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BACKGROUND ON THE ASTRONAUT PROGRAM

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected the first
group of astronauts in 1959. From 500 candidates having the required jet
aircraft flight experience and engineering training as well as height below
5 feet 11 inches, 7 military men became the Nation's first astronauts. The
second and third groups chosen included civilians who had extensive flying
experience. By 1964, requirements had changed and emphasis was placed on
academic qualifications; in 1965, six scientist astronauts were selected
from a group of 400 applicants who had a doctorate or equivalent experience
in the natural sciences, medicine, or engineering. The group named in 1978
was the first of Space Shuttle flight crews and was composed of 15 pilots
and 20 mission specialists; 6 of the 35 were women and 4 were members of
minorities. Since then, 4 additional groups have been selected with an even
mix of pilots and mission specialists.

In total, 172 astronauts have been selected in the 12 groups from 1959
through 1987; there are 88 astronauts currently in the program; 67 have
retired, resigned or been reassigned; and 17 are deceased.

Payload specialists are career scientists or engineers selected by their
employer or country for their expertise in conducting a specific experiment
or commercial venture on a Space Shuttle mission. Their names are not
included in this document.

NASA accepts applications for the Astronaut Candidate Program on a continuing
basis and selects candidates as needed.

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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ASTRONAUTS

Selection Missions
Name __Year___ Group _Flown__ Status

Adamson, James C. 1984 10 1 Current
Aldrin, Buzz 1963 3 2 Former
Akers, Thomas D. 1987 12 Current
Allen, Andrew M. 1987 12 Current
Allen, Joseph P. 1967 6 2 Former
Anders, William A. 1963 3 1 Former
Apt, Jerome 1985 11 Current
Armstrong, Neil A. 1962 2 2 Former

Bagian, James P. 1980 9 1 Current
Baker, Ellen S. 1984 10 1 Current
Baker, Michael A. 1985 11 Current
Bassett, Charles A., II 1963 3 Deceased
Bean, Alan L. 1963 3 2 Former
Blaha, John E. 1980 9 2 Current
Bluford, Guion S., Jr. 1978 8 2 Current
Bobko, Karol J. 1969 7 3 Former
Bolden, Charles F., Jr. 1980 9 1 Current
Borman, Frank 1962 2 2 Former
Bowersox, Kenneth D. 1987 12 Current
Brand, Vance D. 1966 5 3 Current
Brandenstein, Daniel C. 1978 8 2 Current
Bridges, Roy D., Jr. 1980 9 1 Former
Brown, Curtis L., Jr. 1987 12 Current
Brown, Mark N. 1984 10 1 Current
Buchli, James F. 1978 8 3 Current
Bull, John S. 1966 5 Former

Cabana, Robert D. 1985 11 Current
Cameron, Kenneth D. 1984 10 Current
Carpenter, M. Scott 1959 1 1 Former
Carr, Gerald P. 1966 5 1 Former
Carter, Manley Lanier, Jr. 1984 10 1 Current
Casper, John H. 1984 10 Current
Cernan, Eugene A. 1963 3 3 Former
Chaffee, Roger B. 1963 3 Deceased
Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. 1980 9 2 Current
Chapman, Philip K. 1967 6 Former
Chilton, Kevin P. 1987 12 Current
Cleave, Mary L. 1980 9 2 Current
Coats, Michael L. 1978 8 2 Current
Collins, Michael 1963 3 2 Former
Conrad, Charles, Jr. 1962 2 4 Former
Cooper, L. Gordon, Jr. 1959 1 2 Former
Covey, Richard O. 1978 8 2 Current
Creighton, John O. 1978 8 1 Current
Crippen, Robert L. 1969 7 4 Former
Culbertson, Frank L., Jr. 1984 10 Current
Cunningham, Walter 1963 3 1 Former

Davis, N. Jan 1987 12 Current
Duffy, Brian 1985 11 Current
Duke, Charles M., Jr. 1966 5 1 Former
Dunbar, Bonnie J. 1980 9 1 Current

Eisele, Donn F. 1963 3 1 Deceased
England, Anthony W. 1967 6 1 Former
Engle, Joe H. 1966 5 2 Former
Evans, Ronald E. 1966 5 1 Former

Fabian, John M. 1978 8 2 Former
Fisher, Anna L. 1978 8 1 Current
Fisher, William F. 1980 9 1 Current
Foale, C. Michael 1987 12 Current
Freeman, Theodore C. 1963 3 Deceased
Fullerton, Charles G. 1969 7 2 Former

Gardner, Dale A. 1978 8 2 Former
Gardner, Guy S. 1980 9 1 Current
Garriott, Owen K. 1965 4 2 Former
Gemar, Charles D. 1985 11 Current
Gibson, Edward G. 1965 4 1 Former
Gibson, Robert L. 1978 8 3 Current
Givens, Edward G., Jr. 1966 5 Deceased
Glenn, John H., Jr. 1959 1 1 Former
Godwin, Linda M. 1985 11 Current
Gordon, Richard F., Jr. 1963 3 2 Former
Grabe, Ronald J. 1980 9 2 Current
Graveline, Duane E. 1965 4 Former
Gregory, Frederick D. 1978 8 2 Current
Griggs, S. David 1978 8 1 Deceased
Grissom, Virgil I. 1959 1 2 Deceased
Gutierrez, Sidney M. 1984 10 Current

Haise, Fred W., Jr. 1966 5 1 Former
Hammond, L. Blaine, Jr. 1984 10 Current
Harbaugh, Gregory J. 1987 12 Current
Hart, Terry J. 1978 8 1 Former
Hartsfield, Henry W., Jr. 1969 7 3 Current
Hauck, Frederick H. 1978 8 3 Former
Hawley, Steven A. 1978 8 2 Current
Henize, Karl G. 1967 6 1 Former
Henricks, Terence T. 1985 11 Current
Hieb, Richard J. 1985 11 Current
Hilmers, David C. 1980 9 2 Current
Hoffman, Jeffrey A. 1978 8 1 Current
Holmquest, Donald L. 1967 6 Former

Irwin, James B. 1966 5 1 Former
Ivins, Marsha S. 1984 10 Current

Jemison, Mae C. 1987 12 Current
Jernigan, Tamara E. 1985 11 Current

Kerwin, Joseph P. 1965 4 1 Former

Lee, Mark C. 1984 10 1 Current
Leestma, David C. 1980 9 2 Current
Lenoir, William B. 1967 6 1 Former
Lind, Don L. 1966 5 1 Former
Llewellyn, John A. 1967 6 Former
Lounge, John M. 1980 9 2 Current
Lousma, Jack R. 1966 5 2 Former
Lovell, James A., Jr. 1962 2 4 Former
Low, G. David 1984 10 Current
Lucid, Shannon W. 1978 8 2 Current

Mattingly, Thomas K., II 1966 5 3 Former
McBride, Jon A. 1978 8 1 Former
McCandless, Bruce, II 1966 5 1 Current
McCulley, Michael J. 1984 10 1 Current
McDivitt, James A. 1962 2 2 Former
McMonagle, Donald R. 1987 12 Current
McNair, Ronald E. 1978 8 2 Deceased
Meade, Carl J. 1985 11 Current
Melnick, Bruce E. 1987 12 Current
Michel, F. Curtis 1965 4 Former
Mitchell, Edgar D. 1966 5 1 Former
Mullane, Richard M. 1978 8 2 Current
Musgrave, F. Story 1967 6 3 Current

Nagel, Steven R. 1978 8 2 Current
Nelson, George D. 1978 8 3 Former

O'Connor, Bryan D. 1980 9 1 Current
O'Leary, Brian T. 1967 6 Former
Onizuka, Ellison S. 1978 8 2 Deceased
Oswald, Stephen S. 1985 11 Current
Overmyer, Robert F. 1969 7 2 Former

Parker, Robert A. R. 1967 6 1 Current
Peterson, Donald H. 1969 7 1 Former
Pogue, William R. 1966 5 1 Former

Readdy, William F. 1987 12 Current
Reightler, Kenneth S., Jr. 1987 12 Current
Resnik, Judith A. 1978 8 2 Deceased
Richards, Richard N. 1980 9 1 Current
Ride, Sally K. 1978 8 2 Former
Roosa, Stuart A. 1966 5 1 Former
Ross, Jerry L. 1980 9 2 Current
Runco, Mario, Jr. 1987 12 Current

Schirra, Walter M., Jr. 1959 1 3 Former
Schmitt, Harrison H. 1965 4 1 Former
Schweickart, Russell L. 1963 3 1 Former
Scobee, Francis R. 1978 8 2 Deceased
Scott, David R. 1963 3 3 Former
Seddon, Margaret Rhea 1978 8 1 Current
See, Elliot M., Jr. 1962 2 Deceased
Shaw, Brewster H., Jr. 1978 8 3 Former
Shepard, Alan B., Jr. 1959 1 2 Former
Shepherd, William M. 1984 10 1 Current
Shriver, Loren J. 1978 8 1 Current
Slayton, Donald K. 1959 1 1 Former
Smith, Michael J. 1980 9 1 Deceased
Spring, Sherwood C. 1980 9 1 Former
Springer, Robert C. 1980 9 1 Current
Stafford, Thomas P. 1962 2 4 Former
Stewart, Robert L. 1978 8 2 Former
Sullivan, Kathryn D. 1978 8 1 Current
Swigert, John L., Jr. 1966 5 1 Deceased

Thagard, Norman E. 1978 8 3 Current
Thorne, Stephen D. 1985 11 Deceased
Thornton, Kathryn C. 1984 10 1 Current
Thornton, William E. 1967 6 2 Current
Thuot, Pierre J. 1985 11 Current
Truly, Richard H. 1969 7 2 Former

van Hoften, James D. A. 1978 8 2 Former
Veach, Charles Lacy 1984 10 Current
Voss, James S. 1987 12 Current

Walker, David M. 1978 8 2 Current
Weitz, Paul J. 1966 5 2 Current
Wetherbee, James D. 1984 10 Current
White, Edward H., II 1962 2 1 Deceased
Williams, Clifton C., Jr. 1963 3 Deceased
Williams, Donald E. 1978 8 2 Current
Worden, Alfred M. 1966 5 1 Former

Young, John W. 1962 2 6 Current

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF CURRENT, FORMER AND DECEASED ASTRONAUTS

CURRENT ASTRONAUTS

ADAMSON, James C., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army
Mission specialist.
Born March 3, 1946, in Warsaw, New York.
Bachelor of science in engineering from U.S. Military Academy; master of
science in aerospace engineering from Princeton University.
Flew on STS-28.

