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Definition of Necromancy from Lewis Spence's Enclyclopaedia of Occultism.
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Definition of Necromancy from Lewis Spence’s Enclyclopaedia of Occultism.
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Taken from the 1960 reprint of AN ENCLYCLOPAEDIA OF OCCULTISM
by Lewis Spence, University Books, Hyde Park, New York. First
published in 1920, it is considered to be one of the best
sources on the subject.

Submitted by Alan Wright, Atlanta GA, Illumi-Net 404-377-1141
________________________________________________________________________

NECROMANCY: Or divination by means of the spirits of the dead, from the
Greek work `nekos', dead; and `manteria', divination. It is through its
Italian form nigromancia that it came to be known as the "Black Art".
With the Greeks it originally signified the descent into Hades in order
to consult the dead rather than summoning the dead into the mortal
sphere again. The art is of almost universal usage. Considerable
difference of opinion exists among modern adepts as to the exact methods
to be properly pursued in the necromantic art, and it must be borne in
mind the necromancy, which in the Middle Ages was called sorcery, shades
into modern spiritualistic practice. There is no doubt, however, that
necromancy is the touchstone of occultism, for if, after careful
preparation the adept can carry through to a successful issue, the
raising of the soul from the other world, he has proved the value of his
art. It would be fruitless in this place to enter into a psychological
discussion as to whether the feat is possible of accomplishment or not,
and we will confine ourselves tit he material which has been placed at
our disposal by the sages of the past, who have left full details as to
how the process should be approached.
In the case of a compact between the conjuror and the devil, no
ceremony is necessary, as the familiar is ever at hand to do the behests
of his masters. This, however, is never the case with the true
sorcerer, who preserves his independence, and trusts to his profound
knowledge of the art and his powers of command; his object therefore is
to 'constrain' some spirit to appear before him, and to guard himself
from the danger of provoking such beings. The magician, it must be
understood, always has an assistant, and every article named is prepared
according to rules well known in the black art. In the first place,
they are to fix upon a spot proper for such purpose; which must be
either in a subterraneous vault, hung around with black, and lighted by
a magical torch; or else in the center of some thick wood or desert, or
upon some extensive, unfrequented plain, where several roads meet, or
amidst the ruins of ancient castles, abbeys, monasteries, etc., or
amongst the rocks on the sea shore, in some private detached churchyard,
or any other solemn, melancholy place between the hours of twelve and
one in the night, either when the moon shines very bright, or else when
the elements are disturbed with storms, thunder, lightning, wind, and
rain; for, in these places, times, and seasons, it is contended that
spirits can with less difficulty manifest themselves to mortal eyes, and
continue visible with the least pain, in this elemental external world.
When the proper time and place is fixed on, a magic circle is to be
formed, within which, the master and his associate are carefully to
retire. The dimensions of the circle are as follow: - A piece of ground
is usually chosen, nine feet square, at the full extent of which
parallel lines are drawn within the other, having sundry crosses and
triangles described between them, close to which is formed the first or
outer circle, then, about half-a-foot within the same, a second circle
is described, and within that another square correspondent to the first,
the center of which is the seat of spot where the master and associate
are to be placed. "The vacancies formed by the various lines and angles
of the figure are filled up with the holy names of God, having crosses
and triangles described between them. The reason assigned by magicians
and others for this institution and use of circles, is, that so much
ground being blessed and consecrated by such holy words and ceremonies
as they make use of forming it, hath a secret force to expel all evil
spirits from the bounds thereof, and, being sprinkled with pure,
sanctified water, the ground is purified from all uncleanliness;
besides, the holy names of God being written over every part of it, its
force becomes so powerful that no evil spirit hath ability to break
through it, or to get at the magician and his companion, by reason of
the antipithy in nature they bear to these sacred names. And the reason
given for the triangles is, that if the spirit be not easily brought to
speak the truth, they may by the exorcist be conjured to enter the same,
where, by virtue of the names of the essence and divinity of God, they
can speak nothing but what is true and right. The circle, therefore,
according to this account of it, is the principal fort and shield of the
magician, from which he is not, at the peril of his life, to depart,
till he has completely dismissed the spirit, particularly if he be of a
fiery or infernal nature. Instances are recorded of many who perished
by the means, particularly Chiancungi, the famous Egyptian
fortune-teller, who was so famous in England in the seventeenth century.
