirit; rouse, arouse;
animate, incite, provoke, instigate, set on, actuate;.act upon, work upon,
operate upon; encourage; pat on the back, pat on the shoulder, clap on the
back, clap on the shoulder.
influence, weigh with, bias, sway, incline, dispose, predispose, turn
the scale, inoculate; lead by the nose; have influence with, have influence
over, have influence upon, exercise influence with, exercise influence
over, exercise influence upon; go round, come round one; turn the head,
magnetize; lobby.
persuade; prevail with, prevail upon; overcome, carry; bring round to
one's senses, bring to one's senses; draw over, win over, gain over, come
over, talk over; procure, enlist, engage; invite, court.
tempt, seduce, overpersuade, entice, allure, captivate, fascinate,
bewitch, carry away, charm, conciliate, wheedle, coax, lure; inveigle;
tantalize; cajole &c. (deceive) 545.
tamper with, bribe, suborn, grease the palm, bait with a silver hook,
gild the pill, make things pleasant, put a sop into the pan, throw a sop
to, bait the hook.
enforce, force; impel &c. (push) 276; propel &c. 284; whip, lash,
goad, spur, prick, urge; egg on, hound , hurry on; drag &c. 285; exhort;
advise &c. 695; call upon &c. press &c. (request) 765; advocate.
set an example, set the fashion; keep in countenance.
be persuaded &c.; yield to temptation, come round; concede &c.
(consent) 762; obey a call; follow advice, follow the bent,.follow the
dictates of; act on principle.
Adj. impulsive, motive; suasive, suasory, persuasive, persuasory,
hortative, hortatory; protreptical|; inviting, tempting, &c. v.; suasive,
suasory; seductive, attractive; fascinating &c. (pleasing) 829; provocative
&c. (exciting) 824.
induced &c. v.; disposed; persuadable &c. (docile) 602; spellbound;
instinct with, smitten with, infatuated; inspired &c. v.; by.
Adv. because, therefore &c. (cause) 155; from this motive, from that
motive; for this reason, for that reason; for; by reason of, for the sake
of, count of; out of, from, as, forasmuch as.
for all the world; on principle.
Phr. fax mentis incendium gloriae; "temptation hath a music for all
ears" [Willis] "to beguile many and be beguiled by one" [Othello].

#615a. Absence of Motive. -- N. absence of motive, aimlessness;
caprice &c. 608; chance &c. (absence of design) 621.
V. have no motive; scruple &c. (be unwilling) 603.
Adj. without rhyme or reason; aimless, capricious, whimsical &c.
(chance) 621.
Adv. out of mere caprice.

#616. Dissuasion. -- N. dissuasion, dehortation, expostulation,
remonstrance; deprecation &c. 766.
discouragement, damper, wet blanket.
cohibition &c. (restraint) 751; curb &c. (means of restraint) 752;
check &c. (hindrance) 706.
reluctance &c. (unwillingness) 603; contraindication.
V. dissuade, dehort, cry out against, remonstrate, expostulate, warn,
disincline, indispose, shake, stagger; dispirit; discourage,
dishearten, disenchant; deter; hold back, keep back &c. (restrain) 751;
render averse &c. 603; repel; turn aside &c. (deviation) 279; wean from;
act as a drag &c. (hinder) 706; throw cold water on, damp, cool, chill,
blunt, calm, quiet, quench; deprecate &c. 766.
Adj. dissuading &c. v.; dissuasive; dehortatory, expostulatory;
monitive|, monitory.
dissuaded &c. v.; admonitory; uninduced &c. (induce &c. 615);
unpersuadable &c. (obstinate) 606; averse &c. (unwilling) 603; repugnant
&c. (dislike) 867.

<-- p. 191 -->

#617. [Ostensible motive, ground, or reason assigned.] Pretext. -- N.
pretext, pretense, pretension, plea|; allegation, advocation; ostensible
motive, subterfuge, obtensible ground, obtensible reason, phony reason;
excuse &c. (vindication) 937; color; gloss, guise, cover.
loop hole, starting hole; how to creep out of, salvo, come off; way of
handle, peg to hang on, room locus standi; stalking-horse, cheval de
bataille, cue.
pretense &c. (untruth) 546; put off, dust thrown in the eyes; blind;
moonshine; mere pretext, shallow pretext; lame excuse, lame apology; tub to
a whale; false plea, sour grapes; makeshift, shift, white lie; special
pleading &c. (sophistry) 477; soft sawder &c. (flattery) 933.
V. pretend, plead, allege; shelter oneself under the plea of; excuse
&c. (vindicate) 937; lend a color to; furnish a handle &c. n.; make a
pretext of, make a handle of; use as a plea &c. n.; take one's stand upon,
make capital out of , pretend &c. (lie) 544.
Adj. ostensibly &c. (manifest) 525; alleged, apologetic; pretended &c.
Adv. ostensibly; under color; under the plea, under the pretense of,
under the guise of.

3. Objects of Volition

#618. Good. -- N. good, benefit, advantage; improvement &c. 658;
greatest good, supreme good; interest, service, behoof, behalf; weal; main
chance, summum bonum, common weal; "consummation devoutly to be wished";
gain, boot; profit, harvest.
boon &c. (gift) 784; good turn; blessing; world of good; piece of good
luck, piece of good fortune; nuts, prize, windfall, godsend, waif,
good fortune &c. (prosperity) 734; happiness &c. 827.
[Source of good] goodness &c. 648; utility &c. 644; remedy &c. 662;
pleasure giving &c. 829.
Adj. commendable &c. 931; useful &c. 644; good &c., beneficial &c.
Adv. well, aright, satisfactorily, favorably, not amis; all for the
best; to one's advantage &c. n.; in one's favor, in one's interest &c. n.
Phr. so far so good; magnum bonum.

#619. Evil. -- N. evil, ill, harm, hurt., mischief, nuisance;
machinations of the devil, Pandora's box, ills that flesh is heir to.
blow, buffet, stroke, scratch, bruise, wound, gash, mutilation; mortal
blow, wound; immedicabile vulnus; damage, loss &c. (deterioration) 659.
disadvantage, prejudice, drawback.
disaster, accident, casualty; mishap &c. (misfortune) 735; bad job,
devil to pay; calamity, bale, catastrophe, tragedy; ruin &c. (destruction)
162; adversity &c. 735.
mental suffering &c. 828. *[Evil spirit] demon &v. 980. [Cause of
evil] bane &c. 663. [Production of evil] badness &c. 649; painfulness &c.
830; evil doer &c. 913.
outrage, wrong, injury, foul play; bad turn, ill turn; disservice,
spoliation &c. 791; grievance, crying evil.
V. be in trouble &c. (adversity) 735.
Adj. disastrous, bad &c. 649; awry, out of joint; disadvantageous.
Adv. amis, wrong, ill, to one's cost
Phr. "moving accidents by flood and field" [Othello]

<-- p. 192 -->

Section II. Prospective Volition1
1. Conceptional Volition

#620. Intention. -- N. intent, intention, intentionality; purpose; quo
animo; project &c. 626; undertaking &c. 676; predetermination &c. 611;
design, ambition.
contemplation, mind, animus, view, purview, proposal; study; look out.
final cause; raison detre; cui bono; object, aim, end; "the be all and
the end all"; drift &c. (meaning) 516; tendency &c. 176; destination, mark,
point, butt, goal, target, bull's-eye, quintain; prey, quarry, game.
decision, determination, resolve; fixed set purpose, settled purpose;
ultimatum; resolution &c. 604; wish &c. 865; arriere pensee; motive &c.
[Study of final causes] teleology.
V. intend, purpose, design, mean; have to; propose to oneself; harbor
a design; have in view, have in contemplation, have in one's eye, have in-
petto; have an eye to.
bid for, labor for; be after, aspire after, endeavor after; be at, aim
at, drive at, point at, level at, aspire at; take aim; set before oneself;
study to.
take upon oneself &c. (undertake) 676; take into one's head; meditate,
contemplate of, think of, dream of, talk of; premeditate &c. 611; compass,
calculate; destine, destinate; propose.
project &c. (plan) 626; have a mind to &c. (be willing) 602; desire
&c. 865; pursue &c. 622.
Adj. intended &c. v.; intentional, advised, express, determinate;
prepense &c. 611; bound for; intending &c. v.; minded; bent upon &c.
(earnest) 604; at stake; on the anvil, on the tapis; in view, in prospect,
in the breast of; in petto; teleological
Adv. intentionally &c. adj.; advisedly, wittingly, knowingly,
designedly, purposely, on purpose, by design, studiously, pointedly; with
intent &c. n.; deliberately &c. (with premeditation) 611; with one's eyes
open, in cold blood.
for; with a view, with an eye to; in order to, in order that; to the
end that, with the intent that; for the purpose of, with the view of, in
contemplation of, on account of.
in pursuance of, pursuant to; quo animo; to all intents and purposes.
Phr. "The road to hell is paved with good intentions" [Johnson];
sublimi feriam sidera vertice [Horace].

<-- p. 193 -->

#621. [Absence of purpose in the succession of events] Chance. 2 -- N.
chance &c. 156; lot, fate &c. (necessity) 601; luck; good luck &c. (good)
618; mascot.
speculation, venture, stake, game of chance; mere shot, random shot;
blind bargain, leap in the dark; pig in a poke &c. (uncertainty) 475;
fluke, potluck; faro bank; flyer*; limit
drawing lots; sortilegy, sortition|; sortes, sortes Virgilianae; rouge
et noir, hazard, ante, chuck-a-luck, crack-loo [U.S.], craps, faro,
roulette, pitch and toss, chuck, farthing, cup tossing, heads or talls
cross and pile, poker-dice; wager; bet, betting; gambling; the turf.
gaming house, gambling house, betting house; bucket shop; joint *;
totalizator, totalizer; hell; betting ring; dice, dice box; dicer; gambler,
gamester; man of the turf; adventurer.
V. chance &c. (hap) 156; stand a chance &c. (be possible) 470.
toss up; cast lots, draw lots; leave to chance, trust to chance, leave
to the chapter of accidents, trust to the chpter of accidents; tempt
fortune; chance it, take one's chance; run the risk, run the chance, incur
the risk, incur the chance, encounter the risk, encounter the chance; stand
the hazard of the die.
speculate, try one's luck, set on a cast, raffle, put into a lottery,
buy a pig in a poke, shuffle the cards.
risk, venture, hazard, stake; ante; lay, lay a wager; make a bet,
wager, bet, gamble, game, play for; play at chuck farthing.
Adj. fortuitous &c. 156; unintentional, unintended; accidental; not
meant; undesigned, purposed; unpremeditated &c. 612; unforeseen, never
thought of.
indiscriminate, promiscuous; undirected, random; aimless, driftless,
designless, purposeless, causeless; without purpose.
possible &c. 470.
Adv. casually &c. 156; unintentionally &c. adj.; unwittingly.
en passant, by the way, incidentally; as it may happen; at random, at
a venture, at haphazard.
Phr. acierta errando; dextro tempore; "fearful concatenation of
circumstances" [D. Webster]; "fortuitous combination of circumstances"
[Dickens]; le jeu est le fils d'avarice et le pere du desespoic; "the
happy combination of fortuitous circumstances" [Scott]; "the fortuitous or
casual concourse of atoms" [Bentley].

#622. [Purpose in action.] Pursuit -- N. pursuit; pursuing &c. v.;
prosecution; pursuance; enterprise &c. (undertaking) 676; business &c. 625;
adventure &c. (essay) 675; quest &c. (search) 461; scramble, hue and cry,
game; hobby; still-hunt.
chase, hunt, battue, race, steeple chase, hunting, coursing; venation,
venery; fox chase; sport, sporting; shooting, angling, fishing, hawking;
pursuer; hunter, huntsman; shikari, sportsman, Nimrod; hound &c. 366.
V. pursue, prosecute, follow; run after, make after, be after, hunt
after, prowl after; shadow; carry on &c. (do) 680; engage in &c.
(undertake) 676; set about &c. (begin) 66; endeavor &c. 675; court &c.
(request) 765 seek &c. (search) 461; aim at &c. (intention) 620; follow the
trail &c. (trace) 461; fish for &c. (experiment) 463; press on &c. (haste)
684; run a race &c. (velocity) 274.
chase, give chase, course, dog, hunt, hound; tread on the heels,
follow on the heels of, &c. (sequence) 281.
rush upon; rush headlong &c. (violence) 173 ride full tilt at, run
full tilt at; make a leap at, jump at, snatch at run down; start game.
tread a path; take a course, hold- a course; shape one's steps, direct
one's steps, bend one's steps, course; play a game; fight one's way, elbow
one's way; follow up; take to, take up; go in for; ride one's hobby.
Adj. pursuing &c. v.; in quest of &c. (inquiry) 461 in puursuit, in
full cry, in hot pursuit; on the scent.
Adv. in pursuance of &c. (intention) 620; after.
Int. tallyho! yoicks! soho!

#623. .[Absence of pursuit.] Avoidance. -- N. abstention, abstinence;
for bearance; refraining &c. v.; inaction &c. 681; neutrality.
avoidance, evasion, elusion; seclusion &c. 893.
avolation|, flight; escape &c. 671; retreat &c. 287; recoil &c. 277;
departure &c. 293; rejection &c. 610.
shirker &c. v.; truant; fugitive, refugee; runaway, runagate; maroon.
V. abstain, refrain, spare, not attempt; not do &c. 681; maintain the
even tenor of one's way.
eschew, keep from, let alone, have nothing to do with; keep aloof keep
off, stand aloof, stand off, hold aloof, hold off; take no part in, have no
hand in.
avoid, shun; steer clear of, keep clear of; fight shy of; keep one's
distance, keep at a respectful distance; keep out of the way, get out of
the way; evade, elude, turn away from; set one's face against &c. (oppose)
708; deny oneself.
shrink back; hang back, hold back, draw back; recoil &c. 277; retire
&c. (recede) 287; flinch, blink, blench, shy, shirk, dodge, parry, make way
for, give place to.
beat a retreat; turn tail, turn one's back; take to one's heels;
runaway, run for one's life; cut and run; be off like a shot; fly, flee;
fly away, flee away, run away from; take flight, take to flight; desert,
elope; make off, scamper off, sneak off, shuffle off, sheer off; break
away, tear oneself away, slip away, slink away, steel away, make away from,
scamper away from, sneak away from, shuffle away from, sheer away from;
slip calbe, part company, turn one's heel; sneak out of, play truant, give
one the go by, give leg bail, take French leave, slope, decamp, flit, bolt,
abscond, levant, skedadle, absquatulate [U.S.], cut one's stick, walk one's
chalks, show a light pair of heels, make oneself scarce; escape &cl. 671;
go away &c. (depart) 293; abandon &c. 624; reject &c. 610.
lead one a dance, lead one a pretty dance; throw off the scent, play
at hide and seek.
Adj. unsought, unattempted; avoiding &c. v.; neutral, shy of &c
(unwilling) 603; elusive, evasive; fugitive, runaway; shy, wild.
Adj. lest, in order to avoid.
Int. forbear! keep off, hands off! sauve qui peut! devil take the
Phr. "things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme" [Paradise Lost].

<-- p. 194 -->

#624. Relinquishment. -- N. relinquishment, abandonment; desertion,
defection, secession, withdrawal; cave of Adullam; nolle prosequi.
discontinuance &c. (cessation) 142; renunciation &c. (recantation)
607; abrogation &c. 756; resignation &c. (retirement) 757; desuetude &c.
614; cession &c. (of property) 782.
V. relinquish, give up, abandon, desert, forsake, leave in the lurch;
go back on; depart from, secede from, withdraw from; back out of; leave,
quit, take leave of, bid a long farewell; vacate &c. (resign) 757.
renounce &c (abjure) 607; forego, have done with, drop; disuse &c.
678; discard &c. 782; wash one's hands of; drop all idea of.
break off, leave off; desist; stop &c. (cease) 142; hold one's hand,
stay one's hand; quit one's hold; give over, shut up shop.
throw up the game, throw up the cards; give up the point, give up the
argument; pass to the order of the day, move to the previous question.
Adj. unpursued; relinquished &c. v.; relinqishing &c. v.
Int. avast! &c. (stop) 142.
Phr. aufgeschoben ist nicht aufgehoben; entbehr gern was du nicht

#625. Business. -- N. business, occupation, employment; pursuit &c.
622; what one is doing, what one is about; affair, concern, matter, case.
matter in hand, irons in the fire; thing to do, agendum, task, work,
job, chore [U.S.], errand, commission, mission, charge, care; duty &c. 926.

part, role, cue; province, function, lookout, department capacity,
sphere, orb, field, line; walk of life; beat, round, routine; race, career.
office, place, post, chargeship, incumbency, living; situation, berth,
employ; service &c. (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c. 676.
vocation, calling, profession, cloth, faculty; industry, art;
industrial arts; craft, mystery, handicraft; trade &c. (commerce) 794.
exercise; work &c. (action) 680; avocation; press of business &c.
(activity) 682.
V. pass one's time in, employ one's time in, spend one's time in;
employ oneself in, employ oneself upon; occupy oneself with, concern
oneself with; make it one's business &c. n.; undertake &c. 676; enter a
profession; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to; have to do with &c. (do)
drive a trade; carry on a trade, do a trade, transact a trade, carry
on business, do business, transact business &c. n.; keep a shop; ply one's
task, ply one's trade; labor in one's vocation; pursue the even tenor of
one's way; attend to business, attend to one's work.
officiate, serve, act; act one's part, play one's part; do duty; serve
the office, discharge the office ,perform the office, perform the duties,
perform the functions of; hold an office, fill an office, fill a place,
fill a situation; hold a portfolio.
be about, be doing, be engaged in, be employed in, be occupied with,
be at work on; have one's hands in, have in hand; have on one's hands, have
on one's shoulders; bear the burden; have one's hands full &c. (activity)
be in the hands of, be on the stocks, be on the anvil; pass through
one's hands.
Adj. businesslike; workaday; professional; official, functional; busy
&c. (actively employed) 682; on hand, in hand, in one's hands; afoot; on
foot, on the anvil; going on; acting.
Adv. in the course of business, all in one's day's work;
professionally, &c. adj.
Phr. "a business with an income at its heels" [Cowper]; amoto
quaeramus seria ludo [Horace]; par negotiis neque supra [Tacitus].

<-- p. 195 -->

#626. Plan. -- N. plan, scheme, design, project; proposal,
proposition, suggestion; resolution, motion; precaution &c. (provision)
673; deep-laid plan &c. (premeditated) 611;
system &c. (order),58; organization &c. (arrangement) 60; germ &c.
(cause) 153.
sketch, skeleton, outline, draught, draft, ebauche, brouillon; rough
cast, rough draft, draught, draught copy; copy; proof, revise.
forecast, program(me), prospectus; carte du pays; card; bill,
protocol; order of the day, list of agenda; bill of fare &c. (food) 298;
base of operations; platform, plank, slate [U. S.], ticket [U. S.].
role; policy &c. (line of conduct) 692.
contrivance, invention, expedient, receipt, nostrum, artifice, device;
pipelaying [U. S.]; stratagem &c. (cunning) 702; trick &c. (deception) 545;
alternative, loophole; shift &c. (substitute) 147; last shift &c.
(necessity) 601.
measure, step; stroke, stroke of policy; master stroke; trump card,
court card; cheval de bataille, great gun; coup, coup d'etat; clever
stroke, bold stroke, good move, good hit, good stroke; bright thought,
bright idea.
intrigue, cabal, plot, conspiracy, complot, machination; underplot,
schemer, schemist, schematist|; strategist, machinator; projector,
artist, promoter, designer &c. v.; conspirator; intrigant &c. (cunning)
V. plan,,scheme, design, frame, contrive, project, forecast, sketch;
devise, invent &c. (imagine) 515; set one's wits to work &c. 515; spring a
project; fall upon, hit upon; strike out, chalk out, cut out, lay out, map
out; lay down a plan; shape out a course, mark out a course; predetermine
&c. 611; concert, preconcert, preestablish; prepare &c. 673; hatch, hatch a
plot concoct; take steps, take measures.
cast, recast, systematize, organize; arrange &c. 60; digest, mature.
plot; counter-plot, counter-mine; dig a mine; lay a train; intrigue
&c. (cunning) 702.
Adj. planned &c. v.; strategic, strategical; planning &c. v.; in
course of preparation &c. 673; under consideration; on the tapis, on the
carpet, on the floor.

#627. Method. [Path.] -- N. method, way, manner, wise, gait, form,
mode, fashion, tone, guise; , modus operandi, MO; procedure &c. (line of
conduct) 692.
path, road, route, course; line of way, line of road; trajectory,
orbit, track, beat, tack.
steps; stair, staircase; flight of stairs, ladder, stile; perron.
bridge, footbridge, viaduct, pontoon, steppingstone, plank, gangway;
drawbridge; pass, ford, ferry, tunnel; pipe &c. 260.
door; gateway &c. (opening) 260; channel, passage, avenue, means of
access, approach, adit; artery, lane, alley, aisle, lobby, corridor; back-
door, back-stairs; secret passage; covert way; vennel.
roadway, pathway, stairway; express; thoroughfare; highway; turnpike ,
freeway, royal road, coach road; broad highway, King's highway, Queen's
highway; beaten track, beaten path; horse road, bridle road, bridle track,
bridle path; walk, trottoir, footpath, pavement, flags, sidewalk;
crossroad, byroad, bypath, byway; cut; short cut &c. (mid-course) 628;
carrefour; private road, occupation road; highways and byways; railroad,
railway, tram road, tramway; towpath; causeway; canal &c. (conduit) 350;
street &c. (abode) 189; speedway.
adv. how; in what way, in what manner; by what mode; so, in this way, after
this fashion.
one way or another, anyhow; somehow or other &c. (instrumentality)
631; by way of; via; in transitu &c. 270; on the high road to.
Phr. hae tibi erunt artes

<-- p. 196 -->

#628. Mid-course. -- N. middle course, midcourse; mean &c. 29 middle
&c. 68; juste milieu, mezzo termine, golden mean,
, aurea mediocritas.
straight &c. (direct) 278 straight course, straight path; short cut,
cross cut; great circle sailing.
neutrality; half measure, half and half measures; compromise.
V. keep in a middle course, preserve a middle course, preserve an even
course, go straight &c. (direct) 278.
go halfway, compromise, make a compromise.
Adj. straight &c. (direct) 278.
Phr. medium tenuere beati.

#629. Circuit. -- N. circuit, roundabout way, digression, detour,
circumbendibus, ambages, loop; winding &c. (circuition) 311; zigzag &c.
(deviation) 279.
V. perform a circuit; go round about, go out of one's way; make a
detour; meander &c. (deviate) 279.
lead a pretty dance; beat about the bush; make two bites of a cherry.
Adj. circuitous, indirect, roundabout; zigzag &c. (deviating) 279;
Adv. by a side wind, by an indirect course; in a roundabout way; from
pillar to post.

#630. Requirement. -- N. requirement, need, wants, necessities;
necessaries, necessaries of life; stress, exigency,pinch, sine qua non,
matter of necessity; case of need, case of life or death.
needfulness, essentiality, necessity, indispensability, urgency.
requisition &c. (request) 765, (exaction) 741; run upon; demand, call
charge, claim, command, injunction, mandate, order, precept.
desideratum &c. (desire) 865; want &c. (deficiency) 640.
V. require, need, want, have occasion for; not be able to do without,
not be able to dispense with; prerequire.
render necessary, necessitate, create a, necessity for, call for, put
in requisition; make a requisition &c. (ask for) 765, (demand) 741.
stand in need of; lack &c. 640; desiderate; desire &c. 865; be
necessary &c. Adj.
Adj. required &c. v.; requisite, needful, necessary, imperative,
essential, indispensable, prerequisite; called for; in demand, in request.
urgent, exigent, pressing, instant, crying, absorbing.
in want of; destitute of &c. 640.
Adv. ex necessitate rei &c. (necessarily) 601; of necessity.
Phr. there is no time to lose; it cannot be spared, it cannot be
dispensed with; mendacem memorem esse oportet [Quintilian]; necessitas non
habet legem; nec tecum possum trivere nec sine te [Martial].

2. Subservience to Ends

1. Actual Subservience

#631. Instrumentality. -- N. instrumentality; aid &c. 707;
subservience, subserviency; mediation, intervention, medium, intermedium,
vehicle, hand; agency &c. 170.
minister, handmaid; midwife, accoucheur, accoucheuse, obstetrician;
gobetween; cat's-paw; stepping-stone.
key; masterkey, passkey, latchkey; " open sesame "; passport, passe-
partout, safe-conduct.
instrument &c. 633; expedient &c. (plan) 626; means &c. 632.
V. subserve, minister, mediate, intervene; be instrumental &c. adj.;
pander to; officiate; tend.
Adj. instrumental; useful &c. 644; ministerial, subservient,
mediatorial; intermediate, intervening; conducive.
Adv. through, by, per; whereby, thereby, hereby; by the agency of &c.
170; by dint of; by virtue of, in virtue of; through the medium of &c. n.;
along with; on the shoulders of; by means of &c. 632; by the aid of, with
the aid of &c. (assistance) 707.

<-- p. 197 -->

per fas et nefas, by fair means or foul; somehow, somehow or other; by
hook or by crook.

#632. Means. -- N. means, resources, wherewithal, ways and means;
capital &c. (money) 800; revenue; stock in trade &c. 636; provision &c.
637; a shot in the locker; appliances &c. (machinery) 633; means and
appliances; conveniences; cards to play; expedients &c. (measures) 626; two
strings to one's bow; sheet anchor &c. (safety) 666; aid &c. 707; medium
&c. 631..
V. find means, have means, possess means &c. n.
Adj. instrumental &c. 631; mechanical &c. 633.
Adv. by means of, with; by what means, by all means, by any means, by
some means; wherewith, herewith, therewith; wherewithal.
how &c. (in what manner) 627; through &c. (by the instrumentality of)
631; with the aid of, by the aid of &c. (assistance) 707; by the agency of
&c. 170

#633. Instrument. -- N. machinery, mechanism, engineering.
instrument, organ, tool, implement, utensil, machine, engine, lathe,
gin, mill; air engine, caloric engine, heat engine.
gear; tackle, tackling, rig, rigging, apparatus, appliances; plant,
materiel; harness, trappings, fittings, accouterments; barde; equipment,
equipmentage; appointments, furniture, upholstery; chattels; paraphernalia
&c. (belongings) 780.
mechanical powers; lever, leverage; mechanical advantage; crow,
crowbar; handspike, gavelock, jemmy, jimmy, arm, limb, wing; oar, paddle;
pulley; wheel and axle; wheelwork, clockwork; wheels within wheels; pinion,
crank, winch; cam; pedal; capstan &c. (lift) 307; wheel &c. (rotation)
312; inclined plane; wedge; screw; spring, mainspring; can hook, glut,
heald, heddle, jenny, parbuckle, sprag, water wheel.
handle, hilt, haft, shaft, heft, shank, blade, trigger, tiller, helm,
treadle, key; turnscrew, screwdriver; knocker.
hammer &c. (impulse) 276; edge tool &c. (cut) 253; borer &c. 262;
vice, teeth, &c. (hold) 781; nail, rope &c. (join) 45; peg &c. (hang) 214;
support &c. 215; spoon &c. (vehicle) 272; arms &c. 727; oar &c.
(navigation) 267; cardiograph, recapper, snowplow, tenpenny, votograph.
Adj. instrumental &c. 631; mechanical, machinal; brachial.

