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PART 97 - FCC Rules and Regulations regarding the Amateur Radio Service.
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PART 97 -
AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE

(current as of December 1, 1992)

Subpart A - General Provisions

Sec.
97.1 Basis and purpose.
97.3 Definitions.
97.5 Station license required.
97.7 Control operator required.
97.9 Operator license.
97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft.
97.13 Restrictions on station location.
97.15 Station antenna structures.
97.17 Application for new license.
97.19 Application for renewed or modified license.
97.21 Mailing address and station location.
97.23 License term.
97.25 FCC modification of station license.
97.27 Replacement license.



Subpart B - Station Operation Standards

97.101 General standards.
97.103 Station licensee responsibilities.
97.105 Control operator duties.
97.107 Alien control operator privileges.
97.109 Station control.
97.111 Authorized transmissions.
97.113 Prohibited transmissions.
97.115 Third-party communications.
97.117 International communications.
97.119 Station identification.
97.121 Restricted operation.



Subpart C - Special Operations

97.201 Auxiliary station.
97.203 Beacon station.
97.205 Repeater station.
97.207 Space station.
97.209 Earth station.
97.211 Space Telecommand station.
97.213 Telecommand of an amateur station.
97.215 Telecommand of model craft.
97.216 Telemetry.


Subpart D - Technical Standards

97.301 Authorized frequency bands.
97.303 Frequency sharing requirements.
97.305 Authorized emission types.
97.307 Emission standards.
97.309 RTTY and data emission codes.
97.311 SS emission types.
97.313 Transmitter power standards.
97.315 Type acceptance of external RF power amplifiers.
97.317 Standards for type acceptance of external RF power
amplifiers.



Subpart E - Providing Emergency Communications

97.401 Operation during a disaster.
97.403 Safety of life and protection of property.
97.405 Station in distress.
97.407 Radio amateur civil emergency service.



Subpart F - Qualifying Examination Systems

97.501 Qualifying for an amateur operator license.
97.503 Element standards.
97.505 Element credit.
97.507 Preparing an examination.
97.509 Administering an examination.
97.511 Technician, General, Advanced, and Amateur Extra Class
operator license examination.
97.513 Novice Class operator license examination.
97.515 Volunteer examiner requirements.
97.517 Volunteer examiner conduct.
97.519 Coordinating examination sessions.
97.521 VEC qualifications.
97.523 Question pools.
97.525 Accrediting VEs.
97.527 Reimbursement for expenses.



Appendix 1 Places Where the Amateur Service is Regulated by
the FCC
Appendix 2 VEC Regions



SUBPART A - GENERAL PROVISIONS


97.1 Basis and purpose.

The rules and regulations in this Part are designed to provide
an amateur radio service having a fundamental purpose as expressed
in the following principles:
(a) Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur
service to the public as a voluntary noncommercial communication
service, particularly with respect to providing emergency
communications.
(b) Continuation and extension of the amateur's proven ability
to contribute to the advancement of the radio art.
(c) Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service
through rules which provide for advancing skills in both the
communications and technical phases of the art.
(d) Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur
radio service of trained operators, technicians, and electronics
experts.
(e) Continuation and extension of the amateur's unique ability
to enhance international goodwill.



97.3 Definitions.

(a) The definitions of terms used in Part 97 are:
(1) Amateur operator. A person holding a written
authorization to be the control operator of an amateur station.
(2) Amateur radio services. The amateur service, the
amateur-satellite service and the radio amateur civil emergency
service.
(3) Amateur-satellite service. A radiocommunication
service using stations on Earth satellites for the same purpose as
those of the amateur service.
(4) Amateur service. A radiocommunication service for
the purpose of self-training, intercommunication and technical
investigations carried out by amateurs, that is, duly authorized
persons interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim
and without pecuniary interest.
(5) Amateur station. A station in an amateur radio
service consisting of the apparatus necessary for carrying on
radiocommunications.
(6) Automatic control. The use of devices and
procedures for control of a station when it is transmitting so
that compliance with the FCC Rules is achieved without the control
operator being present at a control point.
(7) Auxiliary station. An amateur station transmitting
communications point-to-point within a system of cooperating
amateur stations.
(8) Bandwidth. The width of a frequency band outside of
which the mean power of the transmitted signal is attenuated at
least 26 dB below the mean power of the transmitted signal within
the band.
(9) Beacon. An amateur station transmitting
communications for the purposes of observation of propagation and
reception or other related experimental activities.
(10) Broadcasting. Transmissions intended for reception
by the general public, either direct or relayed.
(11) Control operator. An amateur operator designated
by the licensee of a station to be responsible for the
transmissions from that station to assure compliance with the FCC
Rules.
(12) Control point. The location at which the control
operator function is performed.
(13) CSCE. Certificate of successful completion of an
examination.
(14) EARTH STATION. An amateur station located on, or
within 50 km of the Earth's surface intended for communications
with space stations or with other Earth stations by means of one
or more other objects in space.
(15) EIC. Engineer in Charge of an FCC Field Facility.
(16) External RF Power Amplifier. A device capable of
increasing power output when used in conjunction with, but not an
integral part of, a transmitter.
(17) External RF power amplifier kit. A number of
electronic parts, which, when assembled, is an external RF power
amplifier, even if additional parts are required to complete
assembly.
(18) FAA. Federal Aviation Administration.
(19) FCC. Federal Communications Commission.
(20) Frequency coordinator. An entity, recognized in a
local or regional area by amateur operators whose stations are
eligible to be auxiliary or repeater stations, that recommends
transmit/receive channels and associated operating and technical
parameters for such stations in order to avoid or minimize
potential interference.
(21) Harmful interference. Interference which endangers
the functioning of a radionavigation service or of other safety
services or seriously degrades, obstructs or repeatedly interrupts
a radiocommunication service operating in accordance with the Radio
Regulations.
(22) Indicator. Words, letters or numerals appended to
and separated from the call sign during the station identification.
(23) Information bulletin. A message directed only to
amateur operators consisting solely of subject matter of direct
interest to the amateur service.
(24) International Morse code. A dot-dash code as
defined in International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative
Committee (CCITT) Recommendation F.1 (1984), Division B, I. Morse
Code.
(25) ITU. International Telecommunication Union.
(26) Line A. Begins at Aberdeen, WA, running by great
circle arc to the intersection of 48 degrees N, 120 degrees W,
thence along parallel 48 degrees N, to the intersection of 95
degrees W, thence by great circle arc through the southernmost
point of Duluth, MN, thence by great circle arc to 45 degrees N,
85 degrees W, thence southward along meridian 85 degrees W, to its
intersection with parallel 41 degrees N, thence along parallel 41
degrees N, to its intersection with meridian 82 degrees W, thence
by great circle arc through the southernmost point of Bangor, ME,
thence by great circle arc through the southernmost point of
Searsport, ME, at which point it terminates.
(27) Local control. The use of a control operator who
directly manipulates the operating adjustments in the station to
achieve compliance with the FCC Rules.
(28) National Radio Quiet Zone. The area in Maryland,
Virginia and West Virginia bounded by 39 degrees 15 minutes N on
the north, 78 degrees 30 minutes W on the east, 37 degrees 30
minutes N on the south and 80 degrees 30 minutes W on the west.
(29) Physician. For the purposes of this Part, a person
who is licensed to practice in a place where the amateur service
is regulated by the FCC, as either a Doctor of Medicine (MD) or a
Doctor of Osteopathy (DO).
(30) Question pool. All current examination questions
for a designated written examination element.
(31) Question set. A series of examination questions on
a given examination selected from the question pool.
(32) Radio Regulations. The latest ITU Radio
Regulations to which the United States is a party.
(33) RACES (radio amateur civil emergency service). A
radio service using amateur stations for civil defense
communications during periods of local, regional or national civil
emergencies.
(34) Remote control. The use of a control operator who
indirectly manipulates the operating adjustments in the station
through a control link to achieve compliance with the FCC Rules.
(35) Repeater. An amateur station that automatically
retransmits the signals of other stations.
(36) Space station. An amateur station located more
than 50 km above the Earth's surface.
(37) Space telemetry. A one-way transmission from a
space station of measurements made from the measuring instruments
in a spacecraft, including those relating to the functioning of
the spacecraft.
(38) Spurious emission. An emission, on frequencies
outside the necessary bandwidth of a transmission, the level of
which may be reduced without affecting the information being
transmitted.
(39) Telecommand. A one-way transmission to initiate,
modify, or terminate functions of a device at a distance.
(40) Telecommand station. An amateur station that
transmits communications to initiate, modify, or terminate
functions of a space station.
(41) Telemetry. A one-way transmission of measurements
at a distance from the measuring instrument.
(42) Third party communications. A message from the
control operator (first party) of an amateur station to another
amateur station control operator (second party) on behalf of
another person (third party).
(43) VE. Volunteer examiner.
(44) VEC. Volunteer-examiner coordinator.
(b) The definitions of technical symbols used in this Part
are:
(1) EHF (extremely high frequency). The frequency range
30-300 GHz.
(2) HF (high frequency). The frequency range 3-30 MHz.
(3) Hz. Hertz.
(4) m. Meters.
(5) MF (medium frequency). The frequency range 300-3000
kHz.
(6) PEP (peak envelope power). The average power
supplied to the antenna transmission line by a transmitter during
one RF cycle at the crest of the modulation envelope taken under
normal operating conditions.
(7) RF. Radio frequency.
(8) SHF (super-high frequency). The frequency range 3-30
GHz.
(9) UHF (ultra-high frequency). The frequency range
300-3000 MHz.
(10) VHF (very-high frequency). The frequency range
30-300 MHz.
(11) W. Watts.
(c) The following terms are used in this Part to indicate
emission types. Refer to Section 2.201 of the FCC Rules,
Emission, modulation and transmission characteristics," for
information on emission type designators.
(1) CW. International Morse code telegraphy emissions
having designators with A, C, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1 as
the second symbol; A or B as the third symbol; and emissions J2A
and J2B.
(2) Data. Telemetry, telecommand and computer
communications emissions having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H,
J or R as the first symbol; 1 as the second symbol; D as the third
symbol; and emission J2D. Only a digital code of a type
specifically authorized in this Part may be transmitted.
(3) Image. Facsimile and television emissions having
designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1,
2 or 3 as the second symbol; C or F as the third symbol; and
emissions having B as the first symbol; 7, 8 or 9 as the second
symbol; W as the third symbol.
(4) MCW. Tone-modulated international Morse code
telegraphy emissions having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J
or R as the first symbol; 2 as the second symbol; A or B as the
third symbol.
(5) Phone. Speech and other sound emissions having
designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1,
2 or 3 as the second symbol; E as the third symbol. Also speech
emissions having B as the first symbol; 7, 8 or 9 as the second
symbol; E as the third symbol. MCW for the purpose of performing
the station identification procedure, or for providing telegraphy
practice interspersed with speech. Incidental tones for the
purpose of selective calling or alerting or to control the level
of a demodulated signal may also be considered phone.
(6) Pulse. Emissions having designators with K, L, M,
P, Q, V or W as the first symbol; 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 or X as the
second symbol; A, B, C, D, E, F, N, W or X as the third symbol.
(7) RTTY. Narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy
emissions having designators with A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the
first symbol; 1 as the second symbol; B as the third symbol; and
emission J2B. Only a digital code of a type specifically
authorized in this part may be transmitted.
(8) SS. Spread-spectrum emissions using
bandwidth-expansion modulation emissions having designators with
A, C, D, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; X as the second
symbol; X as the third symbol. Only a SS emission of a type
specifically authorized in this Part may be transmitted.
(9) Test. Emissions containing no information having the
designators with N as the third symbol. Test does not include
pulse emissions with no information or modulation unless pulse
emissions are also authorized in the frequency band.