He undertook a wager, to raise up the spirit "Bokim", and having
described the circle, he seated his sister Napula by him as his
associate. After frequently repeating the forms of exorcism, and
calling upon the spirit to appear, and nothing as yet answering his
demand, they grew impatient of the business, and quitted the circle, but
it cost them their lives; for they were instantaneously seized and
crushed to death by that infernal spirit, who happened not to be
sufficiently constrained till that moment, to manifest himself to human
eyes."
There was a prescribed form of consecrating the magic circle, which we
omit as unnecessary in a general illustration. The proper attire or
"pontificalibus" of a magician is an ephod made of fine white linen,
over that a priestly robe of black bombazine, reaching to the ground,
with the two seals of the earth drawn correctly upon virgin parchment,
and affixed to the breast of the outer vestment. Round his waist is
tied a broad consecrated girdle, with the names Ya, Ya, - Aie, Aaie, -
Elibra, - Sadai, - Pah Adonai, - tuo robore, - Cintus sum. Upon his
shoes must be written Tetragammaton, with crosses round about; upon his
head a high-crowned cap of sable silk, and in his hand a Holy Bible,
printed or written in pure Hebrew. Thus attired, and standing within
the charmed circle, the magician repeats the awful form of exorcism; and
presently, the infernal spirits make strange and frightening noises,
howlings, tremblings, flashes, and most dreadful shrieks and yells, as a
forerunner of their becoming visible. Their first appearance in the
form of fierce and terrible lions or tigers, vomiting forth fire, and
roaring hideously about the circle; all which time the exorcist must not
suffer any tremour of dismay; for, in that case, they will gain the
ascendancy, and the consequences may touch his life. On the contrary,
he must summon up a share of resolution, and continue repeating the
forms of constriction and confinement, until they are are drawn nearer
to the influence of the triangle, when their forms will change to
appearances less ferocious and frightful, and become more submissive and
tractable. When the forms of conjuration have in this manner been
sufficiently repeated, the spirits forsake their bestial shapes, and
enter the human form, appearing like naked men of gentle countenance and
behavior, yet is the magician to be warily on his guard that they
deceive him not by much wild gestures, for they are exceedingly
fraudulent and deceitful in their dealings with those who constrain them
to appear without compact, having nothing in view but to suborn his
mind, or accomplish his destruction. With great care also must the
spirit be discharged after the ceremony is finished, as he has answered
all the demands made upon him. The magician must wait patiently till he
has passed through all the terrible forms which announce his coming, and
only when the last shriek has died away, after every trace of fire and
brimstone has disappeared, may he leave the circle and depart home in
safety. IF the ghost of deceased person is to be raised, the grave must
be resorted to at midnight, and a different form of conjuration is
necessary. Still another, is the infernal sacrament for "any corpse
that hath hanged, drowned, or otherwise made away with itself"; and in
this case the conjurations are performed over the body, which will at
last rise, and standing upright, answer with a faint and hollow voice
the questions that are put to it.
Eliphas Levi, in his `Ritual of Transcendent Magic' says that
"evocations should always have a motive and a becoming end, otherwise
the are works of darkness and folly, dangerous for health and reason."
The permissible motive of an evocation may be either love or
intelligence. Evocations of love require less apparatus and are in
every respect easier. The procedure is as follows: "We must, in the
first place, carefully collect the memorials of him (or her) whom we
desire to behold, the articles he used, and on which his impressions
remains; we must also prepare an apartment in which the person lived, or
otherwise, one of similar kind, and place his portrait veiled in white
therein, surrounded with his favorite flowers, which must be renewed
daily. A fixed date must then be observed, either the birthday of the
person, or that day which was most fortunate for his and our own
affection, one of which we may believe that his soul, however blessed
elsewhere, cannot lose the remembrance; this must be the day for the
evocation and we must provide for it during the space of fourteen days.