#634. Substitute. -- N. substitute &c. 147; deputy &c. 759; badli.

#635. Materials. -- N. material, raw material, stuff, stock, staple;
adobe, brown stone; chinking; clapboard; daubing; puncheon; shake; shingle,
bricks and mortar; metal; stone; clay, brick crockery &c. 384; compo,
composition; concrete; reenforeed concrete, cement; wood, ore, timber.
materials; supplies, munition, fuel, grist, household stuff pabulum
&c. (food) 298; ammunition &c. (arms) 727; contingents; relay,
reenforcement; baggage &c. (personal property) 780; means &c. 632; calico,
cambric, cashmere.
Adj. raw &c. (unprepared) 674; wooden &c. n.; adobe.

#636. Store. -- N. stock, fund, mine, vein, lode, quarry; spring;
fount, fountain; well, wellspring; milch cow.
stock in trade, supply; heap &c. (collection) 72; treasure; reserve,
corps de reserve, reserved fund, nest egg, savings, bonne bouche.
crop, harvest, mow, vintage.
store, accumulation, hoard, rick, stack; lumber; relay &c. (provision)
storehouse, storeroom, storecloset; depository, depot, cache,
repository, reservatory, repertory; repertorium; promptuary, warehouse,
entrepot, magazine; buttery, larder, spence; garner, granary; cannery,
safe-deposit vault, stillroom; thesaurus; bank &c. (treasury) 802; armory;
arsenal; dock; gallery, museum, conservatory; menagery, menagerie.

<-- p. 198 -->

reservoir, cstern, aljibar, tank, pond, mill pond; gasometer.
budget, quiver, bandolier, portfolio; coffer &c. (receptacle) 191.
conservation; storing &c. v.; storage.
V. store; put by, lay by, set by; stow away; set apart, lay apart;
store treasure, hoard treasure, lay up, heap up, put up, garner up, save
up; bank; cache; accumulate, amass, hoard, fund, garner, save.
reserve; keep back, hold back; husband, husband one's resources.
deposit; stow, stack, load; harvest; heap, collect &c. 72; lay in
store &c.
Adj.; keep, file [papers]; lay in &c. (provide) 637; preserve &c. 670.
Adj. stored &c. v. ; in store, in reserve, in ordinary; spare,
Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit.

#637. Provision. -- N. provision, supply; grist, grist for the mill;
subvention &c. (aid) 707; resources &c. (means) 632; groceries, grocery.
providing &c. v.; purveyance; reenforcement; commissariat.
provender &c. (food) 298; ensilage; viaticum.
caterer, purveyor, commissary, quartermaster, manciple, feeder,
batman, victualer, grocer, comprador, restaurateur; jackal, pelican;
sutler &c. (merchant) 797.
grocery shop [U. S.], grocery store.
V. provide; make provision, make due provision for; lay in, lay in a
stock, lay in a store.
supply, suppeditate|; furnish; find, find one in; arm.
cater, victual, provision, purvey, forage; beat up for; stock, stock
with; make good, replenish; fill, fill up; recruit, feed.
have in store, have in reserve; keep, keep by one, keep on foot, keep
on hand; have to fall back upon; store &c. 636; provide against a rainy day
&c. (economy) 817.

#638. Waste. -- N. consumption, expenditure, exhaustion; dispersion
&c. 73; ebb; leakage &c. (exudation) 295; loss &c. 776; wear and tear;
waste; prodigality &c. 818; misuse &c. 679; wasting &c. v.; rubbish &c.
(useless) 645. mountain in labor.
V. spend, expend, use, consume, swallow up, exhaust; impoverish;
spill, drain, empty; disperse &c. 73.
cast away, fool away, muddle away, throw away, fling away, fritter
away,; burn the candle at both ends, waste; squander &c. 818.
" waste its sweetness on the desert air " [Gray]; cast one's bread
upon the waters, cast pearls before swine; employ a steam engine to crack a
nut, waste powder and shot, break a butterfly on a weel; labor in vain &c.
(useless) 645; cut blocks with a razor, pour water into a sieve.
leak &c. (run out) 295; run to waste; ebb; melt away, run dry, dry up.
Adj. wasted &c. v.; at a low ebb.
wasteful &c. (prodigal) 818; penny wise and pound foolish.
Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas; le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle; "
idly busy rolls their world away " [Goldsmith].

#639. Sufficiency. -- N. sufficiency, adequacy, enough, withal,
quantum sufficit, satisfaction, competence; no less.
mediocrity &c. (average) 29.
fill; fullness &c. (completeness) 52; plenitude, plenty; abundance;
copiousness &c. Adj.; amplitude, galore, lots, profusion; full measure; "
good measure pressed down and running, over." luxuriance &c. (fertility)
168; affluence &c. (wealth) 803; fat of the land; "a land flowing with milk
and honey"; cornucopia; horn of plenty, horn of Amalhaea; mine &c. (stock)
outpouring; flood &c. (grieat quantity) 31; tide &c. (river) 348;
repletion &c. (redundance) 641; satiety &c. 869.
V. be sufficient &c. Adj.; suffice, do, just do, satisfy, pass muster;
have enough &c. n.; eat. one's fill, drink one's fill, have one's fill;
roll in, swim in; wallow in &c. (superabundance) 641 ; wanton.
abound, exuberate, teem, flow, stream, rain, shower down; pour, pour
in; swarm; bristle with; superabound.
render sufficient &c. Adj.; replenish &c .(fill) 52.
Adj. sufficient, enough, adequate, up to the mark, commensurate,
competent, satisfactory, valid, tangible.
measured; moderate &c. (temperate) 953.
full.&c. (complete) 52; ample; plenty, plentiful, plenteous; plenty as
blackberries; copious, abundant; abounding &c. v.; replete, enough and to
spare, flush; choke-full; well-stocked, well-provided; liberal; unstinted,
unstinting; stintless; without stint; unsparing, unmeasured; lavish &c.
641; wholesale.
rich; luxuriant &c. (fertile) 168; affluent &c. (wealthy) 803;
wantless; big with &c. (pregnant) 161.
unexhausted, unwasted; exhaustless, inexhaustible.
adv. sufficiently, amply &c. Adj.; full; in abundance &c. n. with no
sparing hand; to one's heart's content, ad libitum, without stint.
phr. " cut and come again " [Crabbe]; das Beste ist gut genug.

#640. Insufficiency. -- N. insufficiency; inadequacy, inadequateness;
incompetence &c. (impotence) 158; deficiency &c. (incompleteness) 53;
imperfection &c. 651; shortcoming &c. 304; paucity; stint; scantiness &c.
(smallness) 32; none to spare, bare subsistence.
scarcity, dearth; want, need, lack, poverty, exigency; inanition,
starvation, famine, drought.
dole, mite, pittance; short allowance, short commons; half rations;
banyan day.
emptiness, poorness &c. Adj.; depletion, vacancy, flaccidity; ebb
tide; low water; " a beggarly account of empty boxes " [Romeo and Jul.];
indigence &c. 804; insolvency &c. (nonpayment) 808.

V. be insufficient &c. Adj.; not suffice &c. 639; come short of &c.
304 run dry.
want, lack, need, require; caret; be in want &c. (poor) 804, live from
hand to mouth.
render insufficient &c. Adj.; drain of resources, impoverish &c.
(waste) 638; stint &c. (begrudge) 819; put on short allowance.
do insufficiently &c. adv.; scotch the snake.
Adj. insufficient, inadequate; too little &c. 32; not enough &c. 639;
unequal to; incompetent &c. (impotent) 158; " weighed in the balance and
found wanting "; pertunctory &c. (neglect) 460; deficient &c. (incomplete)
53; wanting, &c. v.; imperfect &c. 651; ill-furnished, ill-provided, ill-
stored, ill-off.
slack, at a low ebb; empty, vacant, bare; short of, out of, destitute
of, devoid of , bereft of &c. 789; denuded of; dry, drained.
unprovided, unsupplied, unfurnished; unreplenished, unfed; unstored,
untreasured; empty-handed.
meager, poor, thin, scrimp, sparing, spare, stinted; starved,
starveing; halfstarved, famine-stricken, famished; jejune.
scant &c. (small) 32; scarce; not to be had, not to be had for love or
money, not to be had at any price; scurvy; stingy &c. 819; at the end of
one's tether; without resources &c. 632; in want &c. (poor) 804; in debt
&c. 806.
Adv. insufficiently &c. Adj.; in default of, for want of; failing.
Phr. semper avarus eget [Horace].

<-- p. 199 -->
#641.. Redundance. -- N. redundance; too much, too many;
superabundance, superfluity, superfluence|, saturation; nimiety,
transcendency, exuberance, profuseness; profusion &c. (plenty) 639;
repletion, enough in all conscience, satis superque, lion's share; more
than enough &c. 639; plethora, engorgement, congestion, load, surfeit,
sickener; turgescence &c. (expansion) 194; overdose, overmeasure,
oversupply, overflow; inundation &c. (water) 348; avalanche.
accumulation &c. (store) 636; heap &c. 72; drug, drug in the market;
glut; crowd; burden.
excess; surplus, overplus; epact; margin; remainder &c. 40; duplicate;
surplusage, expletive; work of supererogation; bonus, bonanza.
luxury; intemperance &c. 954; extravagance &c. (prodigality) 818;
exorbitance, lavishment.
pleonasm &c. (diffuseness) 573; too many irons in the fire; embarras
de richesses.
V. superabound, overabound; know no bounds, swarm; meet one at every
turn; creep with, crawl with, bristle with; overflow; run over, flow over,
well over, brim over; run riot; overrun, overstock, overlay, overcharge,
overdose, overfeed, overburden, overload, overdo, overwhelm, overshoot the
mark &c. (go beyond) 303; surcharge, supersaturate, gorge, glut, load,
drench, whelm, inundate, deluge, flood; drug, drug the market; *hepatize.
choke, cloy, accloy, suffoccate; pile up, lay on thick; impregnate
with; lavish &c. . (squander) 818.
send coals to Newcastle, carry coals to Newcastle, carry owls to
Athens; teach one's grandmother to suck eggs; pisces natare docere;.kill
the slain, " gild refined gold", "gild the lilly", butter one's bread on
both sides, put butter upon bacon; employ a steam engine to crack a nut &c.
(waste) 638.
exaggerate &c. 549; wallow in roll in &c. (plenty) 639 remain on one's
hands, hang heavy on hand, go a begging.
Adj. redundant; too much, too many; exuberant, inordinate,
superabundant, excessive, overmuch, replete, profuse, lavish; prodigal &c.
818; exorbitant; overweening; extravagant; overcharged &c. v.;
supersaturated, drenched, overflowing; running runningover, running to
waste, running down.
crammed to overflowing, filled to overflowing; gorged, ready to burst;
dropsical, turgid, plethoric; obese &c. 194.
superfluous, unnecessary, needless, supervacaneous|, uncalled for, to
spare, in excess; over and above &c. (remainder) 40; de trop; adscititious
&c. (additional) 37; supernumerary &c. (reserve) 636; on one's hands,
spare, duplicate, supererogatory, expletive; un peu fort.
adv. over, too, over and above; overmuch , too much; too far; without
measure, beyond measure, out of measure; with . . . to spare; over head and
ears; up to one's eyes, ears; extra; beyond the mark &c. (transcursion)
303; acervatim.
Phr. it never rains but it pours; fortune multis dat mimium nulli

<-- p. 200 -->

2. Degree of Subservience

#642. Importance. -- N. importance, consequence, moment, prominence,
consideration, mark, materialness.
import, significance, concern; emphasis, interest.
greatness &c. 31; superiority &c. 33; notability &c. (repute) 873;
weight &c. (influence) 175; value &c. (goodness) 648; usefulness &c. 644.
gravity, seriousness, solemnity; no joke, no laughing matter;
pressure, urgency, stress; matter of life and death.
memorabilia, notabilia, great doings; red-letter day.
great thing, great point; main chance, "the be all and the end all "
[Macbeth]; cardinal point; substance, gist &c. (essence) 5; sum and
substance, gravamen, head and front; important part, principal part,
prominent part, essential part; half the battle; sine qua non; breath of
one's nostrils &c. (life) 359;cream, salt, core, kernel, heart, nucleus;
keynote, keystone; corner stone; trump card &c. (device) 626; salient
top sawyer, first fiddle, prima donna, chief; triton among the
minnows; " it" [U.S.]
V. be important &c. adj., be somebody, be something; import, signify,
matter, boot, be an object; carry weight &c. (influence) 175; make a figure
&c. (repute) 873; be in the ascendant, come to the front, lead the way,
take the lead, play first fiddle, throw all else into the shade; lie at the
root of; deserve notice, merit notice, be worthy of notice, be worthy of
regard, be worthy of consideration.
attach importance to, ascribe importance to, give importance to &c.
n.; value, care for, set store upon, set store by; mark &c. 550; mark with
a white stone, underline; write in italics, put in italics, print in
italics, print in capitals,print in large letters, put in large type, put
in letters. of gold; accentuate, emphasize, lay stress on.
make a fuss about, make a fuss over, make a stir about, make a piece
of work about, make much ado about; make much ado of,make much of.
Adj. important; of importance &c. n.; momentous, material; to the
point; not to be overlooked, not to be despised, not to be sneezed at;
egregious; weighty &c. (influential) 175; of note &c. (repute) 873;
notable, prominent, salient, signal; memorable, remarkable; unforgettable;
worthy of remark, worthy of notice; never to be forgotten; stirring,
grave, serious, earnest, noble, grand, solemn, impressive, commanding,
urgent, pressing, critical, instant.
paramount, essential, vital, all-absorbing, radical, cardinal, chief,
main, prime, primary, principal, leading, capital, foremost, overruling; of
vital &c. importance.
in the front rank, first-rate; superior &c. 33; considerable &c.
(great) 31; marked &c. v.; rare &c. 137.
significant, telling, trenchant, emphatic, pregnant; tanti.
adv. materially &c. Adj.; in the main; above all, ,
par excellence, to crown all, to beat all.
Phr. expende Hannibalem! [Juvenal].

<-- p. 201 -->

#643. Unimportance. -- N. unimportance, insignificance, nothingness,
triviality, levity, frivolity; paltriness &c. Adj.; poverty; smallness
&c. 32; vanity &c. (uselessness) 645; matter of indifference &c. 866; no
nothing, nothing to signify,, nothing worth speaking of, nothing
particular, nothing to boast of, nothing to speak of; small matter, no
great matter, trifling matter &c. Adj.; mere joke, mere nothing; hardly
anything; scarcely anything; nonentity, small beer, cipher; no great
shakes, peu de chose; child's play, kinderspiel.
toy, plaything, popgun, paper pellet, gimerack, gewgaw, bauble,
trinket, bagatelle, Rickshaw, knicknack, whim-wham, trifle, " trifles light
as air "; yankee notions [U. S.].
trumpery, trash, rubbish, stuff, fatras, frippery; " leather or
prunello "; chaff, drug, froth bubble smoke, cobweb; weed; refuse &c.
(inutility) 645; scum &c. (dirt) 653.
joke, jest, snap of the fingers; fudge &c. (unmeaning) 517;
fiddlestick, fiddlestick end; pack of nonsense, mere farce.
straw, pin, fig, button, rush; bulrush, feather, halfpenny, farthing,
brass farthing, doit, peppercorn, jot, rap, pinch of snuff, old son,; cent,
mill, picayune, pistareen, red cent [U.S.].
minutiae, details, minor details, small fry; dust in the balance,
feather in the *seale, drop in the ocean, flea-bite, molehill.
nine days' wonder, ridiculus mus; flash in the pan &c. (impotence)
158; much ado about nothing &c. (overestimation) 482.
V. be unimportant &c. Adj.; not matter &c. 642; go for nothing, matter
nothing, signify nothing, matter little, matter little or nothing; not
matter a straw &c. n.
make light of &c. (underestimate) 483; catch at straws &c.
(overestimate) 482.
Adj.,unimportant; of little account, of small account, of no account,
of little importance, of no importance &c. 642; immaterial; unessential,
nonessential; indifferent.
subordinate &c. (inferior) 34; mediocre &c. (average) 29; passable,
fair, respectable, tolerable, commonplace; uneventful, mere, common;
ordinary &c. (habitual) 613; inconsiderable, so-so, insignificant,
trifling, trivial; slight, slender, light, flimsy, frothy, idle;
puerile &c. (foolish) 499; airy, shallow; weak &c. 160; powerless &c. 158;
frivolous, petty, niggling; piddling, peddling; fribble, inane, ridiculous,
farcical; finical, finikin; fiddle-faddle, fingle-fangle, namby-pamby,
wishy-washy, milk and water.
poor, paltry, pitiful; contemptible &c. (contempt) 930; sorry, mean,
meager, shabby, miserable, wretched, vile, scrubby, scrannel, weedy,
niggardly, scurvy, putid, beggarly, worthless, twopennyhalfpenny, cheap,
trashy, catchpenny, gimcrack, trumpery; one-horse [U. S.]. not worth the
pains, not worth while, not worth mentioning, not worth speaking of, not
worth a thought, not worth a curse, not worth a straw &c. n.;1 beneath
notice, unworthy of notice, beneath regard, unworthy of regard, beneath
consideration, unworthy of consideration; de lana caprina; vain &c.
(useless) 645.

Adv. slightly &c. adj.; rather, somewhat, pretty well, tolerably. for
aught one cares.
Int. no matter! pish! tush! tut! pshaw! pugh! pooh,pooh-pooh! fudge!
bosh! humbug! fiddlestick, fiddlestick end! fiddlededee! never mind!
n'importe! what signifies it, what boots it, what of it, what of that,
what matter, what's the odds, a fig for' stuff and nonsense, stuff!
Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas; le jeu ne. vaut pas la chandelle; it
matters not, it does not signify; it is of no consequence, it is of no
importance; elephantus non capit murem; tempete dans un verre d'eau.

<-- p. 202 -->

#644. Utility. -- N. utility; usefulness &c. adj.; efficacy,
efficiency, adequacy; service, use, stead, avail; help &c. (aid) 707;
applicability &c. adj.; subservience &c. (instrmentality) 631; function &c.
(busbiness) 625; value; worth &c. (goodness) 648; money's worth;
productiveness &c. 168; cui bono &c. (intention) 620; utilization &c. (use)
677 step in the right direction.
common weal; commonwealth public good, public interest; utilitarianism
&c. (philanthropy) 910.
V. be useful &c. adj.; avail, serve; subserve &c. (be instrumental to)
631; conduce &c. (tend) 176; answer , serve one's turn, answer a purpose,
serve a purpose.
act a part &c. (action) 680; perform a function, discharge a function
&c.; render a service, render good service, render yeoman's service;
bestead, stand one in good stead be the making of; help &c. 707.
bear fruit &c. (produce) 161; bring grist to the mill; profit,
remunerate; benefit &c. (do good) 648.
find one's account in, find one's advantage in; reap the benefit of
&c. (be better for) 658. render useful &c. (use) 677.
Adj. useful; of use &c. n.; serviceable, proficuous|, good for;
subservient &c. (instrumental) 631.; conducive &c. (tending) 176;
subsidiary &c. (helping) 707.
advantageous &c. (beneficial) 648; profitable, gainful, remunerative,
worth one's salt; valuable; prolific &c. (productive) 168.
adequate; efficient, efficacious; effective, effectual; expedient &c.
applicable, available, ready, handy, at hand, tangible; commodious,
adaptable; of all work.
adv. usefully &c. adj.; pro bono publico.

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#645. Inutility. -- N. inutility; uselessness &c. adj.; inefficacy,
futility; ineptitude, inaptitude; unsubservience; inadequacy &c.
(insufficiency) 640; inefficiency.&c. (incompetence) 158; unskillfulness
&c. 699; disservice; unfruitfulness &c.(unproductiveness). 169; labor in
vain, labor lost, labor of Sisyphus; lost trouble, lost labor; work of
Penelope; sleeveless errand, wild goose chase, mere farce.
tautology &c. (repetition) 104; supererogation &c. (redundance) 641.
vanitas vanitatum, vanity, inanity, worthlessness, nugacity;
triviality &c. (unimportance) 643.
caput mortuum, waste paper, dead letter; blunt tool.
litter, rubbish, junk, lumber, odds and ends, cast-off clothes; button
top; shoddy; rags, orts, trash, refuse, sweepings, scourings, offscourings,
waste, rubble, debris, detritus; stubble, leavings; broken meat; dregs &c.
(dirt) 653; weeds, tares; rubbish heap, dust hole; rudera, deads.
fruges consumere natus [Horace] &c. (drone) 683.
V. be useless &c. Adj.; go a begging &c. (redundant) 641; fail &c.
seek after impossibilities, strive after impossibilities; use vain
efforts, labor in vain, roll the stone of Sisyphus, beat the air, lash the
waves, battre l'eau avec un baton, donner un coup d'epee dans l'eau, fish
in the air, milk the ram, drop a bucket into an empty well, sow the sand;
bay the moon; preach to the winds, speak to the winds; whistle jigs to a
milestone; kick against the pricks, se battre contre des moulins; lock the
stable door when the steed is stolen, lock the barn door after the horse is
stolen &c. (too late) 135; hold a farthing candle to the sun; cast pearls
before swine &c. (waste) 638; carry coals to Newcastle &c. (redundance)
641; wash a blackamoor white &c. (impossible) 471.
render useless &c. adj.; dismantle, dismast, dismount, disqualify,
disable; unrig; cripple, lame &c. (injure) 659; spike guns, clip the wings;
put out of gear.
Adj. useless, inutile, inefficacious, futile, unavailing, bootless;
inoperative &c. 158; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; inservient|,
unsubservient; inept, inefficient &c. (impotent) 158; of no avail &c. (use)
644; ineffectual &c. (failure) 732; incompetent &c. (unskillful) 699; "
stale, flat and unprofitable"; superfluous &c. (redundant) 641;
dispensable; thrown away &c. (wasted) 638; abortive &c. (immature) 674.
worthless, valueless, priceless; unsalable; not worth a straw &c.
(trifling) 643 dear at any price.
vain, empty, inane; gainless, profitless, fruitless; unserviceable,
unprofitable; ill-spent; unproductive &c. 169; hors de combat; effete, past
work &c. (impaired) 659; obsolete &c. (old) 124; fit for the dust hole;
good for nothing; of no earthly use; not worth having, not worth powder and
shot; leading to no end, uncalled for; unnecessary, unneeded.
Adv. uselessly &c. adj.; to little purpose, to no purpose, to little
or no purpose.
Int. cui bono? what's the good!
Phr. actum ne agas; chercher une aiguille dans une botte de foin;
tanto buon che val niente.

#646. [Specific subservience.] Expedience. -- N. expedience,
expediency; desirableness, desirability &c. adj.; fitness &c. (agreement)
23; utility &c. 644; propriety; opportunism; advantage.
high time &c. (occasion) 134.
V. be expedient &c. Adj.; suit &c. (agree) 23; befit; suit the time,
befit the time, suit the season, befit the season, suit the occasion,
befit the occasion.
conform &c. 82.
Adj. expedient; desirable, advisable, acceptable; convenient; worth
while, meet; fit, fitting; due, proper, eligible, seemly, becoming;
befitting &c. v.; opportune &c. (in season) 134; in loco; suitable &c.
(accordant) 23; applicable &c. (useful) 644.
Adv. in the right place; conveniently &c. adj.
Phr. operae pretium est.

#647. Inexpedience. -- N. inexpedience, inexpediency; undesirableness,
undesirability &c. Adj.; discommodity, impropriety; unfitness &c.
(disagreement) 24; inutility &c. 645; disadvantage.
V. be inexpedient &c. Adj.; come amiss &c. (disagree) 24; embarrass
&c. (hinder) 706; put to inconvenience; pay too dear for one's whistle.
Adj. inexpedient, undesirable; unadvisable, inadvisable;
objectionable; inapt, ineligible, inadmissible, inconvenient; incommodious,
discommodious; disadvantageous; inappropriate, unfit &c. (inconsonant) 24.
ill-contrived, ill-advised; unsatisfactory; unprofitable &c.,
unsubservient &c. (useless) 645; inopportune &c. (unseasonable) 135; out of
place, in the wrong place; improper, unseemly.
clumsy, awkward; cumbrous, cumbersome; lumbering, unwieldy, hulky;
unmanageable &c. (impracticable) 704; impedient &c. (in the way) 706.
unnecessary &c. (redundant) 641.
Phr. it will never do.

#648. [Capability of producing good. Good qualities.] Goodness. -- N.
goodness &c. adj.; excellence, merit; virtue &c. 944; value, worth, price.
super-excellence, supereminence; superiority &c. 33; perfection &c.
650; coup de maitre; masterpiece, chef d'ouvre, prime, flower, cream,
elite, pick, A1, nonesuch, nonpareil, creme de la creme, flower of the
flock, cock of the roost, salt of the earth; champion; prodigy.
tidbit; gem, gem of the first water; bijou, precious stone, jewel,
pearl, diamond, ruby, brilliant, treasure; good thing; rara avis, one in a
beneficence &c. 906; good man &c. 948.
V. be beneficial &c. Adj.; produce good, do good &c. 618; profit &c.
(be of use) 644; benefit; confer a benefit &c. 618.
be the making of, do a world of good, make a man of.
produce a good effect; do a good turn, confer an obligation; improve
&c. 658.
do no harm, break no bones.
be good &c. adj.; excel, transcend &c. (be superior) 33; bear away the
stand the proof, stand the test; pass muster, pass an examination.
challenge comparison, vie, emulate, rival.
Adj. harmless, hurtless; unobnoxious, innocuous, innocent,
beneficial, valuable, of value; serviceable &c. (useful) 644;
advantageous, edifying, profitable; salutary &c. (healthful) 656.
favorable; propitious &c. (hope-giving) 858; fair.
good, good as gold; excellent; better; superior &c. 33; above par;
nice, fine; genuine &c. (true) 494.
best, choice, select, picked, elect, recherche, rare, priceless;
unparagoned, unparalleled &c. (supreme) 33; superlatively &c. 33; good;
bully* , crackajack*, giltedged; superfine, superexcellent; of the first
water; first-rate, first-class; high-wrought, exquisite, very best, crack,
prime, tiptop, capital, cardinal; standard &c. (perfect) 650; inimitable.
admirable, estimable; praiseworthy &c. (approve) 931; pleasing &c.
829; couleur de rose, precious, of great price; costly &c. (dear) 814;
worth its weight in gold, worth a Jew's eye; priceless, invaluable,
inestimable, precious as the apple of the eye.
tolerable &c. (not very good) 651; up to the mark, unexceptionable,
unobjectionable; satisfactory, tidy.
in good condition, in fair condition; fresh; sound &c. (perfect) 650.
Adv. beneficially &c. adj.; well &c. 618.
Phr. " Jewels five words long " [Tennyson]; long may such goodness
live! " [Rogers]; "the luxury of doing good " [Goldsmith].