97.5 Station license required.

(a) When a station is transmitting on any amateur service
frequency from a geographic location within 50 km of the Earth's
surface where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC, the
person having physical control of the apparatus must hold an
FCC-issued written authorization for an amateur station.
(b) When a station is transmitting on any amateur service
frequency from a location within 50 km of the Earth's surface and
aboard any vessel or craft that is documented or registered in the
United States, the person having physical control of the apparatus
must hold an FCC-issued written authorization for an amateur
station.
(c) When a station is transmitting on any amateur service
frequency from a location more than 50 km above the Earth's surface
aboard any craft that is documented or registered in the United
States, the person having physical control of the apparatus must
hold an FCC-issued written authorization for an amateur station.
(d) The types of written authorizations that permit amateur
station operation where the amateur service is regulated by the
FCC are:
(1) An operator/primary station license (FCC Form 660)
issued to the person by the FCC. A primary amateur station license
is issued only to a person, together with an operator license on
the same document. Every amateur operator licensed by the FCC must
have one, but only one, primary station license. Except for a
representative of a foreign government, any person who qualifies
by examination is eligible to apply for an operator/primary station
license.
(2) A club station license (FCC form 660) issued to the
person by the FCC. A club station license is issued only to the
person who is the license trustee designated by an officer of the
club. The trustee must hold an FCC-issued Amateur Extra, Advanced,
General, or Technician operator license. The club must be composed
of at least two persons and must have a name, a document of
organization, management and a primary purpose devoted to amateur
service activities consistent with this Part.
(3) A military recreation station license (FCC Form 660)
issued to the person by the FCC. A military recreation station
license is issued only to the person who is the license custodian
designated by the official in charge of the United States military
recreational premises where the station is situated. The custodian
must not be a representative of a foreign government. The
custodian need not hold an amateur operator license.
(4) A RACES station license (FCC Form 660) issued to the
person by the FCC. A RACES station license is issued only to the
person who is the license custodian designated by the official
responsible for the governmental agency served by that civil
defense organization. The custodian must not be a representative
of a foreign government. The custodian must be the civil defense
official responsible for coordination of all civil defense
activities in the area concerned. The custodian need not hold an
amateur operator license.
(5) A reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee (FCC
Form 610-AL) issued to the person by the FCC. A reciprocal permit
for alien amateur licensee is issued only to a person who is a
citizen of a country with which the United States has arrangements
to grant reciprocal operating permits to visiting alien amateur
operators. The person must be a citizen of the same country that
issued the amateur service license. No person who is a citizen of
the United States, regardless of any other citizenship also held,
is eligible for a reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee.
No person holding an FCC-issued amateur service license is eligible
for a reciprocal permit for alien amateur license.*
(* "license" should likely read "licensee," as elsewhere in the
paragraph.)
(6) An amateur service license issued to the person by
the Government of Canada. The person must be a Canadian citizen.
(e) The written authorization for an amateur station
authorizes the use in accordance with FCC Rules of all transmitting
apparatus under the physical control of the station licensee at
points where the amateur radio service is regulated by the FCC.
The original written authorization document or a photocopy thereof
must be retained at the station.



97.7 Control operator required.

When transmitting, each amateur station must have a control
operator. Only a person holding one of the following documents may
be the control operator of a station:
(a) An amateur operator/primary station license (FCC Form 660)
issued to the person by the FCC.
(b) A reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee (FCC Form
610-AL) issued to the person by the FCC.
(c) An amateur service license issued to a Canadian citizen
by the Government of Canada.



97.9 Operator license.

(a) There are 5 classes of operator licenses: Novice,
Technician, General, Advanced and Amateur Extra. An operator
license authorizes the holder to be the control operator of a
station with the privileges of the operator class specified on the
license. The license document or a photocopy thereof must be in
the personal possession of the licensee at all times when the
person is the control operator of a station.
(b) A person holding a Novice, Technician, General, or
Advanced operator license who has properly filed with the FCC an
application for a higher operator class which has not yet been
acted upon, and who holds a CSCE indicating that the person
completed the necessary examinations within the previous 365 days
is authorized to exercise the rights and privileges of the higher
operator class.



97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

(a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on
a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of the ship or
pilot in command of the aircraft.
(b) The station must be separate from and independent of all
other radio apparatus installed on the ship or aircraft, except a
common antenna may be shared with a voluntary ship radio
installation. The station's transmissions must not cause
interference to any other apparatus installed on the ship or
aircraft.
(c) The station must not constitute a hazard to the safety of
life or property. For a station aboard an aircraft, the apparatus
shall not be operated while the aircraft is operating under
Instrument Flight Rules, as defined by the FAA, unless the station
has been found to comply with all applicable FAA rules.



97.13 Restrictions on station location.

(a) Before placing an amateur station on land of environmental
importance or that is significant in American history, architecture
or culture, the licensee may be required to take certain actions
prescribed by Sections 1.1305 - 1.1319 of the FCC Rules.
(b) An amateur station within 1600 m (1 mile) of an FCC
monitoring facility must protect that facility from harmful
interference. Failure to do so could result in imposition of
operating restrictions upon the amateur station by the EIC pursuant
to Section 97.221 of this Part. Geographical coordinates of the
facilities that require protection are listed in Section 0.121(c)
of the FCC Rules.



97.15 Station antenna structures.

(a) Unless the amateur station licensee has received prior
approval from the FCC, no antenna structure, including and (*)
radiating elements, tower, supports and all appurtenances, may be
higher than 61 m (200 feet) above ground level at its site.
(b) Unless the amateur station licensee has received prior
approval from the FCC, no antenna structure, at an airport or
heliport that is available for public use and is listed in the
"Airport Directory" of the current "Airman's Information Manual"
or in either the "Alaska" or "Pacific Airman's Guide and Chart
Supplement;" or at an airport or heliport under construction that
is the subject of a notice or proposal on file with the FAA, and
except for military airports, it is clearly indicated that the
airport will be available for public use; or at an airport or
heliport that is operated by the armed forces of the United States;
or at a place near any of these airports or heliports, may be
higher than:
(1) 1 m above the airport elevation for each 100 m from
the nearest runway longer than 1 km within 6.1 km of the antenna
structure.
(2) 2 m above the airport elevation for each 100 m from
the nearest runway shorter than 1 km within 3.1 km of the antenna
structure.
(3) 4 m above the airport elevation for each 100 m from
the nearest landing pad within 1.5 km of the antenna structure.
(c) An amateur station antenna structure no higher than 6.1
m (20 feet) above ground level at its site or no higher than 6.1
m above any natural object or existing manmade structure, other
than an antenna structure, is exempt from the requirements of
paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.
(d) Further details as to whether an aeronautical study and/or
obstruction marking and lighting may be required, and
specifications for obstruction marking and lighting, are contained
in Part 17 of the FCC Rules, "Construction, Marking, and Lighting
of Antenna Structures." To request approval to place an antenna
structure higher than the limits specified in paragraphs (a), (b),
and (c) of this section, the licensee must notify the FAA on FAA
Form 7460-1 and the FCC on FCC Form 854.
(e) Except as otherwise provided herein, a station antenna
structure may be erected at heights and dimensions sufficient to
accommodate amateur service communications. State and local
regulation of a station antenna structure must not preclude amateur
service communications. Rather, it must reasonably accommodate
such communications and must constitute the minimum practicable
regulation to accomplish the state or local authority's legitimate
purpose. [See PRB-1, 101 FCC 2d 952 (1985) for details.]



97.17 Application for new license.

(a) Any qualified person is eligible to apply for an amateur
service license.
(b) Each application for a new operator/primary station
license must be made on FCC Form 610. Each application for a
reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee must be made on FCC
Form 610-A. No new license for a club, military recreation, or
RACES station will be issued.
(c) Each application for a new operator/primary station
license and each application involving a change in operator class
must be submitted to the VEs administering the qualifying
examination.
(d) Any qualified person is eligible to apply for a reciprocal
permit for alien amateur licensee. The application must be
submitted to the FCC, 1270 Fairfield Rd, Gettysburg, PA 17325-7245.
(e) No person shall obtain or attempt to obtain, or assist
another person to obtain or attempt to obtain, an operator license
or reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee by fraudulent
means.
(f) A call sign will be assigned systematically to each
station. The FCC will issue public announcements detailing the
policies and procedures of the call sign assignment system. The
FCC will not grant any request for a specific call sign.



97.19 Application for a renewed or modified license.

(a) Each application for a renewed or modified
operator/primary station license must be made on FCC Form 610.
Each application for a renewed or modified club, military
recreation or RACES station license must be made on FCC Form 610-B.
A reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee is not renewable.
A new reciprocal permit may be issued upon proper application.
(b) Each application for a renewed or modified amateur service
license must be accompanied by a photocopy of the license document
or the original document, unless it has been lost, mutilated or
destroyed. Each application for a modified operator
license involving a change in operator class must be submitted to
the VEs administering the qualifying examination. All other
applications must be submitted to: FCC, P.O. Box 1270 Fairfield Rd.
Gettysburg, PA 17325-7245.
(c) When the licensee has submitted a timely application for
renewal of an unexpired license (between 60 and 90 days prior to
the end of the license term is recommended), the licensee may
continue to operate until the disposition of the application has
been determined. If a license expires, application for renewal
may be made during a grace period of 2 years after the expiration
date. During this grace period, the expired license is not valid.
A license renewed during the grace period must be dated as of the
date of the renewal.



97.21 Mailing address and station location.

Each application for an amateur service license and each
application for a reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee must
show a mailing address and a station location (the addresses may
be the same) in an area where the amateur service is regulated by
the FCC. The mailing address must be one where the licensee can
receive mail delivery by the United States Postal Service. The
station location must be a place where a station can be physically
located. (A post office box, whether provided by the United
States Postal Service or by any other party, a rural or highway
contract route designation and box number, and general delivery
are unsuitable as a station location.)



97.23 License term.

(a) An amateur service license is normally issued for a
10-year term.
(b) A reciprocal permit for alien amateur license is normally
issued for a 1-year term.



97.25 FCC modification of station license.

(a) The FCC may modify an amateur station license, either for
a limited time or for the duration of the term thereof, if it
determines:
(1) That such action will promote the public interest,
convenience and necessity; or
(2) That such action will promote fuller compliance with
the provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, or
of any treaty ratified by the United States.
(b) When the FCC makes such a determination, it will issue an
order of modification. The order will not become final until the
licensee is notified in writing of the proposed action and the
grounds and reasons therefor. The licensee will be given
reasonable opportunity of no less than thirty days to protest the
modification; except that, where safety of life or property is
involved, a shorter period of notice may be provided. Any protest
by a licensee of an FCC order of modification will be handled in
accordance with the provisions of 47 U.S.C. 316.



97.27 Replacement license.

Each licensee or permittee whose original document is lost,
mutilated or destroyed must request a replacement. The request
must be made to: FCC, 1270 Fairfield Rd. Gettysburg, PA 17235-7245. A
statement of how the document was lost, mutilated or destroyed must
be attached to the request. A replacement license must bear the
same expiration date as the license that it replaces.

SUBPART B - STATION OPERATION STANDARDS



97.101 General standards.

(a) In all respects not specifically covered by FCC Rules each
amateur station must be operated in accordance with good
engineering and good amateur practice.
(b) Each station licensee and each control operator must
cooperate in selecting transmitting channels and in making the most
effective use of the amateur service frequencies. No frequency
will be assigned for the exclusive use of any station.
(c) At all times and on all frequencies, each control operator
must give priority to stations providing emergency communications,
except to stations transmitting communications for training drills
and tests in RACES.
(d) No amateur operator shall willfully or maliciously
interfere with or cause interference to any radio communication or
signal.



97.103 Station licensee responsibilities.

(a) The station licensee is responsible for the proper
operation of the station in accordance with the FCC rules. When
the control operator is a different amateur operator than the
station licensee, both persons are equally responsible for proper
operation of the station.
(b) The station licensee must designate the station control
operator. The FCC will presume that the station licensee is also
the control operator, unless documentation to the contrary is in
the station records.
(c) The station licensee must make the station and the station
records available for inspection upon request by an FCC
representative. When deemed necessary by an EIC to assure
compliance with FCC Rules, the station licensee must maintain a
record of station operations containing such items of information
as the EIC may require in accord with Section 0.314(x) of the FCC
Rules.



97.105 Control operator duties.

(a) The control operator must ensure the immediate proper
operation of the station, regardless of the type of control.
(b) A station may only be operated in the manner and to the
extent permitted by the privileges authorized for the class of
operator license held by the control operator.