AKERS, Thomas D., Major, U.S. Air Force
Mission specialist.
Born May 20, 1951, in St. Louis, Missouri.
Bachelor and master of science in applied mathematics from University of
Missouri-Rolla.

ALLEN, Andrew M., Major, U.S. Marine Corps
Pilot.
Born August 4, 1955, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from Villanova University.

APT, Jerome, Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born April 28, 1949, in Springfield, Massachusetts.
Bachelor of arts in physics from Harvard University; doctorate of
philosophy in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

BAGIAN, James P., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born February 22, 1952, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from Drexel Institute of
Technology; doctorate of medicine from Thomas Jefferson University.
Flew on STS-29.

BAKER, Ellen S., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born April 27, 1953, in Fayetteville, North Carolina.
Bachelor of arts in geology from State University of New York at Buffalo;
doctorate of medicine from Cornell University.
Flew on STS-34.

BAKER, Michael A., Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born October 27, 1953, in Memphis, Tennessee.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from University of Texas.

BLAHA, John E., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born August 26, 1942, in San Antonio, Texas.
Bachelor of science in engineering science from U.S. Air Force Academy;
master of science in astronautical engineering from Purdue University.
Flew on STS-29 and STS-33.

BLUFORD, Guion S., Jr., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Mission specialist.
Born November 22, 1942, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from Pennsylvania State
University; master of science and doctorate of philosophy in aerospace
engineering from U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology.
Flew on STS-8 and STS 61-A.

BOLDEN, Charles F., Jr., Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps
Pilot.
Born August 19, 1946, in Columbia, South Carolina.
Bachelor of science in electrical science from U.S. Naval Academy; master
of science in systems management from University of Southern California.
Flew on STS 61-C.

BOWERSOX, Kenneth D., Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born November 14, 1956, in Portsmouth, Virginia.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from U.S. Naval Academy;
master of science in mechanical engineering from Columbia University.

BRAND, Vance D., Civilian
Pilot.
Born May 9, 1931, in Longmont, Colorado.
Bachelor of science in business and aeronautical engineering from
University of Colorado; master of science in business administration
from University of California at Los Angeles.
Flew on Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, STS-5 and STS 41-B.


BRANDENSTEIN, Daniel C., Captain, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born January 17, 1943, in Watertown, Wisconsin.
Bachelor of science in mathematics and physics from Wisconsin State
University at River Falls, Wisconsin.
Flew on STS-8 and STS 51-G.

BROWN, Curtis L., Jr., Major, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born March 11, 1956, in Elizabethtown, North Carolina.
Bachelor of science in electrical engineering from U.S. Air Force
Academy.

BROWN, Mark N., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Mission specialist.
Born November 18, 1951, in Valparaiso, Indiana.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical and astronautical engineering from
Purdue University; master of science in astronautical engineering from
U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology.
Flew on STS-28.

BUCHLI, James F., Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps
Mission specialist.
Born June 20, 1945, in New Rockford, North Dakota.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from U.S. Naval Academy;
master of science in aeronautical engineering systems from West Florida
University.
Flew on STS 51-C, STS 61-A and STS-29.

CABANA, Robert D., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps
Pilot.
Born January 23, 1949, in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Bachelor of science in mathematics from U.S. Naval Academy.

CAMERON, Kenneth D., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps
Pilot.
Born November 29, 1949, in Cleveland, Ohio.
Bachelor and master of science in aeronautics and astronautics from
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

CARTER, Manley Lanier, Jr., "Sonny," Captain, U.S. Navy
Mission specialist.
Born August 15, 1947, in Macon, Georgia.
Bachelor of arts in chemistry and doctorate of medicine from Emory
University.
Flew on STS-33.

CASPER, John H., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Mission specialist.
Born July 9, 1943, in Greenville, South Carolina.
Bachelor of science in engineering science from U.S. Air Force Academy;
master of science in astronautics from Purdue University.

CHANG-DIAZ, Franklin R., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born April 5, 1950, in San Jose, Costa Rica.
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from University of
Connecticut; doctorate of philosophy in applied plasma physics from
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Flew on STS 61-C and STS-34.

CHILTON, Kevin P., Major, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born November 3, 1954, in Los Angeles, California.
Bachelor of science in engineering sciences from U.S. Air Force Academy;
master of science in mechanical engineering from Columbia University.

CLEAVE, Mary L., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born February 5, 1947, in Southampton, New York.
Bachelor of science in biological sciences from Colorado State
University; master of science in microbial ecology and doctorate of
philosophy in civil and environmental engineering from Utah State
University.
Flew on STS 61-B and STS-30.

COATS, Michael L., Captain, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born January 16, 1946, in Sacramento, California.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Naval Academy; master of science in
administration of science and technology from George Washington
University; master of science in aeronautical engineering from U.S.
Naval Postgraduate School.
Flew on STS 41-D and STS-29.

COVEY, Richard O., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born August 1, 1946, in Fayetteville, Arkansas.
Bachelor of science in engineering sciences from U.S. Air Force Academy;
master of science in aeronautics and astronautics from Purdue
University.
Flew on STS 51-I and STS-26.

CREIGHTON, John O., Captain, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born April 28, 1943, in Orange, Texas.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Naval Academy; master of science in
administration of science and technology from George Washington
University.
Flew on STS 51-G.

CULBERTSON, Frank L., Jr., Commander, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born May 15, 1949, in Charleston, South Carolina.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from U.S. Naval Academy.

DAVIS, N. Jan, Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born November 1, 1953, in Cocoa Beach, Florida.
Bachelor of science in applied biology from Georgia Institute of
Technology, and in mechanical engineering from Auburn University;
master of science and doctorate in mechanical engineering from
University of Alabama in Huntsville.

DUFFY, Brian, Major, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born June 20, 1953, in Boston, Massachusetts.
Bachelor of science in mathematics from U.S. Air Force Academy; master of
science in systems management from University of Southern California.

DUNBAR, Bonnie J., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born March 3, 1949, in Sunnyside, Washington.
Bachelor and master of science in ceramic engineering from University of
Washington; doctorate of philosophy in biomedical engineering from
University of Houston.
Flew on STS 61-A.

FISHER, Anna L., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born August 24, 1949, in St. Albans, New York.
Bachelor of science in chemistry; doctorate of medicine; master
of science in chemistry from University of California at Los Angeles.
Flew on STS 51-A.

FISHER, William F., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born April 1, 1946, in Dallas, Texas.
Bachelor of arts from Stanford University; master of science in
engineering from University of Houston; doctorate of medicine from
University of Florida.
Flew on STS 51-I.

FOALE, C. Michael, Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born January 6, 1957, in Louth, England.
Bachelor of arts in physics from Cambridge University; doctorate of
philosophy in laboratory astrophysics from Cambridge University.

GARDNER, Guy S., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born January 6, 1948, in Alta Vista, Virginia.
Bachelor of science in engineering sciences, astronautics and mathematics
from U.S. Air Force Academy; master of science in astronautics from
Purdue University.
Flew on STS-27.

GEMAR, Charles D., Captain, U.S. Army
Mission specialist.
Born August 4, 1955, in Yankton, South Dakota.
Bachelor of science in engineering from U.S. Military Academy.

GIBSON, Robert L., Commander, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born October 30, 1946, in Cooperstown, New York.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from California
Polytechnic Institute.
Flew on STS 41-B, STS 61-C and STS-27.

GODWIN, Linda M., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born July 2, 1952, in Cape Girardeau, Missouri.
Bachelor of science in mathematics and physics from Southeast Missouri
State; master of science and doctorate of philosophy in physics from
University of Missouri.

GRABE, Ronald J., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born June 13, 1945, in New York City, New York.
Bachelor of science in engineering science from U.S. Air Force Academy.
Flew on STS 51-J and STS-30.

GREGORY, Frederick D., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born January 7, 1941, in Washington, DC.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Air Force Academy; master of science in
information systems from George Washington University.
Flew on STS 51-B and STS-33.

GUTIERREZ, Sidney M., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born June 27, 1951, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from U.S. Air Force
Academy; master of arts in management from Webster College.

HAMMOND, L. Blaine, Jr., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born January 16, 1952, in Savannah, Georgia.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Air Force Academy; master of science in
engineering mechanics from Georgia Institute of Technology.

HARBAUGH, Gregory J., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born April 15, 1956, in Cleveland, Ohio.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical and astronautical engineering from
Purdue University; master of science in physical science from
University of Houston-Clear Lake.