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#649. [Capability of producing evil. Bad qualities.] Badness. -- N.
hurtfulness &c. Adj.; virulence.
evil doer &c. 913; bane &c. 663; plague spot &c. (insalubrity) 657;
evil star, ill wind; hoodoo; Jonah; snake in the grass, skeleton in the
closet; amari aliquid, thorn in the side.
malignity; malevolence &c. 907; tender mercies [ironically].
ill-treatment, annoyance, molestation, abuse, oppression, persecution,
outrage; misusage &c. 679; injury &c. (damage) 659; knockout drops [U. S.].
badness &c. adj.; peccancy, abomination; painfulness &c. 830;
pestilence &c. (disease) 655; guilt &c. 947; depravity &c. 945.
V. be burtful &c. adj.; cause evil, produce evil, inflict evil, work
evil, do evil &c. 619; damnify, endamage, hurt, harm; injure &c. (damage)
659; pain &c. 830.
wrong, aggrieve, oppress, persecute; trample upon, tread upon, bear
hard upon, put upon; overburden; weigh down, weigh heavy on; victimize; run
down; molest &c. 830.
maltreat, abuse; ill-use, ill-treat; buffet, bruise, scratch, maul;
smite &c. (scourge) 972; do violence, do harm, do a mischief; stab, pierce,
do mischief, make mischief; bring into trouble.
destroy &c. 162.
Adj. hurtful, harmful, scathful, baneful, baleful; injurious,
deleterious, detrimental, noxious, pernicious, mischievous, full of
mischief, mischief-making, malefic, malignant, nocuous, noisome;
prejudicial; disserviceable, disadvantageous; wide-wasting.
unlucky, sinister; obnoxious; untoward, disastrous.
oppressive, burdensome, onerous; malign &c. (malevolent) 907.
corrupting &c. (corrupt &c. 659); virulent, venomous, envenomed,
corrosive; poisonous &c. (morbific) 657; deadly &c. (killing) 361;
destructive &c. (destroying) 162; inauspicious &c. 859.
bad, ill, arrant, as bad as bad can be, dreadful; horrid, horrible;
dire; rank, peccant, foul, fulsome; rotten, rotten at the core.
vile, base, villanous; mean &c. (paltry) 643; injured &c. deteriorated
&c. 659; unsatisfactory, exceptionable indifferent; below par &c.
(imperfect) 651; illcontrived, ill-conditioned; wretched, sad, grievous,
deplorable, lamentable; pitiful, pitiable, woeful &c. (painful) 830.
evil, wrong; depraved &c. 945; shocking; reprehensible &c.
(disapprove) 932. hateful, hateful as a toad; abominable, detestable,
execrable, cursed, accursed, confounded; damned, damnable; infernal;
diabolic &c. (malevolent) 907.
unadvisable &c. (inexpedient) 647; unprofitable &c. (useless) 645;
incompetent &c. (unskillful) 699; irremediable &c. (hopeless) 859.

Adv. badly &c. Adj. ; wrong, ill; to one's cost; where the shoe
Phr. bad is the best: the worst come to the worst; herba mala presto
cresco; "wrongs unredressed or insults unavenged " [Wordsworth].

#650. Perfection. -- N. perfection; perfectness &c. adj.;
indefectibility; impeccancy, impeccability.
pink, beau ideal, phenix, paragon; pink of perfection, acme of
perfection; ne plus ultra; summit &c. 210.
cygne noir; philosopher's stone; chrysolite, Koh-i-noor.
model, standard, pattern, mirror, admirable Crichton; trump, very
prince of.
masterpiece, superexcellence &c. (goodness) 648; transcendence &c.
(superiority) 33.
V. be perfect &c. adj.; transcend &c. (be supreme) 33.
bring to perfection, perfect, ripen, mature; complete &,,c. 729; put
in trim &c. (prepare) 673; maturate.
Adj. perfect, faultless; indefective, indeficient, indefectible;
immaculate, spotless, impeccable; free from imperfection &c. 651;
unblemished, uninjured &c. 659; sound, sound as a roach; in perfect
condition; scathless, intact, harmless; seaworthy &c. (safe) 644; right as
a trivet; in seipso totus teres atque rotundus [Horace]; consummate &c.
(complete) 52; finished &c. 729.
best &c. (good) 648; model, standard; inimitable, unparagoned,
unparalleled &c. (supreme) 33; superhuman, divine; beyond all praise &c.
(approbation) 931; sans peur et sans reproche.
adv. to perfection; perfectly &c. adj.; ad unguem; clean, - as a
phr. " let us go on unto perfection " [ Hebrews vi, 1]; " the
perfection of art is to conceal art [Quintilian].

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#651. Imperfection. -- N. imperfection; imperfectness &c. Adj.;
deficiency; inadequacy &c. (insufficiency) 640; peccancy &c. (badness) 649;
immaturity &c. 674.
fault, defect, weak point; screw loose; flaw &c. (break) 70; gap &c.
198; twist &c. 243; taint, attainder; bar sinister, hole in one's coat;
blemish &c. 848; weakness &c. 160; half blood; shortcoming &c. 304;
drawback; seamy side.
mediocrity; no great shakes, no great catch; not much to boast of;
one-borse shay.
V. be imperfect &c. adj.; have a defect &c. n.; lie under a
disadvantage; spring a leak.
not pass muster, barely pass muster; fall short &c. 304.
Adj. imperfect; not perfect &c. 650; deficient, defective; faulty,
unsound, tainted; out of order, out of tune; cracked, leaky; sprung; warped
&c. (distort) 243; lame; injured &c. (deteriorated) 659; peccant &c. (bad)
649; frail &c. (weak) 160; inadequate &c. (insufficient) 640; crude &c.
(unprepared) 674; incomplete &c. 53; found wanting,; below par; short-
handed; below its full strength, under its full strength, below its full
indifferent, middling, ordinary, mediocre; average &c. 29; so-so;
coucicouci, milk and water; tolerable, fair, passable; pretty well, pretty
good; rather good, moderately good; good; good enough, well enough,
adequate; decent; not bad, not amiss; inobjectionable, unobjectionable,
admissible, bearable, only better than nothing.
secondary, inferior; second-rate, second-best; one-horse [U.S.].
Adv. almost &c.; to a limited extent, rather &c. 32; pretty,
moderately, passing; only, considering, all things considered, enough.
Phr. surgit amari aliquid.

#652. Cleanness. -- N. cleanness, cleanliness &c. adj.; purity;
cleaning &c. v.; purification, defecation &c. v.; purgation, lustration;
detersion, abstersion; epuration, mundation|; ablution, lavation,
colature|; disinfection &c. v.; drainage, sewerage.
lavatory, laundry, washhouse; washerwoman, laundress, dhobi,
laundryman, washerman; scavenger, dustman, sweep; white wings [Local U. S.]
brush; broom, besom, mop, rake, shovel, sieve, riddle, screen, filter;
napkin, cloth, maukin|, malkin|, handkerchief, towel, sudary; doyley,
doily, duster, sponge, mop, swab.
cover, drugget.
wash, lotion, detergent, cathartic, purgative; purifier &c. v.;
disinfectant; aperient; benzene, benzine benzol, benolin; bleaching powder,
chloride of lime, dentifrice, deobstruent, laxative.
V. be clean, render clean &c. Adj.
clean, cleanse; mundify|, rinse, wring, flush, full, wipe, mop,
sponge, scour, swab, scrub, brush up.
wash, lave, launder, buck; absterge|, deterge; decrassify; clear,
purify; depurate, despumate, defecate; purge, expurgate, elutriate,
lixiviate, edulcorate, clarify, refine, rack; filter, filtrate; drain,
disinfect, fumigate, ventilate, deodorize; whitewash; castrate,
sift, winnow, pick, weed, comb, rake, brush, sweep.
rout out, clear out, sweep out &c.; make a clean sweep of.
Adj. clean, cleanly; pure; immaculale; spotless, stainless, taintless;
trig; without a stain, unstained, unspotted, unsoiled, unsullied,
untainted, uninfected; sweet, sweet as a nut.
neat, spruce, tidy, trim, gimp, clean as a new penny, like a cat in
pattens; cleaned &c. v.; kempt.
abstergent, cathartic, cleansing, purifying.
Adv. neatly &c. adj.; clean as a whistle.

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#653. Uncleanness. -- N. uncleanness &c. Adj.; impurity; immundity,
immundicity; impurity &c. [of mind] 961.
defilement, contamination &c. v.; defoedation|; soilure, soiliness|;
abomination; leaven; taint, tainture|; fetor &c. 401. decay; putrescence,
putrefaction; corruption; mold, must, mildew, dry rot, mucor, rubigo|.
slovenry; slovenliness &c. Adj. squalor.
dowdy, drab, slut, malkin, slattern, sloven, slammerkin|, slammock,
slummock, scrub, draggle-tail, mudlark, dustman, sweep; beast.
dirt, filth, soil, slop; dust, cobweb, flue; smoke, soot, smudge,
smut, grit, grime, raff; sossle, sozzle.

sordes, dregs, grounds, lees; argol; sediment, settlement heeltap;
dross, drossiness; mother|, precipitate, scoriae, ashes, cinders.
reerement, slag; scum, froth.
hogwash; ditchwater, dishwater, bilgewater; rinsings, czheeseparings;
sweepings &c. (useless refuse) 645; offscourings, outscourings; off scum;
caput mortuum, residuum, sprue, fecula, clinker, draff; scurf, scurfiness;
exuviae, morphea; fur, furfur; dandruff, tartar.
riffraff; vermin, louse, flea, bug, chinch.
mud, mire, quagmire, alluvium, silt, sludge, slime, slush, slosh,
sposh [U. S.].
spawn, offal, gurry [U. S.]; lientery; garbage, carrion; exereta &c.
299; slough, peccant humor, pus, matter, suppuration, lienteria; faeces,
feces, , excrement, ordure, dung, crap, shit; sewage, sewerage; muck;
coprolite; guano, manure, compost.
dunghill, colluvies, mixen, midden, bog, laystall, sink, privy, jakes;
toilet, john, head; cess, cesspool; sump, sough, cloaca, latrines, drain,
sewer, common sewer; Cloacina; dust hole.
sty, pigsty, lair, den, Augean stable, sink of corruption; slum,
V. be unclean, become unclean &c. Adj.; rot, putrefy, ferment, fester,
rankle, reek; stink &c. 401; mold, molder; go bad &c. adj.
render unclean &c. adj.; dirt, dirty; daub, blot, blur, smudge,
smutch, soil, smoke, tarnish, slaver, spot, smear; smirch;
begrease;.dabble, drabble, draggle, daggle; spatter, slubber; besmear &c.,
bemire, beslime, begrime, befoul; splash, stain, distain, maculate, sully,
pollute, defile, debase, contaminate, taint, leaven;, corrupt &c. (injure)
659; cover with dust &c. n.; drabble in the mud; roil.
wallow in the mire; slobber, slabber.
Adj. unclean, dirty, filthy, grimy; soiled &c. v.; not to be handled
with kid gloves; dusty, snuffy, smutty, sooty, smoky; thick, turbid,
dreggy; slimy; mussy [U.S.].
uncleanly, slovenly, untidy, sluttish, dowdy, draggle-tailed;
uncombed, unkempt, unscoured, unswept, unwiped, unwashed, unstrained,
unpurified; grody to the max; squalid; lutose, slammocky, slummocky,
nasty, coarse, foul, impure, offensive, abominable, beastly, reeky,
reechy; fetid &c. 401.
moldy, musty, mildewed, rusty, moth-eaten, mucid, rancid, weak, bad,
gone bad, etercoral, lentiginous, touched, fusty, effete, reasty, rotten,
corrupt, tainted, high, flyblown, maggoty; putrid, putrefactive,
putrescent, putrefied; saprogenic, saprogenous; purulent, carious, peccant;
fecal, feculent; stercoraceous, excrementitious; scurfy, scurvy,
impetiginous; gory, bloody; rotting &c. v.; rotten as a pear, rotten as
crapulous &c. (intemperate) 954; gross &c. (impure in mind) 961;
fimetarious, fimicolous.
Phr. " they that touch pitch will be defiled " [Much Ado About

<-- p. 207 -->

#654. Health. -- N. health, sanity; soundness &c. adj.; vigor; good
health, perfect health, excellent health, rude health, robust health;
bloom. mens sana in corpore sano; Hygeia; incorruption, incorruptibility;
good state of health, clean bill of health; eupepsia; euphoria, euphory;
St. Anthony's fire.
V. be in health &c. adj. bloom, flourish.
keep body and soul together, keep on one's legs; enjoy good health,
enjoy a good state of health; have a clean bill of health.
return to health; recover &c. 660; get better &c. (improve) 658; take
a new lease of life, fresh lease of life; recruit; restore to health; cure
&c. (restore) 660; tinker.
Adj. healthy, healthful; in health &c. n.; well, sound, hearty, hale,
fresh, green, whole; florid, flush, hardy, stanch, staunch, brave, robust,
vigorous, weatherproof.
unscathed, uninjured, unmaimed, unmarred, untainted; sound of wind and
limb, safe and sound.
on one's legs; sound as a roach, sound as a bell; fresh as a daisy,
fresh as a rose, fresh as April; hearty as a buck; in fine feather, in high
feather; in good case, in full bloom; pretty bobbish, tolerably well, as
well as can be expected.
sanitary &c. (health-giving) 656; sanatory &c. (remedial) 662.
phr. " health that snuffs the morning air" [Grainger); non est vivere
sed valere vita [Martial].

#655. Disease. -- N. disease; illness, sickness &c. adj.; ailing &c. "
all the ills that flesh is heir to " [Hamlet]; morbidity, morbosity|;
infirmity, ailment, indisposition; complaint, disorder, malady; distemper,
visitation, attack, seizure, stroke, fit.
delicacy, loss of health, invalidation, cachexy; cachexia, atrophy,
marasmus; indigestion, dyspepsia; decay &c. (deterioration) 659; decline,
consumption, palsy, paralysis, prostration.
taint, pollution, infection, sepsis, septicity, infestation; epidemic,
pandemic, endemic, epizootic; murrain, plague, pestilence, virus, pox.
sore, ulcer, abscess, fester, boil; pimple &c. (swelling) 250;
carbuncle, gathering, imposthume, peccant humor, issue; rot, canker, cold
sore, fever sore; cancer, carcinoma, leukemia, neoplastic disease,
malignancy, tumor; caries, mortification, corruption, gangrene, sphacelus,
sphacelation, leprosy, eruption, rash, breaking out.
fever, calenture; inflammation.
ague, angina pectoris, appendicitis; Asiatic cholera, spasmodic
cholera; biliary calculus, kidney stone, black death, bubonic plague,
pneumonic plague; blennorrhagia, blennorrhoea; blood poisoning,
bloodstroke, bloody flux, brash; breakbone fever, dengue fever, malarial
fever, Q-fever; heart attack, cardiac arrest, cardiomyopathy; hardening of
the arteries, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis; bronchocele, canker rash,
cardialgia, carditis, endocarditis; cholera, asphyxia; chlorosis, chorea,
cynanche, dartre; enanthem, enanthema; erysipelas; exanthem, exanthema;
gallstone, goiter, gonorrhea, green sickness; grip, grippe, influenza, flu;
hay fever, heartburn, heaves, rupture, hernia, hemorrhoids, piles, herpes,
itch, king's evil, lockjaw; measles, mumps, polio; necrosis, pertussis,
phthisis, pneumonia, psora, pyaemia, pyrosis, quinsy, rachitis, ringworm,
rubeola, St. Vitus's dance, scabies, scarlatina, scarlet fever, scrofula,
seasickness, struma, syntexis, tetanus, tetter, tonsilitis, tracheocele,
trachoma, trismus, varicella, varicosis, variola, water qualm, whooping
cough; yellow fever, yellow jack.
fatal disease &c. (hopeless) 859; dangerous illness, galloping
consumption, churchyard cough; general breaking up, break up of the system.
[Disease of mind] idiocy &c. 499; insanity &c. 503.
martyr to disease; cripple; " the halt the lame and the blind";
valetudinary, valetudinarian; invalid, patient, case; sickroom, sick-
[Science of disease] pathology, etiology, nosology.
[Veterinary] anthrax, bighead; blackleg, blackquarter; cattle plague,
glanders, mange, scrapie, milk sickness; heartworm, feline leukemia,
roundworms; quarter-evil, quarter-ill; rinderpest.
V. be ill &c. adj.; ail, suffer, labor under, be affected with,
complain of, have; droop, flag, languish, halt; sicken, peak, pine; gasp.
keep one's bed; feign sickness &c. (falsehood) 544.
lay by, lay up; take a disease, catch a disease &c. n., catch an
infection; break out.
Adj. diseased; ailing &c. v.; ill, ill of; taken ill, seized with;
indisposed, unwell, sick, squeamish, poorly, seedy; affected with illness,
afflicted with illness; laid up, confined, bedridden, invalided, in
hospital, on the sick list; out of health, out of sorts; under the weather
[U. S.]; valetudinary.
unsound, unhealthy; sickly, morbose, healthless, infirm, chlorotic,
unbraced. drooping, flagging, lame, crippled, halting.
morbid, tainted, vitiated, peccant, contaminated, poisoned, tabid,
mangy, leprous, cankered; rotten, rotten to the core, rotten at the core;
withered, palsied, paralytic;dyspeptic; luetic, pneumonic, pulmonic,
phthisic, rachitic; syntectic, syntectical; tabetic, varicose.
touched in the wind, broken-winded, spavined, gasping; hors de combat
&c. (useless) 645.
weakly, weakened &c. (weak) 160; decrepit; decayed &c. (deteriorated)
659; incurable &c. (hopeless) 859; in declining health; cranky; in a bad
way, in danger, prostrate; moribund &c. (death) 360.
morbific &c. 657; epidemic, endemic; zymotic.

<-- p. 208 -->

#656. Salubrity. -- N. salubrity; healthiness &c. Adj.
fine air, fine climate; eudiometer.
[Preservation of health] hygiene; valetudinarian, valetudinarianism;
sanitarian; sanitarium, sanitOrium.
V. be salubrious &c. Adj.; agree with; assimilate &c. 23.
Adj. salubrious, salutary, salutiferous; wholesome; healthy,
healthful; sanitary, prophYlactic, benign, bracing, tonic, invigorating,
good for, nutritious; hygeian, hygienic.
innoxious, innocuous, innocent; harmless, uninjurious, uninfectious.
sanative &c. (remedial) 662; restorative &c. (reinstate) 660; useful
&c. 644.

#657. Insalubrity. -- N. insalubrity; unhealthiness &c. Adj.;
nonnaturals; plague spot; malaria &c. (poison) 663; death in the pot,
contagion; toxicity.
Adj. insalubrious; unhealthy, unwholesome; noxious, noisome; morbific,
morbiferous; mephitic, septic, azotic, deleterious; pestilent, pestiferous,
pestilential; virulent, venomous, envenomed, poisonous, toxic, toxiferous,
contagious, infectious, catching, taking, epidemic, zymotic;
innutritious, indigestible, ungenial; uncongenial &c. (disagreeing)
deadly &c. (killing) 361.

#658. Improvement. -- N. improvement; amelioration, melioration;
betterment; mend, amendment, emendation; mending &c. v.; advancement;
advance &c. (progress) 282; ascent &c. 305; promotion, preferment;
elevation &c. 307; increase &c. 35; cultivation, civilization; culture,
march of intellect; menticulture; race-culture, eugenics.
reform, reformation; revision, radical reform; second thoughts,
correction, limoe labor, refinement, elaboration; purification &c. 652;
oxidation; repair &c. (restoration) 660; recovery &c. 660.
revise, new edition.
reformer, radical.
V. improve; be better, become better, get better; mend, amend.
advance &c. (progress) 282; ascend &c. 305; increase &c. 35; fructify,
ripen, mature; pick up, come about, rally, take a favorable turn; turn over
a new leaf, turn the corner; raise one's head, sow one's wild oats; recover
&c. 660.
be better &c. adj., be improved by; turn to right account, turn to
good account, turn to best account; profit by, reap the benefit of; make
good use of, make capital out of; place to good account.
render better, improve, mend, amend, better; ameliorate, meliorate;
correct; decrassify.
improve upon, refine upon; rectify; enrich, mellow, elaborate, fatten.
promote, cultivate, advance, forward, enhance; bring forward, bring
on; foster &c. 707; invigorate &c. (strengthen) 159.
touch up, rub up, brush up, furbish up, bolster up, vamp up, brighten
up, warm up; polish, cook, make the most of, set off to advantage; prune;
repair &c. (restore) 660; put in order &c. (arrange) 60.
review, revise; make -corrections,make improvements &c. n.; doctor &c.
(remedy) 662; purify,&c. 652.
relieve, refresh, infuse new blood into, recruit.
reform, remodel, reorganize; new model.
view in a new light, think better of, appeal from Philip drunk to
Philip sober.
palliate, mitigate; lessen an evil &c. 36 .
Adj. improving &c. v.; progressive, improved &c. v.; better, better
off, better for; all the better for; better advised.
reformatory, emendatory; reparatory &c. (restorative) 660; remedial
&c. 662.
corrigible, improvable; accultural.
adv. on consideration, on reconsideration, on second thoughts, on
better advice; ad melius inquirendum.
phr. urbent latericiam invenit marmoream reliquit.

<-- p. 209 -->

#659. Deterioration. -- N. deterioration, debasement; wane, ebb;
recession &c. 287; retrogradation &c. 283; decrease &c. 36.
degeneracy, degeneration, degenerateness; degradation; depravation,
depravement; devolution; depravity &c. 945; demoralization, retrogression;
impairment, inquination|, injury, damage, loss, detriment,
delaceration|, outrage, havoc, inroad, ravage, scath; perversion,
prostitution, vitiation, discoloration, oxidation, pollution, defoedation|,
poisoning, venenation|, leaven, contamination, canker, corruption,
adulteration, alloy.
decline, declension, declination; decadence, decadency; falling off
&c. v.; caducity, decrepitude.
decay, dilapidation, ravages of time, wear and tear; corrosion,
erosion; moldiness, rottenness; moth and rust, dry rot, blight, marasmus,
atrophy, collapse; disorganization; delabrement &c. (destruction). 162;
aphid, Aphis, plant louse, puceron; vinefretter, vinegrub.
wreck, mere wreck, honeycomb, magni nominis umbra; jade, plug,
rackabones [U. S.], skate [U. S.]; tackey, tacky [U. S.].
V. be worse, be deteriorated, become worse, become deteriorated &c.
Adj.; have seen better days, deteriorate, degenerate, fall off; wane &c.
(decrease) 36; ebb; retrograde &c. 283- decline, droop; go down &c. (sink)
306; go downhill, go from bad to worse, go farther and fare worse; jump out
of the frying pan into the fire.
run to seed, go to seed, run to waste swale|, sweal|; lapse, be the
worse for; sphacelate: break, break down; spring a leak, crack, start;
shrivel &c. (contract) 195; fade, go off, wither, molder, rot, rankle,
decay, go bad; go to decay, fall into decay; " fall into the sear and
yellow leaf," rust, crumble, shake; totter, totter to its fall; perish &c.
162; die &c. 360.
[Render less good] deteriorate; weaken &c. 160; put back, set back;
taint, infect, contaminate, poison, empoison, envenom, canker, corrupt,
exulcerate|, pollute, vitiate, inquinate|; debase, embase|; denaturalize,
denature, leaven; deflower, debauch, defile, deprave, degrade; ulcerate;
stain &c. (dirt) 653; discolor; alloy, adulterate, sophisticate, tamper
with, prejudice.
pervert, prostitute, demoralize, brutalize; render vicious &c. 945.
embitter, acerbate, exacerbate, aggravate.
injure, impair, labefy, damage, harm, hurt, shend|, scath|, scathe,
spoil, mar, despoil, dilapidate, waste; overrun; ravage; pillage &c. 791.
wound, stab, pierce, maim, lame, surbate|, cripple, hough, hamstring,
hit between wind and water, scotch, mangle, mutilate, disfigure, blemish,
deface, warp.
blight, rot; corrode, erode; wear away, wear out; gnaw, gnaw at the
root of; sap, mine, undermine, shake, sap the foundations of, break up;
disorganize, dismantle, dismast; destroy &c. 162.
damnify &c. (aggrieve) 649; do one's worst; knock down; deal a blow
to; play havoc with, play sad havoc with, play the mischief with, play the
deuce with, play the very devil with, play havoc among, play sad havoc
among, play the mischief among, play the deuce among, play the very devil
among; decimate.
Adj. unimproved &c. (improve &c. 658); deteriorated &c. v.; altered,
altered for the worse; injured &c. v.; sprung; withering, spoiling &c. v.;
on the wane, on the decline; tabid; degenerate; marescent; worse; the worse
for, all the worse for; out of repair, out of tune; imperfect &c. 651; the
worse for wear; battered; weathered, weatherbeaten; stale, passe, shaken,
dilapidated, frayed, faded, wilted, shabby, secondhand, threadbare; worn,
worn to a thread, worn to a shadow, worn to the stump, worn to rags;
reduced, reduced to a skeleton; far gone; tacky [U. S.*].
decayed &c. v.; motheaten, wormeaten; mildewed, rusty, moldy, spotted,
seedy, time-worn, moss-grown; discolored; effete, wasted, crumbling,
moldering, rotten, cankered, blighted, tainted; depraved &c. (vicious) 945;
decrepid, decrepit; broke, busted, broken, out of commission, broken down;
done, done for, done up; worn out, used up, finished; fit for the dust
hole, fit for the wastepaper basket past work &c. (useless) 645.
at a low ebb, in a bad way, on one's last legs; undermined, deciduous;
nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162; tottering &c,. (dangerous) 665:
past cure &c. (hopeless) 859; fatigued &c. 688; retrograde &c.
(retrogressive) 283; deleterious &c. 649.

phr. out of the frying pan into the fire; agrescit medendo; "what a falling
off was there! " [Hamlet].