97.107 Alien control operator privileges.

(a) The privileges available to a control operator holding an
amateur service license issued by the Government of Canada are:
(1) The terms of the "Convention Between the United
States and Canada (TIAS No. 2508) Relating to the Operation by
Citizens of Either Country of Certain Radio Equipment or Stations
in the Other Country;"
(2) The operating terms and conditions of the amateur
service license issued by the Government of Canada; and
(3) The applicable provisions of the FCC rules, but not
to exceed the control operator privileges of an FCC-issued Amateur
Extra Class operator license.
(b) The privileges available to a control operator holding an
FCC-issued reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee are:
(1) The terms of the agreement between the alien's
government and the United States;
(2) The operating terms and conditions of the amateur
service license issued by the alien's government;
(3) The applicable provisions of the FCC rules, but not
to exceed the control operator privileges of an FCC-issued Amateur
Extra Class operator license; and
(4) None, if the holder of the reciprocal permit has
obtained an FCC-issued operator/primary station license.
(c) At any time the FCC may, at its discretion, modify,
suspend, or cancel the amateur service privileges within or over
any area where radio services are regulated by the FCC of any
Canadian amateur service licensee or alien reciprocal permittee.



97.109 Station control.

(a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point.
(b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control
operator must be at the control point. Any station may be locally
controlled.
(c) When a station is being automatically controlled, the
control operator need not be at the control point. Only stations
transmitting RTTY or data emissions on the 6 m or shorter
wavelength bands, and stations specifically designated elsewhere
in this Part may be automatically controlled. Automatic control
must cease upon notification by an EIC that the station is
transmitting improperly or causing harmful interference to other
stations. Automatic control must not be resumed without prior
approval of the EIC.
(d) No station may be automatically controlled while
transmitting third-party communications, except a station
retransmitting digital packet radio communications on the 6 m and
shorter wavelength bands. Such stations must be using the
American Radio Relay League, Inc. "AX.25 Amateur Packet-Radio
Link-Layer Protocol, Version 2.0," October 1984 (or compatible)
which is available from the American Radio Relay League, Inc.,
225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111. The retransmitted messages must
originate at a station that is being locally or remotely
controlled.



97.111 Authorized transmissions.

(a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of
two-way communications:
(1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with
other stations in the amateur service, except with those in any
country whose administration has given notice that it objects to
such communications. The FCC will issue public notices of current
arrangements for international communications;
(2) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a
station in another FCC-regulated service while providing emergency
communications;
(3) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a
United States government station, necessary to providing
communications in RACES; and
(4) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages with a
service not regulated by the FCC, but authorized by the FCC to
communicate with amateur stations. An amateur station may exchange
messages with a participating United States military station during
an Armed Forces Day Communications Test.
(b) In addition to one-way transmissions specifically
authorized elsewhere in this Part, an amateur station may transmit
the following types of one-way communications:
(1) Brief transmissions necessary to make adjustments to
the station;
(2) Brief transmissions necessary to establishing a
two-way communications with other stations;
(3) Telecommand;
(4) Transmissions necessary to providing emergency
communications;
(5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons
learning, or improving proficiency in, the international Morse code;
(6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information
bulletins;
(7) Transmissions of telemetry.


97.113 Prohibited transmissions.

(a) No amateur station shall transmit any communication the
purpose of which is to facilitate the business or commercial
affairs of any party. No station shall transmit communications as
an alternative to other authorized radio services, except as
necessary to providing emergency communications. A station may,
however, transmit communications to:
(1) Facilitate the public's safe observation of, or safe
participation in, a parade, race, marathon or similar public
gathering. No amateur station shall transmit communications
concerning moving, supplying and quartering observers and
participants for any sponsoring organization unless the principal
beneficiary of such communications is the public and any benefit
to the sponsoring organization is incidental.
(2) Inform other amateur operators of the availability
of apparatus normally used in an amateur station, including such
apparatus for sale or trade. This exception is not authorized to
any person seeking to derive a profit by buying or selling such
apparatus on a regular basis.
(b) No amateur station shall transmit messages for hire, nor
for material compensation, direct or indirect, paid or promised.
The control operator of a club station, however, may accept
compensation for such periods of time during which the station is
transmitting telegraphy practice or information bulletins provided
that:
(1) The station transmits the telegraphy practice and
information bulletins for at least 40 hours per week;
(2) The station schedules operations on at least six
amateur service MF and HF bands using reasonable measures to
maximize coverage;
(3) The schedule of normal operating times and
frequencies is published at least 30 days in advance of the actual
transmissions; and
(4) The control operator does not accept any direct or
indirect compensation for periods during which the station is
transmitting any other material.
(c) No station shall transmit communications in order to
engage in any form of broadcasting, nor to engage in any activity
related to program production or newsgathering for broadcasting
purposes. A station may, however, transmit communications to convey
news information about an event for dissemination to the public
when the following conditions are present:
(1) The information involves immediate safety of life of
individuals or the immediate protection of property;
(2) The information is directly related to event;
(3) The information cannot be transmitted by any other
means because normal communications systems have been disrupted
or because there are no other communication systems available
at the place where the information is originated; and
(4) Other means of communication could not be reasonably
provided before or at the time of the event.
(d) No station shall transmit: music; radiocommunications or
messages for any purpose, or in connection with any activity, that
is contrary to federal, state, or local law; messages in codes or
ciphers where the intent is to obscure the meaning (except where
specifically excepted elsewhere in this Part); obscene, indecent,
or profane words, language, or meaning; and/or false or deceptive
messages or signals.
(e) No amateur station shall retransmit programs or signals
emanating from any type of radio station other than an amateur
station, except communications originating on United States
Government frequencies between a space shuttle and its associated
Earth stations. Prior approval for such retransmissions must be
obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Such retransmissions must be for the exclusive use of amateur
operators.
(f) No amateur station, except an auxiliary, repeater or space
station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals of other
amateur stations.

***The following is the 1993 change to FCC rule 97.113***

97.113 Prohibited transmissions.

(a) No amateur station shall transmit:

(1) Communications specifically prohibited elsewhere in this Part:

(2) Communications for hire or for material compensation, direct or
indirect, paid or promised, except as otherwise provided in these rules;

(3) Communications in which the station licensee or control
operator has a pecuniary interest, including communications on behalf
of an employer. Amateur operators may, however, notify other amateur
operators of the availability for sale or trade, of apparatus normally
used in an amateur station, provided that such activity is not conducted
on a regular basis;

(4) Music using a phone emission except as specifically provided
elsewhere in this Section; Communications intended to facilitate a
criminal act; Messages in codes or ciphers intended to obscure the meaning
thereof, except as otherwise provided herein; Obscene or indecent words
or language; or false or deceptive messages, signals, or identification;

(5) Communications, on a regular basis, which could reasonably be
furnished alternatively through other radio services.

(b) An amateur station shall not engage in any form of
broadcasting, nor may an amateur station transmit one-way communications
except as specifically provided in these rules; nor shall an amateur
station engage in any activity related to program production or
newsgathering for broadcasting purposes, except that communications
directly related to the immediate safety of human life or the protection
of property may be provided by amateur stations to broadcasters for
dissemination to the public where no other means of communication is
reasonably available before or at the time of the event.
(c) A control operator may accept compensation as an incident of a
teaching position during periods of time when an amateur station is used
by that teacher as a part of classroom instruction at an educational
institution.
(d) A control operator of a club station may accept compensation
for the periods of time when the station is transmitting telegraphy
practice or information bulletins, provided that the station transmits
such telegraphy practice and bulletins for at least 40 hours per week;
schedules operations on at least six amateur service MF and HF bands
using reasonable measures to maximize coverage; where the schedule of
normal operating times and frequencies is published at least 30 days in
advance of the actual transmissions; and where the control operator
does not accept any direct or indirect compensation for any other
service as a control operator.
(e) No station shall retransmit programs or signals emanating from
any type of radio station other than an amateur station, except
propagation and weather forecast information intended for use
by the general public and originated from United States Government stations,
and communications, including incidental music, originating on United
States Government frequencies between a space shuttle and its associated
Earth stations. Prior approval for shuttle retransmissions must be
obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Such
retransmissions must be for the exclusive use of amateur operators.
Propagation, weather forecasts, and shuttle retransmissions may not be
conducted on a regular basis, but only occasionally, as an incident of
normal amateur radio communications.
(f) No amateur station, except an auxiliary, repeater or space
station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals of other
amateur stations.

97.115 Third party communications.

(a) An amateur station may transmit messages for a third party
to:
(1) Any station within the jurisdiction of the United
States.
(2) Any station within the jurisdiction of any foreign
government whose administration has made arrangements with the
United States to allow amateur stations to be used for transmitting
international communications on behalf of third parties. No
station shall transmit messages for a third party to any station
within the jurisdiction of any foreign government whose
administration has not made such an arrangement. This prohibition
does not apply to a message for any third party who is eligible to
be a control operator of the station.
(b) The third party may participate in stating the message
where:
(1) The control operator is present at the control point
and is continuously monitoring and supervising the third party's
participation; and
(2) The third party is not a prior amateur service
licensee whose license was revoked; suspended for less than the
balance of the license term and the suspension is still in effect;
suspended for the balance of the license term and relicensing has
not taken place; or surrendered for cancellation following notice
of revocation, suspension, or monetary forfeiture proceedings. The
third party may not be the subject of a cease and desist order
which relates to amateur service operation and which is still in
effect.
(c) At the end of an exchange of international third-party
communications, the station must also transmit in the station
identification procedure the call sign of the station with which
a third party message was exchanged.



97.117 International communications.

Transmissions to a different country, when permitted, shall
be in plain language and shall be limited to messages of a
technical nature relating to tests, and, to remarks of a personal
character for which, by reason of their unimportance, recourse to
the public telecommunications service is not justified.



97.119 Station identification.

(a) Each amateur station, except a space station or
telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its
transmitting channel at the end of each communication, and at least
every ten minutes during a communication, for the purpose of
clearly making the source of the transmissions from the station
known to those receiving the transmissions. No station may
transmit unidentified communications or signals, or transmit as the
station call sign, any call sign not authorized to the station.
(b) The call sign must be transmitted with an emission
authorized for the transmitting channel in one of the following
ways:
(1) By a CW emission. When keyed by an automatic device
used only for identification, the speed must not exceed 20 words
per minute;
(2) By a phone emission in the English language. Use of
a standard phonetic alphabet as an aid for correct station
identification is encouraged;
(3) By a RTTY emission using a specified digital code
when all or part of the communications are transmitted by a RTTY
or data emission;
(4) By an image emission conforming to the applicable
transmission standards, either color or monochrome, of section
73.682(a) of the FCC Rules when all or part of the communications
are transmitted in the same image emission; or
(5) By a CW or phone emission during SS emission
transmission on a narrow bandwidth frequency segment.
Alternatively, by the changing of one or more parameters of the
emission so that a conventional CW or phone emission receiver can
be used to determine the station call sign.
(c) An indicator may be included with the call sign. It must
be separated from the call sign by the slant mark or by any
suitable word that denotes the slant mark. If the indicator is
self-assigned it must be included after the call sign and must
not conflict with any other indicator specified by the FCC Rules
or with any prefix assigned to another country.
(d) When the operator license class held by the control
operator exceeds that of the station licensee, an indicator
consisting of the call sign assigned to the control operator's
station must be included after the call sign.
(e) When the control operator who is exercising the rights and
privileges authorized by 97.9(b) of this Part, an indicator must
be included after the call sign as follows:
(1) For a control operator who has requested a license
modification from Novice Class to Technician Class: KT;
(2) For a control operator who has requested a license
modification from Novice Class or Technician Class to General
Class: AG;
(3) For a control operator who has requested a license
modification from Novice, Technician, of General Class operator
to Advanced Class: AA;
(4) For a control operator who has requested a license
modification from Novice, Technician, General, or Advanced Class
operator to Amateur Extra Class: AE.
(f) When the station is transmitting under the authority of
a reciprocal permit for alien amateur licensee, an indicator
consisting of the appropriate letter-numeral designating the
station location must be included before the call sign issued to
the station by the licensing country. When the station is
transmitting under the authority of an amateur service license
issued by the Government of Canada, a station location indicator
must be included after the call sign. At least once during each
intercommunication, the identification announcement must include
the geographical location as nearly as possible by city and state,
commonwealth or possession.



97.121 Restricted operation.


(a) If the operation of an amateur station causes general
interference to the reception of transmissions from stations
operating in the domestic broadcast service when receivers of good
engineering design, including adequate selectivity characteristics,
are used to receive such transmissions, and this fact is made known
to the amateur station licensee, the amateur station shall not be
operated during the hours from 8 p.m. to 10:30 p.m., local time,
and on Sunday for the additional period from 10:30 a.m. until 1
p.m., local time, upon the frequency or frequencies used when the
interference is created.
(b) In general, such steps as may be necessary to minimize
interference to stations operating in other services may be
required after investigation by the FCC.