HARTSFIELD, Henry W., Jr., Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Pilot.
Born November 21, 1933, in Birmingham, Alabama.
Bachelor of science in physics from Auburn University; master of science
in engineering science from University of Tennessee.
Flew on STS-4, STS 41-D and STS 61-A.

HAWLEY, Steven A., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born December 12, 1951, in Ottawa, Kansas.
Bachelor of arts in physics and astronomy from University of Kansas;
doctorate of philosophy in astronomy and astrophysics from University
of California at Santa Cruz.
Flew on STS 41-D and STS 61-C.

HENRICKS, Terence T., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born July 5, 1952, in Bryan, Ohio.
Bachelor of science in civil engineering from U.S. Air Force Academy;
master of arts in public administration from Golden Gate University.

HIEB, Richard J., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born September 21, 1955, in Jamestown, North Dakota.
Bachelor of arts in mathematics and physics from Northwest Nazarene
College; master of science in aerospace engineering from University
of Colorado.

HILMERS, David C., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps
Mission specialist.
Born January 28, 1950, in Clinton, Iowa.
Bachelor of science in mathematics from Cornell University; master of
science in electrical engineering from U.S. Naval Postgraduate School.
Flew on STS 51-J and STS-26.

HOFFMAN, Jeffrey A., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born November 2, 1944, in Brooklyn, New York.
Bachelor of arts in astronomy from Amherst College; doctorate of
philosophy in astrophysics from Harvard University; masters degree
in materials science from Rice University.
Flew on STS 51-D.

IVINS, Marsha S., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born April 15, 1951, in Baltimore, Maryland.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from University of Colorado.

JEMISON, Mae C., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born October 17, 1956, in Decatur, Alabama.
Bachelor of science in chemical engineering from Stanford University;
doctorate of medicine from Cornell University.

JERNIGAN, Tamara E., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born May 7, 1959, in Chattanooga, Tennessee.
Bachelor of science in physics and master of science in engineering
science from Stanford University; master of science in astronomy from
University of California at Berkeley; doctorate in space physics and
astronomy from Rice University.

LEE, Mark C., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Mission specialist.
Born August 14, 1952, in Viroqua, Wisconsin.
Bachelor of science in civil engineering from U.S. Air Force Academy;
master of science in mechanical engineering from Massachusetts
Institute of Technology.
Flew on STS-30.

LEESTMA, David C., Commander, U.S. Navy
Mission specialist.
Born May 6, 1949, in Muskegon, Michigan.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Naval Academy; master of science in
aeronautical engineering from U.S. Naval Postgraduate School.
Flew on STS 41-G and STS-28.

LOUNGE, John M., "Mike," Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born June 28, 1946, in Denver, Colorado.
Bachelor of science in physics and mathematics from U.S. Naval Academy;
master of science in astrogeophysics from University of Colorado.
Flew on STS 51-I and STS-26.

LOW, G. David, Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born February 19, 1956, in Cleveland, Ohio.
Bachelor of science in physics-engineering from Washington and Lee
University, and in mechanical engineering from Cornell University;
master of science in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford
University.

LUCID, Shannon W., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born January 14, 1943, in Shanghai, China.
Bachelor of science in chemistry; master of science and doctorate of
philosophy in biochemistry from University of Oklahoma.
Flew on STS 51-G and STS-34.

McCANDLESS, Bruce, II, Captain, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born June 8, 1937, in Boston, Massachusetts.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Naval Academy; master of science in
electrical engineering from Stanford University; master of science in
business administration from University of Houston-Clear Lake.
Flew on STS 41-B.

McCULLEY, Michael J., Captain, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born August 4, 1943, in San Diego, California.
Bachelor and master of science in metallurgical engineering from Purdue
University.
Flew on STS-34.

McMONAGLE, Donald R., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born May 14, 1952, in Flint, Michigan.
Bachelor of science in astronautical engineering from U.S. Air Force
Academy; master of science in mechanical engineering from California
State University at Fresno.

MEADE, Carl J., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Mission specialist.
Born November 16, 1950, at Chanute Air Force Base, Illinois.
Bachelor of science from University of Texas; master of science in
electronics engineering from California Institute of Technology.

MELNICK, Bruce E., Commander, U.S. Coast Guard
Mission specialist.
Born December 5, 1949, in New York, New York.
Bachelor of science in engineering from U.S. Coast Guard Academy; master
of science in aeronautical systems from West Florida University.

MULLANE, Richard M., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Mission specialist.
Born September 10, 1945, in Wichita Falls, Texas.
Bachelor of science in military engineering from U.S. Military Academy;
master of science in aeronautical engineering from U.S. Air Force
Institute of Technology.
Flew on STS 41-D and STS-27.

MUSGRAVE, F. Story, Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born August 19, 1935, in Boston, Massachusetts.
Bachelor of science in mathematics and statistics from Syracuse
University; bachelor of arts in chemistry from Marietta University;
master of business administration in operations analysis and computer
programming from University of California at Los Angeles; master of
science in physiology and biophysics from University of Kentucky;
doctorate of medicine from Columbia University.
Flew on STS-6, STS 51-F and STS-33.

NAGEL, Steven R., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born October 27, 1946, in Canton, Illinois.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical and astronautical engineering from
University of Illinois; master of science in mechanical engineering
from California State University at Fresno.
Flew on STS 51-G and STS 61-A.

O'CONNOR, Bryan D., Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps
Pilot.
Born September 6, 1946, in Orange, California.
Bachelor of science in engineering from U.S. Naval Academy; master of
science in aeronautical systems from West Florida University.
Flew on STS 61-B.

OSWALD, Stephen S., Civilian
Pilot.
Born June 30, 1951, in Seattle, Washington.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from U.S. Naval Academy.

PARKER, Robert A. R., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born December 14, 1936, in New York City, New York.
Bachelor of arts in astronomy and physics from Amherst College;
doctorate of philosophy in astronomy from California Institute of
Technology.
Flew on STS-9.

READDY, William F., Civilian
Pilot.
Born January 24, 1952, in Quonset Point, Rhode Island.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from U.S. Naval Academy.

REIGHTLER, Kenneth S., Jr., Commander, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born March 24, 1951, Patuxent River, Maryland.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from U.S. Naval Academy;
master of science in aeronautical engineering from U.S. Naval
Postgraduate School; master of science in systems management from
University of Southern California.

RICHARDS, Richard N., Commander, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born August 24, 1946, in Key West, Florida.
Bachelor of science in chemical engineering from University of Missouri;
master of science in aeronautical systems from West Florida University.
Flew on STS-28.

ROSS, Jerry L., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Mission specialist.
Born January 20, 1948, in Crown Point, Indiana.
Bachelor and master of science in mechanical engineering from Purdue
University.
Flew on STS 61-B and STS-27.

RUNCO, Mario, Jr., Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Mission specialist.
Born January 26, 1952, in Bronx, New York.
Bachelor of science in meteorology and physical oceanography from City
College of New York; master of science in meteorology from Rutgers
University.

SEDDON, Margaret Rhea, Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born November 8, 1947, in Murfreesboro, Tennessee.
Bachelor of arts in physiology from University of California at Berkeley;
doctorate of medicine from University of Tennessee.
Flew on STS 51-D.

SHEPHERD, William M., Captain, U.S. Navy
Mission specialist.
Born July 26, 1949, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from U.S. Naval Academy;
degree in ocean engineering and master of science in mechanical
engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Flew on STS-27.

SHRIVER, Loren J., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Pilot.
Born September 23, 1944, in Jefferson, Iowa.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from U.S. Air Force
Academy; master of science in astronautical engineering from Purdue
University.
Flew on STS 51-C.

SPRINGER, Robert C., Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps
Mission specialist.
Born May 21, 1942, in St. Louis, Missouri.
Bachelor of science in naval science from U.S. Naval Academy; master of
science in operations research and systems analysis from U.S. Naval
Postgraduate School.
Flew on STS-29.

SULLIVAN, Kathryn D., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born October 3, 1951, in Paterson, New Jersey.
Bachelor of science in Earth sciences from University of California at
Santa Cruz; doctorate of philosophy in geology from Dalhousie
University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Flew on STS 41-G.

THAGARD, Norman E., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born July 3, 1943, in Marianna, Florida.
Bachelor and master of science in engineering science from Florida State
University; doctorate of medicine from University of Texas.
Flew on STS-7, STS 51-B and STS-30.

THORNTON, Kathryn C., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born August 17, 1952, in Montgomery, Alabama.
Bachelor of science from Auburn University; master of science and
doctorate of philosophy in physics from University of Virginia.
Flew on STS-33.

THORNTON, William E., Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born April 14, 1929, in Faison, North Carolina.
Bachelor of science in physics and doctorate of medicine from University
of North Carolina.
Flew on STS-8 and STS 51-B.

THUOT, Pierre J., Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Mission specialist.
Born May 19, 1955, in Groton, Connecticut.
Bachelor of science in physics from U.S. Naval Academy; master of science
in systems management from University of Southern California.

VEACH, Charles Lacy, Civilian
Mission specialist.
Born September 18, 1944, in Chicago, Illinois.
Bachelor of science in engineering management from U.S. Air Force
Academy.

VOSS, James S., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army
Mission specialist.
Born March 3, 1949, in Cordova, Alabama.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from Auburn University;
master of science in aerospace engineering sciences from University of
Colorado.

WALKER, David M., Captain, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born May 20, 1944, in Columbus, Georgia.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Naval Academy.
Flew on STS 51-A and STS-30.