<-- p. 210 -->

#660. Restoration. -- N. restoration, restoral; reinstatement,
replacement, rehabilitation, reestablishment, reconstitution,
reconstruction; reproduction &c. 163; renovation, renewal; revival,
revivessence, reviviscence; refreshment &c. 689; resuscitation,
reanimation, revivification, reviction|; Phenix; reorganization.
renaissance, second youth, rejuvenescence,. new birth; regeneration,
regeneracy, regenerateness; palingenesis, reconversion.
redress, retrieval, reclamation, recovery; convalescence; resumption,
resumption; sanativeness.
recurrence &c. (repetition) 104; rechauffe, rifacimento.
cure, recure|, sanation|; healing &c. v.; redintegration;
rectification; instauration.
repair, reparation; recruiting &c. v.; cicatrization; disinfection;
reaction; redemption &c. (deliverance) 672; restitution &c. 790;
relief &c. 834.
tinker, cobbler; vis medicatrix &c. (remedy) 662. curableness.
V. return to the original state; recover, rally, revive; come come to,
come round, come to oneself; pull through, weather the storm, be oneself
again; get well,get round, get the better of, get over, get about; rise
from one's ashes, rise from the grave; survive &c. (outlive) 110; resume,
reappear; come to, come to life again; live again, rise again.
heal, skin over, cicatrize; right itself.
restore, put back, place in statu quo; reinstate, replace, reseat,
rehabilitate, reestablish, reestate, reinstall.
reconstruct, rebuild, reorganize, reconstitute; reconvert; renew,
renovate; regenerate; rejuvenate.
redeem, reclaim, recover, retrieve; rescue &c. (deliver) 672.
redress, recure; cure, heal, remedy, doctor, physic, medicate; break
of; bring round, set on one's legs.
resuscitate, revive, reanimate, revivify, recall to life; reproduce
&c. 163; warm up; reinvigorate, refresh &c. 689.
redintegrate, make whole; recoup &c. 790; make good, make all square;
rectify; put right, put to rights, set right, set to rights, set
straight; set up, correct; put in order &c. (arrange) 60; refit, recruit;
fill up, fill up the ranks; reinforce.
repair; put in repair, put in thorough repair, put in complete repair;
retouch, botch|, vamp, tinker, cobble; do up, patch, up plaster up, vamp
up; darn, finedraw, heelpiece; stop a gap, stanch, staunch, caulk, calk,
careen, splice, bind up wounds.
Adj. restored &c. v.; redivivus, convalescent; in a fair way; none the
worse; rejuvenated.
restoring &c. v.; restorative, recuperative; sanative, reparative,
sanatory, reparatory; curative, remedial.
restorable, recoverable, sanable, remediable, retrieveable, curable.
Adj. in statu quo; as you were.
phr. revenons a nos moutons; medecin, gueris-toi toi-meme; vestigia nulla
retrorsum [Horace].

#661. Relapse. -- N. relapse, lapse; falling back &c. v.;
retrogradation &c. (retrogression) 283; deterioration &c. 659.
[Return to, or recurrence of a bad state] backsliding, recidivation |;
recidivism, recidivity; recrudescence.
V. relapse, lapse; fall back, slide back, sink back; return;
retrograde &c. 283; recidivate; fall off again &c. 659 .

<-- p. 211 -->

#662. Remedy. -- N. remedy, help, redress; anthelmintic; antidote,
antifebrile, antipoison, counterpoison, antitoxin, antispasmodic; bracer,
faith cure, placebo; helminthagogue, lithagogue, pick-meup, stimulant,
tonic; vermifuge, prophylactic, corrective, restorative; sedative &c. 174;
palliative; febrifuge; alterant, alterative; specific; antiseptic, emetic,
analgesic, pain-killer, antitussive, antiinflammatory, antibiotic,
antiviral, antifungal, carminative; Nepenthe, Mithridate.
cure, treatment, regimen; radical cure, perfect cure, certain cure;
sovereign remedy.
examination, diagnosis, diagnostics; analysis, urinalysis, biopsy,
medicine, physic, Galenicals, simples, drug, pharmaceutical,
prescription, potion, draught, dose, pill, bolus, injection, infusion,
drip, suppository, electuary; linctus, lincture; medicament; pharmacon.
nostrum, receipt, recipe, prescription; catholicon, panacea, elixir,
elixir vitae, philosopher's stone; balm, balsam, cordial, theriac, ptisan.
agueweed, arnica, benzoin, bitartrate of potash, boneset, calomel,
catnip, cinchona, cream of tartar, Epsom salts; feverroot, feverwort;
friar's balsam, Indian sage; ipecac, ipecacuanha; jonquil, mercurous
chloride, Peruvian bark; quinine, quinquina; sassafras, yarrow.
salve, ointment, cerate, oil, lenitive, lotion, cosmetic; plaster;
epithem, embrocation, liniment, cataplasm, sinapism, arquebusade,
traumatic, vulnerary, pepastic, poultice, collyrium, depilatory;
emplastrum; eyewater, vesicatory.
compress, pledget; bandage &c. (support) 215.
treatment, medical treatment, regimen; dietary, dietetics; vis
medicatrix, vis medicatrix naturae; medecine expectante; bloodletting,
bleeding, venesection, phlebotomy, cupping, sanguisuge, leeches; operation,
surgical operation; transfusion, infusion, intravenous infusion, catheter,
feeding tube;
prevention, preventative medicine, immunization, inoculation,
vaccination, vaccine, shot, booster, gamma globulin.
pharmacy, pharmacology, pharmaceutics; pharmacopoeia, formulary;
acology, Materia Medica, therapeutics, posology; homeopathy, allopathy,
heteropathy, osteopathy, hydropathy; cold water cure; dietetics; surgery,
chirurgery, chirurgy; healing art, leechcraft;
orthopedics, orthopedy, orthopraxy; pediatrics; dentistry, midwifery,
obstetrics, gynecology; tocology; sarcology.
hospital, infirmary; pesthouse, lazarhouse; lazaretto; lock hospital;
maison de sante; ambulance.
dispensary; dispensatory, drug store, pharmacy, apothecary, druggist,
Hotel des Invalides; sanatarium, spa, pump room, well; hospice; Red
doctor, physician, surgeon; medical practitioner, general
practitioner, specialist ; medical attendant, apothecary, druggist; leech;
osteopath, osteopathist; optometrist, ophthalmologist; internist,
oncologist, gastroenterologist; epidemiologist, public health specialist;
dermatologist; podiatrist; witch doctor, shaman, faith healer, quack,
exorcist; Aesculapius, Hippocrates, Galen; accoucheur, accoucheuse,
midwife, oculist, aurist; operator; nurse, registered nurse, practical
nurse, monthly nurse, sister; dresser; bonesetter; pharmaceutist,
pharmacist, druggist, chemist, pharmacopolist.
V. apply a remedy &c. n.; doctor, dose, physic, nurse, minister to,
attend, dress the wounds, plaster; drain; prevent &c. 706; relieve &c. 834;
palliate &c. 658; restore &c. 660; drench with physic; bleed, cup, let
blood; manicure.
operate, excise, cut out; incise.

Adj. remedial; restorative &c. 660; corrective, palliative, healing;
sanatory, sanative; prophylactic, preventative, immunizing; salutiferous
&c. (salutary) 656; medical, medicinal; therapeutic, chirurgical,
epulotic|, paregoric, tonic, corroborant, analeptic, balsamic, anodyne,
hypnotic, neurotic, narcotic, sedative, lenitive, demulcent|, emollient;
depuratory; detersive, detergent; abstersive, disinfectant, febrifugal,
alterative; traumatic, vulnerary.
allopathic, heteropathic, homeopathic, hydropathic; anthelmintic;
antifebile, antiluetic; aperient, chalybeate, deobstruent, depurative,
laxative, roborant.
dietetic, alimentary; nutritious, nutritive; peptic; alexipharmic,
alexiteric; remediable, curable.
phr. aux grands maux les grands remedes; Dios que da la llaga da la
medicina; para todo hay remedio sino para la muerte; temporis ars medicina
fere est [Ovid]; " the remedy is worse than the disease " [Dryden]; " throw
physic to the dogs, I'll none of it " [Macbeth].

<-- p. 212 -->

#663. Bane. -- N. bane, curse; evil &c. 619; hurtfulness &c. (badness)
649; painfulness &c. (cause of pain) 830; scourge &c. (punishment) 975;
damnosa hereditas; white elephant.
sting, fang, thorn, tang, bramble, brier, nettle.
poison, leaven, virus venom; arsenic; antimony, tartar emetic;
strychnine, nicotine; miasm, mephitis, malaria, azote, sewer gas; pest.
Albany hemp, arsenious oxide, arsenious acid; bichloride of mercury;
carbonic acid, carbonic gas; choke damp, corrosive sublimate, fire damp;
hydrocyanic acid, cyanide, Prussic acid, hydrogen cyanide; marsh gas, nux
vomica, ratsbane.
rust, worm, helminth, moth, moth and rust, fungus, mildew; dry rot;
canker, cankerworm; cancer; torpedo; viper &c. (evil doer) 913; demon &c.
hemlock, hellebore, nightshade, belladonna, henbane, aconite;
banewort, bhang, ganja, hashish; Upas tree.
[Science of poisons] toxicology.
Adj. baneful &c. (bad) 649; poisonous &c. (unwholesome) 657.
phr. bibere venenum in auro.

3. Contingent Subservience

#664. Safety. -- N. safety, security, surety, impregnability;
invulnerability, invulnerableness &c. Adj.; danger past, danger over;
storm blown over; coast clear; escape &c. 671; means of escape; blow valve,
safety valve, release valve, sniffing valve; safeguard, palladium.
guardianship, wardship, wardenship; tutelage, custody, safekeeping;
preservation &c. 670; protection, auspices.
safe-conduct, escort, convoy; guard, shield &c. (defense) 717;
guardian angel; tutelary god, tutelary deity, tutelary saint; genius loci.
protector, guardian; warden, warder; preserver, custodian, duenna,
chaperon, third person.
watchdog, bandog; Cerberus; watchman, patrolman, policeman; cop, dick,
fuzz, smokey, peeler|, zarp|[all slang]; sentinel, sentry, scout &c.
(warning) 668; garrison; guardship.
[Means of safety] refuge &c. anchor &c. 666; precaution &c.
(preparation) 673; quarantine, cordon sanitaire. [Sense of security]
confidence &c. 858.
V. be safe &c. Adj.; keep one's head above water, tide over, save
one's bacon; ride out the storm, weather the storm; light upon one's feet,
land on one's feet; bear a charmed life; escape &c. 671.
make safe , render safe &c. Adj.; protect; take care of &c. (care)
459; preserve &c. 670; cover, screen, shelter, shroud, flank, ward; guard
&c. (defend) 717; secure &c. (restrain) 751; intrench, fence round &c.
(circumscribe) 229; house, nestle, ensconce; take charge of.
escort, convoy; garrison; watch, mount guard, patrol.
make assurance doubly sure &c. (caution) 864; take up a loose thread;
take precautions &c. (prepare for) 673; double reef topsails.
seek safety; take shelter, find shelter &c. 666.
Adj. safe, secure, sure; in safety, in security; on the safe side;
under the shield of, under the shade of, under the wing of, under the
shadow of one's wing; under cover, under lock and key; out of danger, out
of the woods, out of the meshes, out of harm's way; unharmed, unscathed; on
sure ground, at anchor, high and dry, above water; unthreatened,
unmolested; protected &c. v.; cavendo tutus; panoplied &c. (defended) 717.
snug, seaworthy; weatherproof, waterproof, fireproof.
defensible, tenable, proof against, invulnerable; unassailable,
unattackable, impenetrable; impregnable, imperdible|; inexpugnable;
safe and sound &c. (preserved) 670; harmless; scathless &c. (perfect)
650; unhazarded; not dangerous &c. 665.
protecting &c. v.; guardian, tutelary; preservative &c. 670;
trustworthy &c 939.
adv. ex abundanti cautela; with impunity.
phr. all's well; salva res est; suave mari magno; a couvert; e terra
alterius spectare laborem [Lucretius]; Dieu vous garde.

<-- p. 213 -->

#665. Danger. -- N. danger, peril, insecurity, jeopardy, risk, hazard,
venture, precariousness, slipperiness; instability &c. 149; defenselessness
&c. Adj. exposure &c. (liability) 177; vulnerability; vulnerable point,
heel of Achilles; forlorn hope &c. (hopelessness) 859.
[Dangerous course] leap in the dark &c. (rashness) 863; road to ruin,
faciles descensus Averni [Vergil], hairbreadth escape.
cause for alarm; source of danger &c. 667. [Approach of danger] rock
ahead, breakers ahead; storm brewing; clouds in the horizon, clouds
gathering; warning &c. 668; alarm &c. 669. [Sense of danger] apprehension
&c. 860.
V. be in danger &c. Adj.; be exposed to danger, run into danger, incur
danger, encounter danger &c. n.; run a risk; lay oneself open to &c.
(liability) 177; lean on a broken reed, trust to a broken reed; feel the
ground sliding from under one, have to run for it; have the chances against
one, have the odds against one, face long odds; be in deep trouble, be
between a rock and a hard place.
hang by a thread, totter; sleep on a volcano, stand on a volcano; sit
on a barrel of gunpowder, live in a glass house.
bring in danger, place in danger, put in danger , place in jeopardy,
put in jeopardy &c. n.; endanger, expose to danger, imperil; jeopard,
jeopardize; compromise; sail too near the wind &c. (rash) 863.
adventure, risk, hazard, venture, stake, set at hazard; run the
gauntlet &c. (dare) 861; engage in a forlorn hope.
threaten danger &c. 909; run one hard; lay a trap for &c. (deceive)
Adj. in danger &c. n.; endangered &c. v.; fraught with danger;
dangerous, hazardous, perilous, parlous, periculous|; unsafe, unprotected
&c. (safe, protect &c. 664);insecure, . untrustworthy; built upon.sand, on
a sandy basis; wildcat.
defenseless, fenceless, guardless, harborless; unshielded; vulnerable,
expugnable, exposed; open to &c. (liable) 177.
aux abois, at bay; on the wrong side of the wall, on a lee shore, on
the rocks.
at stake, in question; precarious, critical, ticklish; slippery,
slippy; hanging by a thread &c. v.; with a halter round one's neck; between
the hammer and the anvil, between Scylla and Charybdis, between a rock and
a hard place, between the devil and the deep blue sea, between two fires;
on the edge of a precipice, on the brink of a precipice, on the verge of a
precipice, on the edge of a volcano; in the lion's den, on slippery ground,
under fire; not out of the wood.
unwarned, unadmonished, unadvised, ununprepared &c. 674; off one's
guard &c. (inexpectant) 508.
tottering; unstable, unsteady; shaky, top-heavy, tumbledown,
ramshackle, crumbling, waterlogged; helpless, guideless; in a bad way;
reduced to the last extremity, at the last extremity; trembling in the
balance; nodding to its fall &c. (destruction) 162. threatening &c. 909;
ominous, illomened; alarming &c. (fear) 860; explosive.
adventurous &c. (rash) 863, (bold) 861.
phr. incidit in Scyllam qui vult vitare Charybdim; nam tua res agitur
paries dum proximus ardet.

#666. [Means of safety.] Refuge. -- N. refuge, sanctuary, retreat,
fastness; acropolis; keep, last resort; ward; prison &c. 752; asylum, ark,
home, refuge for the destitute; almshouse; hiding place &c. (ambush) 530;
sanctum sanctorum &c. (privacy) 893.
roadstead, anchorage; breakwater, mole, port, haven; harbor, harbor of
refuge; seaport; pier, jetty, embankment, quay.
covert, cover, shelter, screen, lee wall, wing, shield, umbrella;
barrier; dashboard, dasher [U.S.].
wall &c. (inclosure) 232; fort &c. (defense) 717.
anchor, kedge; grapnel, grappling iron; sheet anchor, killick;
mainstay; support &c. 215; cheek &c. 706; ballast.
jury mast; vent-peg; safety valve, blow-off valve; safety lamp; lightning
rod, lightning conductor.
means of escape &c. (escape) 671 lifeboat, swimming belt, cork jacket;
parachute, plank, steppingstone.
safeguard &c. (protection) 664.
V. seek refuge, take refuge, find refuge &c. n.; seek safety, find
safety &c. 664; throw oneself into the arms of; break for taller timber [U.
create a diversion.
Phr. bibere venenum in auro; valet anchora virtus.

#667. [Source of danger.] Pitfall. -- N. rocks, reefs, coral reef,
sunken rocks, snags; sands, quicksands; syrt|, syrtis|; Goodwin sands,
sandy foundation; slippery ground; breakers, shoals, shallows, bank, shelf,
flat, lee shore, ironbound coast; rock ahead, breakers ahead.
precipice; maelstrom, volcano; ambush &c. 530; pitfall, trapdoor; trap
&c. (snare) 545.
sword of Damocles; wolf at the door, snake in the grass, death in the
pot; latency &c. 526.
ugly customer, dangerous person, le chat qui dort; firebrand, hornet's
Phr. latet anquis in herba [Vergil]; proximus ardet Ucalegon [Vergil].

<-- p. 214 -->

#668. Warning. -- N. warning, early warning, caution, caveat; notice
&c. (information) 527; premonition, premonishment; prediction &c. 511;
contraindication, lesson, dehortation; admonition, monition; alarm &c. 669.
handwriting on the wall, mene mene tekel upharsin, red flag, yellow
flag; fog-signal, foghorn; siren; monitor, warning voice, Cassandra, signs
of the times, Mother Cary's chickens, stormy petrel, bird of ill omen,
gathering clouds, clouds in the horizon, death watch.
watchtower, beacon, signal post; lighthouse &c. (indication of
locality) 550. sentinel, sentry,; watch, watchman; watch and ward;
watchdog, bandog, housedog; patrol, patrolman, vedette, picket, bivouac,
scout, spy, spial|; undercover agent, mole, plainclothesman; advanced
guard, rear guard; lookout.
cautiousness &c. 864.
V. warn, caution; forewarn, prewarn; admonish, premonish; give notice,
give warning, dehort; menace &c. (threaten) 909; put on one's guard; sound
the alarm &c. 669; croak.
beware, ware; take warning, take heed at one's peril; keep watch and
ward &c. (care) 459.
Adj. warning &c. v.; premonitory, monitory, cautionary; admonitory,
admonitive; sematic.
warned, forewarned &c. v.; on one's guard &c. (careful) 459,
(cautious) 864.
adv. in terrorem &c. (threat) 909.
Int. beware! ware! take care! look out! fore![golf], mind what you are
about!, take care what you are about! mind!
Phr. ne reveillez pas le chat qui dort; foenum habet in cornu; caveat
actor; le silence du people est la legon des rois; verbum sat sapienti; un
averti en vaut deux.

#669. [Indication of danger.] Alarm. -- N. alarm; alarum, larum, alarm
bell, tocsin, alerts, beat of drum, sound of trumpet, note of alarm, hue
and cry, fire cross, signal of distress; blue lights; war-cry, war-whoop;
warning &c. 668; fogsignal, foghorn; yellow flag; danger signal; red light,
red flag; fire bell; police whistle.
false alarm, cry of wolf; bug-bear, bugaboo.
V. give the alarm, raise the alarm, sound the alarm, turn in the
alarm, beat the alarm, give an alarm, raise an alarm, sound an alarm, turn
in an alarm, beat an alarm &c. n.; alarm; warn &c. 668; ring the tocsin;
battre la generale; cry wolf.
Adj. alarming &c. v.
Int. sauve qui peut! qui vive?

#670. Preservation. -- N. preservation; safe-keeping; conservation &c.
(storage) 636; maintenance, support, susteritation, conservatism; vis
conservatrix; salvation &c. (deliverance) 672.
[Means of preservation] prophylaxis; preserver, preservative;
hygiastics, hygiantics; cover, drugget; cordon sanitaire; canning;
ensilage; tinned goods, canned goods.
[Superstitious remedies] snake oil, cure-all; charm &c. 993.
V. preserve, maintain, keep, sustain, support, hold; keep up, keep
alive; refrigerate, keep on ice;not willingly let die; bank up; nurse;
save, rescue; be safe, make safe &c. 664; take care of &c. (care) 459;
guard &c. (defend) 717.
stare super antiquas vias [Bacon]; hold one's own; hold one's ground,
stand one's ground &c. (resist) 719.
embalm, cure, salt, pickle, season, kyanize|, bottle, pot, tin, can;
sterilize, pasteurize, radiate; dry, lyophilize, freeze-dry, concentrate,
evaporate; freeze, quick-freeze, deep-freeze; husband &c. (store) 636.
Adj. preserving &c. v.; conservative; prophylactic; preservatory,
preservative; hygienic.
preserved &c. v.; unimpaired, unbroken, uninjured, unhurt, unsinged,
unmarred; safe, safe and sound; intact, with a whole skin.
Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari.

#671. Escape. -- N.escape, scape; avolation|, elopement, flight;
evasion &c. (avoidance) 623; retreat; narrow escape, hairbreadth escape;
close call; come off, impunity.
[Means of escape] loophole &c. (opening) 260; path &c. 627; refuse &c.
666; vent, vent peg; safety valve; drawbridge, fire escape.
reprieve &c. (deliverance) 672; liberation &c. 750. refugee &c.
(fugitive) 623.
V. escape, scape; make one's escape, effect one's escape, make good
one's escape; break jail; get off, get clear off, get well out of; echapper
belle, save one's bacon; weather the storm &c. (safe) 664; escape scot-
elude &c., make off &c. (avoid) 623;. march off &c. (go away) 293;
give one the slip; slip through the hands, slip through the fingers; slip
the collar, wriggle out of prison, break out, break loose, break loose
from prison; break away, slip away, get away; find vent, find a hole to
creep out of.
disappear, vanish.
Adj..escaping, escaped &c. v. stolen away, fled.
Phr. the bird has flown the coop.

<-- p. 215 -->

#672. Deliverance. -- N. deliverance, extrication, rescue; reprieve,
reprieval; respite; liberation &c. 750; emancipation; redemption,
salvation; riddance; gaol delivery; redeemableness.
V. deliver, extricate, rescue, save, emancipate, redeem, ransom; bring
off,bring through; tirer d'affaire, get the wheel out of the rut, snatch
from the jaws of death, come to the rescue; rid; retrieve &c. (restore)
660; be rid of, get rid of.
Adj. saved &c. v. extricable, redeemable, rescuable.
Int. to the rescue!

3. Precursory Measures

#673. Preparation. -- N. preparation; providing &c. v.; provision,
providence; anticipation &c. (foresight) 510; precaution, preconcertation,
predisposition; forecast &c. (plan) 626; rehearsal, note of preparation.
[Putting in order] arrangement &c. 60; clearance; adjustment &c. 23;
tuning; equipment, outfit, accouterment, armament, array.
ripening &c. v.; maturation, evolution; elaboration, concoction,
digestion; gestation, batching, incubation, sitting.
groundwork, first stone, cradle, stepping-stone; foundation, scaffold
&c. (support) 215; scaffolding, echafaudage.
[Preparation of men] training &c. (education) 537; inurement &c.
(habit) 613; novitiate; [ Preparation of food] cooking, cookery; brewing,
culinary art; [ Preparation of the soil] tilling, plowing, sowing;
semination, cultivation.
[State of being prepared] preparedness, readiness, ripeness,
mellowness; maturity; un impromptu fait a loisir.
[Preparer] preparer, trainer; pioneer, trailblazer; avant-courrier,
avant-coureur; voortrekker; sappers and miners, pavior, navvy; packer,
stevedore; warming pan.
V. prepare; get ready, make ready; make preparations, settle
preliminaries, get up, sound the note of preparation. set in order, put in
order &c. (arrange) 60; forecast &c. (plan) 626 prepare the ground, plow
the ground, dress the ground; till the soil, cultivate the soil;
predispose, sow the seed, lay a train, dig a mine; lay the groundwork, fix
the groundwork, lay the basis, fix the basis, lay the foundations, fix
the foundations; dig the foundations, erect the scaffolding; lay the first
stone &c. (begin) 66.
roughhew; cut out work; block out, hammer out; lick into shape &c.
(form) 240.
elaborate, mature, ripen, mellow, season, bring to maturity; nurture
&c. (aid) 707; hatch, cook, brew; temper, anneal, smelt; barbecue;
infumate|; maturate. equip, arm, man; fit-out, fit up; furnish, rig, dress,
garnish, betrim, accouter, array, fettle, fledge; dress up, furbish up,
brush up, vamp up; refurbish; sharpen one's tools, trim one's foils, set,
prime, attune; whet the knife, whet the sword; wind up, screw up; adjust
&c. (fit) 27; put in trim, put in train, put in gear, put in working order,
put in tune, put in a groove for, put in harness; pack.
train &c. (teach) 537; inure &c. (habituate) 613; breed; ppepare &c.
for; rehearse; make provision for; take steps, take measures, take
precautions; provide, provide against; beat up for recruits; open the door
to &c. (facilitate) 705.
set one's house in order, make all snug; clear the decks, clear for
action; close one's ranks; shuffle the cards.
prepare oneself; serve an apprenticeship &c. (learn) 539; lay oneself
out for, get into harness, gird up one's loins, buckle on one's armor,
reculer pour mieux sauter, prime and load, shoulder arms, get the steam up,
put the horses to.
guard against, make sure against; forearm, make sure, prepare for the
evil day, have a rod in pickle, provide against a rainy day, feather one's
nest; lay in provisions &c. 637; make investments; keep on foot.
be prepared, be ready &c. Adj.; hold oneself in readiness, keep one's
powder dry; lie in wait for &c. (expect) 507; anticipate &c. (foresee) 510;
principiis obstare; veniente occurrere morbo.

Adj. preparing &c. v.; in preparation, in course of preparation, in
agitation, in embryo, in hand, in train; afoot, afloat; on foot, on the
stocks, on the anvil; under consideration &c. (plan) 626; brewing,
batching, forthcoming, brooding; in store for, in reserve.
precautionary, provident; preparative, preparatory; provisional,
inchoate, under revision; preliminary &c. (precedent) 62.
prepared &c. v.; in readiness; ready, ready to one's band, ready made,
ready cut and dried: made to one's hand, handy, on the table; in gear; in
working order,in working gear; snug; in practice.
ripe, mature, mellow; pukka; practiced &c. (skilled) 698; labored,
elaborate, highly-wrought, smelling of the lamp, worked up.
in full feather, in best bib and tucker; in harness, at harness; in
the saddle, in arms, in battle array, in war paint; up in arms; armed at
all points, armed to the teeth, armed cap a pie; sword in hand; booted
and spurred.
in utrumque paratus, semper paratus; on the alert &c. (vigilant) 459;
at one's post.
Adv. in preparation, in anticipation of; against, for; abroach.
Phr. a bove majori discit arare minor; "looking before and after "
[Hamlet], si vis pacem para bellum.