SUBPART C - SPECIAL OPERATIONS



97.201 Auxiliary station.

(a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a
Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator
license may be an auxiliary station. A holder of a Technician,
General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be
the control operator of an auxiliary station, subject to the
privileges of the class of operator license held.
(b) An auxiliary station may transmit only on the 1.25 m and
shorter wavelength bands, except the 431-433 MHz and 435-438 MHz
segments.
(c) Where an auxiliary station causes harmful interference to
another auxiliary station, the two stations are equally and fully
responsible for resolving the interference unless one station's
operation is recommended by a frequency coordinator and the other
station's is not. In that case, the licensee of the
non-coordinated auxiliary station has primary responsibility to
resolve the interference.
(d) An auxiliary station operation may be automatically
controlled.
(e) An auxiliary station may transmit one-way
communications.



97.203 Beacon station.

(a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician,
General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be
a beacon. A holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur
Extra Class operator license may be the control operator of a
beacon, subject to the privileges of the class of operator license
held.
(b) A beacon station must not concurrently transmit on more
than 1 channel in the same amateur service frequency band, from
the same station location.
(c) The transmitter power of a beacon must not exceed 100 W.
(d) A beacon may be automatically controlled while it is
transmitting on the 28.20-28.30 MHz, 50.06-50.08 MHz, 144.275-
144.300 MHz, 222.05-222.06 MHz, or 432.300-432.400 MHz
segments, or on the 33 cm and shorter wavelength bands.
(e) Before establishing an automatically controlled beacon in
the National Radio Quiet Zone or before changing the transmitting
frequency, transmitter power, antenna height or directivity, the
station licensee must give written notification thereof to the
Interference Office, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O.
Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944.
(1) The notification must include the geographical
coordinates of the antenna, antenna ground elevation above mean sea
level (AMSL), antenna center of radiation above ground level (AGL),
antenna directivity, proposed frequency, type of emission, and
transmitter power.
(2) If an objection to the proposed operation is received
by the FCC from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green
Bank, Pocahontas County, WV, for itself or on behalf of the Naval
Research Laboratory at Sugar Grove, Pendleton County, WV, within
20 days from the date of notification, the FCC will consider all
aspects of the problem and take whatever action is deemed
appropriate.
(f) A beacon must cease transmissions upon notification by an
EIC that the station is operating improperly or causing undue
interference to other operations. The beacon may not resume
transmitting without prior approval of the EIC.
(g) A beacon may transmit one-way communications.



97.205 Repeater station.

(a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician,
General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be
a repeater. A holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur
Extra Class operator license may be the control operator of a
repeater, subject to the privileges of the class of operator
license held.
(b) A repeater may receive and retransmit only on the 10 m and
shorter wavelength frequency bands except the 28.0-29.5 MHz,
50.0-51.0 MHz, 144.0-144.5 MHz, 145.5-146.0 MHz, 431.0-433.0 MHz
and 435.0-438.0 MHz segments.
(c) Where the transmissions of a repeater cause harmful
interference to another repeater, the two station licensees are
equally and fully responsible for resolving the interference unless
the operation of one station is recommended by a frequency
coordinator and the operation of the other station is not. In that
case, the licensee of the non-coordinated repeater has primary
responsibility to resolve the interference.
(d) A repeater may be automatically controlled.
(e) Ancillary functions of a repeater that are available to
users on the input channel are not considered remotely controlled
functions of the station. Limiting the use of a repeater to only
certain user stations is permissible.
(f) Before establishing a repeater in the National Radio Quiet
Zone or before changing the transmitting frequency, transmitter
power, antenna height or directivity, or the location of an
existing repeater, the station licensee must give written
notification thereof to the Interference Office, National Radio
Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24994.
(1) The notification must include the geographical
coordinates of the antenna, antenna ground elevation above mean sea
level (AMSL), antenna center of radiation above ground level (AGL),
antenna directivity, proposed frequency, type of emission, and
transmitter power.
(2) If an objection to the proposed operation is received
by the FCC from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green
Bank, Pocahontas County, WV, for itself or on behalf of the Naval
Research Laboratory at Sugar Grove, Pendleton County, WV, within
20 days from the date of notification, the FCC will consider all
aspects of the problem and take whatever action is deemed
appropriate.



97.207 Space station.

(a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of
any class operator license may be the control operator of a space
station, subject to the privileges of the class of operator license
held by the control operator.
(b) A space station must be capable of effecting a cessation
of transmissions by telecommand whenever such cessation is ordered
by the FCC.
(c) The following frequency bands and segments are authorized
to space stations:
(1) The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2
mm and 1 mm bands; and
(2) The 7.0-7.1 MHz, 14.00-14.25 MHz, 144-146 MHz, 435-
438 MHz, 1260-1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz, 3.40-3.41 GHz, 5.83-
5.85 GHz, 10.45-10.50 GHz and 24.00-24.05 GHz segments.
(d) A space station may automatically retransmit
the radio signals of Earth stations and other space stations.
(e) A space station may transmit one-way communications.
(f) Space telemetry transmissions may consist of specially
coded messages intended to facilitate communications or related
to the function of the spacecraft.
(g) The licensee of each space station must give two written,
pre-space station notifications to the Private Radio Bureau, FCC,
Washington, DC 20554. Each notification must be in accord with
the provisions of Articles 11 and 13 of the Radio Regulations.
(1) The first notification is required no less than 27
months prior to initiating space station transmissions and must
specify the information required by Appendix 4, and Resolution No.
642 of the Radio Regulations.
(2) The second notification is required no less than 5
months prior to initiating space station transmissions and must
specify the information required by Appendix 3 and Resolution No.
642 of the Radio Regulations.
(h) The licensee of each space station must give a written,
in-space station notification to the Private Radio Bureau, FCC,
Washington, DC 20554, no later than 7 days following initiation
of space station transmissions. The notification must update the
information contained in the pre-space notification.
(i) The licensee of each space station must give a written,
post-space station notification to the Private Radio Bureau, FCC,
Washington, DC 20554, no later than 3 months after termination of
the space station transmissions. When the termination is ordered
by the FCC, notification is required no later than 24 hours after
termination.



7.209 Earth station.

(a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of
any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth
station, subject to the privileges of the class of operator license
held by the control operator.
(b) The following frequency bands and segments are authorized
to Earth stations:
(1) The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm
and 1 mm bands; and
(2) The 7.0-7.1 MHz, 14.00-14.25 MHz, 144-146 MHz, 435-438
MHz, 1260-1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz, 3.40-3.41 GHz, 5.65-5.67 GHz,
10.45-10.50 GHz and 24.00-24.05 GHz segments.



97.211 Space Telecommand station.

(a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space
station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that
space station, subject to the privileges of the class of operator
license held by the control operator.
(b) A telecommand station may transmit special codes intended
to obscure the meaning of telecommand messages to the station in
space operation.
(c) The following frequency bands and segments are authorized
to telecommand stations:
(1) The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2
mm and 1 mm bands; and
(2) The 7.0-7.1 MHz, 14.00-14.25 MHz, 144-146 MHz,
435-438 MHz, 1260-1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz, 3.40-3.41 GHz,
5.65-5.67 GHz, 10.45-10.50 GHz and 24.00-24.05 GHz segments.
(d) A telecommand station may transmit one-way communications.



97.213 Telecommand of an amateur station.

An amateur station on or within 50 km of the earth's surface
may be under telecommand where:
(a) There is a radio or wireline control link between the
control point and the station sufficient for the control operator
to perform his/her duties. If radio, the control link must use an
auxiliary station. A control link using a fiber optic cable or
another telecommunication service is considered wireline.
(b) Provisions are incorporated to limit transmission by the
station to a period of no more than 3 minutes in the event of
malfunction in the control link.
(c) The station is protected against making, willfully or
negligently, unauthorized transmissions.
(d) A photocopy of the station license and the name, address,
and telephone number of the station licensee and at least one
designated control operator is posted in a conspicuous place at
the station location.



97.215 Telecommand of model craft.


An amateur station transmitting signals to control a model
craft may be operated as follows:
(a) The station identification procedure is not required for
transmissions directed only to the model craft, provided that a
label indicating the station call sign and the station licensee's
name and address is affixed to the station transmitter.
(b) The control signals are not considered codes or ciphers
intended to obscure the meaning of the communication.
(c) The transmitter power must not exceed 1 W.


97.216 Telemetry

Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within 50
km of the Earth's surface is not considered to be codes or
ciphers intended to obscure the meaning of communications.


SUBPART D - TECHNICAL STANDARDS



97.301 Authorized frequency bands.

The following transmitting frequency bands are available to an
amateur station located within 50 km of the Earth's surface, within the
specified ITU Region, and outside any area where the amateur service is
regulated by another country or United States government agency:

(a) For a station having a control operator holding a Technician,
General, Advanced, or Amateur Extra Class operator license:

WAVELENGTH ITU ITU ITU SHARING REQUIREMENTS
BAND REGION 1 REGION 2 REGION 3 (See 97.303, Para.)

VHF MHz MHz MHz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6 m --- 50-54 50-54 (a)
2 m 144-146 144-148 144-148 (a)
1.25 m --- 222-225 --- (a)

UHF MHz MHz MHz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
70 cm 430-440 420-450 420-450 (a),(b),(f)
33 cm --- 902-928 --- (a),(b),(g)
23 cm 1240-1300 1240-1300 1240-1300 (h)(i)
13 cm 2300-2310 2300-2310 2300-2310 (a),(b),(j)
-do- 2390-2450 2390-2450 2390-2450 (a),(b),(j)

SHF GHz GHz GHz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
9 cm --- 3.3-3.5 3.3-3.5 (a),(b),(k),(l)
5 cm 5.650-5.850 5.650-5.925 5.650-5.850 (a),(b),(m)
3 cm 10.00-10.50 10.00-10.50 10.00-10.50 (a),(c),(i),(n)
1.2 cm 24.00-24.25 24.00-24.25 24.00-24.25 (a),(b),(h),(o)

EHF GHz GHz GHz
------------------------------------------------------------------------
6 mm 47.0-47.2 47.0-47.2 47.0-47.2
4 mm 75.5-81.0 75.5-81.0 75.5-81.0 (b),(c),(h)
2.5 mm 119.98-120.02 119.98-120.02 119.98-120.02 (k),(p)
2 mm 142-149 142-149 142-149 (b),(c),(h),(k)
1 mm 241-250 241-250 241-250 (b),(c),(h),(q)
--- above 300 above 300 above 300 (k)

(b) For a station having a control operator holding an Amateur
Extra Class control operator license:

WAVELENGTH ITU ITU ITU SHARING REQUIREMENTS
BAND REGION 1 REGION 2 REGION 3 (See 97.303, Para.)

MF kHz kHz kHz
------------------------------------------------------------------------
160 m 1810-1850 1800-2000 1800-2000 (a),(b),(c)

HF MHz MHz MHz
------------------------------------------------------------------------
80 m 3.50-3.75 3.50-3.75 3.50-3.75 (a)
75 m 3.75-3.80 3.75-4.00 3.75-3.90 (a)
40 m 7.0-7.1 7.0-7.3 7.0-7.1 (a)
30 m 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 (d)
20 m 14.00-14.35 14.00-14.35 14.00-14.35
17 m 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168
15 m 21.00-21.45 21.00-21.45 21.00-21.45
12 m 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99
10 m 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7

(c) For a station having a control operator holding an Advanced
Class operator license:
WAVELENGTH ITU ITU ITU SHARING REQUIREMENTS
BAND REGION 1 REGION 2 REGION 3 (See 97.303, Para.)

MF kHz kHz kHz
------------------------------------------------------------------------
160 m 1810-1850 1800-2000 1800-2000 (a),(b),(c)

HF MHz MHz MHz
------------------------------------------------------------------------
80 m 3.525-3.750 3.525-3.750 3.525-3.750 (a)
75 m 3.775-3.800 3.775-4.000 3.775-3.900 (a)
40 m 7.025-7.100 7.025-7.300 7.025-7.100 (a)
30 m 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 (d)
20 m 14.025-14.150 14.025-14.150 14.025-14.150
-do- 14.175-14.350 14.175-14.350 14.175-14.350
17 m 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168
15 m 21.025-21.200 21.025-21.200 21.025-21.200
do. 21.30-21.45 21.30-21.45 21.30-21.45
12 m 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99
10 m 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7

(d) For a station having a control operator holding a General Class
operator license:

WAVELENGTH ITU ITU ITU SHARING REQUIREMENTS
BAND REGION 1 REGION 2 REGION 3 (See 97.303, Para.)