WEITZ, Paul J., Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Pilot.
Born July 25, 1932, in Erie, Pennsylvania.
Bachelor of science from Pennsylvania State University; master of science
in aeronautical engineering from U.S. Naval Postgraduate School.
Flew on Skylab 2 and STS-6.

WETHERBEE, James D., Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born November 27, 1952, in Flushing, New York.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from University of Notre
Dame.

WILLIAMS, Donald E., Captain, U.S. Navy
Pilot.
Born February 13, 1942, in Lafayette, Indiana.
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from Purdue University.
Flew on STS 51-D and STS-34.

YOUNG, John W., Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Pilot.
Born September 24, 1930, in San Francisco, California.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from Georgia Institute
of Technology.
Flew on Gemini 3, Gemini 10, Apollo 10, Apollo 16, STS-1 and STS-9.


FORMER ASTRONAUTS

ALDRIN, Buzz, Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born January 20, 1930, in Montclair, New Jersey.
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from U.S. Military Academy;
doctorate of science in astronautics from Massachusetts Institute of
Technology.
Flew on Gemini 12 and Apollo 11.
Currently lecturing and consulting on space sciences, University of North
Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, but lives in Los Angeles, California.

ALLEN, Joseph P., Civilian
Born June 27, 1937, in Crawfordsville, Indiana.
Bachelor of arts in mathematics and physics from DePauw University;
master of science and doctorate of philosophy in physics from Yale
University.
Flew on STS-5 and STS 51-A.
Currently President, Space Industries, Houston, Texas.

ANDERS, William A., Major General, U.S. Air Force Reserve (Retired)
Born October 17, 1933, in Hong Kong.
Bachelor of science in nuclear engineering from U.S. Naval Academy;
master of science in nuclear engineering from Air Force Institute of
Technology.
Flew on Apollo 8.
Currently Vice Chairman of General Dynamics, St. Louis, Missouri.

ARMSTRONG, Neil A., Civilian
Born August 5, 1930, in Wapakoneta, Ohio.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from Purdue University;
master of science in aerospace engineering from University of Southern
California.
Flew on Gemini 8 and Apollo 11.
Currently with CTA, Inc., Charlottesville, Virginia.

BEAN, ALAN L., Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Born March 15, 1932, in Wheeler, Texas.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from University of Texas.
Flew on Apollo 12 and Skylab 3.
Currently devotes full time to creative paintings that artistically record
for future generations humankind's first exploration of another world or
Moon, Project Apollo.

BOBKO, Karol J., Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Pilot.
Born December 23, 1937, in New York, New York.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Air Force Academy; master of science in
aerospace engineering from University of Southern California.
Flew on STS-6, STS 51-D and STS 51-J.
Currently with Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc., Houston, Texas.

BORMAN, Frank, Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born March 14, 1928, in Gary, Indiana.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Military Academy; master of science in
aeronautical engineering from California Institute of Technology.
Flew on Gemini 7 and Apollo 8.
Currently Vice Chairman, Texas Air, Houston, Texas. Also, Chairman and
Chief Executive Officer, Patlex Corporation, Las Cruces, New Mexico.

BRIDGES, Roy D., Jr., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Born July 19, 1943, in Atlanta, Georgia.
Bachelor of science in engineering science from U.S. Air Force Academy;
master of science in astronautics from Purdue University.
Flew on STS 51-F.
Currently Commander of the Eastern Space and Missile Center, Patrick Air
Force Base, Florida.

BULL, John S., Civilian
Born September 25, 1934, in Memphis, Tennessee.
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from Rice University;
master of science and doctorate of philosophy in aeronautical
engineering from Stanford University.
Currently Deputy Chief, Information Sciences Division, NASA Ames Research
Center, Moffett Field, California.

CARPENTER, M. Scott, Commander, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Born May 1, 1925, in Boulder, Colorado.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from University of
Colorado.
Flew on Mercury 7.

CARR, Gerald P., Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps (Retired)
Born August 22, 1932, in Denver, Colorado.
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from University of
Southern California; bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from

U.S. Naval Postgraduate School; master of science in aeronautical
engineering from Princeton University.
Flew on Skylab 4.
Currently President, CAMUS, Inc., Huntsville, Arkansas.

CERNAN, Eugene A., Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Born March 14, 1934, in Chicago, Illinois.
Bachelor of science in electrical engineering from Purdue University;
master of science in aeronautical engineering from U.S. Navy
Postgraduate School.
Flew on Gemini 9, Apollo 10 and Apollo 17.
Currently heads The Cernan Corporation, Houston, Texas, and is Director,
Marketing Development-Government/Aerospace for Digital Equipment
Corporation.

CHAPMAN, Philip K., Civilian
Born March 5, 1935, in Melbourne, Australia.
Bachelor of science in physics and mathematics from University of Sydney;
master of science in aeronautics and astronautics and doctorate of
science in instrumentation from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Currently with Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts.

COLLINS, Michael, Major General, U.S. Air Force Reserve (Retired)
Born October 31, 1930, in Rome, Italy.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Military Academy.
Flew on Gemini 10 and Apollo 11.
Currently President, Michael Collins Associates, Washington, DC.

CONRAD, Charles, Jr., Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Born June 2, 1930, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from Princeton
University.
Flew on Gemini 5, Gemini 11, Apollo 12 and Skylab 2.
Currently Staff Vice President for International Business Development,
McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri.

COOPER, L. Gordon, Jr., Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born March 6, 1927, in Shawnee, Oklahoma.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology;
doctorate of science in aeronautical engineering from Oklahoma City
University.
Flew on Mercury 9 and Gemini 5.
Currently President, XL, Inc., Beverly Hills, California.

CRIPPEN, Robert L., Captain, U.S. Navy
Born September 11, 1937, in Beaumont, Texas.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from University of Texas.
Flew on STS-1, STS-7, STS 41-C, and STS 41-G.
Currently Director, Space Shuttle Program, NASA Headquarters, Washington,
DC.

CUNNINGHAM, Walter, Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve (Retired)
Born March 16, 1932, in Creston, Iowa.
Bachelor and master of arts in physics from University of California
at Los Angeles. Advanced management program, Harvard Graduate School of
Business.
Flew on Apollo 7.
Currently President, Acorn Ventures, Inc. and Managing General Partner,
The Genesis Fund, Houston, Texas.

DUKE, Charles M., Jr., Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born October 3, 1935, in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Bachelor of science in naval sciences from U.S. Naval Academy; master
of science in aeronautics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Flew on Apollo 16.
Currently heads Duke Investments and is President of Charlie Duke
Enterprises, Inc.

ENGLAND, Anthony W., Civilian
Born May 15, 1942, in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Bachelor and master of science in Earth sciences from Massachusetts
Institute of Technology; doctorate of philosophy in geophysics from
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Flew on STS 51-F.
Currently Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

ENGLE, Joe H., Major General, Air National Guard
Born August 26, 1932, in Dickinson County, Kansas.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from University of
Kansas.
Flew 16 flights in USAF/NASA X-15 - 3 flights into space; flew on Space
Shuttle approach and landing tests 2 and 4, STS-2 and STS 51-I.
Currently Air National Guard Assistant to CINC, U.S. Space Command;
maintains currency in F-16 ANG aircraft; also aerospace and sporting
goods consultant.

EVANS, Ronald E., Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Born November 10, 1933, in St. Francis, Kansas.
Bachelor of science in electrical engineering from University of Kansas;
master of science in aeronautical engineering from U.S. Naval
Postgraduate School.
Flew on Apollo 17.
Currently heads own business of professional speaking, consulting and
marketing in Scottsdale, Arizona; President, Space Age America, Inc., a
company exporting space replica products; and member,board of directors,
Space WIF Corp., a company developing and marketing a family of new
cartoon characters.

FABIAN, John M., Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born January 28, 1939, in Goosecreek, Texas.
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from Washington State
University; master of science in aerospace engineering from U.S. Air
Force Institute of Technology; doctorate of philosophy in aeronautics
and astronautics from University of Washington.
Flew on STS-7 and STS 51-G.
Currently Vice President for Space Systems, Analytic Services Inc.
(ANSER), Arlington, Virginia.

FULLERTON, Charles G., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Born October 11, 1936, in Rochester, New York.
Bachelor and master of science in mechanical engineering from
California Institute of Technology.
Flew Space Shuttle approach and landing tests 1, 3 and 5; STS-3 and
STS 51-F.
Currently Research Pilot, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility,
Edwards Air Force Base, California.

GARDNER, Dale A., Captain, U.S. Navy
Born November 8, 1948, in Fairmont, Minnesota.
Bachelor of science in engineering physics from University of Illinois.
Flew on STS-8 and STS 51-A.
Currently assigned to U.S. Space Command, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

GARRIOTT, Owen K., Civilian
Born November 22, 1930, in Enid, Oklahoma.
Bachelor of science in electrical engineering from University of
Oklahoma; master of science and doctorate of philosophy in electrical
engineering from Stanford University.
Flew on Skylab 3 and STS-9.
Currently Vice President of Space Programs, Teledyne Brown Engineering,
Huntsville, Alabama.

GIBSON, Edward G., Civilian
Born November 8, 1936, in Buffalo, New York.
Bachelor of science in engineering from University of Rochester; master
of science in engineering from California Institute of Technology;
doctorate of philosophy in engineering and physics from California
Institute of Technology.
Flew on Skylab 4.
Currently Principal, Booz, Allen and Hamilton Inc., Reston, Virginia.

GLENN, John H., Jr., Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps (Retired)
Born July 18, 1921, in Cambridge, Ohio.
Bachelor of science in engineering from Muskingum College.
Flew on Mercury 6.
Currently U.S. Senator from Ohio.