<-- p. 216 -->

#674. Nonpreparation. -- N. non-preparation, absence of preparation,
want of preparation; inculture|, inconcoction|, improvidence.
immaturity, crudity; rawness &c. Adj.; abortion; disqualification.
[Absence of art] nature, state of nature; virgin soil, unweeded
garden; neglect &c. 460.

rough copy &c. (plan) 626; germ &c. 153; raw material &c. 635.
improvisation &c. (impulse) 612.
V. be unprepared &c. Adj.; want preparation, lack preparation; lie
fallow; s'embarquer sans biscuits; live from hand to mouth.
[Render unprepared] dismantle &c. (render useless) 645; undress &c.
226. extemporize, improvise.
Adj. unprepared &c. [prepare &c. 673]; without preparation &c. 673;
incomplete &c. 53; rudimental, embryonic, abortive; immature, unripe,
kachcha, raw, green, crude; coarse; rough cast, rough hewn; in the rough;
unhewn, unformed, unfashioned, unwrought, unlabored, unblown, uncooked,
unboiled, unconcocted, unpolished.
unhatched, unfledged, unnurtured, unlicked, untaught, uneducated,
uncultivated,. untrained, untutored, undrilled, unexercised; deckle-edged;
precocious, premature; undigested, indigested; unmellowed, unseasoned,
fallow; unsown, untilled; natural, in a state of nature; undressed; in
dishabille, en deshabille.
unqualified, disqualified; unfitted; ill-digested; unbegun, unready,
unarranged, unorganized, unfurnished, unprovided, unequipped, untrimmed;
out of gear, out of order; dismantled &c. v.
shiftless, improvident, unthrifty, thriftless, thoughtless, unguarded;
happy-go-lucky; caught napping &c. (inexpectant) 508; unpremeditated &c.
Adv. extempore &c. 612.

#675. Essay. -- N. essay, trial, endeavor, attempt; aim, struggle,
venture, adventure, speculation, coup d'essai, debut; probation &c.
(experiment) 463.
V. try, essay; experiment &c. 463; endeavor, strive; tempt, attempt,
make an attempt; venture, adventure, speculate, take one's chance, tempt
fortune; try one's fortune, try one's luck, try one's hand; use one's
endeavor; feel one's way, grope one's way, pick one's way.
try hard, push, make a bold push, use one's best endeavor; do one's
best &c. (exertion) 686.
Adj. essaying &c. v.; experimental &c. 463; tentative, empirical,
Adv. experimentally &c. Adj.; on trial, at a venture; by rule of
thumb. if one may be so bold.
Phr. aut non tentaris aut perfice [Ovid]; chi non s'arrischia non

<-- p. 217 -->

#676. Undertaking. -- N. undertaking; compact &c. 769; adventure,
venture; engagement &c. (promise) 768; enterprise, emprise; pilgrimage;
matter in hand &c. (business ) 625; move; first move &c. (beginning) 66.
V. undertake; engage in, embark in; launch into, plunge into;
volunteer; apprentice oneself to; engage &c. (promise) 768; contract &c.
769; take upon oneself, take upon one's shoulders; devote oneself to &c.
(determination) 604.
take up, take in hand; tackle; set about, go about; set to, fall to,
set to work; launch forth; set up shop; put in hand, put in execution; set
forward; break the neck of a business, be in, for; put one's hand to, put
one's foot in; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to, go to do; begin &c.
66; broach, institute &c. one's originate) 153; put one's hand to the plow,
lay one's hand to the plow, put one's shoulder to the wheel.
have in hand &c. (business) 625; have many irons in the fire &c.
(activity) 682.
Adj. undertaking &c. v.; on the anvil &c. 625.
Int. here goes!

#677. Use. -- N. use; employ, employment; exercise, exercitation;
application, appliance; adhibition, disposal; consumption; agency &c.
(physical) 170; usufruct; usefulness &c. 644; benefit; recourse, resort,
[Conversion to use] utilization, service, wear.
[Way of using] usage.
V. use,.make use of, employ, put to use; put in action, put in
operation, put in practice; set in motion, set to work.
ply, work, wield, handle, manipulate; play, play off; exert, exercise,
practice, avail oneself of, profit by, resort to, have recourse to, recur
to, take betake oneself to; take up with, take advantage of; lay one's
hands on, try.
render useful &c. 644; mold; turn to account, turn to use; convert to
use, utilize; work up; call into play, bring into play; put into
requisition; call forth, draw forth; press into service, enlist into the
service; bring to bear upon, devote, dedicate, consecrate, apply, adhibit,
dispose of; make a handle of, make a cat's-paw of.
fall back upon, make a shift with; make the most of, make the best of.
use up, swallow up; consume, absorb, expend; tax, task, wear, put to
Adj. in use; used &c. v.; well-worn, well-trodden.
useful &c. 644; subservient &c. (instrumental) 631.

#678. Disuse. -- N. forbearance, abstinence; disuse; relinquishment
&c. 782; desuetude &c. (want of habit) 614; disusage.
V. not use; do without, dispense with, let alone, not touch, forbear,
abstain, spare, waive, neglect; keep back, reserve. lay up, lay by, lay on
the shelf, lay up in ordinary; lay up in a napkin; shelve; set aside, put
aside, lay aside; disuse, leave off, have done with; supersede; discard &c.
(eject) 297; dismiss, give warning.
throw aside &c. (relinquish) 782; make away with &c. (destroy) 162;
cast overboard , heave overboard , throw overboard; cast to the dogs, cast
to the winds; dismantle &c. (Render useless) 645.
lie unemployed , remain unemployed &c. Adj.
Adj. not used &c. v.; unemployed, unapplied, undisposed of, unspent,
unexercised, untouched, untrodden, unessayed, ungathered, unculled;
uncalled for, not required.
disused &c. v.; done with.

#679. Misuse. -- N. misuse, misusage, misemployment, misapplication,
abuse, profanation, prostitution, desecration; waste &c. 638.
V. misuse, misemploy, misapply, misappropriate.
desecrate, abuse, profane, prostitute: waste &c. 638; overtask,
overtax, overwork: squander &c. 818.
cut blocks with a razor, employ a steam engine to crack a nut; catch
at a straw.
Adj. misused &c. v.
Phr. ludere cum sacris.

<-- p. 218 -->

1. Simple voluntary Action

#680. Action. -- N. action, performance; doing, &c. v.; perpetration;
exercise, excitation; movement, operation, evolution, work; labor &c.
(exertion) 686; praxis, execution; procedure &c. (conduct) 692; handicraft;
business &c. 625; agency &c. (power at work) 170.
deed, act, overt act, stitch, touch, gest transaction, job, doings,
dealings, proceeding, measure, step, maneuver, bout, passage, move, stroke,
blow; coup, coup de main, coup d'etat; tour de force &c. (display) 882;
feat, exploit; achievement &c. (completion) 729; handiwork, workmanship;
manufacture; stroke of policy &c. (plan) 626.
actor &c. (doer) 690.
V. do, perform, execute; achieve &c. (complete) 729; transact, enact;
commit, perpetrate, inflict; exercise, prosecute, carry on, work, practice,
employ oneself, ply one's task; officiate, have in hand &c. (business)
625; labor &c. 686; be at work; pursue a course; shape one's course &c.
(conduct) 692.
act, operate; take action, take steps; strike a blow, lift a finger,
stretch forth one's hand; take in hand &c. (undertake) 676; put oneself in
motion; put in practice; carry into execution &c. (complete) 729; act upon.
be an actor &c. 690; take a part in, act a part in, play a part in,
perform a part in; participate in; have a hand in, have a finger in the
pie; have to do with; be a party to, be a participator in; bear a hand,
lend a hand; pull an oar, run in a race; mix oneself up with &c. (meddle)
be in action; come into operation &c. (power at work) 170.
Adj. doing &c. v.; acting; in action; in harness; on duty; in
operation &c. 170.
Adv. in the act, in the midst of, in the thick of; red-handed, in
flagrante delicto; while one's hand is in.
Phr. "action is eloquence" [Coriolanus]; actions speak louder than
words; actum aiunt ne agas [Terence]; "awake, arise, or be forever fall'n"
[Paradise Lost); dii pia facta vident [Ovid]; faire sams dire; fare fac;
fronte capillata post est occasio calva; " our deeds are sometimes better
than our thoughts" [Bailey]; "the great end of life is not knowledge but
action [Huxley]; "thought is the soul of act" [R. Browning]; vivre-ce nest
pas respirer c'est agir; "we live in deeds not years" [Bailey].

#681. Inaction. -- N. inaction, passiveness, abstinence from action;
noninterference; Fabian policy, conservative policy; neglect &c. 460.
inactivity &c. 683; rest &c. (repose) 687; quiescence &c. 265; want of
occupation, inoccupation; idle hours, time hanging on one's hands, dolce
far niente; sinecure; soft snap, soft thing.
V. not do, not act, not attempt; be inactive &c. 683; abstain from
doing, do nothing, hold, spare; not stir, not move, not lift a finger, not
lift a foot, not lift a peg; fold one's arms, fold one's hands; leave
alone, let alone; let be, let pass, let things take their course, let it
have its way, let well alone; quieta non movere; stare super antiquas vias;
rest and be thankful, live and let live; lie rest upon one's oars; laisser
aller, faire; stand aloof; refrain &c. (avoid) 623 keep oneself from doing;
remit one's efforts, relax one's efforts; desist &c. (relinquish) 624; stop
&c. (cease) 142; pause &c. (be quiet) 265.
wait, lie in wait, bide one's time, take time, tide it over.
cool one's heels, kick one's heels; while away the time, while away
tedious hours; pass the time, fill up the time, beguile the time; talk
against time; waste time &c. (inactive) 683.
lie by, lie on the shelf, lie in ordinary, lie idle, lie to, lie
fallow; keep quiet, slug; have nothing to do, whistle for want of thought.
undo, do away with; take down, take to pieces; destroy &c. 162.
Adj. not doing &c. v.; not done &c. v.; undone; passive; unoccupied,
unemployed; out of employ, out of work; fallow; desaeuvre.
Adv. re infecta, at a stand, les bras croisis, with folded arms; with
the hands in the pockets, with the hands behind one's back; pour passer le
Int. so let it be! stop! &c. 142; hands off!
Phr. cunctando restituit rem.

<-- p. 219 -->

#682. Activity. -- N. activity; briskness, liveliness &c. adj.;
animation, life, vivacity, spirit, dash, energy; snap, vim.
nimbleness, agility; smartness, quickness &c. adj.; velocity, &c. 274;
alacrity, promptitude; despatch, dispatch; expedition; haste &c. 684;
punctuality &c. (early) 132.
eagerness, zeal, ardor, perfervidum aingenium, empressement,
earnestness, intentness; abandon; vigor &c. (physical energy) 171; devotion
&c. (resolution) 604; exertion &c. 686.
industry, assiduity; assiduousness &c. adj.; sedulity; laboriousness;
drudgery &c. (labor) 686; painstaking, diligence; perseverance &c. 604a;
indefatigation|; habits of business.
vigilance &c. 459; wakefulness; sleeplessness, restlessness; insomnia;
pervigilium, insomnium; racketing.
movement, bustle, stir, fuss, ado, bother, pottering, fidget,
fidgetiness; flurry &c. (haste) 684.
officiousness; dabbling, meddling; interference, interposition,
intermeddling; tampering with, intrigue.
press of business, no sinecure, plenty to do, many irons in the fire,
great doings, busy hum of men, battle of life, thick of the action.
housewife, busy bee; new brooms; sharp fellow, sharp blade; devotee,
enthusiast, zealot, meddler, intermeddler, intriguer, busybody, pickthank;
hummer, hustler, live man [U.S.], rustler * [U. S.].
V. be active &c. adj.; busy oneself in; stir, stir about, stir one's
stumps; bestir oneself, rouse oneself; speed, hasten, peg away, lay about
one, bustle, fuss; raise up, kick up a dust; push; make a push, make a
fuss, make a stir; go ahead, push forward; fight one's way, elbow one's
way; make progress &c. 282; toll &c. (labor) 686; plod, persist &c.
(persevere) 604a; keep up the ball, keep the pot boiling.
look sharp; have all one's eyes about one &c. (vigilance) 459; rise,
arouse oneself, hustle, get up early, be about, keep moving, steal a march,
kill two birds with one stone; seize the opportunity &c. 134 lose no time,
not lose a moment, make the most of one's time, not suffer the grass to
grow under one's feet, improve the shining hour, make short work of; dash
off; make haste &c. 684; do one's best take pains &c. (exert oneself)
686; do wonders, work wonders.
have many irons in the fire, have one's hands full, have much on one's
hands; have other things to do, have other fish to fry; be busy; not have a
moment to spare, not have a moment that one can call one's own.
have one's fling, run the round of; go all lengths, stick at nothing,
run riot.
outdo; overdo, overact, overlay, overshoot the mark; make a toil of a
have a hand in &c. (act in) 680; take an active part, put in one's
oar, have a finger in the pie, mix oneself up with, trouble, one's head
about, intrigue; agitate.
tamper with, meddle, moil; intermeddle, interfere, interpose; obtrude;
poke one's nose in, thrust one's nose in.
Adj. active, brisk, brisk as a lark, brisk as a bee; lively, animated,
vivacious; alive, alive and kicking; frisky, rited, stirring.
nimble, nimble as a squirrel; agile; light-footed, nimble-footed;
featly, tripping.
quick, prompt, yare, instant, ready, alert, spry, sharp, smart; fast
&c. (swift) 274; quick as a lamplighter, expeditious; awake, broad awake;
go-ahead, live [U.S.] wide-awake &c. (intelligent) 498.
forward, eager, strenuous, zealous, enterprising, in earnest; resolute
&c. 604.
industrious, assiduous, diligent, sedulous, notable, painstaking;
intent &c. (attention) 457; indefatigable &c. (persevering) 604a;
unwearied; unsleeping, never tired; plodding, hardworking &c. 686;
businesslike, workaday.
bustling; restless, restless as a hyena; fussy, fidgety, pottering;
busy, busy as hen with one chicken.
working, at work, on duty, in harness; up in arms; on one's legs, at
call; up and doing, up and stirring.
busy, occupied; hard at work, hard at it; up to one's ears in, full of
business, busy as a bee.
meddling &c. v.; meddlesome, pushing, officious, overofficious,
astir, stirring; agoing, afoot; on foot; in full swing; eventful; on
the alert, &c. (vigilant) 459.
Adv. actively &c. adj.; with life and spirit, with might and main &c.
686,with haste &c. 684, with wings; full tilt, in mediis rebus.
Int. be alive, look alive, look sharp! move on, push on! keep moving!
go ahead! stir your stumps! age quod agis! jaldi! karo! step lively!
Phr. carpe diem [Latin: sieze the day] &c. (opportunity) 134; nulla
dies sine linea [Pliny]; nec mora nec requies [Vergil]; the plot thickens;
No sooner said than done &c. (early) 132; "veni vidi vici" [Suetonius];
catch a weasel asleep; abends wird der Faule fleissig [German]; dictum ac
factum [Terence] schwere Arbeit in der Jugend ist sanfte Ruhe im
Alter[German: hard work in youth means soft rest in age]; "the busy hum of
men [Milton].

<-- p. 220 -->

#683. Inactivity. -- N. inactivity; inaction &c. 681; inertness &c.
172; obstinacy &c. 606.
lull &c. (cessation) 142; quiescence &c. 265; rust, rustiness.
idleness, remissness &c. adj.; sloth, indolence, indiligence; dawdling
&c. v. ergophobia, otiosity.
dullness &c. adj.; languor; segnity|, segnitude|; lentor; sluggishness
&c. (slowness) 275; procrastination &c. (delay) 133; torpor, torpidity,
torpescence; stupor &c. (insensibility) 823; somnolence; drowsiness &c.
adj.; nodding &c. v.; oscitation, oscitancy; pandiculation, bypnotism,
lethargy; statuvolence heaviness, heavy eyelids.
sleep, slumber; sound sleep, heavy sleep, balmy sleep; Morpheus;
Somnus; coma, trance, ecstasis, dream, hibernation, nap, doze, snooze,
siesta, wink of sleep, forty winks, snore; hypnology.
dull work; pottering; relaxation &c. (loosening) 47; Castle of
[Cause of inactivity] lullaby, sedative &c. 174; torpedo.
idler, drone, droil, dawdle, mopus; do-little faineant, dummy,
sleeping partner; afternoon farmer; truant &c. (runaway) 623: bummer [U.S],
lounger, lazzarone, loafer; lubber, lubbard; slow coach &c. (slow.) 275;
opium eater, lotus eater; slug; lag, sluggard; slumberer, dormouse, marmot;
waiter on Providence, fruges consumere natus.
V. be inactive &c. adj.; do nothing &c. 681; move slowly &c. 275; let
the grass grow under one's feet; take one's time, dawdle, drawl, droil,
lag, hang back, slouch; loll, lollop; lounge, poke, loaf, loiter; go to
sleep over; sleep at one's post, ne battre que d'une aile.
take it easy, take things as they come; lead an easy life, vegetate,
swim with the stream, eat the bread of idleness; loll in the lap of luxury,
loll in the lap of indolence; waste time, consume time, kill time, lose
time; burn daylight, waste the precious hours.
idle away time, trifle away time, fritter away time, fool away time;
spend time in, take time in; peddle, piddle; potter, pudder, dabble, faddle
fribble, fiddle-faddle; dally, dilly-dally.
sleep, slumber, be asleep; hibernate; oversleep; sleep like a top,
sleep like a log, sleep like a dormouse; sleep soundly, heavily; doze,
drowze, snooze, nap; take a nap &c. n.; dream; snore one's best, settle to
sleep, go to sleep, go off to sleep; drop off; fall asleep; drop asleep;
close the eyes, seal up the eyes, seal up eyelids; weigh down the eyelids;
get sleep, nod, yawn; go to bed, turn.
languish, expend itself, flag, hang fire; relax.
render idle &c. adj.; sluggardize; mitigate &c. 174.
Adj. inactive; motionless &c. 265; unoccupied &c. (doing nothing) 681
indolent, lazy, slothful, idle, lusk, remiss, slack, inert, torpid,
sluggish, otiose, languid, supine, heavy, dull, leaden, lumpisb; exanimate,
soulless; listless; drony, dronish; lazy as Ludlam's dog.
dilatory, laggard; lagging &c. v.; slow &c. 275; rusty, flagging;
lackadaisical, maudlin, fiddle-faddle; pottering &c. v.;shilly-shally &c.
(irresolute) 605.
sleeping, &c. v.; asleep; fast asleep, dead asleep, sound asleep; in a
sound sleep; sound as a top, dormant, comatose; in the arms of Morpheus, in
the lap of Morpheus.
sleepy, sleepful; dozy, drowsy, somnolent, torpescent, lethargic,
lethargical; somnifacient; statuvolent, statuvolic; heavy, heavy with
sleep; napping; somnific, somniferous; soporous, soporific, soporiferous;
hypnotic; balmy, dreamy; unawakened, unawakened.
sedative &c. 174.
Adv. inactively &c. adj.; at leisure &c. 685.
Phr. the eyes begin to draw straws; "bankrupt of life yet prodigal of
ease" [Dryden]; " better 50 years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay"
[Tennyson]; "idly busy rolls their world away [Goldsmith]; "the mystery of
folded sleep" [Tennyson]; "the timely dew of sleep" [Milton]; "thou
driftest gently down the tides of sleep" [Longfellow]; "tired Nature's
sweet restorer, balmy sleep" [Young].

<-- p. 221 -->

#684. Haste. -- N. haste, urgency,; despatch, dispatch; acceleration,
spurt, spirt, forced march, rush, dash; velocity &c. 274; precipitancy,
precipitation, precipitiousness &c. adj.; impetuosity; brusquerie; hurry,
drive, scramble, bustle, fuss, fidget, flurry, flutter, splutter.
V. haste, hasten; make haste, make a dash &c. n.; hurry on, dash on,
whip on, push on, press on, press forward; hurry, skurry, scuttle along,
bundle on, dart to and fro, bustle, flutter, scramble; plunge, plunge
headlong; dash off; rush &c. (violence) 173; express.
bestir oneself &c. (be active) 682; lose no time, lose not a moment,
lose not an instant; make short work of; make the best of one's time, make
the best of one's way.
be precipitate &c. adj.; jump at, be in haste, be in a hurry &c. n.;
have no time, have not a moment to lose, have not a moment to spare; work
against time.
quicken &c. 274; accelerate, expedite, put on, precipitate, urge,
whip; railroad.
Adj. hasty, hurried, brusque; scrambling, cursory, precipitate,
headlong, furious, boisterous, impetuous, hotheaded; feverish, fussy;
in haste, in a hurry &c. n.; in hot haste, in all haste; breathless,
pressed for time, hard pressed, urgent.
Adv. with haste, with all haste, with breathless speed; in haste &c.
adj.; apace &c. (swiftly) 274; amain; all at once &c. (instantaneously)
113; at short notice &c., immediately &c. (early) 132; posthaste; by cable,
by express, by telegraph, by forced marches.
hastily, precipitately &c. adj.; helter-skelter, hurry-skurry, holus-
bolus; slapdash, slap-bang; full-tilt, full drive; heels over head, head
and shoulders, headlong, a corps perdu.
by fits and starts, by spurts; hop skip and jump.
Phr. sauve qui peut,, devil take the hindmost, no time to be lost; no
sooner said than done &c. (early) 132; a word and a blow; maggire fretta
minore atto; ohne Hast aber ohne Rast [German] [Goethe's motto]; "stand not
upon the order of your going but go at once" [Macbeth]; "swift, swift, you
dragons of the night" [Cymbelinel.

#685. Leisure. -- N. leisure; convenience; spare time, spare hours,
spare moments; vacant hour; time, time to spare, time on one's hands;
holiday &c. (rest) 687; otium cum dignitate [Cic.], ease.
V. have leisure &c. n.; take one's time, take one's leisure, take
one's ease; repose &c. 687; move slowly &c. 275; while away the time &c.
(inaction) 681; be master of one's time, be an idle man.
Adj. leisure, leisureIy; slow &c. 275; deliberate, quiet, calm,
undisturbed; at leisure, at one's ease, at a loose end.
Phr. time hanging heavy on one's hands; eile mit Weile.

#686. Exertion. -- N. exertion, effort, strain, tug, pull, stress,
throw, stretch, struggle, spell, spurt, spirt; stroke of work, stitch of
"a strong pull a long pull and a pull all together"; dead lift; heft;
gymnastics; exercise, exercitation; wear and tear; ado; toil and trouble;
uphill work, hard work, warm work; harvest time.
labor, work, toil, travail, manual labor, sweat of one's brow, swink,
drudgery, slavery, fagging, hammering; limae labor; operoseness, operosity.
trouble, pains, duty; resolution &c. 604; energy &c. (physical) 171.
V. exert oneself; exert one's energies, tax one's energies; use
labor, work, toil, moil, sweat, fag, drudge, slave, drag a lengthened
chain, wade through, strive, stretch a long arm; pull, tug, ply; ply the
oar, tug at the oar; do the work; take the laboring oar
bestir oneself (be active) 682; take trouble, trouble oneself.
work hard; rough it; put forth one's strength, put forth a strong arm;
fall to work, bend the bow; buckle to, set one's shoulder to the wheel &c.
(resolution) 604; work like a horse, work like a cart horse, work like a
galley slave, work like a coal heaver; labor day and night, work day and
night; redouble one's efforts; do double duty; work double hours, work
double tides; sit up, burn the candle at both ends; stick to &c.
(persevere) 604a; work one's way, fight one's way,; lay about one, hammer
take pains; do one's best, do one's level best, do one's utmost; do
the best one can, do all one can, do all in one's power, do as much as in
one lies, do what lies in one's power; use one's best endeavor, use one's
utmost endeavor; try one's best, try one's utmost; play one's best card;
put one's best leg foremost, put one's right leg foremost; have one's whole
soul in his work, put all one's strength into, strain every nerve; spare no
efforts, spare no pains; go all lengths; go through fire and water &c.
(resolution) 604; move heaven and earth, leave no stone unturned.
Adj. laboring &c. v.
laborious, operose, elaborate; strained; toilsome, troublesome,
wearisome; uphill; herculean, gymnastic, palestric.
hardworking, painstaking; strenuous, energetic.
hard at work, on the stretch.
Adv. laboriously &c. adj.; lustily; pugnis et calcibus; with might and
main, with all one's might, with a strong hand, with a sledge hammer, with
much ado; to the best of one's abilities, totis viribus, vi et armis,
manibus pedibusque, tooth and nail, unguibus et rostro, hammer and tongs,
heart and soul; through thick and thin &c. (perseverance) 604a.
by the sweat of one's brow, suo Marte.
Phr. aide-toi le ciel t'aidera;" and still be doing, never done"
[Butler]; buen principio la mitad es hecha; cosa ben fatta e' fatta due
volie;" it is better to wear out than to rust out" [Bp. Hornel; labor omnia
vincit [Vergil] "labor, wide as the earth, has its summit in Heaven"
[Carlyle]; le travail du corps delivre des peines de l'esprit; manu forti;
ora et labora.

#687. Repose. -- N. repose, rest, silken repose; sleep &c. 683.
relaxation, breathing time; halt, stay, pause &c. (cessation) 142;
day of rest, dies non, Sabbath, Lord's day, holiday, red-letter day,
vacation, recess.
V. repose; rest, rest and be thankful; take a rest, take one's ease.
relax, unbend, slacken; take breath &c. (refresh) 689; rest upon one's
oars; pause &c. (cease) 142; stay one's hand.
lie down; recline, recline on a bed of down, recline on an easy chair;
go to rest, go to bed, go to sleep &c. 683.
take a holiday, shut up shop; lie fallow &c. (inaction) 681.
Adj. reposing &c. v.; unstrained.
Adv. at rest.
Phr."the best of men have ever loved repose" [Thompson]; "to repair
our nature with comforting repose" [Henry VIII].

<-- p. 222 -->

#688. Fatigue. -- N. fatigue; weariness &c. 841; yawning, drowsiness
&c. 683; lassitude, tiredness, fatigation|, exhaustion; sweat; dyspncea.
anhelation, shortness of breath; faintness; collapse, prostration,
swoon, fainting, deliquium, syncope, lipothymy; goneness.
V. be fatigued &c. adj.; yawn &c. (get sleepy) 683; droop, sink, flag;
lose breath, lose wind; gasp, pant, puff, blow, drop, swoon, faint,
fatigue, tire, weary, irk, flag, jade, harass, exhaust, knock up, wear
out, prostrate.
tax, task, strain; overtask, overwork, overburden, overtax,
Adj. fatigued &c. v.; weary &c. 841; drowsy &c. 683; drooping &c. v.;
haggard; toilworn, wayworn:, footsore, surbated|, weatherbeaten; faint;
done up, used up, knocked up; bushed * [U.S.]; exhausted, prostrate, spent;
overtired, overspent, overfatigued; unrefreshed, unrestored.
worn, worn out; battered, shattered, pulled down, seedy, altered.
breathless, windless; short of breath, out of breath, short of wind;
blown, puffing and blowing; short-breathed; anhelose; broken winded, short-
winded; dyspnaeal, dyspnaeic.
ready to drop, all in, more dead than alive, dog-weary, walked off
one's legs, tired to death, on one's last legs, played out, hors de combat.
fatiguing &c v.; tiresome, irksome, wearisome; weary, trying.