MF kHz kHz kHz
---------------------------------------------------------------------
160 m 1810-1850 1800-2000 1800-2000 (a),(b),(c)

HF MHz MHz MHz
---------------------------------------------------------------------
80 m 3.525-3.750 3.525-3.750 3.525-3.750 (a)
75 m --- 3.85-4.00 --- (a)
40 m 7.025-7.100 7.025-7.100 7.025-7.100 (a)
-do- --- 7.225-7.300 --- (a)
30 m 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 10.10-10.15 (d)
20 m 14.025-14.150 14.025-14.150 14.025-14.150
-do- 14.225-14.350 14.225-14.350 14.225-14.350
17 m 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168 18.068-18.168
15 m 21.025-21.200 21.025-21.200 21.025-21.200
-do- 21.30-21.45 21.30-21.45 21.30-21.45
12 m 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99 24.89-24.99
10 m 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7 28.0-29.7

(e) For a station having a control operator holding a Novice
Class operator license, or a Technician Class operator license plus
a CSCE indicating that the person passed Element 1(A), 1(B), or 1(C),
or a Technician Class operator license issued before February 14, 1991:

WAVELENGTH ITU ITU ITU SHARING REQUIREMENTS
BAND REGION 1 REGION 2 REGION 3 (See 97.303, Para.)

HF MHz MHz MHz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
80 m 3.675-3.725 3.675-3.725 3.675-3.725 (a)
40 m 7.050-7.075 7.10-7.15 7.050-7.075 (a)
15 m 21.10-21.20 21.10-21.20 21.10-21.20
10 m 28.1-28.5 28.1-28.5 28.1-28.5

(f) For a station having a control operator holding a Novice Class
operator license:
WAVELENGTH ITU ITU ITU SHARING REQUIREMENTS
BAND REGION 1 REGION 2 REGION 3 (See 97.303, Para.)

VHF MHz MHz MHz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1.25 m --- 222.10-223.91 --- (a)

UHF MHz MHz MHz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
23 cm 1270-1295 1270-1295 1270-1295 (h),(i)


97.303 Frequency sharing requirements.

The following is a summary of the frequency sharing requirements
that apply to amateur station transmissions on the frequency bands
specified in Section 97.301 of this Part. (For each ITU Region, each
frequency band allocated to the amateur service is designated as either
a secondary service or a primary service. A station in a secondary
service must not cause harmful interference to, and must accept
interference from, stations in a primary service. See Sections 2.105
and 2.106 of the FCC Rules, United States Table of Frequency
Allocations for complete requirements.)
(a) Where, in adjacent ITU Regions or Subregions, a band of
frequencies is allocated to different services of the same category, the
basic principle is the equality of right to operate. The stations of
each service in one region must operate so as not to cause harmful
interference to services in the other Regions or Subregions. (See ITU
"Radio Regulations," No. 346 (Geneva, 1979).)
(b) No amateur station transmitting in the 1900-2000 kHz segment,
the 1.25 m band, the 70 cm band, the 33 cm band, the 13 cm band, the 9
cm band, the 5 cm band, the 3 cm band, the 24.05-24.24 GHz segment, the
76-81 GHz segment, the 144-149 GHz segment and the 241-248 GHz segment
shall cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from interference
due to the operation of, the Government radiolocation service.
(c) No amateur station transmitting in the 1900-2000 kHz segment,
the 3 cm band, the 76-81 GHz segment, the 144-149 GHz segment and the
241-248 GHz segment shall cause harmful interference to, nor is
protected from interference due to the operation of, stations in the
non-Government radiolocation service.
(d) No amateur station transmitting in the 30 meter band shall
cause harmful interference to stations authorized by other nations in
the fixed service. The licensee of the amateur station must make all
necessary adjustments, including termination of transmissions, if
harmful interference is caused.
(e) Reserved
(f) In the 70 cm band:
(1) No amateur station shall transmit north of Line A in the
420-430 MHz segment.
(2) The 420-430 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur
service in the United States on a secondary basis, and is allocated in
the fixed and mobile (except aeronautical mobile) services in the
International Table of allocations on a primary basis. No amateur
station transmitting in this band shall cause harmful interference to,
nor is protected from interference due to the operation of, stations
authorized by other nations in the fixed and mobile (except aeronautical
mobile) services.
(3) The 430-440 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur
service on a secondary basis in ITU Regions 2 and 3. No amateur station
in this band in ITU Regions 2 and 3 shall cause harmful interference to,
nor is protected from interference due to the operation of, stations
authorized by other nations in the radiolocation service. In ITU Region
1, the 430-440 MHz segment is allocated to the amateur service on a
co-primary basis with the radiolocation service. As between these two
services in this band in ITU Region 1, the basic principle that applies
is the equality of right to operate. Amateur stations authorized by the
United States and radiolocation stations authorized by other nations in
ITU Region 1 shall operate so as not to cause harmful interference to
each other.
(4) No amateur station transmitting in the 449.5-450 MHz
segment shall cause interference to, nor is protected from interference
due to the operation of stations in, the space operation service and the
space research service or Government or non-Government stations for
space telecommand.
(g) In the 33 cm band:
(1) No amateur station shall transmit from within the States
of Colorado and Wyoming, bounded on the south by latitude 39 degrees N.,
on the north by latitude 42 degrees N., on the east by longitude 105
degrees W., and on the west by longitude 108 degrees W. This band is
allocated on a secondary basis to the amateur service subject to not
causing harmful interference to, and not receiving protection from any
interference due to the operation of, industrial, scientific and medical
devices, automatic vehicle monitoring systems or Government stations
authorized in this band.
(2) No amateur station shall transmit from those portions of
the States of Texas and New Mexico bounded on the south by latitude 31
degrees 41 minutes N., on the north by latitude 34 degrees 30 minutes
N., on the east by longitude 104 degrees 11 minutes W., and on the west
by longitude 107 degrees 30 minutes W.
(h) No amateur station transmitting in the 23 cm band, the 3 cm
band, the 24.05-24.25 GHz segment, the 76-81 GHz segment, the 144-149
GHz segment and the 241-248 GHz segment shall cause harmful interference
to, nor is protected from interference due to the operation of, stations
authorized by other nations in the radiolocation service.
(i) In the 1240-1260 MHz segment, no amateur station shall cause
harmful interference to, nor is protected from interference due to the
operation of, stations in the radionavigation-satellite service, the
aeronautical radionavigation service, or the radiolocation service.
(j) In the 13 cm band:
(1) The amateur service is allocated on a secondary basis in
all ITU Regions. In ITU Region 1, no amateur station shall cause
harmful interference to, and is not protected from interference due to
the operation of, stations authorized by other nations in the fixed
service. In ITU Regions 2 and 3, no station shall cause harmful
interference to, and is not protected from interference due to the
operation of, stations authorized by other nations in the fixed, mobile
and radiolocation services.
(2) In the United States, 2300-2310 MHz segment is allocated
to the amateur service on a co-secondary basis with the Government fixed
and mobile services. In this segment, the fixed and mobile services
must not cause harmful interference to the amateur service. No amateur
station transmitting in the 2400-2450 MHz segment is protected from
interference due to the operation of industrial, scientific and medical
devices on 2450 MHz.
(k) No amateur station transmitting in the 3.332-3.339 GHz and
3.3458-3525 GHz segments, the 2.5 mm band, the 144.68-144.98 GHz,
145.45-145.75 GHz and 146.82-147.12 GHz segments and the 343-348 GHz
segment shall cause harmful interference to stations in the radio
astronomy service. No amateur station transmitting in the 300-302 GHz,
324-326 GHz, 345-347 GHz, 363-365 GHz and 379-381 GHz segments shall
cause harmful interference to stations in the space research service
(passive) or Earth exploration-satellite service (passive).
(l) In the 9 cm band:
(1) In ITU Regions 2 and 3, the band is allocated to the
amateur service on a secondary basis.
(2) In the United States, the band is allocated to the amateur
service on a co-secondary basis with the non-Government radiolocation
service.
(3) In the 3.3-3.4 GHz segment, no amateur station shall cause
harmful interference to, nor is protected from interference due to the
operation of, stations authorized by other nations in the radiolocation
service.
(4) In the 3.4-3.5 GHz segment, no amateur station shall cause
harmful interference to, nor is protected from interference due to the
operation of, stations authorized by other nations in the fixed and
fixed-satellite service.
(m) In the 5 cm band:
(1) In the 5.650-5.725 GHz segment, the amateur service is
allocated in all ITU Regions on a co-secondary basis with the space
research (deep space) service.
(2) In the 5.725-5.850 GHz segment, the amateur service is
allocated in all ITU Regions on a secondary basis. No amateur station
shall cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from interference
due to the operation of, stations authorized by other nations in the
fixed-satellite service in ITU Region 1.
(3) No amateur station transmitting in the 5.725-5.875 GHz
segment is protected from interference due to the operation of
industrial, scientific and medical devices operating on 5.8 GHz.
(4) In the 5.650-5.850 GHz segment, no amateur station shall
cause harmful interference to, nor is protected from interference due
to the operation of, stations authorized by other nations in the
radiolocation service.
(5) In the 5.850-5.925 GHz segment, the amateur service is
allocated in ITU Region 2 on a co-secondary basis with the radiolocation
service. In the United States, the segment is allocated to the amateur
service on a secondary basis to the non-Government fixed-satellite
service. No amateur station shall cause harmful interference to, nor
is protected from interference due to the operation of, stations
authorized by other nations in the fixed, fixed-satellite and mobile
services. No amateur station shall cause harmful interference to, nor
is protected from interference due to the operation of, stations in the
non-Government fixed-satellite service.
(n) In the 3 cm band:
(1) In the United States, the 3 cm band is allocated to the
amateur service on a co-secondary basis with the non-government
radiolocation service.
(2) In the 10.00-10.45 * ("GHz" missing) segment in ITU
Regions 1 and 3, no amateur station shall cause interference to, nor is
protected from interference due to the operation of, stations authorized
by other nations in the fixed and mobile services.
(o) No amateur station transmitting in the 1.2 cm band is protected
from interference due to the operation of industrial, scientific and
medical devices on 24.125 GHz. In the United States, the 24.05-24.25
GHz segment is allocated to the amateur service on a co-secondary basis
with the non-government radiolocation and the Government and
non-government Earth exploration-satellite (active) services.
(p) The 2.5 mm band is allocated to the amateur service on a
secondary basis. No amateur station shall cause harmful interference
to, nor is protected from interference due to the operation of, stations
in the fixed, inter-satellite and mobile services.
(q) No amateur station transmitting in the 244-246 GHz segment of
the 1 mm band is protected from interference due to the operation of
industrial, scientific and medical devices on 245 GHz.



97.305 Authorized emission types.

(a) An amateur station may transmit a CW emission on any frequency
authorized to the control operator.
(b) A station may transmit a test emission on any frequency
authorized to the control operator for brief periods for experimental
purposes, except that no pulse modulation emission may be transmitted
on any frequency where pulse is not specifically authorized.
(c) An amateur station may transmit the following emission types
on the frequencies indicated, subject to the standards specified in
section 97.307(f) of this Part.