GORDON, Richard F., Jr., Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Born October 5, 1929, in Seattle, Washington.
Bachelor of science in chemistry from University of Washington.
Flew on Gemini 11 and Apollo 12.
Currently President, Astro Science Corporation, Los Angeles,
California.

GRAVELINE, Duane F., Civilian
Born March 2, 1931, in Newport, Vermont.
Bachelor of science and doctorate of medicine from University of Vermont;
master of science in public health from Johns Hopkins University.

HAISE, Fred W., Jr., Civilian
Born November 14, 1933, in Biloxi, Mississippi.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from University of
Oklahoma.
Flew on Apollo 13 and Space Shuttle approach and landing tests 1, 3
and 5.
Currently President of Space Station Program Support Division, Grumman
Corporation, Reston, Virginia.

HART, Terry J., Civilian
Born October 27, 1946, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Bachelor of science from Lehigh University; master of science in
mechanical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology;
master of science in electrical engineering from Rutgers University;
honorary doctorate of engineering from Lehigh University.
Flew on STS 41-C.
Currently Director, International Computer Systems, AT&T Nordics AB,
Stockholm, Sweden.

HAUCK, Frederick H., Captain, U.S. Navy
Born April 1, 1941, in Long Beach, California.
Bachelor of science in physics from Tufts University; master of science
in nuclear engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Flew on STS-7, STS 51-A and STS-26.
Currently Director, Navy Space Systems Division (OP-943), Department of
the Navy.

HENIZE, Karl G., Civilian
Born October 17, 1926, in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Bachelor of arts in mathematics from University of Virginia; master of
arts in astronomy from University of Virginia; doctorate of philosophy
in astronomy from University of Michigan.
Flew on STS 51-F.
Currently a Senior Scientist in the Space Physics Branch, Space and Life
Sciences Directorate, NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston,
Texas.

HOLMQUEST, Donald L., Civilian
Born April 7, 1939, in Dallas, Texas.
Bachelor of science in electrical engineering from Southern Methodist
University; doctorate of philosophy in physiology and doctorate of
medicine from Baylor University; juris doctor from University of
Houston.
Currently a partner in the law firm of Wood, Lucksinger & Epstein,
Houston, Texas.

IRWIN, James B., Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born March 17, 1930, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Bachelor of science in naval science from U.S. Naval Academy; master of
science in aeronautical engineering and instrumentation engineering
from University of Michigan.
Flew on Apollo 15.
Currently President, High Flight Foundation, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

KERWIN, Joseph P., Captain, Medical Corps, U.S. Navy
Born February 19, 1932, in Oak Park, Illinois.
Bachelor of arts in philosophy from College of the Holy Cross; doctorate
of medicine from Northwestern University Medical School.
Flew on Skylab 2.
Currently Manager, EVA Systems, Lockheed Missiles & Space Company,
Houston, Texas.

LENOIR, William B., Civilian
Born March 14, 1939, in Miami, Florida.
Bachelor of science, master of science and doctorate of philosophy in
electrical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Flew on STS-5.
Currently Associate Administrator of Space Flight, NASA Headquarters,
Washington, DC.

LIND, Don L., Civilian
Born May 18, 1930, in Midvale, Utah.
Bachelor of science in physics from University of Utah; doctorate
of philosophy in high energy nuclear physics from University of
California at Berkeley.
Flew on STS 51-B.
Currently professor of physics, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.

LLEWELLYN, John A., Civilian
Born April 22, 1933, in Cardiff, Wales.
Bachelor of science and doctorate of philosophy in chemistry from
University College at Cardiff.
Currently professor and Director of Engineering Computing, University of
South Florida at Tampa.

LOUSMA, Jack R., Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps (Retired)
Born February 29, 1936, in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from University
of Michigan; degree of aeronautical engineer from U.S. Naval
Postgraduate School.
Flew on Skylab 3 and STS-3.
Currently consulting in aerospace research and development in Ann Arbor,
Michigan.

LOVELL, James A., Jr., Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Born March 25, 1928, in Cleveland, Ohio.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Naval Academy.
Flew on Gemini 7, Gemini 12, Apollo 8 and Apollo 13.
Currently Executive Vice President, Centel Corporation, Chicago, Illinois.

MATTINGLY, Thomas K., II, Captain, U.S. Navy
Born March 17, 1936, in Chicago, Illinois.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from Auburn University.
Flew on Apollo 16, STS-4 and STS 51-C.
Currently Director, Space Sensor Systems, Space & Naval Warfare System
Command, Navy Department, Washington, DC.

McBRIDE, Jon A., Captain, U.S. Navy
Born August 14, 1943, in Charleston, West Virginia.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from U.S. Naval
Postgraduate School.
Flew on STS 41-G.
Currently President and Chief Executive Officer, Flying Eagle Corp.,
Lewisburg, West Virginia.

McDIVITT, James A., Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born June 10, 1929, in Chicago, Illinois.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from University of
Michigan.
Flew on Gemini 4 and Apollo 9.
Currently Senior Vice President, Government Operations, Rockwell
International Corp., Washington, DC.

MICHEL, F. Curtis, Civilian
Born June 5, 1934, in LaCrosse, Wisconsin.
Bachelor of science and doctorate of philosophy in physics from
California Institute of Technology.
Currently Andrew Hays Buchanan Professor of Astrophysics, Department
of Space Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas.

MITCHELL, Edgar D., Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Born September 17, 1930, in Hereford, Texas.
Bachelor of science in industrial management from Carnegie Institute
of Technology (now Carnegie-Mellon University); bachelor of science
in aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School;
doctorate of science in aeronautics and astronautics from Massachusetts
Institute of Technology.
Flew on Apollo 14.

NELSON, George D., Civilian
Born July 13, 1950, in Charles City, Iowa.
Bachelor of science in physics from Harvey Mudd College; master of
science and doctorate of philosophy in astronomy from University
of Washington.
Flew on STS 41-C, STS 61-C and STS-26.
Currently Assistant Provost and Associate Professor of Astronomy,
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

O'LEARY, Brian T., Civilian
Born January 27, 1940, in Boston, Massachusetts.
Bachelor of arts in physics from Williams College; master of arts
in astronomy from Georgetown University; doctorate of philosophy
in astronomy from University of California at Berkeley.
Currently Chairman, Board of Directors, Institute for Security and
Cooperation in Outer Space.

OVERMYER, Robert F., Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps (Retired)
Born July 14, 1936, in Lorain, Ohio.
Bachelor of science in physics from Baldwin Wallace College; master of
science in aeronautics from U.S. Naval Postgraduate School.
Flew on STS-5 and STS 51-B.
Currently Deputy Director, Flight Crew Systems, Space Station Division,
McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co.

PETERSON, Donald H., Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born October 22, 1933, in Winona, Mississippi.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Military Academy; master of
science in nuclear engineering from U.S. Air Force Institute of
Technology. Graduate of Air Force Test Pilot School and War College.
Flew on STS-6.
Currently President, Aerospace Operations Consultants, Inc.

POGUE, William R., Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born January 23, 1930, in Okemah, Oklahoma.
Bachelor of science in education from Oklahoma Baptist University; master
of science in mathematics from Oklahoma State University.
Flew on Skylab 4.
Currently technical services contractor to aerospace firms, Space Station
Program.

RIDE, Sally K., Civilian
Born May 26, 1951, in Los Angeles, California.
Bachelor of science in physics; bachelor of arts in English; master of
science and doctorate of philosophy in physics from Stanford University.
Flew on STS-7 and STS 41-G.
Currently professor of physics at University of California, San Diego, and
Director, California Space Institute.

ROOSA, Stuart A., Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born August 16, 1933, in Durango, Colorado.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from University of
Colorado.
Flew on Apollo 14.
Currently owner and President, Gulf Coast Coors, Gulfport, Mississippi.

SCHIRRA, Walter M., Jr., Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Born March 12, 1923, in Hackensack, New Jersey.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Naval Academy; graduate of U.S. Naval Test
Pilot School.
Flew on Mercury 8, Gemini 6 and Apollo 7.

SCHMITT, Harrison H., Civilian
Born July 3, 1935, in Santa Rita, New Mexico.
Bachelor of science from California Institute of Technology; doctorate
of philosophy in geology from Harvard University.
Flew on Apollo 17.
Currently consultant, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

SCHWEICKART, Russell L., Civilian
Born October 25, 1935, in Neptune, New Jersey.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from Massachusetts
Institute of Technology; master of science in aeronautics and
astronautics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Flew on Apollo 9.
Currently President, NRS Communications, Sausalito, California.

SCOTT, David R., Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born June 6, 1932, in San Antonio, Texas.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Military Academy; master of science in
aeronautics and astronautics from Massachusetts Institute of
Technology.
Flew on Gemini 8, Apollo 9 and Apollo 15.
Currently President, Scott Science and Technology, Inc., Lancaster,
California.

SHAW, Brewster H., Jr., Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Born May 16, 1945, in Cass City, Michigan.
Bachelor and master of science in engineering mechanics from University of
Wisconsin.
Flew on STS-9, STS 61-B and STS-28.
Currently Deputy Director, Space Shuttle Operations, NASA Headquarters,
stationed at Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

SHEPARD, Alan B., Jr., Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Born November 18, 1923, in East Derry, New Hampshire.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Naval Academy.
Flew on Mercury 3 and Apollo 14.
Currently President, Seven Fourteen Enterprises, Houston, Texas.