Throughout this period we must refrain from extending to anyone the same
proofs of affection which we have the right to expect from the dead; we
must observe strict chastity, live in retreat, and take only modest and
light collation daily. Every evening at the same hour we must shut
ourselves in the chamber consecrated to the memory of the lamented
person, using only one small light, such as that of a funeral lamp or
taper. This light should be placed behind us, the portrait should be
uncovered and we should remain before it for an hour, in silence;
finally, we should fumigate the apartment with a little good incense,
and go out backwards. On the morning of the day fixed for the
evocation, we should adorn ourselves as if for a festival, not salute
anyone first, make but a single repast of bread, wine, and roots, or
fruits; the cloth should be white, two covers should be laid, and one
portion of the bread broken should be set aside; a little wine should
also be placed in the glass of the person we design to invoke. The meal
must be eaten alone in the chamber of evocations, and in the presence of
the veiled portrait; it must be all cleared away at the end, except the
glass belonging to the dead person, and his portion of bread, which must
be placed before the portrait. In the evening, at the hour for the
regular visit, we must repair in silence to the chamber, light a fire of
cypress wood, and cast incense seven times thereon, pronouncing the name
of the person whom we desire to behold. The lamp must then be
extinguished, and the fire permitted to die out. On this day the
portrait must not be unveiled. When the flame is extinct, put more
incense on the ashes, and invoke God according to the forms of the
religion to which the dead person belonged, and according to the ideas
which he himself possessed of God. While making this prayer we must
identify ourselves with the evoked person, speak as he spoke, believe in
a sense as he believed; then, after a silence of fifteen minutes, we
must speak to him as if he were present, with affection and with faith,
praying him to manifest to us. Renew this prayer mentally, covering the
face with both hands; then call him thrice with a loud voice; tarry on
our knees, the eyes closed and covered, for some minutes; then call
again thrice upon him in a sweet and affectionate tone, and slowly open
the eyes. Should nothing result, the same experiment must be renewed in
the following year, and if necessary a third time, when it is certain
that the desired apparition will be obtained, and the longer it has been
delayed the more realistic and striking it will be.
"Evocations of knowledge and intelligence are made with more solemn
ceremonies. If concerned with a celebrated personage, we must meditate
for twenty-one days upon his life and writings, form an idea of his
appearance, converse with him mentally, and imagine his answers; carry
his portrait, or at least his name, about us; follow a vegetable diet
for twenty-one days, and a severe fast during the last seven. We must
next construct the magical oratory. This oratory must be invariably
darkened; but if we operate in the daytime, we may leave a narrow
aperture on the side where the sun will shine at the hour of the
evocation, and place a triangular prism before the opening, and a
crystal globe, filled with water, before the prism. If the operation
be arranged for the night the magic lamp must be so placed that its
single ray shall be upon the alter smoke. The purpose of the
preparations is to furnish the magic agent with elements of corporeal
appearance, and to ease as much as possible the tension of imagination,
which could not be exalted without danger into the absolute illusion of
dream. for the rest, it will be easily understood that a beam of
sunlight, or the ray of a lamp, coloured variously, and falling upon
curling and irregular smoke, can in no way create a perfect image. The
chafing-dish containing the sacred fire should be in the center of the
oratory, and the alter of perfumes close by. The operator must turn
toward the east to pray, and the west to invoke; he must be either alone
or assisted by two persons preserving the strictest silence; he must
wear the magical vestments, which we have described in the seventh
chapter (of Levi`s "Ritual of Transcendent Magic"), and must be crowned
with vervain and gold. He should bathe before the operation, and all
his under garments must be of the most intact and scrupulous
cleanliness. The ceremony should begin with a prayer suited to the
genius of the spirit about to be invoked and one which would be approved
by him if he still lived. For example, it would be impossible to evoke
Voltaire by reciting prayers in the style of St. Bridget. For the great
men of antiquity, we may see the hymns of Cleathes or Orpheus, with the
adjuration terminating the Golden Venus of Pythagoras. In our own
evocation of Apollonius, we used the magical philosophy of Patricius for
the ritual, containing the doctrines of Zoroaster and the writings of
Hermes Trismegistus. We recited the Nuctemeron of Apollonius in greek
with a loud voice and added the following conjuration:-

"Vouchsafe to be present, O Father of All, and thou Thrice Mighty
Hermes, Conductor of the dead. Asclepius son of Hephaistus, Patron of
the Healing Art; and thou Osiris, Lord of strenght a vigor, do thou
thyself be present too. Arnebascenis, Patron of Philosophy, and yet
again Asclepius, son of Imuthe, who presidest over poetry.