WAVELENGTH FREQUENCIES EMISSION TYPES STANDARDS (see
BAND AUTHORIZED 97.307(f), paragraph:)

MF
160 m Entire band RTTY, data (3)
-do- -do- Phone, image (1),(2)

HF
80 m Entire band RTTY, data (3), (9)
75 m Entire band Phone, image (1), (2)
40 m 7.000-7.075 MHz RTTY, data (3), (9)
-Do- 7.075-7.100 MHz Phone, image (1), (2), (9), (11)
-Do- 7.100-7.150 MHz RTTY, data (3), (9)
-Do- 7.150-7.300 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
30 m Entire band RTTY, data (3)
20 m 14.00-14.15 MHz RTTY, data (3)
-Do- 14.15-14.35 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
17 m 18.068-18.110 MHz RTTY, data (3)
-Do- 18.110-18.168 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
15 m 21.0-21.2 MHz RTTY, data (3), (9)
-Do- 21.20-21.45 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
12 m 24.89-24.93 MHz RTTY, data (3)
-Do- 24.93-24.99 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
10 m 28.0-28.3 MHz RTTY, data (4)
-Do- 28.3-29.5 MHz Phone, image (1), (2), (10)
-Do- 28.5-29.0 MHz Phone, image (1), (2)
-Do- 29.0-29.7 MHz Phone, image (2)

VHF
6 m 50.1-51.0 MHz RTTY, data (5)
-Do- -Do- MCW, phone, image (2)
-Do- 51.0-54.0 MHz RTTY, data, test (5), (8)
-Do- -Do- MCW, phone, image (2)
2 m 144.1-148.0 MHz RTTY, data, test (5), (8)
-Do- -Do- MCW, phone, image (2)
1.25 m Entire band RTTY, data, test (6), (8)
-Do- -Do- MCW, phone, image (2)


UHF

70 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS, test (6), (8)
33 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS, test,
pulse (7), (8), (12)
23 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS, test (7), (8), (12)
13 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)

SHF
9 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
5 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
3 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS, test (7), (8), (12)
1.2 cm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)

EHF
6 mm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
4 mm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
2.5 mm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
2 mm Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
1 m* Entire band MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), (12)
--- Above 300 GHz MCW, phone, image,
RTTY, data, SS,
test, pulse (7), (8), and (12)



97.307 Emission standards.

(a) No amateur station transmission shall occupy more bandwidth
than necessary for the information rate and emission type being
transmitted, in accordance with good amateur practice.
(b) Emissions resulting from modulation must be confined to the
band or segment available to the control operator. Emissions outside
the necessary bandwidth must not cause splatter or keyclick interference
to operations on adjacent frequencies.
(c) All spurious emissions from a station transmitter must be
reduced to the greatest extent practicable. If any spurious emission,
including chassis or power line radiation, causes harmful interference
to the reception of another radio station, the licensee of the
interfering station is required to take steps to eliminate the
interference, in accordance with good engineering practice.
(d) The mean power of any spurious emission from a station
transmitter or external RF power amplifier transmitting on a frequency
below 30 MHz must not exceed 50 mW and must be at least 40 dB below the
mean power of the fundamental emission. For a transmitter of mean power
less than 5 W, the attenuation must be at least 30 dB. A transmitter
built before April 15, 1977 or first marketed before January 1, 1978 is
exempt from this requirement.
(e) The mean power of any spurious emission from a station
transmitter or external RF power amplifier transmitting on a frequency
between 30-225 MHz must be at least 60 dB below the mean power of the
fundamental. For a transmitter having a mean power of 25 W or less, the
mean power of any spurious emission supplied to the antenna transmission
line must not exceed 25 uW and must be at least 40 dB below the mean
power of the fundamental emission, but need not be reduced below the
power of 10 uW. A transmitter built before April 15, 1977 or first
marketed before January 1, 1978, is exempt from this requirement.
(f) The following standards and limitations apply to transmissions
on the frequencies specified in section 97.305(c) of this Part.
(1) No angle-modulated emission may have a modulation index
greater than 1 at the highest modulation frequency.
(2) No non-phone emission may exceed the bandwidth of a
communications quality phone emission of the same modulation type. The
total bandwidth of an independent sideband emission (having B as the
first symbol), or a multiplexed image and phone emission, shall not
exceed that of a communications quality A3E emission.
(3) Only a RTTY and data emission using a specified digital
code listed in section 97.309(a) of this Part may be transmitted. The
symbol rate must not exceed 300 bauds, or for frequency-shift keying,
the frequency shift between mark and space must not exceed 1 kHz.
(4) Only a RTTY and data emission using a specified digital
code listed in section 97.309(a) of this Part may be transmitted. The
symbol rate must not exceed 1200 bauds, or for frequency-shift keying,
the frequency shift between mark and space must not exceed 1 kHz.
(5) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified
digital code listed in section 97.309(a) of this Part may be
transmitted. The symbol rate must not exceed 19.6 kilobauds, or for
frequency-shift keying, the frequency shift between mark and space must
not exceed 1 kHz. A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using an
unspecified digital code under the limitations listed in section
97.309(b) of this Part also may be transmitted. The authorized
bandwidth is 20 kHz.
(6) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified
digital code listed in section 97.309(a) of this Part may be
transmitted. The symbol rate must not exceed 56 kilobauds, or for
frequency-shift keying, the frequency shift between mark and space must
not exceed 1 kHz. A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using an
unspecified digital code under the limitations listed in section
97.309(b) of this Part also may be transmitted. The authorized
bandwidth is 100 kHz.
(7) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified
digital code listed in section 97.309(a) of this Part or an unspecified
digital code under the limitations listed in section 97.309(b) of this
Part may be transmitted.
(8) A RTTY or data emission having designators with A, B, C,
D, E, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1, 2, 7 or 9 as the second
symbol; and D or W as the third symbol is also authorized.
(9) A station having a control operator holding a Novice or
Technician operator license may only transmit a CW emission using the
international Morse code.
(10) A station having a control operator holding a Novice or
Technician operator license may only transmit a CW emission using the
international Morse code or phone emissions J3E and R3E.
(11) Phone and image emissions may be transmitted only by
stations located in ITU Regions 1 and 3, and by stations located within
ITU Region 2 that are west of 130 degrees West longitude or south of 20
degrees North latitude.
(12) Emission F8E may be transmitted.



97.309 RTTY and data emission codes.

(a) Where authorized by Sections 97.305(c) and 97.307(f) of this
Part, an amateur may transmit a RTTY or data emission using the
following specified digital codes:
(1) The 5-unit, start-stop, International Telegraph Alphabet
No. 2, code defined in International Telegraph and Telephone
Consultative Committee Recommendation F.1, Division C (commonly known as
Baudot).
(2) The 7-unit code, specified in International Radio
Consultative Committee Recommendation CCIR 476-2 (1978), 476-3 (1982),
476-4 (1986) or 625 (1986) (commonly known as AMTOR).
(3) The 7-unit code defined in American National Standards
Institute X3.4-1977 or International Alphabet No. 5 as defined in
International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee
Recommendation T.50 or in International Organization for
Standardization, International Standard ISO 646 (1983), and extensions
as provided for in CCITT Recommendation T.61 (Malaga-Torremolinos,
1984)(commonly known as ASCII).
(b) Where authorized by Sections 97.305(c) and 97.307(f) of this

Part, a station may transmit a RTTY or data emission using an
unspecified digital code, except to a station in a country with which
the United States does not have an agreement permitting the code to be
used. RTTY and data emissions using unspecified digital codes must not
be transmitted for the purpose of obscuring the meaning of any
communication. When deemed necessary by an EIC to assure compliance
with the FCC Rules, a station must:
(1) Cease the transmission using the unspecified digital code;
(2) Restrict the transmission of any digital code to the
extent instructed;
(3) Maintain a record, convertible to the original
information, of all coded communications transmitted.



97.311 SS emission types.

(a) SS emission transmissions by an amateur station are authorized
only for communications between points within areas where the amateur
service is regulated by the FCC. SS emission transmissions must not be
used for the purpose of obscuring the meaning of any communication.
(b) Stations transmitting SS emission must not cause harmful
interference to stations employing other authorized emissions, and must
accept all interference caused by stations employing other authorized
emissions. (For the purposes of this paragraph, unintended triggering
of carrier operated repeaters is not considered to be harmful
interference.)
(c) Only the following types of SS emission transmissions are
authorized (hybrid SS emission transmissions involving both spreading
techniques are prohibited):
(1) Frequency hopping where the carrier of the transmitted
signal is modulated with unciphered information and changes frequency
at fixed intervals under the direction of a high speed code sequence.
(2) Direct sequence where the information is modulo-2 added
to a high speed code sequence. The combined information and code are
then used to modulate the RF carrier. The high speed code sequence
dominates the modulation function, and is the direct cause of the wide
spreading of the transmitted signal.
(d) The only spreading sequences that are authorized must be from
the output of one binary linear feedback shift register (which may be
implemented in hardware or software).
(1) Only the following sets of connections may be used:

Number of stages Taps used
in shift register in feedback
7 7, 1.
13 13, 4, 3, and 1.
19 19, 5, 2, and 1.

(2) The shift register must not be reset other than by its
feedback during an individual transmission. The shift register output
sequence must be used without alteration.
(3) The output of the last stage of the binary linear feedback
shift register must be used as follows:
(i) For frequency hopping transmissions using x
frequencies, n consecutive bits from the shift register must be used to
select the next frequency from a list of frequencies sorted in ascending
order. Each consecutive frequency must be selected by a consecutive
block of n bits. (Where n is the smallest integer greater than log2(x).
(ii) For direct sequence transmissions using m-ary
modulation, consecutive blocks of log2 m bits from the shift register
must be used to select the transmitted signal during each interval.
(e) The station records must document all SS emission transmissions
and must be retained for a period of 1 year following the last entry.
The station records must include sufficient information to enable the
FCC, using the information contained therein, to demodulate all
transmissions. The station records must contain at least the following:
(1) A technical description of the transmitted signal;
(2) Pertinent parameters describing the transmitted signal
including the frequency or frequencies of operation and, where
applicable, the chip rate, the code rate, the spreading function, the
transmission protocol(s) including the method of achieving
synchronization, and the modulation type;
(3) A general description of the type of information being
conveyed (voice, text, memory dump, facsimile, television, etc.);
(4) The method and, if applicable, the frequency or
frequencies used for station identification;
(5) The date of beginning and the date of ending use of each
type of transmitted signal.
(f) When deemed necessary by an EIC to assure compliance with the
rules of this part, a station licensee must:
(1) Cease SS emission transmissions;
(2) Restrict SS emission transmissions to the extent
instructed;
(3) Maintain a record, convertible to the original information
(voice, text, image, etc.) of all spread spectrum communications
transmitted.
(g) The transmitter power must not exceed 100 W.



97.313 Transmitter power standards.

(a) An amateur station must use the minimum transmitter power
necessary to carry out the desired communications.
(b) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 1.5
kW PEP.
(c) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 200
W PEP on:
(1) The 3.675-3.275 MHz, 7.10-7.15 MHz, 10.10-10.15 MHz and
21.1-21.2 MHz segments;
(2) The 28.1-28.5 MHz segment when the control operator is a
Novice or Technician operator; or
(3) The 7.050-7.075 MHz segment when the station is within ITU
Regions 1 or 3.
(d) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 25
W PEP on the VHF 1.25 m band when the control operator is a Novice
operator.
(e) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 5
W PEP on the UHF 23 cm band when the control operator is a Novice
operator.
(f) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 50
watts PEP on the UHF 70 cm band from an area specified in footnote US7
to Section 2.106 of the FCC Rules, unless expressly authorized by the
FCC after mutual agreement, on a case-by-case basis, between the EIC of
the applicable field facility and the military area frequency
coordinator at the applicable military base. An Earth station or
telecommand station, however, may transmit on the 435-438 MHz segment
with a maximum of 611 W effective radiated power (1 kW equivalent
isotropically radiated power) without the authorization otherwise
required. The transmitting antenna elevation angle between the lower
half-power (-3 dB relative to the peak or antenna bore sight) point and
the horizon must always be greater than 10 degrees.
(g) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 50
watts PEP on the 33 cm band from within 241 km of the boundaries of the
White Sands Missile Range. Its boundaries are those portions of Texas
and New Mexico bounded on the south by latitude 31 degrees 41 minutes
North, on the east by longitude 104 degrees 11 minutes West, on the
north by latitude 34 degrees 30 minutes North, and on the west by
longitude 107 degrees 30 minutes West.



97.315 Type acceptance of external RF power amplifiers.

(a) No more than 1 unit of 1 model of an external RF power
amplifier capable of operation below 144 MHz may be constructed or
modified during any calendar year by an amateur operator for use at a
station without a grant of type acceptance. No amplifier capable of
operation below 144 MHz may be constructed or modified by a non-amateur
operator without a grant of type acceptance from the FCC.
(b) Any external RF power amplifier or external RF power amplifier
kit (see section 2.815 of the FCC Rules), manufactured, imported or
modified for use in a station or attached at any station must be type
accepted for use in the amateur service in accordance with Subpart J of
Part 2 of the FCC rules. This requirement does not apply if one or more
of the following conditions are met:
(1) The amplifier is not capable of operation on frequencies
below 144 MHz. For the purpose of this part, an amplifier will be
deemed to be incapable of operation below 144 MHz if it is not capable
of being easily modified to increase its amplification characteristics
below 120 MHz and either:
(i) The mean output power of the amplifier decreases, as
frequency decreases from 144 MHz, to a point where 0 dB or less gain is
exhibited at 120 MHz; or
(ii) The amplifier is not capable of amplifying signals
below 120 MHz even for brief periods without sustaining permanent damage
to its amplification circuitry.
(2) The amplifier was originally purchased before April 28,
1978, and has been issued a marketing waiver by the FCC, or the
amplifier was purchased before April 28, 1978, by an amateur operator
for use at that amateur operator's station.
(3) The amplifier was:
(i) Constructed by the licensee, not from an external RF
power amplifier kit, for use at the licensee's amateur station; or
(ii) Modified by the licensee for use at the licensee's
amateur station.
(4) The amplifier is sold by an amateur radio operator to
another amateur radio operator or to a dealer.
(5) The amplifier is purchased in used condition by an
equipment dealer from an amateur radio operator and the amplifier is
further sold to another amateur radio operator for use at that
operator's amateur station.
(c) A list of type accepted equipment may be inspected at FCC
headquarters in Washington, DC or at any FCC field location. Any
external RF power amplifier appearing on this list as type accepted for
use in the amateur service may be marketed for use in the amateur
service.



97.317 Standards for type acceptance of external RF power amplifiers.

(a) To receive a grant of type acceptance, the amplifier must
satisfy the spurious emission limitations of section 97.401(d) or (e)
of this Part, as applicable, when the amplifier is:
(1) Operated at its full output power;
(2) Placed in the "standby" or "off" positions, but still
connected to the transmitter; and
(3) Driven with at least 50 W mean RF input power (unless
higher drive level is specified).
(b) To receive a grant of type acceptance, the amplifier must not
be capable of operation on any frequency or frequencies between 24 MHz
and 35 MHz. The amplifier will be deemed incapable of such operation
if it:
(1) Exhibits no more than 6 dB gain between 24 MHz and 26 MHz
and between 28 MHz and 35 MHz. (This gain will be determined by the
ratio of the input RF driving signal (mean power measurement) to the
mean RF output power of the amplifier); and
(2) Exhibits no amplification (0 dB gain) between 26 MHz and
28 MHz.
(c) Type acceptance may be denied when denial would prevent the
use of these amplifiers in services other than the amateur service. The
following features will result in dismissal or denial of an application
for the type acceptance:
(1) Any accessible wiring which, when altered, would permit
operation of the amplifier in a manner contrary to the FCC Rules;
(2) Circuit boards or similar circuitry to facilitate the
addition of components to change the amplifier's operating
characteristics in a manner contrary to the FCC Rules;
(3) Instructions for operation or modification of the
amplifier in a manner contrary to the FCC Rules;
(4) Any internal or external controls or adjustments to
facilitate operation of the amplifier in a manner contrary to the FCC
Rules;
(5) Any internal RF sensing circuitry or any external switch,
the purpose of which is to place the amplifier in the transmit mode;
(6) The incorporation of more gain in the amplifier than is
necessary to operate in the amateur service; for purposes of this
paragraph, the amplifier must:
(i) Not be capable of achieving designed output power
when driven with less than 40 W mean RF input power;
(ii) Not be capable of amplifying the input RF driving
signal by more than 15 dB, unless the amplifier has a designed
transmitter power of less than 1.5 kW (in such a case, gain must be
reduced by the same number of dB as the transmitter power relationship
to 1.5 kW; this gain limitation is determined by the ratio of the input
RF driving signal to the RF output power of the amplifier where both
signals are expressed in peak envelope power or mean power);
(iii) Not exhibit more gain than permitted by paragraph
(c)(6)(ii) of this Section when driven by an RF input signal of less
than 50 W mean power; and
(iv) Be capable of sustained operation at its designed
power level.
(7) Any attenuation in the input of the amplifier which, when
removed or modified, would permit the amplifier to function at its
designed transmitter power when driven by an RF frequency input signal
of less than 50 W mean power; or
(8) Any other features designed to facilitate operation in a
telecommunication service other than the Amateur Radio Services, such
as the Citizens Band (CB) Radio Service.

SUBPART E - PROVIDING EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS



97.401 Operation during a disaster.

(a) When normal communication systems are overloaded, damaged
or disrupted because a disaster has occurred, or is likely to
occur, in an area where the amateur service is regulated by the
FCC, an amateur station may make transmissions necessary to meet
essential communication needs and facilitate relief actions.
(b) When normal communication systems are overloaded, damaged
or disrupted because a natural disaster has occurred, or is likely
to occur, in an area where the amateur service is not regulated by
the FCC, a station assisting in meeting essential communication
needs and facilitating relief actions may do so only in accord with
ITU Resolution No. 640 (Geneva, 1979). The 80 m, 75 m, 40 m, 30
m, 20 m, 17 m, 15 m, 12 m, and 2 m bands may be used for these
purposes.
(c) When a disaster disrupts normal communication systems in
a particular area, the FCC may declare a temporary state of
communication emergency. The declaration will set forth any
special conditions and special rules to be observed by amateur
stations during the communication emergency. A request for a
declaration of a temporary state of emergency should be directed
to the EIC in the area concerned.
(d) A station in, or within 92.6 km of, Alaska may transmit
emissions J3E and R3E on the channel at 5.1675 MHz for emergency
communications. The channel must be shared with stations licensed
in the Alaska-private fixed service. The transmitter power must
not exceed 150 W.



97.403 Safety of life and protection of property.

No provision of these rules prevents the use by an amateur
station of any means of radiocommunication at its disposal to
provide essential communication needs in connection with the
immediate safety of human life and immediate protection of property

when normal communication systems are not available.



97.405 Station in distress.

(a) No provision of these rules prevents the use by an amateur
station in distress of any means at its disposal to attract
attention, make known its condition and location, and obtain
assistance.
(b) No provision of these rules prevents the use by a station,
in the exceptional circumstances described in paragraph (a), of
this section, of any means of radiocommunications at its disposal
to assist a station in distress.



97.407 Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service Operation.

(a) No station may transmit in RACES unless it is an
FCC-licensed primary, club, or military recreation station and it
is certified by a civil defense organization as registered with
that organization, or it is an FCC-licensed RACES station. No
person may be the control operator of a RACES station, or may be
the control operator of an amateur station transmitting in RACES
unless that person holds a FCC-issued amateur operator license and
is certified by a civil defense organization as enrolled in that
organization.
(b) The frequency bands and segments and emissions authorized
to the control operator are available to stations transmitting
communications in RACES on a shared basis with the amateur service.
In the event of an emergency which necessitates the invoking of the
President's War Emergency Powers under the provisions of Section
706 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, 47 U.S.C. 606,
RACES stations and amateur stations participating in RACES may only
transmit on the following frequencies:
(1) The 1800-1825 kHz, 1975-2000 kHz, 3.50-3.55 MHz,
3.93-3.98 MHz, 3.984-4.000 MHz, 7.079-7.125 MHz, 7.245-7.255 MHz,
10.10-10.15 MHz, 14.047-14.053 MHz, 14.22-14.23 MHz, 14.331-14.350
MHz, 21.047-21.053 MHz, 21.228-21.267 MHz, 28.55-28.75 MHz,
29.237-29.273 MHz, 29.45-29.65 MHz, 50.35-50.75 MHz, 52-54 MHz,
144.50-145.71 MHz, 146-148 MHz, 2390-2450 MHz segments;
(2) The 1.25 m, 70 cm and 23 cm bands; and
(3) The channels at 3.997 MHz and 53.30 MHz may be used
in emergency areas when required to make initial contact with a
military unit and for communications with military stations on
matters requiring coordination.
(c) A RACES station may only communicate with:
(1) Another RACES station;
(2) An amateur station registered with a civil defense
organization;
(3) A United States Government station authorized by the
responsible agency to intercommunicate with RACES stations;
(4) A station in a service regulated by the FCC whenever
such communication is authorized by the FCC.
(d) An amateur station registered with a civil defense
organization may only communicate with:
(1) A RACES station licensed to the civil defense
organization with which the amateur station is registered;
(2) The following stations upon authorization of the
responsible civil defense official for the organization in which
the amateur station is registered:
(i) A RACES station licensed to another civil
defense organization;
(ii) An amateur station registered with the same or
another civil defense organization;
(iii) A United States Government station authorized
by the responsible agency to communicate with RACES stations; and
(iv) A station in a service regulated by the FCC
whenever such communication is authorized by the FCC.
(e) All communications transmitted in RACES must be
specifically authorized by the civil defense organization for the
area served. Only civil defense communications of the following
types may be transmitted:
(1) Messages concerning impending or actual conditions
jeopardizing the public safety, or affecting the national defense
or security during periods of local, regional, or national civil
emergencies;
(2) Messages directly concerning the immediate safety of
life of individuals, the immediate protection of property,
maintenance of law and order, alleviation of human suffering and
need, and the combating of armed attack or sabotage;
(3) Messages directly concerning the accumulation and
dissemination of public information or instructions to the civilian
population essential to the activities of the civil defense
organization or other authorized governmental or relief agencies;
and
(4) Communications for RACES training drills and tests
necessary to ensure the establishment and maintenance of orderly
and efficient operation of the RACES as ordered by the responsible
civil defense organizations served. Such drills and tests may not
exceed a total time of 1 hour per week. With the approval of the
chief officer for emergency planning the applicable State,
Commonwealth, District or territory, however, such tests and drills
may be conducted for a period not to exceed 72 hours no more than
twice in any calendar year.


SUBPART F - QUALIFYING EXAMINATIONS SYSTEMS



97.501 Qualifying for an amateur operator license.

An applicant must successfully pass an examination for the
issuance of a new amateur operator license and for each change in
operator class. Each applicant for the class of operator license
specified below must pass, or otherwise receive examination credit
for, the following examination elements:
(a) Amateur Extra Class operator: Elements 1(C), 2, 3(A),
3(B), 4(A) and 4(B);
(b) Advanced Class operator: Elements 1(B) or 1(C), 2, 3(A),
3(B) and 4(A);
(c) General Class operator: Elements 1(B) or 1(C), 2, 3(A) and
3(B);
(d) Technician Class operator: Elements 2 and 3(A);
(e) Novice Class operator: Elements 1(A) or 1(B) or 1(C), and
2.



97.503 Element standards.

(a) A telegraphy examination must be sufficient to prove that the
examinee has the ability to send correctly by hand and to receive
correctly by ear texts in the international Morse code at not less
than the prescribed speed, using all the letters of the alphabet,
numerals 0-9, period, comma, question mark, slant mark and prosigns
AR, BT and SK.
(1) Element 1(A): 5 words per minute;
(2) Element 1(B): 13 words per minute;
(3) Element 1(C): 20 words per minute.
(b) A written examination must be such as to prove that the
examinee possesses the operational and technical qualifications
required to perform properly the duties of an amateur service
licensee. Each written examination must be comprised of a question
set as follows:
(1) Element 2: 30 questions concerning the privileges of
a Novice Class operator license. The minimum passing score is 22
questions answered correctly.
(2) Element 3(A): 25 questions concerning the additional
privileges of a Technician Class operator license. The minimum
passing score is 19 questions answered correctly.
(3) Element 3(B): 25 questions concerning the additional
privileges of a General Class operator license. The minimum
passing score is 19 questions answered correctly.
(4) Element 4(A): 50 questions concerning the additional
privileges of an Advanced Class operator license. The minimum
passing score is 37 questions answered correctly.
(5) Element 4(B): 40 questions concerning the additional
privileges of an Amateur Extra Class operator license. The minimum
passing score is 30 questions answered correctly.
(c) The topics and percentage of questions in each question
set are listed below for the appropriate examination element:

TOPICS ELEMENT: 2 3(A) 3(B) 4(A) 4(B)

(1) FCC rules for the amateur radio
services 10 5 4 6 8
(2) Amateur station operating procedures 2 3 3 1 4
(3) Radio wave propagation characteristics
of amateur service frequency bands 1 3 3 2 2
(4) Amateur radio practices 4 4 5 4 4
(5) Electrical principles as applied to
amateur station equipment 4 2 2 10 6
(6) Amateur station equipment circuit
components 2 2 1 6 4
(7) Practical circuits employed in amateur
station equipment 2 1 1 10 4
(8) Signals and emissions transmitted by
amateur stations 2 2 2 6 4
(9) Amateur station antennas and feed lines 3 3 4 5 4



97.505 Element credit.

(a) The administering VEs must give credit as specified below
to an examinee holding any of the following documents:
(1) An unexpired (or within the grace period) FCC-issued
amateur operator license: The least elements required for the
license held. For a Technician Class operator license issued
before March 21, 1987, credit must also be given for Element 3(B).
(2) A CSCE: Each element the CSCE indicates the examinee
passed within the previous 365 days.
(3) A photocopy of a FCC Form 610 which was submitted to
the FCC indicating the examinee qualified for a Novice Class
operator license within the previous 365 days: Elements 1(A) and
2.
(4) An unexpired (or expired less than 5 years)
FCC-issued commercial radiotelegraph operator license or permit:
Element 1(C).
(5) A current, or expired but within the grace period for
renewal, Novice, Technician plus a CSCE indicating that the person
passed Element 1(A) or 1(B). Technician issued before February 14,
1991. General, or Advanced Class operator license, and a Form 610
containing:
(i) A physician's certification stating that because the
person is an individual with a severe handicap, the duration of which
extends for more than 365 days beyond the date of certification, the
person is unable to pass a 13 or 20 words per minute telegraphy
examination; and
(ii) A release signed by the person permitting disclosure to
the FCC of medical information pertaining to the person's handicap:
Element 1(C).
(b) No examination credit, except as herein provided, shall
be allowed on the basis of holding or having held any other
license.