SLAYTON, Donald K., Major, U.S. Air Force Reserve
Born March 1, 1924, in Sparta, Wisconsin.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from University of
Minnesota.
Flew on Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.
Currently Vice Chairman of the Board and President, Space Services, Inc.,
Houston, Texas.

SPRING, Sherwood C., Colonel, U.S. Army
Born September 3, 1944, in Hartford, Connecticut.
Bachelor of science in general engineering from U.S. Military Academy;
master of science in aerospace engineering from University of Arizona.
Flew on STS 61-B.
Currently Director, U.S. Army Space Program Office, Fairfax, Virginia.

STAFFORD, Thomas P., Lieutenant General, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born September 17, 1930, in Weatherford, Oklahoma.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Naval Academy.
Flew on Gemini 6, Gemini 9, Apollo 10 and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.
Currently Vice Chairman, Stafford, Burke and Hecker, Inc., Alexandria,
Virginia.

STEWART, Robert L., Brigadier General, U.S. Army
Born August 13, 1942, in Washington, DC.
Bachelor of science in mathematics from Southern Mississippi University;
master of science in aerospace engineering from University of Texas at
Arlington.
Flew on STS 41-B and STS 51-J.
Currently Deputy Commander, U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command,
Huntsville, Alabama.

TRULY, Richard H., Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy (Retired)
Born November 12, 1937, in Fayette, Mississippi.
Bachelor of aeronautical engineering from Georgia Institute of
Technology.
Flew on Space Shuttle approach and landing tests 2 and 4, STS-2 and
STS-8.
Currently NASA Administrator, Washington, DC.

van HOFTEN, James D. A., Civilian
Born June 11, 1944, in Fresno, California.
Bachelor of science in civil engineering from University of California
at Berkeley; master of science in hydraulic engineering and doctorate
of philosophy in fluid mechanics from Colorado State University.
Flew on STS 41-C and STS 51-I.
Currently Vice President and Manager of Space Programs, Bechtel National,
Inc., San Francisco, California.

WORDEN, Alfred M., Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born February 7, 1932, in Jackson, Michigan.
Bachelor of science in military science from U.S. Military Academy;
master of science in astronautical and aeronautical engineering and
instrumentation engineering from University of Michigan.
Flew on Apollo 15.
Currently President, Maris Worden Aerospace Inc., Vero Beach, Florida.


DECEASED ASTRONAUTS

BASSETT, Charles A., II, Captain, U.S. Air Force
Born December 30, 1931, in Dayton, Ohio.
Bachelor of science in electrical engineering from Texas Technological
College.
Died February 28, 1966, at St. Louis, Missouri, in crash of T-38 jet.

CHAFFEE, Roger B., Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Born February 15, 1935, in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from Purdue University.
Died January 27, 1967, at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, in
Apollo spacecraft fire.

EISELE, Donn F., Colonel, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born June 23, 1930, in Columbus, Ohio.
Bachelor of science in astronautics from U.S. Naval Academy; master of
science in astronautics from U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology.
Flew on Apollo 7.
Died December 2, 1987, in Tokyo, Japan of a heart attack.

FREEMAN, Theodore C., Captain, U.S. Air Force
Born February 18, 1930, in Haverford, Pennsylvania.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Naval Academy; master of science in
aeronautical engineering from University of Michigan.
Died October 31, 1964, at Ellington Air Force Base, Houston, Texas, in
crash of T-38 jet.

GIVENS, Edward G., Jr., Major, U.S. Air Force
Born January 5, 1930, in Quanah, Texas.
Bachelor of science in naval sciences from U.S. Naval Academy.
Died June 6, 1967, near Houston, Texas, in an automobile accident.

GRIGGS, S. David, Civilian
Born September 7, 1939, in Portland, Oregon.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Naval Academy; master of science in
administration from George Washington University.
Flew on STS 51-D.
Died June 17, 1989, near Earle, AR, in the crash of a World-War-II-era
training plane.

GRISSOM, Virgil I., Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Born April 3, 1926, in Mitchell, Indiana.
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from Purdue University.
Flew on Mercury 4 and Gemini 3.
Died January 27, 1967, at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, in
Apollo spacecraft fire.

McNAIR, Ronald E., Civilian
Born October 21, 1950, in Lake City, South Carolina.
Bachelor of science in physics from North Carolina A&T State College;
doctorate of philosophy in physics from Massachusetts Institute of
Technology.
Flew on STS 41-B.
Died January 28, 1986, in STS 51-L accident.

ONIZUKA, Ellison S., Major, U.S. Air Force
Born June 24, 1946, in Kealakekua, Kona, Hawaii.
Bachelor and master of science in aerospace engineering from University
of Colorado.
Flew on STS 51-C.
Died January 28, 1986, in STS 51-L accident.

RESNIK, Judith A., Civilian
Born April 5, 1949, in Akron, Ohio.
Bachelor of science in electrical engineering from Carnegie-Mellon
University; doctorate of philosophy in electrical engineering from
University of Maryland.
Flew on STS 41-D.
Died January 28, 1986, in STS 51-L accident.

SCOBEE, Francis R., Major, U.S. Air Force (Retired)
Born May 19, 1939, in Cle Elum, Washington.
Bachelor of science in aerospace engineering from University of Arizona.
Flew on STS 41-C.
Died January 28, 1986, in STS 51-L accident.

SEE, Elliot M., Jr., Civilian
Born July 23, 1927, in Dallas, Texas.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Merchant Marine Academy; master of science
in engineering from University of California at Los Angeles.
Died February 28, 1966, in St. Louis, Missouri, in crash of T-38 jet.

SMITH, Michael J., Commander, U.S. Navy
Born April 30, 1945, in Beaufort, North Carolina.
Bachelor of science in naval science from U.S. Naval Academy; master
of science in aeronautical engineering from U.S. Naval Postgraduate
School.
Died January 28, 1986, in STS 51-L accident.

SWIGERT, John L., Jr., Civilian
Born August 30, 1931, in Denver, Colorado.
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from University of Colorado;
master of science in aerospace science from Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute; master of business administration from Hartford College.
Flew on Apollo 13.
Died December 27, 1982, of cancer.

THORNE, Stephen D., Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Born February 11, 1953, in Frankfurt-on-Main, West Germany.
Bachelor of science in engineering from U.S. Naval Academy.
Died May 24, 1986, in Alta Loma, Texas, in an airplane crash.

WHITE, Edward H., II, Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force
Born November 14, 1930, in San Antonio, Texas.
Bachelor of science from U.S. Military Academy; master of science in
aeronautical engineering from University of Michigan.
Flew on Gemini 4.
Died January 27, 1967, at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, in
Apollo spacecraft fire.

WILLIAMS, Clifton C., Jr., Major, U.S. Marine Corps
Born September 26, 1932, in Mobile, Alabama.
Bachelor of science in mechanical engineering from Auburn University.
Died October 5, 1967, near Tallahassee, Florida, in crash of T-38 jet.

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ASTRONAUT SELECTION BY GROUPS

GROUP 1 -- Mercury Astronauts, April 1959: Carpenter, Cooper, Glenn,
Grissom, Schirra, Shepard, Slayton (7)

GROUP 2 -- Pilot Astronauts, September 1962: Armstrong, Borman, Conrad,
Lovell, McDivitt, See, Stafford, White, Young (9)

GROUP 3 -- Pilot Astronauts, October 1963: Aldrin, Anders, Bassett,
Bean, Cernan, Chaffee, Collins, Cunningham, Eisele, Freeman, Gordon,
Schweickart, Scott, C. Williams (14)

GROUP 4 -- Scientist Astronauts, June 1965: Garriott, E. Gibson, Graveline,
Kerwin, Michel, Schmitt (6)

GROUP 5 -- Pilot Astronauts, April 1966: Brand, Bull, Carr, Duke, Engle,
Evans, Givens, Haise, Irwin, Lind, Lousma, Mattingly, McCandless,
Mitchell, Pogue, Roosa, Swigert, Weitz, Worden (19)

GROUP 6 -- Scientist Astronauts, August 1967: J. Allen, Chapman, England,
Henize, Holmquest, Lenoir, Llewellyn, Musgrave, O'Leary, Parker,
W. Thornton (11)

GROUP 7 -- Air Force Manned Orbiting Laboratory Astronauts, August 1969:
Bobko, Crippen, Fullerton, Hartsfield, Overmyer, Peterson, Truly (7)

GROUP 8 -- Pilots and Mission Specialists, January 1978: Bluford,
Brandenstein, Buchli, Coats, Covey, Creighton, Fabian, A. Fisher,
D. Gardner, R. Gibson, Gregory, Griggs, Hart, Hauck, Hawley, Hoffman,
Lucid, McBride, McNair, Mullane, Nagel, Nelson, Onizuka, Resnik, Ride,
Scobee, Seddon, Shaw, Shriver, Stewart, Sullivan, Thagard, van Hoften,
Walker, D. Williams (35)

GROUP 9 -- Pilots and Mission Specialists, January 1980: Bagian, Blaha,
Bolden, Bridges, Chang-Diaz, Cleave, Dunbar, W. Fisher, G. Gardner,
Grabe, Hilmers, Leestma, Lounge, O'Connor, Richards, Ross, Smith,
Spring, Springer (19)

GROUP 10 -- Pilots and Mission Specialists, May 1984: Adamson, E. Baker,
M. Brown, Cameron, Carter, Casper, Culbertson, Gutierrez, Hammond,
Ivins, Lee, Low, McCulley, Shepherd, K. Thornton, Veach, Wetherbee (17)

GROUP 11 -- Pilots and Mission Specialists, June 1985: Apt, M. Baker, Cabana,
Duffy, Gemar, Godwin, Henricks, Hieb, Jernigan, Meade, Oswald, Thorne,
Thuot (13)

GROUP 12 -- Pilots and Mission Specialists, August 1987: Akers, A. Allen,
Bowersox, C. Brown, Chilton, Davis, Foale, Harbaugh, Jemison, McMonagle,
Melnick, Readdy, Reightler, Runco, Voss (15)

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CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR

On October 1, 1978, President Jimmy Carter visited NASA John F. Kennedy
Space Center in honor of NASA's 20th anniversary and to award the first
Congressional Space Medal of Honor to six former astronauts.

Authorized by Congress in 1969, the award recognized "any astronaut who in
the performance of his duties has distinguished himself by exceptionally
meritorious efforts and contributions to the welfare of the Nation and
mankind."

These former astronauts received this special honor:

Neil A. Armstrong, for actions to overcome problems on the Gemini 8 mission
and for Apollo 11 when he took his "...giant leap for mankind."

Frank Borman, who commanded the Gemini 7 and Apollo 8 missions. The latter
was the first manned spacecraft to orbit the Moon.

Charles Conrad, Jr., who participated in four space flights of increasing
duration, complexity and achievement: Gemini 5, Gemini 11, Apollo 12,
and Skylab 2. On the first manned Skylab mission, he commanded the crew
which performed repairs to the damaged orbital workshop, thus saving the
$2 billion program from potential failure.

John H. Glenn, Jr., who in Mercury 6 was the first American to orbit the Earth.
The success of his flight demonstrated the value of the human pilot in
space.

Virgil I. Grissom (posthumously), the second American in space, who took part
in Mercury and Gemini flights and lost his life during preparations for
the first Apollo flight. He flew on Mercury 4 and Gemini 3.

Alan B. Shepard, Jr., who was the first American in space, aboard Mercury 3.
He also commanded the Apollo 14 mission.


On May 19, 1981, President Ronald Reagan presented the medal to a seventh
astronaut:

John W. Young, who demonstrated leadership, courage, and technical skill in
a space flight career that spanned two decades and five (at that time)
space flights pivotal to human progress in space. He had flown on
Gemini 3, Gemini 10, Apollo 10, Apollo 16, and STS-1 prior to receipt
of the medal.

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EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS FROM WHICH ASTRONAUTS EARNED DEGREES

ALABAMA, UNIVERSITY OF, Huntsville, GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY; (GA):
(AL): Davis Davis, Hammond, Truly, Young
AMHERST COLLEGE (MA): Hoffman, Parker GOLDEN GATE UNIVERSITY; (CA): Henricks
ARIZONA, UNIVERSITY OF; (AZ): Scobee, HARTFORD COLLEGE; (CT): Swigert
Spring HARVARD COLLEGE; (CT): Apt, Hoffman,
AUBURN UNIVERSITY (AL): Davis, Schmitt
Hartsfield, Mattingly, K. Thornton, HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; (CA): Nelson
Voss, C. Williams COLLEGE OF THE HOLY CROSS; (MA):
BALDWIN-WALLACE COLLEGE (OH): Overmyer Kerwin
BAYLOR UNIVERSITY (TX): Holmquest HOUSTON, UNIVERSITY OF; (TX): Dunbar,
CALIFORNIA INSTITUE OF TECHNOLOGY (CA): W. Fisher, Harbaugh, Holmquest,
Borman, Fullerton, E. Gibson, McCandless
Meade, Michel, Parker, Schmitt ILLINOIS, UNIVERSITY OF; (IL):
CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF; Berkeley D. Gardner, Nagel
(CA): Jernigan, Lind, O'Leary, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY; (MD):
Seddon, van Hoften Graveline
CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF; LOS ANGELES KANSAS, UNIVERSITY OF; (KS): Engle,
(CA): Brand, Cunningham, A. Fisher, Evans, Hawley
Musgrave, See KENTUCKY, UNIVERSITY OF; (KT):
CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIVERSITY Musgrave
(CA): R. Gibson LEHIGH UNIVERSITY; (PA): Hart
CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF; Santa Cruz MARIETTA UNIVERSITY; (OH): Musgrave
(CA): Hawley, Sullivan MARYLAND, UNIVERSITY OF; (MD): Resnik
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY; Fresno MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY;
(CA): McMonagle, Nagel (MA): Aldrin, Apt, Cameron,
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY; England: Foale Chang-Diaz, Chapman, Duke, England,
CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY (formerly Hart, Hauck, Lee, Lenoir, McNair,
CARNEGIE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY; Mitchell, Schweickart, Scott,
(PA): Resnik, Mitchell Shepherd
COLORADO, UNIVERSITY OF; (CO): Brand, MICHIGAN, UNIVERSITY OF; (MI):
Carpenter, Hieb, Ivins, Lounge, Freeman, Henize, Irwin, Lousma,
Onizuka, Roosa, Swigert, Voss McDivitt, White, Worden
COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY; (CO): MINNESOTA, UNIVERSITY OF; (MN):
Cleave, van Hoften Slayton
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY; (NY): Bowersox, MISSOURI, UNIVERSITY OF; (MO):
Chilton, Musgrave Godwin, Richards
CONNECTICUT, UNIVERSITY OF; (CN): MISSOURI, UNIVERSITY OF; Rolla (MO):
Chang-Diaz Akers
CORNELL UNIVERSITY; (NY): E. Baker, MUSKINGUM COLLEGE; (OH): Glenn
Hilmers, Jemison, Low NEW YORK CITY COLLEGE; (NY): Runco
DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY; (Nova Scotia): NORTH CAROLINA, UNIVERSITY OF; (NC):
Sullivan W. Thornton
DEPAUW UNIVERSITY; (IN): J. Allen NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL&TECHNICAL
DREXEL UNIVERSITY; (PA): Bagian STATE UNIVERSITY; (NC): McNair
EMORY UNIVERSITY; (GA): Carter NORTHWEST NAZARENE COLLEGE; (NH): Hieb
FLORIDA, UNIVERSITY OF; (FL): NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY; (IL): Kerwin
W. Fisher NOTRE DAME, UNIVERSITY OF; (IN):
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY; (FL): Wetherbee
Thagard OKLAHOMA, UNIVERSITY OF; (OK):
GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY; (DC): O'Leary Garriott, Haise, Lucid
GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY; (DC): OKLAHOMA BAPTIST UNIVERSITY; (OK):
Coats, Creighton, Gregory, Griggs Pogue
OKLAHOMA CITY UNIVERSITY; (OK): Cooper SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY; (NY): Musgrave
OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY; (OK): Pogue TENNESSEE, UNIVERSITY OF; (TN):
PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY; (PA): Hartsfield, Seddon
Bluford, Weitz TEXAS, UNIVERSITY OF; (TX): M. Baker,
PRINCETON UNIVERSITY; (NJ): Adamson, Bean, Crippen, Meade, Thagard
Carr, Conrad TEXAS, UNIVERSITY OF; ARLINGTON, (TX):
PURDUE UNIVERSITY; (IN): Armstrong, Stewart
Blaha, Bridges, M. Brown, Casper, TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY; (TX): Bassett
Cernan, Chaffee, Covey, G. Gardner, THOMAS JEFFERSON UNIVERSITY; (PA):
Grissom, Harbaugh, McCulley, Ross, Bagian
Shriver, D. Williams TUFTS UNIVERSITY; (MA): Hauck
RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE; (NY): UNIVERSITY COLLEGE AT CARDIFF;(Wales):
Swigert Llewellyn
RICE UNIVERSITY; (TX): Bull, Hoffman, UTAH, UNIVERSITY OF; (UT): Lind
Jernigan UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY; (UT): Cleave
ROCHESTER, UNIVERSITY OF; (NY): VERMONT, UNIVERSITY OF; (VT):
E. Gibson Graveline
RUTGERS UNIVERSITY; (NJ): Hart, Runco VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY; (PA): A. Allen
SOUTHEAST MISSOURI STATE UNIVERSITY; VIRGINIA, UNIVERSITY OF; (VA): Henize,
(MO): Godwin K. Thornton
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF; WASHINGTON, UNIVERSITY OF; (WA):
(CA): Armstrong, Bobko, Bolden, Dunbar, Fabian, Gordon, Nelson
Carr, Duffy, Reightler, Thuot WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY; (VA):
SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY; (TX): Low
Holmquest WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY; (WA):
SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI, UNIVERSITY OF; Fabian
(MS): Stewart WEBSTER UNIVERSITY; (MO): Gutierrez
STANFORD UNIVERSITY; (CA): Bull, WEST FLORIDA, UNIVERSITY OF; (FL):
W. Fisher, Garriott, Jemison, Buchli, Melnick, O'Connor, Richards
Jernigan, Low, McCandless, Ride WILLIAMS COLLEGE; (MA): O'Leary
STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK; (NY): WISCONSIN, UNIVERSITY OF; (WI): Shaw
E. Baker WISCONSIN, UNIVERSITY OF; RIVER FALLS,
SYDNEY, UNIVERSITY OF; (Australia): (WI): Brandenstein
Chapman YALE UNIVERSITY; (CT): J. Allen


UNITED STATES SERVICE ACADEMIES

U.S. Air Force Academy: U.S. Merchant Marine Academy:
Blaha, Bobko, Bridges, C. Brown, See
Casper, Chilton, Covey, Duffy,
G. Gardner, Grabe, Gregory, U.S. Naval Academy:
Gutierrez, Hammond, Henricks, Anders, Bolden, Bowersox, Buchli,
Lee, McMonagle, Shriver, Veach Cabana, Coats, Creighton, Culbertson,
Duke, Eisele, Freeman, Givens,
U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology: Griggs, Irwin, Leestma, Lounge,
Anders, Bluford, M. Brown, Cooper, Lovell, McCandless, O'Connor, Oswald,
Eisele, Fabian, Mullane, Peterson Readdy, Reightler, Schirra, Shepard,
Shepherd, Smith, Springer, Stafford,
U.S. Coast Guard Academy: Thorne, Thuot, Walker
Melnick
U.S. Naval Postgraduate School:
U.S. Military Academy: Carr, Cernan, Coats, Evans, Hilmers,
Adamson, Aldrin, Borman, Collins, Leestma, Lousma, McBride, Mitchell,
Gemar, Mullane, Peterson, Scott, Overmyer, Reightler, Smith,
Spring, White, Worden Springer, Weitz



INSTITUTIONS WITH LARGEST NUMBER OF ASTRONAUT GRADUATES

U.S. Naval Academy 31 Stanford University 8
U.S. Air Force Academy 18 U.S. Air Force Institute
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 8
of Technology 16 California Institute
Purdue University 15 of Technology 7
U.S. Naval Postgraduate University of Michigan 7
School 14 University of Southern
U.S. Military Academy 11 California 7
University of Colorado 9 Auburn 6

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ASTRONAUT BIRTHPLACES BY STATE

ALABAMA: Hartsfield, Jemison, NEW MEXICO: Gutierrez, Schmitt
K. Thornton, Voss, C. Williams NEW YORK: Adamson, Bobko, Cleave,
ARKANSAS: Covey A. Fisher, Fullerton, E. Gibson,
CALIFORNIA: Chilton, Coats, Hauck, R. Gibson, Grabe, Hoffman, Melnick,
McCulley, O'Connor, Ride, Parker, Runco, Wetherbee
van Hoften, Young NORTH CAROLINA: E. Baker, C. Brown,
COLORADO: Brand, Carpenter, Carr Duke, Smith, W. Thornton
Lounge, Roosa, Swigert NORTH DAKOTA: Buchli, Hieb
CONNECTICUT: Spring, Thuot OHIO: Armstrong, Bassett, Cameron,
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Gregory, Eisele, Glenn, Harbaugh, Henize,
Steward Henricks, Lovell, Low, Overmyer,
FLORIDA: Davis, Lenoir, Richards, Resnik
Thagard OKLAHOMA: Cooper, Garriott, Pogue,
GEORGIA: Bridges, Carter, Hammond, Stafford
Walker OREGON: Griggs
HAWAII: Onizuka PENNSYLVANIA: A. Allen, Bagian,
ILLINOIS: Cernan, Kerwin, Mattingly, Bluford, Conrad, Freeman, Hart,
McDivitt, Meade, Nagel, Veach Irwin, Weitz
INDIANA: J. Allen, Borman, RHODE ISLAND: Readdy
M. Brown, England, Grissom, SOUTH CAROLINA: Bolden, Casper,
Ross, D. Williams Culbertson, McNair
IOWA: Cunningham, Hilmers, SOUTH DAKOTA: Gemar
Nelson, Shriver TENNESSEE: M. Baker, Bull, Jernigan,
KANSAS: Engle, Evans, Hawley Seddon, Shepherd
MARYLAND: Ivins, Reightler TEXAS: Bean, Blaha, Creighton,
MASSACHUSETTS: Apt, Duffy, Crippen, Fabian, W. Fisher,
McCandless, Musgrave, O'Leary Givens, Holmquest, Mitchell,
MICHIGAN: Chaffee, Leestma, Mullane, Scott, See, White
Lousma, McMonagle, Shaw, Worden UTAH: Lind
MINNESOTA: Cabana, D. Gardner VERMONT: Graveline
MISSISSIPPI: Haise, Peterson, VIRGINIA: G. Gardner, Bowersox
Truly WASHINGTON: Dunbar, Gordon,
MISSOURI: Akers, Godwin, Springer Oswald, Scobee
NEW HAMPSHIRE: Shepard WEST VIRGINIA: McBride
NEW JERSEY: Aldrin, Schirra, WISCONSIN: Brandenstein, Lee,
Schweickart, Sullivan Michel, Slayton


ASTRONAUTS BORN IN OTHER COUNTRIES*


AUSTRALIA: Chapman HONG KONG: Anders
CHINA: Lucid ITALY: Collins
COSTA RICA: Chang-Diaz WALES: Llewellyn
ENGLAND: Foale WEST GERMANY: Thorne

*See biographical sketches for city.

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ASTRONAUTS SCOUTING RECORDS

Of the 172 former and present astronauts, 108 have taken part in Scouting.

EAGLE: 1st Class:
Adamson, Armstrong, Bagian, J. Allen, Bean, Coats, Engle,
Bluford, Bowersox, Carr, Freeman, D. Gardner, E. Gibson,
Carter, Chaffee, Covey, Hammond, Henize, Nelson,
Creighton, Duke, Eisele, Overmyer, Schirra, Schweickart,
Fullerton, Griggs, Hoffman, Shepard, Veach, Worden
Lee, Lind, Llewellyn (King's 2nd Class:
Scout), Lovell, McCulley, Bolden, Buchli, Carpenter,
O'Leary, Onizuka, Reightler, Cernan, Culbertson, Mullane,
See, Truly, D. Walker Parker, Pogue, Shriver, Swigert,
LIFE: W. Thornton, White, Young
Anders, Bassett, Brand, TENDERFOOT:
Bridges, Casper, Cooper, Aldrin, Hawley, Lousma,
Evans, Fabian, G. Gardner, McDivitt, Michel, Schmitt
Givens, Gregory, Low, EXPLORER:
Mattingly, Mitchell, Scott, O'Connor, D. Williams
Spring, Springer, van Hoften, GIRL SCOUT:
C. Williams Davis, A. Fisher, Seddon,
STAR: Sullivan, K. Thornton
Cameron, England, W. Fisher, CUB SCOUT:
Garriott, R. Gibson, Gordon, A. Allen, Conrad, Foale (Wolf),
Grissom, Haise, Lounge, McNair, Leestma, McBride, Readdy, Shepherd
Stafford RANK UNKNOWN:
C. Brown, Bull, Voss

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CURRENT ASTRONAUTS IN ACTIVE MILITARY SERVICE

AIR FORCE: MARINE CORPS:
Akers, Blaha, Bluford, C. Brown A. Allen, Bolden, Buchli,
M. Brown, Duffy, Casper, Chilton, Cabana, Cameron, Hilmers,
Covey, G. Gardner, Grabe, Gregory, O'Connor, Springer
Gutierrez, Hammond, Henricks,
Lee, McMonagle, Meade, Mullane, NAVY:
Nagel, Ross, Shriver M. Baker, Bowersox, Brandenstein,
Carter, Coats, Creighton,
ARMY: Culbertson, R. Gibson, Leestma,
Adamson, Gemar, Voss McCandless, McCulley, Reightler,
Richards, Runco, Shepherd, Thuot,
COAST GUARD: Walker, Wetherbee, D. Williams
Melnick


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ASTRONAUTS WITH MORE THAN 500 HOURS IN SPACE (Number of Flights)

Carr 2017:15:32 (1) Conrad 1179:38:36 (4) Crippen 565:48:15 (4)
E. Gibson 2017:15:32 (1) Young 835:42:03 (6) Scott 546:54:13 (3)
Pogue 2017:15:32 (1) Weitz 793:13:31 (2) Shaw 533:53:06 (3)
Garriott 1674:56:28 (2) Lovell 715:05:25 (4) Brand 530:58:44 (3)
Bean 1671:45:27 (2) Kerwin 672:49:49 (1) Mattingly 508:34:12 (3)
Lousma 1619:13:49 (2) Cernan 566:16:22 (3) Stafford 507:44:10 (4)

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ASTRONAUTS WHO HAVE WALKED IN SPACE

Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Log

Mission___Astronaut____Hr:Min Mission___Astronaut____Hr:Min

Gemini 4 White :23 Skylab 2 Conrad 5:51
Gemini 9 Cernan 2:08 Kerwin 3:30
Gemini 10 Collins 1:30 Weitz 1:44
Gemini 11 Gordon 1:57 Skylab 3 Bean 2:45
Gemini 12 Aldrin 5:37 Garriott 13:44
Apollo 9 Scott 1:01 Lousma 10:59
Schweickart 1:07 Skylab 4 Carr 15:48
Apollo 11 Armstrong* 2:32 E. Gibson 15:20
Aldrin* 2:15 Pogue 13:34
Apollo 12 Conrad* 7:45 STS-6 Musgrave 3:54
Bean* 7:45 Peterson 3:54
Apollo 14 Shepard* 9:23 41-B McCandless 11:37
Mitchell* 9:23 Stewart 11:37
Apollo 15 Worden :39 41-C Nelson 10:06
Scott* 19:08 van Hoften 10:06
Irwin* 18:35 41-G Leestma 3:29
Apollo 16 Mattingly 1:24 Sullivan 3:29
Young* 20:14 51-A J. Allen 12:14
Duke* 20:14 D. Gardner 12:14
Apollo 17 Evans 1:06 51-D Griggs 3:10
Cernan* 22:04 Hoffman 3:10
Schmitt* 22:04 51-I van Hoften 11:51
W. Fisher 11:51
61-B Spring 12:20
Ross 12:20
*Lunar Surface EVA


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