* * * *
"Apollonius, Apollonius, Apollonius, Thou teachest the Magic of
Zoroaster, son of Oromasdes; and this is the worship of the Gods."

For the evocation of spirits belonging to religions issued from
Judaism, the following kabalistic invocation of Solomon should be used,
either in Hebrew, or in any other tongue with which the spirit in
question is known to have been familiar:-

"Powers of the Kingdom, be ye under my left foot and in my right hand!
Glory and eternity, take me by the two shoulders, and direct me in the
paths of victory! Mercy and Justice, be ye the equilibrium and
splendour of my life! Intelligence and Wisdom, crown me! Spirits of
Malchuth, lead me betwixt the two pillars upon which rests the whole
edifice of the temple! Angels of Netsah and Hod, strengthen me upon the
cubic stone of Jesod! O Gedulael! O Geburael! O Tiphereth! Binael,
be thou my love! Ruach Hochmael, be thou my light! Be that which thou
are and thou shall be, O Ketheriel! Tschim, assist me in the name of
Saddai! Cherubim, be my strength in the name of Adonai! Beni-Elohim,
be my brethren in the name of the Son, and by the power of Zebaoth!
Eloim, do battle for me in the name of Tetragrammation! Malachim,
protect me in the name of Jod He Vau He! Seraphim, cleanse my love in
the name of Elvoh! Hasmalim, enlighten me with the splendours of Eloi
and Shechinah! Aralim, act! Orphanim, revolve and shine! Hajoth a
Kadosh, cry, speak, roar, bellow! Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh, Saddai,
Adonia, Jotchavah, Eieazereie: Hallelu-jah, Hallelu-jah, Hallelu-jah.
Amen.
It should be remembered above all, in conjurations, that the names of
Satan, Beelzebub, Adramelek, and others do not designate spiritual
unities, but legions of impure spirits.
"Our name is legion, and we are many" says the spirit of darkness in
the Gospel. Number constitutes the law, and progress takes place
inversely in Hell - that is to say, the most advanced in Satanic
development, and consequently the most degraded, are the least
intelligent and feeblest. Thus, a fatal law drives the demons downward
when they wish and believe themselves to be ascending. So also those
who term themselves chiefs are the most impotent and despised of all.
As to the horde of perverse spirits, they tremble before the unknown,
invisible, incomprehensible, capricious, implacable chief, who never
explains his law, whose arm is ever stretched out to strike those who
fail to understand him. They give this phantom the names of Baal,
Jupiter, and even others more venerable, which cannot, without
profanation, be pronounced in Hell. But this phantom is only a shadow
and remnant of God, disfigured by their willful perversity, and
persisting in their imagination like a vengeance of justice and a
remorse of truth.
"When the evoked spirit of light manifests with dejected or irritated
countenance, we must offer him a moral sacrifice, that is, be inwardly
disposed to renounce whatever offends him; and before leaving the
oratory, we must dismiss him, saying: "May peace be with thee! I have
not wished to trouble thee; do thou torment me not. I shall labour to
improve myself as to anything that vexes thee. I pray, and will still
pray, with thee and for thee. Pray thou also both with and for me, and
return to thy great slumber, expecting that day when we shall wake
together. Silence and adieu."
Christian, in his "Historie de le Magic" (Paris, 1871) says: "The
place chosen for the evocation is not an unimportant point. The most
auspicious is undoubtedly that room which contains the last traces of
the lamented person. If it be impossible to fulfill this condition, we
must go in search of some isolated and rural retreat which corresponds
in orientation and aspect, as well as measurement, with the mortuary
chamber.
"The window must be blocked with boards if olive wood, hermetically
joined, so that no exterior light may penetrate. The ceiling, the four
interior walls, and the floor must be draped with tapestry of emerald
green silk, which the operator must secure himself with copper nails,
invoking no assistance from strange hands, because, from this moment, he
alone may enter into this spot set apart from all, the arcane Oratory of
the Magus. The furniture which belonged to the deceased, his favorite
possessions and trinkets, the things on which his final glance may be
supposed to have rested - all these things must be assiduously collected
and arranged in the order which they occupied at the time of his death.
If none of these souvenirs can be obtained, a faithful likeness of the
departed being must be procured, it must be depicted in the dress and
colours which he wore during the last period of his life. This portrait
must be set up on the eastern wall by means of copper fasteners, must be
covered with a veil of white silk, and must be surmounted with a crown
of those flowers which were most lived by the deceased.
"Before the portrait there must be erected an alter of white marble,
supported by four columns which must terminate in bull`s feet. A five
pointed star must be emblazoned on the slab of the alter, and must be
composed of pure copper plates. The place in the centre of the star,
between the plates, must be large enough to receive the pedestal of a
cup-shaped copper chafing-dish, containing dessicated fragments of
laurel wood and alder. By the side of the chafing-dish must be placed a
censer full of incense. The skin of a white and spotless ram must be
stretched beneath the alter, and on it emblazoned another pentagram
prawn with parallel lines of azure blue, golden yellow, emerald green
and purple red.
" A copper tripod must be erected in the middle of the Oratory; it
must be perfectly triangular in form, it must be surmounted by another
and similar chafing-dish, which must likewise contain a quantity of
dried olive wood.
" A high candelabrum of copper must be placed by the wall on the
southern side, and must contain a single taper of purest white wax,
which must alone illuminate the mystery of the evocation.
"The white colour of the alter, of the ram`s skin, and of the veil, in
consecrated to Gabriel, the planetary archangel of he moon, and the
Genius of mysteries; the green of the copper and tapestries is dedicated
to the Genius of Venus.
"The alter and tripod must both be encompassed by a magnetized iron
chain, and by three garlands composed of the foliage and blossoms of the
myrtle, the olive, and the rose.
"Finally, facing the portrait, and on the eastern side there must be a
canopy, also draped with emerald silk, and supported by two triangular
columns of olive wood, plated with purest copper. On the north and
south sides, between the each of these columns and the wall, the
tapestry must fall in long folds to the ground, forming a kind of
tabernacle; which must be open on the eastern side. At the foot of each
column there must be a sphinx of white marble, with a cavity in the top
of the head to receive spices for burning. It is beneath this canopy
that the apparitions will manifest, and it should be remembered the the
Magus must turn to the east for prayer, and to the west for evocation.
"Before entering this little sanctuary, devoted to remembrance, the
operator must be clothed in a vestment of azure, fastened by clasps of
copper, enriched with a single emerald. He must wear upon his head a
tiara surrounded by a floriated circle of twelve emeralds, and a crown
of violets. On his breast must be the talisman of Venus depending from
a ribbon of azure silk. On the annular finger of his left hand must be
a copper ring containing turquoise. His feet must be covered with shoes
of azure silk, and he must be provided with a fan of swan`s feathers to
dissipate, if needful, the smoke of the perfumes.
"The Oratory and all its objects must be consecrated on a Friday,
during the hours which are set apart to the Genius of Venus. This
consecration is performed by burning violets and roses in a fire if
olive wood. A shaft must be provided in the oratory for the passage of
the smoke, but care must be taken to prevent the admission of light
through this channel.
"When the preparations are finished, the operator must impose on
himself a retreat of one-and-twenty days, beginning on the anniversary
of the death of the beloved being. During this period he must refrain
from conferring on anyone the least of those marks of affection which he
was accustomed to bestow on the departed; he must be absolutely chaste,
alike in deed and thought; he must take daily but one repast, consisting
of bread, wine, roots, and fruits. These three conditions are
indispensable to success in evocation, and their accomplishment requires
complete isolation.
"Every day, shortly before midnight, the Magus must assume his
consecrated dress. On the stroke of the mystic hour, he must enter the
Oratory, bearing a lighted candle in his right hand, and in the other an
hour-glass. The candle must be fixed in the candelabra, and the
hour-glass on the alter to register the flight of time. The operator
must then proceed to replenish the garland and the floral crown. Then
he shall unveil the portrait, and erect it immovable in front of the
alter, being thus with his face to the east, he shall softly go over in
his mind the cherished recollections he possesses of the beloved and
departed being.
"When the upper reservoir of the hour-glass is empty the time of
contemplation will be over. By the flame of the taper the operator must
then kindle the laurel wood and alder in the chafing-dish which stands
on the alter; then, taking a pinch of incense from the censer, let him
cast it thrice upon the fire, repeating the following words:- ~Glory be
to the Father of life universal in the splendour of the infinite
altitude, and peace in the twilight of the immeasurable depths to all
spirits of good will !"
"Then he shall cover the portrait, and taking up his candle in his
hand, shall depart from the Oratory, walking backward at a slow pace as
far as the threshold. The same ceremony must be fulfilled at the same
hour during every day of the retreat, and at each visits the crown which
is above the portrait, and the garlands of the alter and tripod must be
burnt each evening in a room adjoining the Oratory.
"When the twenty-first day has arrived, the Magus must do his best to
have no communication with any one, but if this be impossible, he must
not be the first to speak, and must postpone all business till the
morrow. On the stroke of noon, he must arrange a small circular table
in the Oratory, and cover it with a new napkin of unblemished whiteness.
It must be garnished with two copper chalices, an entire loaf, and a
crystal flagon of the purest white. The bread must be broken and not
cut, and the wine emptied in equal portions into the two cups. Half of
this mystic communion, which must be his sole nourishment on this
supreme day, shall be offered by the operator to the dead, and by the
light of the one taper he must eat his own share, standing before the
veiled portrait. Then he shall retire as before, walking backward as
far as the threshold, and leaving the ghost`s share of bread and wine
upon the table.
"When the solemn hour of the evening has at length arrived the Magus
shall carry into the Oratory some well-dried cypress wood, which he
shall set alight in the alter and the tripod. Three pinches of incense
shall be cast into the flame in honor of the Supreme Potency which
manifests itself by Ever Active Intelligence and by Absolute Wisdom.
When the wood of the two chafing-dishes has been reduced to embers, he
must renew the triple offering of incense on the alter, and must cast
some seven times on the fire in the tripod; at each evaporation of the
consecrated perfume he must repeat the previous doxology, and then
turning tot he East, he must call upon God by prayer of that religion
which was professed by the person whom he desires to evoke.
"When the prayers are over he must reverse his position and with his
face to the West, must enkindle the chafing-dishes on the head of each
sphinx, and when the cypress is full ablaze he must heap over it well
dried violets and roses. Then let him extinguish the candle which
illuminates the Oratory, and falling on his knees before the canopy,
between the two columns, let him mentally address the beloved person
with a plenitude of faith and affection. Let him solemnly entreat it to
appear and renew this interior adjuration seven times, under the
auspices of the seven providential Genii, and endeavouring during the
whole of the time to exalt his soul above the natural weakness of
humanity.
"Finally, the operator, with closed eyes, and hands covering his face,
must call the invoked person in a loud but gentle voice, pronouncing
three times all of the names which he bore.
"Some moments after the third appeal, he must extend his arms in the
form of a cross, and lifting up his eyes, he will behold the beloved
being, in a recognizable manner, in front of him. That is to say, he
will perceive that ethereal substance separated from the perishable
terrestrial body, the fluidic envelope of the soul, which Kabalistic
initiates have termed the `Perispirit'. This substance preserves the
human form but is emancipated from human infirmities, and is energised
by the special characteristics whereby the imperishable individuality of
our essence is manifested.
"The departed soul will give counsel to the operator; it will
occasionally reveal secrets which may be beneficial to those whom it
loved on earth, but it will answer no question which has reference to
the desires of the flesh; it will discover no buried treasures, nor will
it unveil the secrets of a third person; it is silent on the mysteries
of the superior existence to which it has now attained. In certain
cases, it will, however, declare itself either happy or in punishment.
If it be the latter, it will ask for the prayer of the Magus, or for
some religious observance, which we must unfailingly fulfill. Lastly,
it will indicate the time when the evocation may be renewed.
"When it has disappeared, the operator must turn to the East, rekindle
the fire on the alter, and make a final offering of incense. Then he
must detach the crown and the garlands, take up his candle, and retire
with his face to the West till he is out of the Oratory. His last duty
is to burn the final remains of the flowers and leaves. Their ashes,
united to those which have been collected during the time of retreat,
must be mixed with myrtle seeds, and secretly buried in a field at a
depth which will secure it from disturbance of the ploughshare."
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