#689. Refreshment. -- N. bracing &c. v.; recovery of strength &c. 159;
restoration, revival &c. 660; repair, refection, refocillation|,
refreshment, regalement, bait; relief &c. 834.
V. brace &c. (strengthen) 159; reinvigorate; air, freshen up,
refresh, recruit; repair &c. (restore) 660; fan, refocillate|; refresh the
inner man.
breathe, respire; drink in the ozone; draw breath, take breath, gather
breath, take a long breath, regain breath, recover breath; get better,
raise one's head; recover one's strength, regain one's strength, renew
one's strength &c. 159; perk up.
come to oneself &c. (revive) 660; feel like a giant refreshed.
Adj. refreshing &c v.; recuperative &c. 660.
refreshed &c. v.; untired, unwearied.

<-- p. 223 -->

#690. Agent.-- N. doer, actor, agent, performer, perpetrator,
operator; executor, executrix; practitioner, worker, stager.
bee, ant, working bee, termite, white ant; laboring oar, servant of
all work, factotum.
workman, artisan; craftsman, handicraftsman; mechanic, operative;
working man; laboring man; demiurgus, hewers of wood and drawers of water,
laborer, navvy; hand, man, day laborer, journeyman, charwoman, hack; mere
tool &c. 633; beast of burden, drudge, fag; lumper, roustabout.
maker, artificer, artist, wright, manufacturer, architect, builder,
mason, bricklayer, smith, forger, Vulcan; carpenter; ganger, platelayer;
blacksmith, locksmith, sailmaker, wheelwright.
machinist, mechanician, engineer.
sempstress, semstress, seamstress; needlewoman, workwoman; tailor,
minister &c. (instrument) 631; servant &c. 746; representative &c.
(commissioner) 758, (deputy) 759.
coworker, party to, participator in, particeps criminis, dramatis
personae; personnel.
Phr. quorum pars magna fui [Vergil]; faber est quisque fortunae suae.

#691. Workshop. -- N. workshop, workhouse; manufactory, mill,
factory; cabinet, studio; bureau, atelier.
hive, hive of industry; nursery; hothouse, hotbed; kitchen; , mint,
forge, loom; dock, dockyard; alveary; armory; laboratory; beehive, bindery,
forcing pit, nailery, usine, slip, yard, wharf; foundry foundery; furnace;
crucible, alembic, caldron, matrix.

2. Complex Voluntary Action

#692. Conduct. -- N. conduct; behavior; deportment, comportment;
carriage, maintien, demeanor, guise, bearing, manner, observance.
dealing, transaction &c. (action) 680; business &c. 625.
tactics, game, policy, polity; generalship, statesmanship, seamanship;
strategy, strategics; plan &c. 626.
management; husbandry; housekeeping, housewifery; stewardship; menage;
regime; economy, economics; political economy; government &c. (direction)
execution, manipulation, treatment, campaign, career, life, course,
walk, race, record.
course of conduct, line of conduct, line of action, line of
proceeding; role; process, ways, practice, procedure, modus operandi;
method &c., path &c. 627.
V. transact, execute; despatch, dispatch; proceed with, discharge;
carry on, carry through, carry out, carry into effect; work out; go
through, get through; enact; put into practice; officiate &c. 625.
bear oneself, behave onself, comport oneself, demean oneself, carry
onself, conduct onself, acquit oneself.
run a race, lead a life, play a game; take a course, adopt a course;
steer one's course, shape one's course; play one's paint, play one's cards,
shift for oneself; paddle one's own canoe; bail one's own boat.
conduct; manage &c. (direct) 693.
deal with, have to do with; treat, handle a case; take steps, take
Adj. conducting &c. v. strategical, businesslike, practical,

<-- p. 224 -->

#693. Direction. -- N. direction; management, managery; government,
gubernation, conduct, legislation, regulation, guidance; bossism [U.S.];
legislature; steerage, pilotage; reins, reins of government; helm, rudder,
needle, compass; guiding star, load star, lode star, pole star; cynosure.
supervision, superintendence; surveillance, oversight; eye of the
master; control, charge; board of control &c. (council) 696; command &c.
(authority) 737.
premiership, senatorship; director &c. 694; chair, portfolio.
statesmanship; statecraft, kingcraft, queencraft.
ministry, ministration; administration; stewardship, proctorship;
V. direct, manage, govern, conduct; order, prescribe, cut out work
for; bead, lead; lead the way, show the way; take the lead, lead on;
regulate, guide, steer, pilot; tackle
take the helm, be at the helm; have the reins, handle the reins, hold
the reins, take the reins; drive, tool.
superintend, supervise; overlook, control, keep in order, look after,
see to, legislate for; administer, ministrate; matronize; have the care of,
have the charge of; have charge of, take the direction; pull the strings,
pull the wires; rule &c. (command) 737; have the direction, hold office,
hold the portfolio; preside, preside at the board; take the chair, occupy
the chair, be in the chair; pull the stroke oar.
Adj. directing &c. v.; hegemonic.
Adv. at the helm, at the head of.

#694. Director. -- N. director, manager, governor, rector,
superintendent, supervisor.
intendant; overseer, overlooker; supercargo, husband, inspector,
visitor, ranger, surveyor, aedile; moderator, monitor, taskmaster; master
&c. 745; leader, ringleader, demagogue, corypheus, conductor, fugleman,
precentor, bellwether, agitator; caporal, choregus, collector, file leader,
flugelman, linkboy.
guiding star &c. (guidance) 693; adviser &c. 695; guide &c.
(information) 527; pilot; helmsman; steersman, steermate; wire-puller.
driver, whip, Jehu, charioteer; coachman, carman, cabman; postilion,
vetturino, muleteer, arriero, teamster; whipper in.
head, head man, head center; principal, president, speaker; chair,
chairman; captain &c. (master) 745; superior; mayor &c. (civil authority)
745; vice president, prime minister, premier, vizier, grand vizier, eparch.
officer, functionary, minister, official, red-tapist, bureaucrat; man
in office, Jack in office; office bearer; person in authority &c. 745.
statesman, strategist, legislator, lawgiver, politician, statist,
statemonger; Minos, Draco; arbiter &c. (judge) 967; boss [U.S.], political
board &c. (council) 696.
secretary, secretary of state; Reis Effendi; vicar &c. (deputy) 759;
steward, factor; agent &c. 758; bailiff, middleman; foreman, clerk of
works; landreeve; factotum, major-domo, seneschal, housekeeper, shepherd,
croupier; proctor, procurator.
Adv. ex officio.

#695. Advice. -- N. advice, counsel, adhortation|; word to the wise;
suggestion, submonition|, recommendation, advocacy; advisemement.
exhortation &c. (persuasion) 615; expostulation &c. (dissuasion) 616;
admonition &c. (warning) 668; guidance &c. (direction) 693.
instruction, charge, injunction, obtestation; Governor's message,
President's message; King's message, Queen's speech; message, speech from
the throne.
adviser, prompter; counsel, counselor; monitor, mentor, Nestor, magnus
Apollo, senator; teacher &c. 540.
guide, manual, chart &c. (information) 527.
physician, leech|!, archiater.
arbiter &c. (judge) 967.
reference, referment; consultation, conference, pourparler.
V. advise, counsel; give advice, give counsel, give a piece of advice;
suggest, prompt, submonish, recommend, prescribe, advocate; exhort &c.
(persuade) 615.
enjoin, enforce, charge, instruct, call; call upon &c. (request) 765;
expostulate &c. (dissuade) 616; admonish &c. (warn) 668.
advise with; lay heads together, consult together; compare notes; hold
a council, deliberate, be closeted with.
confer, consult, refer to, call in; take advice, follow advice; be
advised by, have at one's elbow, take one's cue from.
Adj. recommendatory; hortative &c. (persuasive) 615; dehortatory &c.
(dissuasive) 616; admonitory &c. (warning) 668.
Int. go to!
Phr. "give every man thine ear but few thy voice" [Hamlet]; "I pray
thee cease thy counsel" [Much Ado About Nothing]; "my guide, philosopher,
and friend" [Pope]; "'twas good advice and meant, my son be good" [Crabbe];
verbum sat sapienti; vive memor leti; "we, ask advice but we mean
approbation" [Colton].

<-- p. 225 -->

#696. Council. -- N. council, committee, subcommittee, comitia, court,
chamber, cabinet, board, bench, staff.
senate, senatus, parliament, chamber of deputies, directory,
reichsrath, rigsdag, cortes, storthing, witenagemote, junta, divan, musnud,
sanhedrim; classis; Amphictyonic council; duma, house of representatives;
legislative assembly, legislative council; riksdag, volksraad, witan,
caput, consistory, chapter, syndicate; court of appeal &c. (tribunal) 966;
board of control, board of works; vestry; county council, local board.
audience chamber, council chamber, state chamber.
cabinet council, privy council; cockpit, convocation, synod, congress,
convention, diet, states-general.
assembly, caucus, conclave, clique, conventicle; meeting, sitting,
seance, conference, session, palaver, pourparler, durbar, house; quorum;
council fire [N.Am.], powwow [U.S.], primary [U.S.].
senator; member, member of parliament, M.P.; councilor,
representative of the people; assemblyman, congressman.
Adj. senatorial, curule; congressional, parliamentary.

#697. Precept. -- N. precept, direction, instruction, charge;
prescript, prescription; recipe, receipt; golden rule; maxim &c. 496.
rule, canon, law, code, corpus juris, lex scripta, act, statute,
rubric, stage direction, regulation; form, formula, formulary;
technicality; canon law; norm.
order &c. (command) 741.

#698. Skill. - N. skill, skillfulness, address; dexterity,
dexterousness; adroitness, expertness &c. adj.; proficiency, competence,
craft, callidity, facility, knack, trick, sleight; mastery, mastership,
excellence, panurgy; ambidexterity, ambidextrousness; sleight of hand &c.
(deception) 545.
seamanship, airmanship, marksmanship, horsemanship; rope-dancing.
accomplishment, acquirement, attainment; art, science; technicality,
technology; practical knowledge, technical knowledge.
knowledge of the world, world wisdom, savoir faire; tact; mother wit
&c. (sagacity) 498; discretion &c. *(caution) 864; finesse; craftiness &c.
(cunning) 702; management &c. (conduct) 692; self-help.
cleverness, talent, ability, ingenuity, capacity, parts, talents,
faculty, endowment, forte, turn, gift, genius; intelligence &c. 498;
sharpness, readiness &c. (activity) 682; invention &c. 515; aptness,
aptitude; turn for, capacity for, genius for; felicity, capability, curiosa
felicitas, qualification, habilitation.
proficient &c. 700.
masterpiece, coup de maitre, chef d'euvre, tour de force; good stroke
&c. (plan) 626.
V. be skillful &c. adj.; excel in, be master of; have a turn for &c.
know what's what, know a hawk from a handsaw, know what one is about,
know on which side one's bread is buttered, know what's o'clock; have cut
one's eye teeth, have cut one's wisdom teeth.
see one's way, see where the wind lies, see which way the wind blows;
have all one's wits about one, have one's hand in; savoir vivre; scire quid
valeant humeri quid ferre recusent.
look after the main chance; cut one's coat according to one's cloth;
live by one's wits; exercise one's discretion, feather the oar, sail near
the wind; stoop to conquer &c. (cunning) 702; play one's cards well, play
one's best card; hit the right nail on the head, put the saddle on the
right horse.
take advantage of, make the most of; profit by &e. (use) 677; make a
hit &c. (succeed) 731; make a virtue of necessity; make hay while the sun
shines &c. (occasion) 134.
Adj. skillful, dexterous, adroit, expert, apt, handy, quick, deft,
ready, gain; slick, smart &c. (active) 682; proficient, good at, up to, at
home in, master of, a good hand at, au fait, thoroughbred, masterly, crack,
accomplished; conversant &c. (knowing) 490.
experienced, practiced, skilled, hackneyed; up in, well up in; in
practice, in proper cue; competent, efficient, qualified, capable, fitted,
fit for, up to the mark, trained, initiated, prepared, primed, finished.
clever, cute, able, ingenious, felicitous, gifted, talented, endowed;
inventive &c. 515; shrewd, sharp &c. (intelligent) 498; cunning &c. 702;
alive to, up to snuff, not to be caught with chaff; discreet.
neat-handed, fine-fingered, nimble-fingered, ambidextrous, sure-
footed; cut out for, fitted for.
technical, artistic, scientific, daedalian, shipshape; workman-like,
business-like, statesman-like.
Adv. skillfully &c. adj.; well &c. 618; artistically; with skill,
with consummate skill; secundum artem, suo Marte; to the best of one's
abilities &c. (exertion) 686.
Phr. ars celare artem; artes honorabit; celui qui veut celui-la peut;
c'est une grande habilite que de savoir cacher sonhabilite; expertus metuit
[Horace]; es bildet ein Talent sich in der Stille sich ein Charakter in dem
Strom der Welt; "heart to coceive the understanding to direct, or the hand
to execute" [Junius].

<-- p. 226 -->

#699. Unskillfulness. -- N. unskillfulness &c. adj.; want of skill &c.
698; incompetence, incompentency; inability, infelicity, indexterity,
inexperience; disqualification, unproficiency; quackery.
folly, stupidity &c. 499; indiscretion &c. (rashness) 863;
thoughtlessness &c. (inattention) 458 (neglect) 460; sabotage.
mismanagement, misconduct; impolicy; maladministration; misrule,
misgovernment, misapplication, misdirection, misfeasance; petticoat
absence of rule, rule of thumb; bungling &c. v.; failure &c. 732;
screw loose: too many cooks.
blunder &c. (mistake) 495; etourderie gaucherie, act of folly,
balourdise; botch, botchery; bad job, sad work.
sprat sent out to catch a whale, much ado about nothing, wild-goose
bungler &c. 701; fool &c. 501.
V. be unskillful &c. adj.; not see an inch beyond one's nose; blunder,
bungle, boggle, fumble, botch, bitch, flounder, stumble, trip; hobble &c.
275; put one's foot in it; make a mess of, make hash of, make sad work of;
overshoot the mark.
play tricks with, play Puck, mismanage, misconduct, misdirect,
misapply, missend.
stultify oneself, make a fool of oneself, commit oneself; act
foolishly; play the fool; put oneself out of court; lose one's head, lose
one's cunning.
begin at the wrong end; do things by halves &c. (not complete) 730;
make two bites of a cherry; play at cross purposes; strain at a gnat and
swallow a camel &c. (caprice) 608; put the cart before the horse; lock the
stable door when the horse is stolen &c. (too late) 135.
not know what one is about, not know one's own interest, not know on
which side one's bread is buttered; stand in one's own light, quarrel with
one's bread and butter, throw a stone in one's own garden, kill the'goose
which lays the golden eggs, pay dear for one's whistle, cut one's own
throat, bum one's fingers; knock one's head against a stone wall, beat
one's head against a stone wall; fall into a trap, catch a Tartar, bring
the house about one's ears; have too many eggs in one basket (imprudent)
863, have too many irons in the fire.
mistake &c. 495; take the shadow for the substance &c. (credulity)
486; bark up the wrong tree; be in the wrong box, aim at a pigeon and kill
a crow; take the wrong pig by the tail, get the wrong pig by the tail, get
the wrong sow by the ear, get the dirty end of the stick; put the saddle on
the wrong horse, put a square peg into a round hole, put new wine into old
cut blocks with a razor; hold a farthing candle to the sun &c.
(useless) 645; fight with a shadow, grasp at a shadow; catch at straws,
lean on a broken reed, reckon without one's host, pursue a wild goose
chase; go on a fool's goose chase, sleeveless errand; go further and fare
worse; lose one's way, miss one's way; fail &c. 732.
Adj. unskillful &c. 69S; inexpert; bungling &c.v.; awkward, clumsy,
unhandy, lubberly, gauche, maladroit; left-handed, heavy-handed; slovenly,
slatternly; gawky.
adrift, at fault.
inapt, unapt; inhabile; untractable, unteachable; giddy &c.
(inattentive) 458; inconsiderate &c. (neglectful) 460; stupid &c. 499;
inactive &c. 683; incompetent; unqualified, disqualified, ill-qualified;
unfit; quackish; raw, green, inexperienced, rusty, out of practice.
unaccustomed, unused, untrained &c. 537, uninitiated, unconversant &c.
(ignorant) 491; shiftless; unstatesmanlike.
unadvised; ill-advised, misadvised; ill-devised, ill-imagined, ill-
judged, ill-contrived, ill-conducted; unguided, misguided; misconducted,
foolish, wild; infelicitous; penny wise and pound foolish &c.
(inconsistent) 608.
Phr. one's fingers being all thumbs; the right hand forgets its
cunning; il se noyerait dans une goutte d'eau; incidit in Scyllam qui vult
vitare Charybdim; out of the frying pan into the fire; non omnia possumus
omnes [Vergil].

<-- p. 227 -->

#700. Proficient. -- N. proficient, expert, adept, dab; dabster;
connoisseur &c. (scholar) 492; master, master hand; prima donna, first
fiddle, chef de cuisine, top sawyer; protagonist;, past master; mahatma.
picked man; medallist, prizeman.
veteran; old stager, old campaigner, old soldier, old file, old hand;
man of business, man of the world.
nice hand, good hand, clean hand; practiced hand, experienced eye,
experienced hand; marksman; good shot, dead shot, crack shot; ropedancer,
funambulist, acrobat; cunning man; conjuror &c. (deceiver) 548; wizard &c.
genius; mastermind, master head, master spirit.
cunning blade, sharp blade, sharp fellow; jobber; cracksman &c.
(thief) 792; politician, tactician, strategist.
pantologist, admirable Crichton, Jack of all trades; prodigy of

#701. Bungler. -- N. bungler; blunderer, blunderhead; marplot,
fumbler, lubber, duffer, stick; bad hand, poor hand, poor shot;
no conjurer, flat, muff, slow coach, looby, lubber, swab; clod, yokel,
awkward squad, blanc-bec; galoot.
land lubber; fresh water sailor, fair weather sailor; horse marine;
fish out of water, ass in lion's skin, jackdaw in peacock's feathers; quack
&c. (deceiver) 548; lord of misrule.
sloven, slattern, trapes.
Phr. il n'a pas invente' la oudre; he will never set the Thames on
fire; acierta errando; aliquis in omnibus nullus in singulis.

#702. Cunning. -- N. cunning, craft; cunningness, craftiness &c. adj.;
subtlety, artificiality; maneuvering &c. v.; temporization; circumvention.
chicane, chicanery; sharp practice, knavery, jugglery; concealment &c.
528; guile, doubling, duplicity &c. (falsehood) 544; foul play.
diplomacy, politics; Machiavelism; jobbery, backstairs influence.
art, artifice; device, machination; plot &c. (plan) 626; maneuver,
stratagem, dodge, artful dodge, wile; trick, trickery &c.(deception) 545;
ruse, ruse de guerre; finesse, side blow, thin end of the wedge, shift, go
by, subterfuge, evasion; white lie &c (untruth) 546; juggle, tour de force;
tricks of the trade, tricks upon travelers; espieglerie; net, trap &c. 545.
Ulysses, Machiavel, sly boots, fox, reynard; Scotchman; Jew, Yankee;
intriguer, intrigant; floater [U.S.], Indian giver [U.S.], keener [U.S.],
repeater [U.S. politics].
V. be cunning &c. adj.; have cut one's eyeteeth; contrive &c (plan)
626; live by one's wits; maneuver; intrigue, gerrymander, finesse, double,
temporize, stoop to conquer, reculer pour mieux sauter, circumvent, steal a
march upon; overreach &c. 545; throw off one's guard; surprise &c. 508;
snatch a verdict; waylay, undermine, introduce the thin end of the wedge;
play a deep game, play tricks with; ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces;
flatter, make things pleasant; have an ax to grind.
Adj. cunning, crafty, artful; skillful &c. 698; subtle, feline,
vulpine; cunning as a fox, cunning as a serpent; deep, deep laid; profound;
designing, contriving; intriguing &c.v.; strategic, diplomatic, politic,
Machiavelian, timeserving; artificial; tricky, tricksy; wily, sly, slim,
insidious, stealthy; underhand &c (hidden) 528; subdolous; deceitful &c.
545; crooked; arch, pawky, shrewd, acute; sharp, sharp as a needle|!;
canny, astute, leery, knowing, up to snuff, too clever by half, not to be
caught with chaff.
Adv. cunningly &c. adj.; slily, on the sly, by a side wind.
Phr. diamond cut diamond; a' bis ou a blanc; fin contre fin;
"something is rotten in the state of Denmark" [Hamlet].

<-- p. 228 -->

#703. Artlessness. -- N. artlessness &c. adj; nature, simplicity;
innocence &c. 946; bonhomie, naivete, abandon, candor, sincerity;
singleness of purpose, singleness of heart; honesty &c. 939; plain
speaking; epanchement.
rough diamond, matter of fact man; le palais de verite; enfant
V. be artless &c. adj; look one in the face; wear one's heart upon his
sleeves for daws to peck at; think aloud; speak out, speak one's mind; be
free with one, call a spade a spade.
Adj. artless, natural, pure, native, confiding, simple, lain,
inartificial, untutored, unsophisticated, ingenu, unaffected, naive;
sincere, frank; open, open as day; candid, ingenuous, guileless;
unsuspicious, honest &c. 939; innocent &c. 946; Arcadian; undesigning,
straightforward, unreserved, aboveboard; simple-minded, single-minded;
frank-hearted, open-hearted, single-hearted, simple-hearted.
free-spoken, plain-spoken, outspoken; blunt, downright, direct, matter
of fact, unpoetical; unflattering.
Adv. in plain words, in plain English; without mincing the matter; not
to mince the matter &c. (affirmation) 535.
Phr. Davus sum non (Edipus [Terrence]; liberavi animam meam; "as frank
as rain on cherry blossoms" [E.B. Browning].


1. Conditional Antagonism

#704. Difficulty. -- N. difficulty; hardness &c. adj.;
impracticability &c. (impossibility) 471; tough work, hard work, uphill
work; hard task, Herculean task, Augean task; task of Sisyphus, Sisyphean
labor, tough job, teaser, rasper, dead lift.
dilemma, embarrassment; deadlock; perplexity &c. (uncertainty) 475;
intricacy; entanglement &c. 59; cross fire; awkwardness, delicacy, ticklish
card to play, knot, Gordian knot, dignus vindice nodus, net, meshes, maze;
coil &c. (convolution) 248; crooked path; involvement.
nice point, delicate point, subtle point, knotty point; vexed
question, vexata quaestio, poser; puzzle &c. (riddle) 533; paradox; hard
nut to crack, nut to crack; bone to pick,
crux, pons asinorum, where the shoe pinches.
nonplus, quandary, strait, pass, pinch, pretty pass, stress, brunt;
critical situation, crisis; trial, rub, emergency, exigency, scramble.
scrape, hobble, slough, quagmire, hot water, hornet's nest; sea of
troubles, peck of troubles; pretty kettle of fish; pickle, stew, imbroglio,
mess, ado; false position.
set fast, stand; deadlock, dead set.
fix, horns of a dilemma, cul de sac; hitch; stumblng block &c
(hindrance) 706.
V. be difficult &c. adj.; run one hard, go against the grain, try
one's patience, put one out; put to one's shifts, put to one's wit's end;
go hard with one, try one; pose, perplex &c. (uncertain) 475; bother,
nonplus, gravel, bring to a deadlock; be impossible &c. 471; be in the way
of &c (hinder) 706.
meet with difficulties; labor under difficulties; get into
difficulties; plunge into difficulties; struggle with difficulties; contend
with difficulties; grapple with difficulties; labor under a disadvantage;
be in difficulty &c. adj.
fish in troubled waters, buffet the waves, swim against the stream,
scud under bare poles.
Have much ado with, have a hard time of it; come to the push, come to
the pinch; bear the brunt.
grope in the dark, lose one's way, weave a tangled web, walk among
get into a scrape &c. n.; bring a hornet's nest about one's ears; be
put to one's shifts; flounder, boggle, struggle; not know which way to turn
&c. (uncertain) 475; perdre son Latin; stick at, stick in the mud, stick
fast; come to a stand, come to a deadlock; hold the wolf by the ears.
render difficult &c. adj.; enmesh, encumber, embarrass, ravel,
entangle; put a spoke in the wheel &c. (hinder) 706; lead a pretty dance.
Adj. difficult, not easy, hard, tough; troublesome, toilsom, irksome;
operose, laborious, onerous, arduous, Herculean, formidable; sooner said
than done; more easily said than done.
difficult to deal with, hard to deal with; ill-conditioned, crabbed;
not to be handled with kid gloves, not made with rose water.
awkward, unwieldy, unmanageable; intractable, stubborn &c. (obstinate)
606; perverse, refractory, plaguy, trying, thorny, rugged; knotted, knotty;
invious|; pathless, trackless; labyrinthine &c (convoluted) 248; intricate,
complicated &c (tangled) 59; impracticable &c. (impossible) 471; not
feasible &c. 470; desperate &c. (hopeless) 859.
embarrassing, perplexing &c. (uncertain) 475; delicate, ticklish,
critical; beset with difficulties, full of difficulties, surrounded by
difficulties, entangled by difficulties, encompassed with difficulties.
under a difficulty; in a box; in difficulty, in hot water, in the
suds, in a cleft stick, in a fix, in the wrong box, in a scrape &c.n., in
deep water, in a fine pickle; in extremis; between two stools, between
Scylla and Charybdis; surrounded by shoals, surrounded by breakers,
surrounded by qucksands; at cross purposes; not out of the wood.
reduced to straits; hard pressed, sorely pressed; run hard; pinched,
put to it, straitened; hard up, hard put to it, hard set; put to one's
shifts; puzzled, at a loss, &c (uncertain) 475; at the end of one's tether,
at one's wit's end, at a nonplus, at a standstill; graveled, nonplussed,
stranded, aground; stuck fast, set fast; up a tree, at bay, aux abois,
driven into a corner, driven from pillar to post, driven to extremity,
driven to one's wit's end, driven to the wall; au bout de son Latin; out of
one's depth; thrown out.
accomplished with difficulty; hard-fought, hard-earned.
Adv. with difficulty, with much ado; hardly &c. adj.; uphill; against
the stream, against the grain; d rebours; invita Minerva; in the teeth of;
at a pinch, upon a pinch; at long odds.
Phr. "ay there's the rub" [Hamlet]; hic labor hoc opus [Vergil];
things are come to a pretty pass, ab inconvenienti; ad astra per aspera;
acun chemin de fleurs ne conduit a la gloire.

<-- p. 229 -->

#705. Facility. -- N. facility, ease; easiness &c. adj.; capability;
feasibility &c. (practicabiity) 470; flexibility, pliancy &c. 324;
smoothness &c. 255.
plain sailing, smooth sailing, straight sailing; mere child's play,
holiday task; cinch [U.S.].
smooth water, fair wind; smooth royal road; clear coast, clear stage;
tabula rasa; full play &c. (freedom) 748.
disencumbrance, disentanglement; deoppilation|!; permission &c. 760.
V. be easy &c. adj.; go on smoothly, run smoothly; have full play &c.
n.; go on all fours, run on all fours; obey the helm, work well.
flow with the stream, swim with the stream, drift with the stream, go
with the stream, flow with the tide, drift with the tide; see one's way;
have all one's own way, have the game in one's own hands; walk over the
course, win at a canter; make light of, make nothing of, make no bones of.
be at home in &c. (skillful) 698.
render easy &c. adj.; facilitate, smooth, ease; popularize; lighten,
lighten the labor; free, clear; disencumber, disembarrass, disentangle,
disengage; deobstruct, unclog, extricate, unravel; untie the knot, cut the
knot; disburden, unload, exonerate, emancipate, free from, deoppilate|!;
humor &c. (aid) 707; lubricate &c. 332; relieve &c. 834.
leave a hole to creep out of, leave a loophole, leave the matter open;
give the reins to, give full play, give full swing; make way for; open the
door to, open the way, prepare the ground, smooth the ground, clear the
ground, open the way, open the path, open the road; pave the way, bridge
over; permit &c. 760.
Adj. easy, facile; feasible &c (practicable) 470; easily managed,
easily accomplished; within reach, accessible, easy of access, for the
million, open to.
manageable, wieldy; towardly, tractable; submissive; yielding,
ductile; suant; pliant &c. (soft) 324; glib, slippery; smooth &c. 255; on
friction wheels, on velvet.
unembarrassed, disburdened, unburdened, disencumbered, unencumbered,
disembarrassed; exonerated; unloaded, unobstructed, untrammeled;
unrestrained &c. (free) 748; at ease, light.
at home; quite at home; in one's element, in smooth water.
Adv. easily &c. adj.; readily, smoothly, swimmingly, on easy terms,
Phr. touch and go.

<-- p. 230 -->

#706. Hindrance. -- N. prevention, preclusion, obstruction, stoppage;
embolus; interruption, interception, interclusion|; hindrance, impedition|;
retardment, retardation; embarrassment, oppilation|!; coarctation,
stricture, restriction; restraint &c. 751; inhibition &c. 761; blockade
&c. (closure) 261.
interference, interposition; obtrusion; discouragement,
impediment, let, obstacle, obstruction, knot, knag; check, hitch,
contretemps, screw loose, grit in the oil.
bar, stile, barrier;
turnstile, turnpike; gate, portcullis.
beaver dam; trocha; barricade &c. (defense) 717; wall, dead wall,
breakwater, groyne; bulkhead, block, buffer; stopper &c. 263; boom, dam,
weir, burrock.
drawback, objection; stumbling-block, stumbling-stone; lion in the
path, snag; snags and sawyers.
encumbrance, incumbrance; clog, skid, shoe, spoke; drag, drag chain,
drag weight; stay, stop; preventive, propylactic; load, burden, fardel,
onus, millstone round one's neck, impedimenta; dead weight; lumber, pack;
nightmare, Ephialtes, incubus, old man of the sea; remora.
difficulty &c. 704; insuperable &c. 471; obstacle; estoppel [law]; ill
wind; head wind &c. (opposition) 708; trammel, tether &c. (means of
restraint) 752; hold back, counterpoise.
damper, wet blanket, hinderer, marplot, killjoy, interloper.
trail of a red herring; opponent &c. 710.
V. hinder, impede, filibuster [U.S.], impedite, embarrass.
keep off, stave off, ward off; obviate; avert, antevert|; turn aside,
draw off, prevent, forefend, nip in the bud; retard, slacken, check, let;
counteract, countercheck; preclude, debar, foreclose, estop; inhibit &c.
761; shackle &c. (restrain) 751; restrict.
obstruct, stop, stay, bar, bolt, lock; block, block up; choke off;
belay, barricade; block the way, stop the way; forelay; dam up &c. (close)
261; put on the brake &c. n.; scotch the wheel, lock the wheel, put a spoke
in the wheel; put a stop to &c. 142; traverse, contravene; interrupt,
intercept; oppose &c. 708; hedge in, hedge round; cut off; inerclude|.
interpose, interfere, intermeddle &c. 682.
cramp, hamper; clog, clog the wheels; cumber; encumber, incumber;
handicap; choke; saddle with, load with; overload, lay; lumber, trammel,
tie one's hands, put to inconvenience; incommode, discommode; discompose;
hustle, corner, drive into a corner.
run foul of, fall foul of; cross the path of, break in upon.
thwart, frustrate, disconcert, balk, foil; faze, feaze, feeze [U.S.];
baffle, snub, override, circumvent; defeat &c. 731; spike guns &c. (render
useless) 645; spoil, mar, clip the wings of; cripple &c. (injure) 659; put
an extinguisher on; damp; dishearten &c (dissuade) 616; discountenance,
throw cold water on, spoil sport; lay a wet blanket, throw a wet blanket
on; cut the ground from under one, take the wind out of one's sails,
undermine; be in the way of, stand in the way of; act as a drag; hang like
a millstone round one's neck.
Adj. hindering &c. v.; obstructive, obstruent; impeditive, impedient;
intercipient|; prophylactic &c. (remedial) 662; impedimentary.
in the way of, unfavorable; onerous, burdensome; cumbrous, cumbersome;
hindered &c v.; windbound, waterlogged, heavy laden; hard pressed.
unassisted &c. (see assist &c. 707); singlehanded, alone; deserted &c.
Phr. occurrrenit nubes.

<-- p. 231 -->

#707. Aid. -- N. aid, aidance; assistance, help, opitulation|, succor;
support, lift, advance, furtherance, promotion; coadjuvancy &c.
(cooperation) 709.
patronage, championship, countenance, favor, interest, advocacy.
sustentation, subvention, alimentation, nutrition, nourishment;
eutrophy; manna in the wilderness; food &c. 298; means &c. 632.
ministry, ministration; subministration; accommodation.
relief, rescue; help at a dead lift; supernatural aid; deus ex
supplies, reenforcements, succors, contingents, recruits; support &c.
(physical) 215; adjunct, ally &c. (helper) 711.
V. aid, assist, help, succor, lend one's aid; come to the aid &c. n.
of; contribute, subscribe to; bring aid, give aid, furnish aid, afford aid,
supply aid &c. n.; give a helping hand, stretch a hand, lend a helping
hand, lend a hand, bear a helping hand, hold out a hand, hold out a helping
hand; give one a life, give one a cast, give one a turn; take by the hand,
take in tow;help a lame dog over a stile, lend wings to.
relieve, rescue; set up, set agoing, set on one's legs; bear through,
pull through; give new life to, be the making of; reenforce, recruit; set
forward, put forward, push forward; give a lift, give a shove, give an
impulse to; promote, further, forward, advance
expedite, speed, quicken, hasten.
support, sustain, uphold, prop, hold up, bolster.
cradle, nourish; nurture, nurse, dry nurse, suckle, put out to nurse;
manure, cultivate, force; foster, cherish, foment; feed the flame, fan the
serve; do service to, tender to, pander to; administer to, subminister
to, minister to; tend, attend, wait on; take care of &c. 459; entertain;
smooth the bed of death.
oblige, accommodate, consult the wishes of; humor, cheer, encourage.
second, stand by; back, back up; pay the piper, abet; work for, make
interest for, stick up for, take up the cudgels for; take up the cause of,
espouse the cause of, adopt the cause of; advocate, beat up for recruits,
press into the service; squire, give moral support to, keep in countenance,
countenance, patronize; lend oneself to, lend one's countenance to; smile
upon, shine upon; favor, befriend, take in hand, enlist under the banners
of; side with &c. (cooperate) 709.
be of use to; subserve &c. (instrument) 631; benefit &c. 648; render a
service &c. (utility) 644; conduce &c. (tend) 176.
Adj. aiding &c. v.; auxiliary, adjuvant, helpful; coadjuvant &c. 709;
subservient, ministrant, ancillary, accessory, subsidiary.
at one's beck; friendly, amicable, favorable, propitious, well-
disposed; neighborly; obliging &c. (benevolent) 906.
Adv. with the aid, by the aid &c. of; on behalf of, in behalf of; in
aid of, in the service of, in the name of, in favor of, in furtherance of;
on account of; for the sake of, on the part of; non obstante.
Int. help! save us! to the rescue!
Phr. alterum alterius auxilio eget [Sallust]; "God befriend us as our
cause is just" [Henry IV].

<-- p. 232 -->

#708. Opposition. -- N.. opposition, antagonism; oppugnancy,
oppugnation; impugnation|!; contrariety; contravention; counteraction &c.
179; counterplot.
cross fire, undercurrent, head wind.
clashing, collision, conflict.
competition, two of a trade, rivalry, emulation, race.
absence of aid &c. 708; resistance &c. 719; restraint &c. 751;
hindrance &c. 706.
V. oppose, counteract, run counter to; withstand &c. (resist) 719;
control &c. (restrain) 751; hinder &c. 706; antagonize, oppugn, fly in the
face of, go dead against, kick against, fall afoul of, run afoul of; set
against, pit against; face, confront, cope with; make a stand, make a dead
set against; set oneself against, set one's face against; protest against,
vote against, raise one;s voice against; disfavor, turn one's back upon;
set at naught, slap in the face, slam the door in one's face.
be at cross purposes; play at cross purposes; counterwork,
countermine; thwart, overthwart.
stem, breast, encounter; stem the tide, breast the tide, stem the
current, stem the flood; buffet the waves; beat up against, make head
against; grapple with; kick against the pricks &c. (resist) 719; contend
&c. 720; do battle &c. (warfare) 722 -with, do battle against.
contradict, contravene; belie; go against, run against, beat against,
militate against; come in conflict with.
emulate &c. (compete) 720; rival, spoil one's trade.
Adj. opposing, opposed &c.v.; adverse, antagonistic; contrary &c. 14;
at variance &c. 24; at issue, at war with.
unfavorable, unfriendly; hostile, inimical, cross, unpropitious.
in hostile array, front to front, with crossed bayonets, at daggers
drawn; up in arms; resistant &c. 719.
copetitive, emulous.
Adv. against, versus, counter to, in conflict with, at cross purposes.
against the grain, against the current, against the stream, against
the wind, against the tide; with a headwind; with the wind ahead, with the
wind in one's teeth.
in spite, in despite, in defiance; in the way, in the teeth of, in the
face of; across; athwart, overthwart; where the shoe pinches; in spite of
one's teeth.
though &c. 30; even; quand meme; per contra.
Phr. nitor in adversum.

#709. Cooperation. -- N. cooperation; coadjuvancy, coadjutancy;
coagency, coefficiency; concert, concurrence, complicity, participation;
union &c. 43; combination &c. 48; collusion.
association, alliance, colleagueship,
joint stock, copartnership; cartel; confederation &c. (party) 712;
coalition, fusion; a long pull a strong pull and a pull all together;
logrolling, freemasonry.
unanimity &c. (assent) 488; esprit de corps, party spirit; clanship,
partisanship; concord &c 714; synergy.
V. cooperate, concur; conduce &c. 178; combine, unite one;s efforts;
keep together, draw together, pull together, club together, hand together,
hold together, league together, band together, be banded together; pool;
stand shoulder to shoulder, put shoulder to shoulder; act in concert, join
forces, fraternize, cling to one another, conspire, concert, lay one;s
heads together; confederate, be in league with; collude, understand one
another, play into the hands of, hunt in couples.
side with, take side with, go along with, go hand in hand with, join
hands with, make common cause with, strike in with, unite with, join with,
mix oneself up with, take part with, cast in one's lot with; join
partnership, enter into partnership with; rally round, follow the lead of;
come to, pass over to, come into the views of; be in the same boat, row in
the same boat; sail in the same boat; sail on the same tack.
be a party to, lend oneself to; chip in; participate; have a hand in,
have a finger in the pie; take part in, bear part in; second &c. (aid) 707;
take the part of, play the game of; espouse a cause, espouse a quarrel.
Adj. cooperating &c. v.; in cooperation &c.n., in league &c. (party)
712; coadjuvant, coadjutant; dyed in the wool; synergetic, synergistic.
favorable &c. 707 to; unopposed &c. 708.
Adv. as one &c. (unanimously) 488; shoulder to shoulder.
Phr. due teste valgono piu che una sola.

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#710. Opponent. -- N. opponent, antagonist, adversary; adverse party,
opposition; enemy &c. 891; assailant.
oppositionist, obstructive; brawler, wrangler, brangler, disputant;
filibuster [U.S.], obstructionist.
malcontent; Jacobin, Fenian; demagogue, reactionist.
rival, competitor.

#711. Auxiliary. -- N. auxiliary; recruit; assistant; adjuvant,
adjutant; ayudante, coaid; adjunct; help, helper, help mate, helping hand;
midwife; colleague, partner, mate, confrere, cooperator; coadjutor,
coadjutrix; collaborator.
ally; friend &c. 890, confidant, fidus Achates, pal, alter ego.
confederate; accomplice; complice; accessory, accessory after the
fact; particeps criminis; socius criminis.
aide-de-camp, secretary, clerk, associate, marshal; right-hand;
candle-holder, bottle-holder; handmaid; servant &c. 746; puppet, cat's-paw,
tool, ame damnee; satellite, adherent.
votary; sectarian, secretary; seconder, backer, upholder, abettor,
advocate, partisan, champion, patron, friend at court, mediator; angel
[theater, entertainment].
friend in need, Jack at a pinch, deus ex machina, guardian angel,
tutelary genius.

#712. Party. -- N. party, faction, side, denomination, communion, set,
crew, band. horde, posse, phalanx; family, clan, &c. 166; team; tong.
community, body, fellowship, sodality, solidarity; confraternity;
familistere, familistery; brotherhood, sisterhood.
knot, gang, clique, ring, circle; coterie, club, casino|!; machine;
Tammany, Tammany Hall [U.S.].
corporation, corporate body, guild; establishment, company;
copartnership, partnership; firm, house; joint concern, joint-stock
company; cahoot, combine [U.S.], trust.
society, association; institute, institution; union; trades union;
league, syndicate, alliance, Verein, Bund, Zollverein, combination;
Turnverein; league offensive and defensive, alliance offensive and
defensive; coalition; federation; confederation, confederacy; junto, cabal,
camarilla, camorra, brigue|; freemasonry; party spirit &c. (cooperation)
Confederates, Conservatives, Democrats, Federalists, Federals,
Freemason, Knight Templar; Kuklux, Kuklux Klan; Liberals, Luddites,
Republicans, Socialists, Tories, Whigs &c.
staff; dramatis personae.
V. unite, join; club together &c. (cooperate) 709; cement a party,
form a party &c. n.; associate &c. (assemble) 72; enleague, federalize, go
cahoots .
Adj. in league, in partnership, in alliance &c. n.
bonded together, banded together, linked &c. (joined) 43- together;
embattled; confederated, federative, joint.
Adv. hand in hand, side by side, shoulder to shoulder, en masse,in the
same boat.

#713. Discord. -- N. disagreement &c. 24; discord, disaccord,
dissidence, dissonance; jar, clash, shock; jarring, jostling &c. v.; screw
variance, difference, dissension, misunderstanding, cross purposes,
odds, brouillerie; division, split, rupture, disruption, division in the
camp, house divided against itself, disunion, breach; schism &c. (dissent)
489; feud, faction.
quarrel, dispute, tiff, tracasserie, squabble, altercation, barney *,
demel‚, snarl, spat, towrow, words, high words; wrangling &c. v.; jangle,
brabble, cross questions and crooked answers, snip-snap; family jars.
polemics; litigation; strife &c. (contention) 720; warfare &c. 722;
outbreak, open rupture, declaration of war.
broil, brawl, row, racket, hubbub, rixation|; embroilment,
embranglement, imbroglio, fracas, breach of the peace, piece of work,
scrimmage, rumpus; breeze, squall; riot, disturbance &c (disorder) 59;
commotion &c. (agitation) 315; bear garden, Donnybrook Fair.
subject of dispute, ground of quarrel, battle ground, disputed point;
bone of contention, bone to pick; apple of discord, casus belli; question
at issue &c. (subject of inquiry) 461; vexed question, vexata quaestio,
brand of discord.
troublous times; cat-and-dog life; contentiousness &c. adj.; enmity
&c. 889; hate &c. 898; Kilkenny cats; disputant &c. 710; strange
V. be discordant &c. adj.; disagree, come amiss &c. 24; clash, jar,
jostle, pull different ways, conflict, have no measures with, misunderstand
one another; live liek cat and dog; differ; dissent &c. 489; have a bone to
pick, have a crow to pluck with.
fall out, quarrel, dispute; litigate; controvert &c. (deny) 536;
squabble, wrangle, jangle, brangle, bicker, nag; spar &c. (contend) 720;
have words &c. n. with; fall foul of.
split; break with, break squares with, part company with; declare war,
try conclusions; join issue, put in issue; pick a quarrel, fasten a quarrel
on; sow dissension, stir up dissension &c. n.; embroil, entangle, disunite,
widen the breach; set at odds, set together by the ears; set against, pit
get into hot water, fish in troubled waters, brawl; kick up a row,
kick up a dust; turn the house out of window.
Adj. discordant; disagreeing &c. v.; out of tune, ajar, on bad terms,
dissentient &c. 489; unreconciled, unpacified.
quarrelsome, unpacific; gladiatorial, controversial, polemic,
disputatious; factious; litigious, litigant; pettifogging.
at odds, at loggerheads, at daggers drawn, at variance, at issue, at
cross purposes, at sixes and sevens, at feud, at high words; up in arms,
together by the ears, in hot water, embroiled.
torn, disunited.
Phr. quot homines tot sententiae [Terence]; no love lost between them,
non nostrum tantas componere lites [Vergil]; Mars gravior sub pace latet

<-- p. 234 -->

#714. Concord. -- N. concord, accord, harmony, symphony; homologue;
agreement &c. 23; sympathy &c. (love) 897; response; union, unison, unity;
bonds of harmony; peace &c. 721; unanimity &c. (assent) 488; league &c.
712; happy family.
rapprochement; reunion; amity &c. (friendship) 888; alliance, entente
cordiale, good understanding, conciliation, peacemaker; intercessor,
V. agree &c. 23; accord, harmonize with; fraternize; be -concordant
&c. adj.; go hand in hand; run parallel &c. (concur) 178; understand one
another, pull together &c. (cooperate) 709; put up one's horses together,
sing in chorus.
side with, sympathize with, go with, chime in with, fall in with; come
round; be pacified &c. 723; assent &c. 488; enter into the ideas of, enter
into the feelings of; reciprocate.
hurler avec les loups; go with the stream, swim with the stream.
keep in good humor, render accordant, put in tune; come to an
understanding, meet halfway; keep the peace, remain at peace.
Adj. concordant, congenial; agreeing &c.v.; in accord &c. n.;
harmonious, united, cemented; banded together &c. 712; allied; friendly &c.
888; fraternal; conciliatory; at one with; of one mind &c. (assent) 488.
at peace, in still water; tranquil &c. (pacific) 721.
Adv. with one voice &c. (assent) 488; in concert with, hand in hand;
on one's side.
Phr. commune periculum concordiam parit.

#715. Defiance. -- N. defiance; daring &. v. ; dare; challenge,
cartel|!; threat &c. 909; war cry, war whoop.
V. defy, dare, beard; brave &c. (courage) 861; bid defiance to; set at
defiance, set at naught; hurl defiance at; dance the war dance; snap the
fingers at, laugh to scorn; disobey &c. 742.
show fight, show one's teeth, show a bold front; bluster, look big,
stand akimbo; double the fist, shake the fist; threaten &c. 909.
challenge, call out; throw down the gauntlet, fling down the gauntlet,
fling down the gage, fling down the glove, throw down the glove.
Adj. defiant; defying &c. v.;"with arms akimbo".
Adv. in defiance of, in the teeth of; under one's very nose.
Int. do your worst! come if you dare! come on! marry come up! hoity
Phr. noli me tangere; nemo me impune lacessit.

<-- p. 235 -->

#716. Attack. -- N. attack; assault, assault and battery; onset,
onslaught, charge.
aggression, offense; incursion, inroad, invasion; irruption; outbreak;
estrapade, ruade; coupe de main, sally, sortie, camisade, raid, foray; run
at, run against; dead set at.
storm, storming; boarding, escalade; siege, investment, obsession|!,
bombardment, cannonade.
fire, volley; platoon fire, file fire; fusillade; sharpshooting,
broadside; raking fire, cross fire; volley of grapeshot, feu d'enfer.
cut, thrust, lunge, pass, passado, carte and tierce, home thrust;
coupe de bec; kick, punch &c. (impulse) 276.
battue, razzia, Jacquerie, dragonnade; devastation &c. 162;
assailant, aggressor, invader.
base of operations, point of attack; echelon.
V. attack, assault, assail; invade; set upon, fall upon; charge,
impugn, break a lance with, enter the lists.
assume the offensive, take the offensive; be the aggressor, become the
aggressor; strike the first blow, throw the first stone at; lift a hand
against, draw the sword against; take up the cudgels; advance against,
march against; march upon, harry; come on, show fight.
strike at, poke at, thrust at; aim a blow at, deal a blow at; give one
a blow, fetch one a blow, fetch one a kick, give one a kick; have a cut at,
have a shot at, take a cut at, take a shot at, have a fling at, have a shy
at; be down upon, pounce upon; fall foul of, pitch into, launch out
agianst; bait, slap on the face; make a thrust at, make a pass at, make a
set at, make a dead set at; bear down upon.
close with, come to close quarters;
bring to bay.
ride full tilt against; attack tooth and nail.
let fly at, dash at, run a tilt at, rush at, tilt at, run at, fly at,
hawk at, have at, let out at; make a dash, make a rush at; strike home;
drive one hard; press one hard; be hard upon, run down, strike at the root
lay about one, run amuck.
draw a bead on [U.S.].
fire upon, fire at, fire a shot at; shoot at, pop at, level at, let
off a gun at; open fire, pepper, bombard, shell, ppour a broadside into;
fire a volley, fire red-hot shot; spring a mine.
throw a stone, throw stones at; stone, lapidate, pelt; hurl at, hurl
against, hurl at the head of; rock [U.S.]
beset, besiege, beleaguer; lay siege to, invest, open the trenches,
plant a battery, sap, mine; storm, board, scale the walls.
cut and thrust, bayonet, butt; kick, strike &c. (impulse) 276; whipe
&c. (punish) 972.
Adj. attacking &c.v.; aggressive, offensive, obsidional.
up in arms.
Adv. on the offensive.
Int. "up and at them!"
Phr. "the din of arms, the yell of savage rage, the shriek of agony,
the groan of death" [Southey]; "their fatal hands no second stroke intend'
[Paradise Lost]; "thirst for glory quells the love of life" [Addison].

#717. Defense -- N. defense, protection, guard, ward; shielding &c.v.;
propugnation|, preservation &c. 670; guardianship.
self-defense, self-preservation; resistance &c. 719.
safeguard &c. (safety) 664; balistraria; screen &c. (shelter) 666;
(concealment) 530; fortification; munition, muniment; bulwark, fosse, moat,
ditch, intrenchment; kila; dike, dyke; parapet, sunk fence, embankment,
mound, mole, bank; earth work, field-work; fence, wall dead wall,
contravallation; paling &c. (inclosure) 232; palisade, haha, stockade,
stoccado, laager, sangar; barrier, barricade; boom; portcullis, chevaux de
frise; abatis, abattis, abbatis; vallum, circumvallation, battlement,
rampart, scarp; escarp, counter-scarp; glacis, casemate; vallation, vanfos.
buttress, abutment; shore &c. (support) 215.
breastwork, banquette, curtain, mantlet, bastion, redan, ravelin;
vauntmure; advance work, horn work, outwork; barbacan, barbican; redoubt;
fort-elage, fort-alice; lines.
loophole, machicolation; sally port.
hold, stronghold, fastness; asylum &c. (refuge) 666; keep, donjon,
fortress, citadel, capitol, castle; tower of strength, tower of strength;
fort, barracoon, pah, sconce, martello tower, peelhouse, blockhouse, rath;
wooden walls.
buffer, corner stone, fender, apron, mask, gauntlet, thimble,
carapace, armor, shield, buckler, aegis, breastplate, backplate,
cowcatcher, face guard, scutum, cuirass, habergeon, mail, coat of mail,
brigandine, hauberk, lorication, helmet, helm, bassinet, salade, heaume,
morion, murrion, armet, cabaset, vizor, casquetel, siege cap, headpiece,
casque, pickethaube, vambrace, shako &c. (dress) 225.
bearskin; panoply; truncheon &c. (weapon) 727.
garrison, picket, piquet; defender, protector; guardian &c. (safety)
664; bodyguard, champion; knight-errant, Paladin; propugner.
V. defend, forfend, fend; shield, screen, shroud; engarrison; fend
round &c. (circumscribe) 229; fence, intrench; guard &c. (keep safe) 664;
guard against; take care of &c. (vigilance) 459; bear harmless; fend off,
keep off, ward off, beat off; hinder &c. 706.
parry, repel, propugn, put to flight; give a warm reception to
[ironical]; hold at bay, keep at bay, keep arm's length.
stand on the defensive, act on the defensive; show fight; maintain
one;s ground, stand one's ground; stand by; hold one's own; bear the brunt,
stand the brunt; fall back upon, hold, stand in the gap.
Adj. defending &c.v.; defensive; mural|!; armed, armed at all points,
armed cap-a-pie, armed to the teeth; panoplied; ironplated, ironclad;
loopholed, castellated, machicolated, casemated; defended &c.v.; proof
ballproof|!, bulletproof.
Adv. defensively; on the defense, on the defensive; in defense; at
bay, pro aris et focis.
Int. no surrender!
Phr. defense not defiance; Dieu defend le droit; fidei defensor.

<-- p. 236 -->

#718. Retaliation. -- N. retaliation, reprisal, retort; counter-
stroke, counter-blast, counterplot, counter-project; retribution, lex
talionis; reciprocation &c. (reciprocity) 12.
tit for tat, give and take, blow for blow, quid pro quo, a Roland for
an Oliver, measure for measure, diamond cut diamond, the biter bit, a game
at which two can play; reproof valiant, retort courteous.
recrimination &c. (accusation) 938; revenge &c. 919; compensation &c.
30; reaction &c. (recoil) 277.
V. retaliate, retort, turn upon; pay, pay off, pay back; pay in one's
own coin, pay in the same coin; cap; reciprocate &c. 148; turn the tables
upon, return the compliment; give a quid pro quo &c. n., give as much as
one takes, give as good as one gets; give and take, exchange fisticuffs; be
quits, be even with; pay off old scores.
serve one right, be hoist on one's own petard, throw a stone in one's
own garden, catch a Tartar.
Adj. retaliating &c. v.; retaliatory, retaliative; talionic.
Adv. in retaliation; en revanche.
Phr. mutato nomine de te fabula narratur [Horace]; par pari refero
[Terence]; tu quoque; you're another; suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo; a beau
jeu beau retour; litem . . . lite resolvit [Horace].

