Category : Various Text files
Archive   : NLM-INFO.ZIP

Output of file : UMLSMETA.TXT contained in archive : NLM-INFO.ZIP
National Library of Medicine
JULY 1993
UMLS_ Metathesaurus_

The UMLS Metathesaurus is one of three knowledge sources currently
under development by the National Library of Medicine as part of the
Unified Medical Language System_ (UMLS) project. The Metathesaurus
supplies information that computer programs can use to interpret user
inquiries, to interact with users to refine their questions, to
identify which databases contain information relevant to particular
inquiries, and to convert the users' terms into the vocabulary used
by relevant information sources. The Metathesaurus is intended
primarily for use by system developers, but should also be a useful
reference tool for database builders, librarians, and other
information professionals.

The Metathesaurus contains information about biomedical concepts and
terms from a number of controlled vocabularies and classifications.
It preserves the meanings, hierarchical contexts, and inter-term
relationships present in its source vocabularies, adds certain basic
information to each concept, and establishes new relationships
between terms from different source vocabularies. The scope of the
Metathesaurus is determined by the combined scope of its source

The Metathesaurus is produced by automated processing of machine-
readable versions of its source vocabularies, followed by human
review and editing. Subject experts review records to add certain
data and to verify, edit, and label the inter-term relationships
suggested by automated matching routines.

Content of Meta-1.2

Meta-1.2, the 1992 version of the Metathesaurus, contains all terms from
the 1992 MeSH_, the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject
Headings; DSM-IIIR, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third edition (revised); the
Classification of Nursing Diagnoses; the Nursing Interventions
Classification; and AI Rheum, the NLM Rheumatology expert system. It
contains all preferred terms from COSTART, the FDA's Thesaurus of
adverse reaction terms. It contains selected terms from the MeSH
Supplementary Chemical Records; ICD-9-CM, the International
Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, Clinical Modification; SNOMED
II, the College of American Pathologists' Systematized Nomenclature of
Medicine; the 1989 CPT, the American Medical Association's Current
Procedural Terminology; LCSH, the Library of Congress Subject Headings;
CRISP, the USPHS Thesaurus for indexing scientific projects; UMDNS,
ECRI's Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System; DxPLAIN,
Massachusetts General Hospital's expert diagnostic system; and a set of
clinical terms frequently used at three COSTAR sites. Also included are
terms for a small set of frequently performed laboratory procedures.

Meta-1.2's statistical profile is as follows:
130,137 identified distinct concepts
270,797 terms (including lexical variants, synonyms, and
abbreviations, etc.)
213,355 MeSH terms (16,641 preferred terms; 115,940
supplementary chemical terms.)
16,640 INSERM French translations of MeSH
Preferred Terms
11,418 SNOMED Terms (6,471 preferred terms)
9,345 ICD terms (2,996 preferred terms)
5,553 CRISP (4,266 preferred terms)
5,094 LCSH terms (5,094 preferred terms)
2,548 COSTART (1,179 preferred terms)
1,511 COSTAR terms (1,511 preferred terms)
905 NIC (336 preferred terms)
776 AI Rheum (687 preferred terms)
603 DXPlain (603 preferred terms)
450 DSM terms (263 preferred terms)
543 CPT terms (206 preferred terms)
100 NANDA (99 preferred terms)
122 ACR (122 preferred terms)
112 UMDNS (112 preferred terms)
1,159 Metathesaurus terms (created to facilitate matching or
to resolve ambiguities)

The Metathesaurus is organized by concept or meaning. Alternate names
for the same concept (synonyms, lexical variants, and translations) are
linked together. Each Metathesaurus concept has attributes that help to
define its meaning, e.g., the semantic type(s) or categories to which
it belongs, its position in the hierarchical contexts from various
source vocabularies, and, for many concepts, a definition. A number of
relationships between different concepts are represented. Some of these
relationships are derived from the source vocabularies; others are
created during the construction of the Metathesaurus. Most inter-concept
relationships in the Metathesaurus link concepts that are similar along
some dimension. The Metathesaurus also includes use information,
including the names of selected databases in which the concept appears,
and, for MeSH terms, information about the qualifiers that have been
applied to the terms in MEDLINE_. Information on the co-occurrence of
concepts in MEDLINE and in AI RHEUM is also included.

Distribution Formats

Although sample records are available on IBM PC-compatible and Macintosh
diskettes, the complete Meta-1.2 is distributed on CD-ROM only, in
combination with the UMLS Semantic Network and the Information Sources
Map. Two discs are provided: an ISO 9660 ASCII data disc, and a
Macintosh HFS (Hierarchical File System) application disc.

ASCII Data (ISO 9660 Disc)

This disc contains ASCII documentation files; Meta-1.2 data in
relational and unit record format ASCII files; Semantic Network data in
relational and unit record format ASCII files; and Information Sources
Map data in a relational format. There are no executable files on this

The CD-ROM files containing all Meta-1.2 data elements are large. The
relational files total nearly 450 megabytes, and the unit record format
files (which do not contain co-occurrences) total 129 megabytes. These
files are distribution formats for the complete knowledge source. We
expect that developers will select data elements and choose data
representations to meet their own needs. Local hardware and software
requirements will be determined by the number and types of elements
chosen, by the data representation selected, and by the performance
characteristics desired.

Any machine equipped to read ISO 9660 CD-ROM discs will be able to
access these files. CD-ROM hardware and software to read ISO 9660 discs
is available for the IBM PC, Apple Macintosh, Unix, and many other

MetaCard (Macintosh HFS Disc)

The Apple Macintosh HFS disc contains an interactive Meta-1.2 HyperCard
browser named MetaCard. Use of this CD-ROM requires a Macintosh SE
computer (or later model); 2 megabytes (preferably more) of memory; an
Apple (or compatible) SCSI CD-ROM reader, preferably with a 64 kilobyte
cache; and the correct SCSI cable(s). Software required includes System
6.0.3 (or later); HyperCard 1.2.2 (or later); and a Start-up document
for the CD-ROM reader.

Other than the HyperCard browser and a Semantic Net Browser, no
utilities or applications programs accompany Meta-1.2.

Application Procedures
Those who wish to obtain copies of UMLS products are required to sign
a one-year experimental agreement with the NLM. To obtain a packet with
sample records, documentation, and copies of the experimental agreement,
send a written request to:

Betsy L. Humphreys
UMLS Project Officer
National Library of Medicine
8600 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, MD 20894

Other Fact Sheets in the UMLS series:
(1) Unified Medical Language System_
(2) UMLS Semantic Network
(3) UMLS Information Sources Map

Copies are available from:
Office of Public Information
National Library of Medicine
8600 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, MD 20894

  3 Responses to “Category : Various Text files
Archive   : NLM-INFO.ZIP

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: