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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Library of Medicine

Errata, Retraction, Duplicate Publication, and Comment Policy

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) has a long-standing tradition
of providing health professionals access to information in the
biomedical lit-erature through quality programs and services.

One of the ways NLM assists users is to add subsequent notices of
errata, retractions, duplicate publications, and comments to
citations for articles indexed and available in the Library's online
MEDLINE_ database. Users who search MEDLINE will be informed if they
retrieve a citation for an article that has subsequently been
retracted, an article that has been found to duplicate another
article, an article in which a substantive error has been noted, or
an article that has been specifically discussed in another article.
NLM links the existing citations to subsequently published errata,
retraction notices, duplicate publications, or comments.

Through a combination of additions to MEDLINE citations, NLM attempts
to draw the user's attention to changes in an article's status, to
the official notification of such a change, or to published comments
concerning the article. These added elements may consist of a title
rubric and/or a Publication Type (PT) or Comment (CM) data element.

Errata

Published changes or emendations to earlier articles, frequently
referred to as corrections or corrigenda, are considered by NLM to be
errata, regardless of the nature or origin of the error. For example,
NLM does not differentiate between errors that originated in the
publication process and errors of logic or methodology, because journal
editors do not make this distinction consistently or clearly. Since
1987, when a publisher, editor, or author has published a labeled,
citable erratum to an article that was cited in the MEDLINE database,
NLM has amended the citation to the article with a bibliographic
reference to the erratum notice, in order to alert users and refer them
to the source of the revised information.

Although errors may occur in any part of the published article, NLM will
add the corrected information to the citation if the erroneous data were
incorporated in the original MEDLINE citation. That is, if the error
occurred in the article's authorship, title, or abstract, NLM will
retain the original citation, if it affects retrieval, but will add the
revised data to provide the correct information as well as the citation
of the published erratum notice. If, however, the error occurred in a
portion of the article that is not included in the MEDLINE citation,
such as the text, graphs, or tables, only a reference to the published
erratum notice will be added to the MEDLINE citation, in the form of a
rubric following the title.

Although brief errata notices are not generally indexed as independent
articles, some substantive articles or letters may comprise published
errata. If so, these items are indexed with the Publication Type
Published Erratum.

It is NLM's policy that errata will be acknowledged only if they are
printed in a citable form; that is, an erratum notice must appear on a
numbered page in an issue of the journal that published the article.
Error notices that are printed on slips of paper that are inserted
unbound into a journal issue or "tipped in" will not be considered part
of the permanent bibliographic record. NLM does not make changes in the
database in response to letters from authors or editors, unless such
letters indicate that a substantive published erratum is forthcoming.

Retractions

Articles may be retracted or withdrawn by their authors, academic or
institutional sponsor, editor, or publisher, because of pervasive error
or unsubstantiated or irreproducible data. For example, an article's
conclusions may have been based upon faulty logic or computation, its
data may have been obtained by accident from a contaminated cell line
or through poor instrumentation, or it may have been derived from
falsified or fabricated data. NLM does not differentiate between
articles that are retracted because of honest error and those that are
retracted because of scientific misconduct or plagiarism. If the
notification in the journal is labeled as a retraction or withdrawal,
NLM will index it as a retraction.

It is NLM's policy that a retraction will be indexed as a retraction
only if it clearly states that the article in question is being
retracted or withdrawn, and is signed by an author of the retracted
paper or author's legal counsel; by the head of department, dean, or
director of the laboratory where the paper was produced; or by the
journal editor. In addition, the retraction must be labeled and
published in citable form; that is, the retraction must appear on a
numbered page in an issue of the journal that published the retracted
article.

NLM does not simply expunge the citation of a retracted article from its
indexes or databases, but instead links the original to the notice of
retraction, and adds a rubric to the title of the retracted article.
NLM makes a reciprocal linkage between the retraction statement and the
retracted article. That is, the retraction statement is indexed as
RETRACTION OF PUBLICATION (PT); if the title of the retraction statement
does not clearly identify the article(s) being retracted, NLM will
expand the title with reference to the retracted publication(s). The
MEDLINE record of each retracted article will be given an additional
publication type, RETRACTED PUBLICATION (PT), and its title will be
amended with information that cites the retraction statement. NLM makes
these additions to the title field of the MEDLINE record on the
assumption that most users will print or view an article's title before
obtaining or consulting the article.

Duplicate Publication

NLM identifies an article that substantially duplicates another article
without acknowledgment by assigning both articles the Publication Type
DUPLICATE PUBLICATION (PT). In general, such articles have one or more
authors in common and a substantial amount of duplicated text.
Duplication may occur intentionally, to achieve wider dissemination of
an article such as a policy statement, or inadvertently, through
multiple submission of a manuscript to different journals.

Unlike other publication types described in this fact sheet, NLM may add
Duplicate Publication (PT) either with or without a formal notification
from authors or journal editors. In the indexing process, indexers
sometimes recognize duplicate or very similar publications; if
inspection of the potentially duplicative articles indicates a
substantial amount of overlap, the PT will be added.

Comments

Comments are substantive articles or letters that challenge, refute,
support, or expand upon another article or letter. Among the types of
articles that will be considered comments are: invited comments on an
earlier article, letters to the editor that were inspired by a previous
article, articles that update previous articles, and announcements or
notices that serve as quasi retractions. A mere mention of one or more
articles in the text or references to another article does not
constitute a comment. The commenting article must, instead, have been
written primarily for the purpose of making a commentÄthat is, of
drawing the reader's attention to the referent article. Beginning in
1989, NLM has created bibliographic linkages in MEDLINE between
commenting articles and the article or articles to which they refer.

The comment linkage has two components in MEDLINE: an identifying
phrase following the title of each of the pair of articles, and a data
field (abbreviated CM for "comment") contain-ing the bibliographic
source of either the citing or cited article. Specifically, the
commenting ar-ticle will have the rubric [comment] following the title,
and its CM field will contain the words "Comment on" followed by the
source of the referent article. A reciprocal rubric will be added to
the online record of the referent article, [see comments], and its CM
field will contain the words "Comment in" followed by the source of the
commenting article. The CM field will be repeated to identify the
location of as many comments about an article as necessary.

Published comments will be linked to referent articles only if they are
printed in citable form; that is, on a numbered page in a journal issue.
At the present time, NLM limits linkages to comments that were published
in the same journal as the articles to which they refer. Furthermore,
the referent article must have been indexed for MEDLINE; that is, it
must have met the scope and format requirements for selection in the
first place. The commenting article or letter will be indexed
independently; that is, it may or may not be indexed with the same
medical subject headings as the article to which it refers, depending
upon its contents.

Index Medicus_

The errata, retraction, duplicate publication, and comment publication
types, rubrics, and linkages are more likely to be applied to citations
in the online database MEDLINE than in the monthly Index Medicus. If,
however, the erratum notice, retraction, or comment is published before
the original citation is printed in the annual cumulation of Index
Medicus, the amended citation will appear in the Cumulated Index
Medicus. Citations to earlier articles which have subsequently been
corrected or retracted, or which have recently been the subject of
commentary, are not reprinted in Index Medicus for the purpose of adding
the linkage.

For further information about errata, retractions, duplicate
publication, and comments in MEDLINE, please contact:

Chief, Bibliographic Services Division
National Library of Medicine
Bethesda, Maryland 20894

EXAMPLES

Errata
UI - 89198889
A U - Bergstr:om B
A U - Mattiasson I
A U - Ros:en I
A U - Lilja B
A U - Sundkvist G
A U - Mattiasso I [corrected to Mattiasson I]
TI - Platelet sodium and potassium ATPase [corrected] activity and
noradrenaline efflux rate in relation to autonomic and peripheral
nerve function in insulin-dependent diabetic patients [published
erratum appears in J Intern Med 1989 Jul;226(1):4]
P T - JOURNAL ARTICLE
S O - J Intern Med 1989 Mar;225(3):185-90

U I - 91348280
A U - Murakami N
A U - Mehta P
A U - Elzinga M
TI - Studies on the distribution of cellular myosin with antibodies to
isoform-specific synthetic peptides.
P T - JOURNAL ARTICLE
P T - PUBLISHED ERRATUM
S O - FEBS Lett 1991 Aug 19;288(1-2):247

U I - 91130589
A U - Murakami N
A U - Mehta P
A U - Elzinga M
TI - Studies on the distribution of cellular myosin with antibodies to
isoform-specific synthetic peptides [published erratum appears in
FEBS Lett 1991 Aug 19;288(1-2):247]
P T - JOURNAL ARTICLE
S O - FEBS Lett 1991 Jan 14;278(1):23-5

R etraction

U I - 91374633
A U - Huber M
A U - Schmid A
A U - Cattaneo R
A U - Billeter MA
TI - Retraction. Functional and nonfunctional measles virus matrix genes
from lethal human brain infections [retraction of Ballart I, Huber
M, Schmid A, Cattaneo R, Billeter MA. In: J Virol 1991
Jun;65(6):3161-6]
P T - RETRACTION OF PUBLICATION
S O - J Virol 1991 Oct;65(10):5656
U I - 91237834
A U - Ballart I
A U - Huber M
A U - Schmid A
A U - Cattaneo R
A U - Billeter MA
TI - Functional and nonfunctional measles virus matrix genes from lethal
human brain infections [retracted by Huber M, Schmid A, Cattaneo R,
Billeter MA. In: J Virol 1991 Oct;65(10):5656]
P T - JOURNAL ARTICLE
P T - RETRACTED PUBLICATION
S O - J Virol 1991 Jun;65(6):3161-6

D uplicate Publication

U I - 91372601
A U - Brooks DJ
T I - Detection of preclinical Parkinson's disease with PET.
P T - DUPLICATE PUBLICATION
P T - JOURNAL ARTICLE
S O - Geriatrics 1991 Aug;46 Suppl 1:25-30

U I - 91251949
A U - Brooks DJ
T I - Detection of preclinical Parkinson's disease with PET.
P T - DUPLICATE PUBLICATION
P T - JOURNAL ARTICLE
S O - Neurology 1991 May;41(5 Suppl 2):24-7; discussion 28

Comments

UI - 89281891
A U - Frohman EM
TI - Blood typing errors on U.S. army identification cards and tags
[letter] [see comments]
P T - Letter
C M - Comment in: Mil Med 1990 Apr;155(4):A19
S O - Mil Med 1989 May;154(5):273-4
U I - 90238735
A U - Gaydos JC
A U - Polk AJ
A U - Cowan DN
A U - Clark GB
A U - Stewart KR
A U - Jones RV
A U - Henry JM
TI - Blood typing errors on U.S. Army identification (ID) cards and tags
[letter; comment]
P T - COMMENT
P T - LETTER
C M - Comment on: Mil Med 1989 May;154(5):273-4
S O - Mil Med 1990 Apr;155(4):A19


  3 Responses to “Category : Various Text files
Archive   : NLM-INFO.ZIP
Filename : ERRATA.TXT

  1. Very nice! Thank you for this wonderful archive. I wonder why I found it only now. Long live the BBS file archives!

  2. This is so awesome! 😀 I’d be cool if you could download an entire archive of this at once, though.

  3. But one thing that puzzles me is the “mtswslnkmcjklsdlsbdmMICROSOFT” string. There is an article about it here. It is definitely worth a read: http://www.os2museum.com/wp/mtswslnk/