97.507 Preparing an examination.

(a) Each telegraphy message and each written question set
administered to an examinee must be prepared by a VE holding an
FCC-issued Amateur Extra Class operator license. A telegraphy
message or written question set, however, may also be prepared for
the following elements by a VE holding an FCC-issued operator
license of the Class indicated:
(1) Element 3(B): Advanced Class operator.
(2) Elements 1(A) and 3(A): Advanced or General Class
operator.
(3) Element 2: Advanced, General or Technician Class
operator.
(b) Each question set administered to an examinee must utilize
questions taken from the applicable question pool.
(c) Each telegraphy message and each written question set
administered to an examinee for a Technician, General, Advanced,
or Amateur Extra class operator license must be prepared, or obtained
from a supplier, by the administering VEs according to instructions
from the coordinating VEC.
(d) The preparation of each telegraphy message and each
written question set administered to an examinee for a Novice
operator license is the responsibility of the administering VEs.
The telegraphy message and written question set may be obtained by
the administering VEs from a supplier.
(e) A telegraphy examination must consist of a message sent
in the international Morse code at no less than the prescribed
speed for a minimum of 5 minutes. The message must contain each
required telegraphy character at least once. No message known to
the examinee may be administered in a telegraphy examination. Each
5 letters of the alphabet must be counted as 1 word. Each numeral,
punctuation mark and prosign must be counted as 2 letters of the
alphabet.



97.509 Administering an examination.

(a) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be
administered at a location and a time specified by the
administering VEs. Each administering VE must be present and
observe the examinee throughout the entire examination. The
administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and
necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs
must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the
examinee to comply with the instructions.
(b) Each examinee must comply with the instructions given by
the administering VEs.
(c) No examination that has been compromised shall be
administered to any examinee. Neither the same telegraphy message
nor the same question set may be readministered to the same
examinee.
(d) Passing a telegraphy receiving examination is adequate
proof of an examinee's ability to both send and receive telegraphy.
The administering VEs, however, may also include a sending segment
in a telegraphy examination.
(e) Upon completion of each examination element, the
administering VEs must immediately grade the examinee's answers.
The administering VEs are responsible for determining the
correctness of the examinee's answers.
(f) When the examinee is credited for all examination elements
required for the operator license sought, the administering VEs
must certify on the examinee's application form that the applicant
is qualified for the license and report the basis for the
qualification.
(g) When the examinee does not score a passing grade on an
examination element, the administering VEs must return the
application form to the examinee and inform the examinee of the
grade.
(h) The administering VEs must accommodate an examinee whose
physical disabilities require a special examination procedure.
The administering VEs may require a physician's certification
indicating the nature of the disability before determining which,
if any, special procedures must be used.
(i) The FCC may:
(1) Administer any examination element itself;
(2) Readminister any examination element previously
administered by VEs, either itself or under the supervision of VEs
designated by the FCC; or
(3) Cancel the operator and station licenses of any
licensee who fails to appear for readministration of an examination
when directed by the FCC, or who does not successfully complete any
required element which is readministered. In an instance of such
cancellation, the person will be issued operator and station
licenses consistent with completed examination elements that have
not been invalidated by not appearing for, or by failing, the
examination upon readministration.



97.511 Technician, General, Advanced and Amateur Extra Class
operator examination.

(a) Each session where an examination for a Technician,
General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license is
administered must be coordinated by a VEC. Each administering VE
must be accredited by the coordinating VEC.
(b) Each examination for a Technician Class operator license
must be administered by 3 administering VEs, each of whom must hold
an FCC-issued Amateur Extra or Advanced operator license.
(c) Each examination for a General, Advanced or Amateur Extra
Class operator license must be administered by 3 administering VEs,
each of whom must hold an FCC-issued Amateur Extra operator
license.
(d) The administering VEs must make a public announcement
before administering an examination for Technician, General,
Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license. The number of
candidates at any examination may be limited.
(e) The administering VEs must issue a CSCE to an examinee who
scores a passing grade on an examination element.
(f) Within 10 days of the administration of a successful
examination for the Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra
Class operator license, the administering VEs must submit the
application to the coordinating VEC. If telegraphy element credit is
claimed under Section 97.505(a)(5), the physician's certification and
the patient's release on the license application, Form 610, must be
completed.



97.513 Novice Class operator examination.

(a) Each examination for a Novice class operator license must be
administered by 2 VEs. The VEs do not have to be accredited by a
VEC. Each administering VE must hold a current FCC-issued Amateur
Extra, Advanced or General Class operator license.
(b) Within 10 days of the administration of a successful
examination for the Novice Class operator license, the
administering VEs must submit the examinee's completed application
form to: FCC, 1270 Fairfield Rd. Gettysburg, PA 17325-7245



97.515 Volunteer examiner requirements.

(a) Each administering VE must be at least 18 years of age.
(b) Any person who owns a significant interest in, or is an
employee of, any company or other entity that is engaged in the
manufacture or distribution of equipment used in connection with
amateur station transmissions, or in the preparation or
distribution of any publication used in preparation for obtaining
amateur licenses, is ineligible to be an administering VE. An
employee who does not normally communicate with that part of an
entity engaged in the manufacture or distribution of such
equipment, or in the preparation or distribution of any publication
used in preparation for obtaining amateur operator licenses, is
eligible to be an administering VE.
(c) No person may be a VE if that person's amateur station
license or amateur operator license has ever been revoked or
suspended.
(d) No VE may administer an examination to that VE's spouse,
children, grandchildren, stepchildren, parents, grandparents,
stepparents, brothers, sisters, stepbrothers, stepsisters, aunts,
uncles, nieces, nephews, and in-laws.



97.517 Volunteer examiner conduct.

No VE may administer or certify any examination by fraudulent
means or for monetary or other consideration including
reimbursement in any amount in excess of that permitted. Violation
of this provision may result in the revocation of the VE's amateur
station license and the suspension of the VE's amateur operator
license.


97.519 Coordinating examination sessions.

(a) A VEC must coordinate the efforts of VEs in preparing and
administering examinations.
(b) At the completion of each examination session coordinated,
the coordinating VEC must collect the applications and test results
from the administering VEs. The coordinating VEC must screen and
forward all applications for qualified examinees within 10 days of
their receipt from the administering VEs to: FCC, 1270 Fairfield Rd.
Gettysburg, PA 17325-7245.
(c) Each VEC must make any examination records available to
the FCC, upon request.



97.521 VEC qualifications.

No organization may serve as a VEC unless it has entered into
a written agreement with the FCC. The VEC must abide by the terms
of the agreement. In order to be eligible to be a VEC, the entity
must:
(a) Be an organization that exists for the purpose of
furthering the amateur service;
(b) Be capable of serving as a VEC in at least the VEC region
(see Appendix 2) proposed;
(c) Agree to coordinate examinations for Technician, General,
Advanced, and Amateur Extra Class operator licenses;
(d) Agree to assure that, for any examination, every examinee
qualified under these rules is registered without regard to race,
sex, religion, national origin or membership (or lack thereof) in
any amateur service organization;
(e) Not be engaged in the manufacture or distribution of
equipment used in connection with amateur station transmissions,
or in the preparation or distribution of any publication used in
preparation for obtaining amateur licenses, unless a persuasive
showing is made to the FCC that preventive measures have been taken
to preclude any possible conflict of interest.



97.523 Question pools.

All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for
each written examination element. Each question pool must contain
at least 10 times the number of questions required for a single
examination. Each question pool must be published and made
available to the public prior to its use for making a question set.
Each question on each VEC question pool must be prepared by a VE
holding the required FCC-issued operator license. See Section
97.507(a) of this Part.



97.525 Accrediting VEs.

(a) No VEC may accredit a person as a VE if:
(1) The person does not meet minimum VE statutory
qualifications or minimum qualifications as prescribed by this
Part;
(2) The FCC does not accept the voluntary and
uncompensated services of the person;
(3) The VEC determines that the person is not competent
to perform the VE functions;
(4) The VEC determines that questions of the person's
integrity or honesty could compromise the examinations.
(b) Each VEC must seek a broad representation of amateur
operators to be VEs. No VEC may discriminate in accrediting VEs
on the basis of race, sex, religion or national origin; nor on the
basis of membership (or lack thereof) in an amateur service
organization; nor on the basis of the person accepting or declining
to accept reimbursement.



97.527 Reimbursement for expenses.

(a) VEs and VECs may be reimbursed by examinees for
out-of-pocket expenses incurred in preparing, processing,
administering, or coordinating an examination for a Technician,
General, Advanced, or Amateur Extra operator license.
(b) The maximum amount of reimbursement from any one examinee
for any one examination at a particular session regardless of the
number of examination elements taken must not exceed that announced
by the FCC in a Public Notice. (The basis for the maximum fee is
$4.00 for 1984, adjusted annually each January 1 thereafter for
changes in the Department of Labor Consumer Price Index.)
(c) No reimbursement may be accepted by any VE for preparing,
processing, or administering an examination for a Novice operator
license.
(d) Each VE and each VEC accepting reimbursement must maintain
records of out-of-pocket expenses and reimbursements for each
examination session. Written certifications must be filed with
the FCC each year that all expenses for the period from January 1
to December 31 of the preceding year for which reimbursement was
obtained were necessarily and prudently incurred.
(e) The expense and reimbursement records must be retained by
each VE and each VEC for 3 years and be made available to the FCC
upon request.
(f) Each VE must forward the certification by January 15 of
each year to the coordinating VEC for the examinations for which
reimbursement was received. Each VEC must forward all such
certifications and its own certification to the FCC on or before
January 31 of each year.
(g) Each VEC must disaccredit any VE failing to provide the
certification. The VEC must advise the FCC on January 31 of each
year of any VE that it has disaccredited for this reason.




APPENDICES




Appendix 1--Places Where the Amateur Service is Regulated by the FCC


In ITU Region 2, the amateur service is regulated by the FCC within the
territorial limits of the fifty United States, Districtof Columbia,
Caribbean Insular areas [Commonwealth of Puerto Rico,United States Virgin
Islands (50 islets and cays) and Navassa Island], and Johnston Island
(Islets East, Johnston, North and Sand) and Midway Island (Islets Eastern
and Sand) in the Pacific Insular areas.

In ITU Region 3, the amateur service is regulated by the FCC within the
Pacific Insular territorial limits of American Samoa (seven islands), Baker
Island, Commonwealth of Northern Mariannas Islands, Guam Island, Howland
Island, Jarvis Island, Kingman Reef, Kure Island, Palmyra Island (more
than 50 islets) and Wake Island (Islets Peale, Wake and Wilkes).





Appendix 2--VEC Regions

1. Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island
and Vermont.
2. New Jersey and New York.
3. Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland and Pennsylvania.
4. Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia.
5. Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Oklahoma and
Texas.
6. California.
7. Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington and
Wyoming.
8. Michigan, Ohio and West Virginia.
9. Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin.
10. Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North
Dakota and South Dakota.
11. Alaska.
12. Caribbean Insular areas.
13. Hawaii and Pacific Insular areas.





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