#719. Resistance. -- N. resistance, stand, front, oppugnation;
oppugnancy; opposition &c. 708; renitence, renitency; reluctation,
recalcitration; kicking &c. v.
repulse, rebuff.
insurrection &c. (disobedience) 742; strike; turn out, lock out,
barring out; levee en masse, Jacquerie; riot &c. (disorder) 59.
V. resist; not submit &c. 725; repugn, reluct, reluctate, withstand;
stand up against, strive against, bear up under, bear up against, be proof
against, make head against; stand, stand firm, stand one's ground, stand
the brunt of, stand out; hold one's grounds, hold one's own, hold out, hold
breast the wave, breast the current; stem the tide, stem the torrent;
face, confront, grapple with; show a bold gfront &c. (courage) 861; present
a front; make a stand, take one's stand.
kick, kick against; recalcitrate, kick against the pricks; oppose &c.
708; fly in the face of; lift the hand against &c. (attack) 716; rise up in
arms &c. (war) 722; strike, turn out; draw up a round robin &c.
(remonstrate) 932; revolt &c. (disobey) 742; make a riot.
prendre le mors aux dents; take the bit between the teeth; sell one's
life dearly, die hard, keep at bay; repel, repulse.
Adj. resisting &c.v.; resistive, resistant; refractory &c.
(disobedient) 742; recalcitrant, renitent; up in arms.
repulsive, repellant.
proof against; unconquerable &c. (strong) 159; stubborn, unconquered;
indomitable &c. (persevering) 604a; unyielding &c. (obstinate) 606.
Int. hands off! keep off!

<-- p. 237 -->

#720. Contention. -- N. contention, strife; contest, contestation;
struggle; belligerency; opposition &c. 708.
controversy, polemics; debate &c. (discussion) 476; war of words,
logomachy, litigation; paper war; high words &c. (quarrel) 713; sparring
&c. v.
competition, rivalry; corrivalry, corrivalship, agonism|, concours,
match, race, horse racing, heat, steeple chase, handicap; regatta; field
day; sham fight, Derby day; turf, sporting, bullfight, tauromachy,
gymkhana; boat race, torpids.
wrestling, pugilism, boxing, fisticuffs, spar, mill, set-to, round,
bout, event, prize fighting; quarterstaff, single stick; gladiatorship,
gymnastics; jiujitsu, jujutsu, kooshti, sumo; athletics, athletic sports;
games of skill &c. 840.
shindy; fracas &c. (discord) 713; clash of arms; tussle, scuffle,
broil, fray; affray, affrayment|; velitation|; colluctation|, luctation;
brabble, brigue|, scramble, melee, scrimmage, stramash, bushfighting.
free fight, stand up fight, hand to hand, running fight.
conflict, skirmish; rencounter, encounter; rencontre, collision,
affair, brush, fight; battle, battle royal; combat, action, engagement,
joust, tournament; tilt, tilting [medeival times]; tournay, list; pitched
death struggle, struggle for life or death, life or death struggle,
hard knocks, sharp contest, tug of war.
naval engagement, naumachia, sea fight.
duel, duello; single combat, monomachy, satisfaction, passage d'armes,
passage of arms, affair of honor; triangular duel; hostile meeting,
digladiation; deeds of arms, feats of arms; appeal to arms &c. (warfare)
pugnacity; combativeness &c. adj.; bone of contention &c. 713.
V. contend; contest, strive, struggle, scramble, wrestle; spar,
square; exchange blows, exchange fisticuffs; fib|!, justle, tussle, tilt,
box, stave, fence; skirmish; pickeer; fight &c. (war) 722; wrangle &c.
(quarrel) 713.
contend &c. with, grapple with, engage with, close with, buckle with,
bandy with, try conclusions with, have a brush &c. n. with, tilt with;
encounter, fall foul of, pitch into, clapperclaw, run a tilt at; oppose &c.
708; reluct.
join issue, come to blows, go to loggerheads, set to, come to the
scratch, exchange shots, measure swords, meet hand to hand; take up the
cudgels, take up the glove, take up the gauntlet; enter the lists; couch
one's lance; give satisfaction; appeal to arms &c. (warfare) 722.
lay about one; break the peace.
compete with, cope with, vie with, race with; outvie, emulate, rival;
run a race; contend &c. for, stipulate for, stickle for; insist upon, make
a point of.
Adj. contending &c. v.; together by the ears, at loggerheads at war at
competitive, rival; belligerent; contentious, combative, bellicose,
unpeaceful; warlike &c. 722; quarrelsome &c. 901; pugnacious; pugilistic,
gladiatorial; palestric, palestrical.
Phr. a verbis ad verbera; a word and a blow; "a very pretty quarrel as
it stands" [Sheridan]; commune periculum concordiam parit; lis litem

#721. Peace. -- N. peace; amity &c. (friendship) 888; harmony &c.
(concord) 714; tranquillity &c. (quiescence) 265; truce &c. (pacification)
723; pipe of peace, calumet of peace.
piping time of peace, quiet life; neutrality.
pax Romana; Pax Americana.
V. be at peace; keep the peace &c. (concord) 714.
make peace &c. 723.
Adj. pacific; peaceable, peaceful; calm, tranquil, untroubled,
halcyon; bloodless; neutral.
Phr. the storm blown over; the lion lies down with the lamb; "all
quiet on the Potomac"; paritur pax bello [Nepos]; "peace hath her victories
no less renowned than war" [Milton]; "they make a desert and they call it

<-- p. 238 -->

#722. Warfare. -- N. warfare; fighting &c.v.; hostilities; war, arms,
the sword; Mars, Bellona, grim visaged war, horrida bella; bloodshed.
appeal to arms, appeal to the sword; ordeal of battle; wager of
battle; ultima ratio regum, arbitrament of the sword.
battle array, campaign, crusade, expedition; mobilization; state of
siege; battlefield &c. (arena) 728; warpath.
art of war, tactics, strategy, castrametation; generalship;
soldiership; military evolutions, ballistics, gunnery; chivalry.
gunpowder, shot.
battle, tug of war &c. (contention) 720; service, campaigning, active
service, tented field; kriegspiel, Kriegsspiel; fire cross, trumpet,
clarion, bugle, pibroch, slogan; war-cry, war-whoop; battle cry, beat of
drum, rappel, tom-tom; calumet of war; word of command; password,
watchword; passage d-armes.
war to the death, war to the knife; guerre a mort, guerre a outrance;
open war, internecine war, civil war.
V. arm; raise troops, mobilize troops; raise up in arms; take up the
cudgels &c. 720; take up arms, fly to arms, appeal to arms, fly to the
sword; draw the sword, unsheathe the sword; dig up the hatchet, dig up the
tomahawk; go to war, wage war, 'let slip the dogs of war' [Julius Caesar];
cry havoc; kindle the torch of war, light the torch of war; raise one's
banner, raise the fire cross; hoist the black flag; throw away, fling away
the scabbard; enroll, enlist; take the field; take the law into one's own
hands; do battle, give battle, join battle, engage in battle, go to battle;
flesh one's sword; set to, fall to, engage, measure swords with, draw the
trigger, cross swords; come to blows, come to close quarters; fight;
combat; contend &c. 720; battle with, break a lance with.
serve; see service, be on service, be on active service; campaign;
wield the sword, shoulder a musket, smell powder, be under fire; spill
blood, imbrue the hands in blood; on the warpath.
carry on war, carry on hostilities; keep the field; fight the good
fight; fight it out, fight like devils, fight one's way, fight hand to
hand; sell one's life dearly.
Adj. contending, contentious &c. 720; armed, armed to the teeth, armed
cap-a-pie; sword in hand; in arms, under arms, up in arms; at war with;
bristling with arms; in battle array, in open arms, in the field;
embattled; battled.
unpacific, unpeaceful; belligerant, combative, armigerous, bellicose,
martial, warlike; military, militant; soldier-like, soldierly.
chivalrous; strategical, internecine.
Adv. flagrante bello, in the thick of the fray, in the cannon's mouth;
at the sword's point, at the point of the bayonet.
Int. vae victis! to arms! to your tents O Israel!
Phr. the battle rages; a la guerre comme a la guerre; bis peccare in
bello non licet; jus gladii; "my voice is still for war" [Addison]; "'tis
well that war is so terrible, otherwise we might grow fond of it" [Robert
E. Lee]; "my sentence is for open war" [Milton]; "pride, pomp, and
circumstance of glorious war" [Othello]; "the cannons have their bowels
full of wrath" [King John]; "the cannons . . .spit forth their iron
indignation" [King John]; "the fire-eyed maid of smoky war" [Henry IV];
silent leges inter arma [Cicero]; si vis pacem para bellum.

#723. Pacification. -- N. pacification, conciliation; reconciliation,
reconcilement; shaking of hands, accommodation, arrangement, adjustment;
terms, compromise; amnesty, deed of release.
peace offering; olive branch; calumet of peace, preliminaries of
truce, armistice; suspension of arms, suspension of hostilities;
breathing time; convention; modus vivendi; flag of truce, white flag,
parlementaire, cartel|!.
hollow truce, pax in bello; drawn battle.
V. pacify, tranquillize, compose; allay &c. (moderate) 174; reconcile,
propitiate, placate, conciliate, meet halfway, hold out the olive branch,
heal the breach, make peace, restore harmony, bring to terms.
settle matters, arrange matters, accommodate matters, accommodate
differences; set straight; make up a quarrel, tantas componere lites; come
to an understanding, come to terms; bridge over, hush up; make it, make
matters up; shake hands; mend one's fences [U.S.].
raise a siege; put up the sword, sheathe the sword; bury the hatchet,
lay down one's arms, turn swords into plowshares; smoke the calumet of
peace, close the temple of Janus; keep the peace &c. (concord) 714; be
pacified &c.; come round.
Adj. conciliatory; composing &c.v.; pacified &c.v.
Phr. requiescat in pace.

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#724. Mediation. -- N. mediation, mediatorship, mediatization;
intervention, interposition, interference, intermeddling, intercession;
arbitration; flag of truce &c. 723; good offices, peace offering; .
parley, negotiation; diplomatics, diplomacy; compromise &c. 774.
mediator, intercessor, peacemaker, makepeace, negotiator, go-between;
diplomatist &c. (consignee) 758; moderator; propitiator; umpire.
V. mediate, mediatize; intercede, interpose, interfere, intervene;
step in, negotiate; meet halfway; arbitrate; magnas componere lites.
Adj. mediatory.

#725. Submission. -- N. submission, yielding; nonresistance; obedience
&c. 743.
surrender, cession, capitulation, resignation; backdown.
obeisance, homage, kneeling, genuflexion, courtesy, curtsy, kowtow,
V. succumb, submit, yeild, bend, resign, defer to.
lay down one's arms, deliver up one's arms; lower colors, haul down
colors, strike one's flag, strike colors.
surrender, surrender at discretion; cede, capitulate, come to terms,
retreat, beat a retreat; draw in one's horns &c. (humility) 879; give way,
give round, give in, give up; cave in; suffer judgement by default; bend,
bend to one's yoke, bend before the storm; reel back; bend down, knuckle
down, knuckle to, knuckle under; knock under.
eat dirt, eat the leek, eat humble pie; bite the dust, lick the dust;
be at one's feet, fall at one's feet; craven; crouch before, throw oneself
at the feet of; swallow the leek, swallow the pill; kiss the rod; turn the
other cheek; avaler les couleuvres, gulp down.
obey &c. 743; kneel to, bow to, pay homage to, cringe to, truckle to;
bend the neck, bend the knee; kneel, fall on one's knees, bow submission,
courtesy, curtsy, kowtow.
pocket the affront; make the best of, make a virtue of necessity; grin
and abide, grin and bear it, shrug the shoulders, resign oneself; submit
with a good grace &c. (bear with) 826.
Adj. surrendering &c. v.; submissive, resigned, crouching;
downtrodden; down on one's marrow bones; on one's bended knee; unresisting,
nonresisting; pliant &c. (soft) 324; undefended.
untenable, indefensible; humble &c. 879.
Phr. have it your own way; it can't be helped; amen &c. (assent) 488;
da locum melioribus; tempori parendum.

#726. Combatant. -- N. combatant; disputant, controversialist,
polemic, litigant, belligerent; competitor, rival, corrival; fighter,
assailant; champion, Paladin; mosstrooper, swashbuckler fire eater,
duelist, bully, bludgeon man, rough.
prize fighter, pugilist, boxer, bruiser, the fancy, gladiator,
athlete, wrestler; fighting-cock, game-cock; .
warrior, soldier, fighting man, Amazon, man at arms, armigerent;
campaigner, veteran; swordsman, sabreur, redcoat, military man, Rajput.
armed force, troops, soldiery, military forces, sabaoth, the army,
standing army, regulars, the line, troops of the line, militia, yeomanry,
volunteers, trainband, fencible; auxiliary, bersagliere, brave; garde-
nationale, garde-royale; minuteman [Am. Hist.]; auxiliary forces, reserve
forces; reserves, posse comitatus, national guard, gendarme, beefeater;
guards, guardsman; yeomen of the guard, life guards, household troops.
janissary; myrmidon; Mama, Mameluke; spahee, spahi, Cossack, Croat,
Pandoz; irregular, franctireur, tirailleur, bash-bazouk, guerilla,
mercenary; bushwhacker, free lance, companion; Hessian.
levy, draught; Landwehr, Landsturm; conscript, recruit, cadet, raw
private, private soldier; Tommy Atkins, rank and file, peon, trooper,
sepoy, legionnaire, legionary, food for powder; officer &c. (commander)
745; subaltern, ensign, standard bearer; spearman, pikeman; halberdier,
lancer; musketeer, carabineer, rifleman, jager, sharpshooter, yager,
skirmisher; grenadier, fusileer; archer, bowmann.
horse and foot; horse soldier, foot soldier; cavalry, horse,
artillery, horse artillery, infantry, light horse, voltigeur, uhlan,mounted
rifles, dragoon, hussar; light dragoon, heavy dragoon; heavy; cuirassier;
Foot Guards, Horse Guards; gunner, cannoneer, bombardier, artilleryman,
matross; sapper, sapper and miner; engineer; light infantrym,
rifles,chasseur, zouave; military train, coolie.
army, corps d'armee, host, division, battalia, column, wing,
detachment, garrison, flying column, brigade, regiment, corps, battalion,
sotnia, squadron, company, platoon, battery, subdivision, section, squad;
piquet, picket, guard, rank, file; legion, phalanx, cohort; cloud of
war horse, charger, destrier.
marine, man-of-war's man &c. (sailor) 269; navy, wooden walls, naval
forces, fleet, flotilla, armada, squadrong.
man-of-war; armored cruiser, protected cruiser; destroyer; submarine;
torpedo-boat, torpedo-destroyer; torpedo-catcher, war castle, H.M.S.; line
of battle ship, ship of the line; ironclad, turret ship, ram, monitor,
floating battery; first-rate, frigate, sloop of war, corvette, gunboat,
bomb vessel; flagship, guard ship, cruiser; privateer;
tender; store ship, troop ship; transport, catamaran.

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#727. Arms. -- N. arm, arms; weapon, deadly weapon; armament,
armaments, armature; panoply, stand of arms; armor &c. (defense) 717;
armory &c. (store) 636; apparatus belli.
ammunition; powder, powder and shot; cartridge; ball cartridge,
cartouche, fireball; "villanous saltpeter" [Hen. IV]; dumdum bullet.
explosive; gunpowder, guncotton.
dynamite, melinite, cordite, lyddite; pyroxyline.
sword, saber, broadsword, cutlass, falchion, scimitar, cimeter, brand,
whinyard, bilbo, glaive, glave, rapier, skean, Toledo, Ferrara, tuck,
claymore, adaga, baselard, Lochaber ax, skean dhu, creese, kris, dagger,
dirk, banger, ponlard, stiletto, stylet, dudgeon, bayonet; sword-bayonet,
sword-stick; side arms, foil, blade, steel; ax, bill; pole-ax, battle-ax;
gisarme, halberd, partisan, tomahawk, bowie knife; ataghan, attaghan,
yataghan; yatacban; assagai, assegai; good sword, trusty sword, naked
sword; cold steel.
club, mace, truncheon, staff, bludgeon, cudgel, life preserver,
shillelah, sprig; hand staff, quarter staff; bat, cane, stick, knuckle
duster; billy, blackjack, sandbag, waddy.
gun, piece; firearms; artillery, ordnance; siege train, battering
train; park, battery; cannon, gun of position, heavy gun, field piece,
mortar, howitzer, carronade, culverin, basilisk; falconet, jingal, swivel,
pederero, bouche a feu; petard, torpedo; mitrailleur, mitrailleuse;
infernal machine; smooth bore, rifled cannon, Armstrong gun, Lancaster gun,
Paixhan gun, Whitworth gun, Parrott gun, Krupp gun, Gatling gun, Maxim gun,
machine gun; pompom; tenpounder.
small arms; musket, musketry, firelock, fowling piece, rifle, fusil,
caliver, carbine, blunderbuss, musketoon, Brown Bess, matchlock,
harquebuss, arguebus, haguebut; pistol, postolet; petronel; small bore;
breach-loader, muzzle-loader; revolver, repeater; Minis rifle, Enfield
rifle, Flobert rifle, Westley Richards rifle, Snider rifle, Martini-Henry
rifle, Lee-Metford rifle, Lee-Enfield rifle, Mauser rifle, magazine rifle;
needle gun, chassepot; wind gun, air gun; automatic gun, automatic pistol;
escopet, escopette, gunflint, gun-lock; hackbut, shooter, shooting iron *
[U.S.], six-shooter [U.S.], shotgun.
bow, crossbow, balister, catapult, sling; battering ram &c. (impulse)
276; gunnery; ballistics &c. (propulsion) 284.
missile, bolt, projectile, shot, ball; grape; grape shot, canister
shot, bar shot, cannon shot, langrel shot, langrage shot, round shot, chain
shot; balista, ballista, slung shot, trebucbet, trebucket; bullet, slug,
stone, brickbat, grenade, shell, bomb, carcass, rocket; congreve, congreve
rocket; shrapnel, mitraille; levin bolt, levin brand; thunderbolt.
pike, lance, spear, spontoon, javelin, dart, jereed, jerid, arrow,
reed, shaft, bolt, boomerang, harpoon, gaff; eelspear, oxgoad, weet-weet,
Phr. en flute; nervos belli pecuniam infinitam.

<-- p. 241 -->

#728. Arena. -- N. arena, field, platform; scene of action, theater;
walk, course; hustings; stare, boards &c. (playhouse) 599; amphitheater;
Coliseum, Colosseum; Flavian amphitheater, hippodrome, circus, race course,
corso, turf, cockpit, bear garden, playground, gymnasium, palestra, ring,
lists; tiltyard, tilting ground; Campus Martins, Champ de Allars; campus
theater of war, seat of war; battle-field, battle-ground; field of
battle, field of slaughter; Aceldama, camp; the enemy's camp; trusting
place &c. (place of meeting) 74.


#729. Completion. -- N. completion, accomplishment, achievement,
fulfillment; performance, execution; despatch, dispatch; consummation,
culmination; finish, conclusion; close &c. (end) 67; terminus &c. (arrival)
292; winding up; finale, denouement, catastrophe, issue, upshot, result;
final touch, last touch, crowning touch, finishing touch, finishing stroke;
last finish, coup de grace; crowning of the edifice; coping-stone,
keystone; missing link &c. 53; superstructure, ne plus ultra, work done,
fait accompli.
elaboration; finality; completeness &c. 52.
V. [transitive] effect, effectuate; accomplish, achieve, compass,
consummate, hammer out; bring to maturity, bring to perfection; perfect,
complete; elaborate.
do, execute, make; go through, get through; work out, enact; bring
about, bring to bear, bring to pass, bring through, bring to a head.
despatch, dispatch; knock off, finish off, polish off; make short work
of; dispose of, set at rest; perform, discharge, fulfill, realize; put in
practice, put in force; carry out, carry into effect, carry into execution;
make good; be as good as one's word.
do thoroughly, not do by halves,go the whole hog; drive home; be in at
the death &c. (persevere) 604a; carry through, play out, exhaust; fill the
bill [U.S.].
finish, bring to a close &c. (end) 67; wind up, stamp, clinch, seal,
set the seal on, put the seal; give the final touch &c.n. to; put the last,
put the finishing hand to, put the finishing touches on; crown, crown all;
[intransitive] ripen, culminate; come to a head, come to a crisis;
come to its end; die a natural death, die of old age; run its course, run
one's race; touch the goal, reach the goal, attain the goal; reach &c.
(arrive) 292; get in the harvest.
Adj. completing, final; concluding, conclusive; crowning &c. v.;
done, completed &c. v.; done for, sped, wrought out; highly wrought
&c. (preparation) 673; thorough &c. 52; ripe &c. (ready) 673.
Adv. completely &c.(thoroughly) 52; to crown all, out of hand.
Phr. the race is run; actum est; finis coronat opus; consummatum est;
c'en est fait; it is all over; the game is played out, the bubble has
burst; aussilot dit aussilot fait; aut non tentaris aut perfice [Ovid).

#730. Noncompletion. -- N. noncompletion, nonfulfillment; shortcoming
&c. 304; incompleteness &c. 53; drawn battle, drawn game; work of Penelope.
nonperformance, inexecution; neglect &c. 460.
V. not complete &c. 729; leave unfinished &c. adj., leave undone;
neglect &c. 460; let alone, let slip; lose sight of.
fall short of &c. 304; do things by halves, scotch the snake not lull
it; hang fire; be slow to; collapse &c. 304.
Adj. not completed &c. v.; incomplete &c. 53; uncompleted, unfinished,
unaccomplished, unperformed, unexecuted; sketchy, addle.
in progress, in hand; going on, proceeding; on one's hands; on the
Adv. re infecta.

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#731. Success. -- N. success, successfulness; speed; advance &c.
(progress) 282.
trump card; hit, stroke; lucky hit, fortunate hit, good hit, good
stroke; bold stroke, master stroke; ten strike [U.S.]; coup de maitre,
checkmate; half the battle, prize; profit &c. (acquisition) 775.
continued success; good fortune &c. (prosperity) 734; time well spent.
advantage over; upper hand, whip hand; ascendancy, mastery;
expugnation|, conquest, victory, subdual; subjugation &c. (subjection) 749.
triumph &c. (exultation) 884; proficiency &c. (skill) 698.
conqueror, victor; master of the situation, master of the position.
V. succeed; be successful &c. adj.; gain one's end, gain one's ends;
crown with success.
gain a point, attain a point, carry a point, secure a point, win a
point, win an object; get there *[U.S.]; manage to, contrive to; accomplish
&c. (effect, complete) 729; do wonders, work wonders; make a go of it.
come off well, come off successful, come off with flying colors; make
short work of; take by storm, carry by storm; bear away the bell; win one's
spurs, win the battle; win the day, carry the day, gain the day, gain the
prize, gain the palm; have the best of it, have it all one's own way, have
the game in one's owns hands, have the ball at one's feet, have one on the
hop; walk over the course; carry all before one, remain in possession of
the field; score a success.
speed; make progress &c. (advance) 282; win one's way, make one's way,
work one's way, find one's way; strive to some purpose; prosper &c. 734;
drive a roaring trade; make profit &c. (acquire) 775; reap the fruits,
gather the fruits, reap the benefit of, reap the harvest; strike oil *
[U.S.]; make one's fortune, get in the harvest, turn to good account; turn
to account &c. (use) 677.
triump, be triumphant; gain a victory, obtain a victory, gain an
advantage; chain victory to one's car.
surmount a difficulty, overcome a difficulty, get over a difficulty,
get over an obstacle &c. 706; se tirer d'affaire; make head against; stem
the torrent, stem the tide, stem the current; weather the storm, weather a
point; turn a corner, keep one's head above water, tide over; master; get
the better of, have the better of, gain the better of, gain the best of,
gain the upper hand, gain the ascendancy, gain the whip hand, gain the
start of; distance; surpass &c. (superiority) 33.
defeat, conquer, vanquish, discomfit; euchre; overcome, overthrow,
overpower, overmaster, overmatch, overset, override, overreach; outwit,
outdo, outflank, outmaneuver, outgeneral, outvote; take the wind out of
one's adversary's sails; beat, beat hollow; rout, lick, drub, floor, worst;
put down, put to flight, put to the rout, put hors de combat, put out of
silence, quell, nonsuit, checkmate, upset, confound, nonplus,
stalemate, trump; baffle &c. (hinder) 706; circumvent, elude; trip up, trip
up the heels of; drive into a corner, drive to the wall; run hard, put
one's nose out of joint.
settle, do for; break the neck of, break the back of; capsize, sink,
shipwreck, drown, swamp; subdue; subjugate &c. (subject) 749; reduce; make
the enemy bite the dust; victimize, roll in the dust, trample under foot,
put an extinguisher upon.
answer, answer the purpose; avail, prevail, take effect, do, turn out
well, work well, take, tell, bear fruit; hit it, hit the mark, hit the
right nail on the head; nick it; turn up trumps, make a hit; find one's
account in.
Adj. succeeding &c. v.; successful; prosperous &c. 734; triumphant;
flushed with success, crowned with success; victorious; set up; in the
ascendant; unbeaten &c. (see beat &c. v.); well-spent; felicitous,
effective, in full swing.
Adv. successfully &c. adj.; well flying colors, in triumph,
swimmingly; a merveille, beyond all hope; to some purpose, to good purpose;
to one's heart's content.
Phr. veni vidi vici, the day being one;s own, one's star in the
ascendant; omne tulit punctum.
bis vincit qui se vincit in victoria; cede repugnanti cedendo victor
abibis [Ovid]; chacun est l'artisan de sa fortune; dies faustus; l'art de
vaincre est celui de m‚priser la mort; omnia vincit amor; "peace hath her
victories no less renowned than war" [Milton]; "the race by vigor not by
vaunts is won" [Pope]; vincit qui patitur; vincit qui se vincit.

<-- p. 243 -->

#732. Failure. -- N. failure; nonsuccess, nonfulfillment; dead
failure, successlessness; abortion, miscarriage; brutum fulmen &c. 158;
labor in vain &c. (inutility) 645; no go; inefficacy; inefficaciousness &c.
adj.; vain attempt, ineffectual attempt, abortive attempt, abortive
efforts; flash in the pan, "lame and impotent conclusion" [Othello];
frustration; slip 'twixt cup and lip &c. (disappointment) 509.
blunder &c. (mistake) 495; fault, omission, miss, oversight, slip,
trip, stumble, claudication|, footfall; false step, wrong step; faux pas,
titubation, b‚vue, faute, lurch; botchery &c. (want of skill) 699; scrape,
mess, fiasco, breakdown; flunk [U.S.].
mishap &c. (misfortune) 735; split, collapse, smash, blow, explosion.
repulse, rebuff, defeat, rout, overthrow, discomfiture; beating,
drubbing; quietus, nonsuit, subjugation; checkmake, stalemate, fool's mate.
fall, downfall, ruin, perdition; wreck &c. (destruction0 162;
deathblow; bankruptcy &c. (nonpayment) 808.
losing game, affaire flamb‚e.
victim; bankrupt; flunker, flunky [U.S.].
V. fail; be unsuccessful &c. adj.; not succeed &c. 731; make vain
efforts &c.n.; do in vain, labor in vain, toil in vain; flunk [U.S.]; lose
one's labor, take nothing by one's motion; bring to naug